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Introduction to Optical Networks: Telecommunication networks, First generation optical networks, Multiplexing Techniques, Second generation optical networks, system and network evolution. Nonlinear effects SPM, CPM, Four wave mixing, Solitons.

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Telecommunications Networks:

Classification of different types of telecommunication networks:

First, we have networks that are deployed in private enterprises. The communication links within

their sites in these networks, is typically owned by the enterprise. We refer to these networks as

(private) enterprise networks. Networks within buildings are called local area networks LAN.

Those that span a campus or metropolitan area are called metropolitan area networks (MANs), and

networks that span even longer distances are called Wide area networks (WANs). Then we have

networks that are owned by the telecommunications carriers operate the network and provide

services to other users.

Among these services are the leased lines offered to enterprises, but the carriers services as well.

These networks are called public networks.

We will classify public networks into four categories (see Figure 1).

public networks into four categories (see Figure 1). Figure 1. Different parts of a public network

Figure 1. Different parts of a public network

A carrier has a central office in every neighborhood in the regions where it operates. An

access network is a part of network that reaches out from a carrier's central office into

individual homes and businesses.

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A local-exchange network is the part of the network that interconnects the carrier's central offices in a metropolitan area. An interexchange network is typically a long-haul network that interconnects cities or major traffic hubs.

Finally, there are the undersea networks, not shown in the figure, that typically connect with undersea optical fiber cable whose length, in many cases, is several thousand kilometers.

First generation optical networks:

Optical fiber transmission has played a key role in increasing the bandwidth of telecommunications networks.

Optical fiber offers much higher bandwidths than copper cables and is less susceptible to various kinds of electromagnetic interferences and other undesirable effects.

As a result, it is the preferred medium for transmission of data at anything more than a few tens of megabits per second over any distance more than a kilometer.

In some cases, it is being used for short-distance (a few meters) interconnections inside computers as well. For many years, the main thrust was to develop technologies to transmit at higher and higher bit rates over longer and longer distances.

The latest statistics from the Federal Communications Commission indicate that as of the end of 1996, the local-exchange carriers in the United States had deployed more than 360,000 sheath (cable) miles of fiber, containing more than 12 million fiber miles.

More than 106,000 route miles of fiber had been deployed by the interexchange carriers in the United States containing more than 2.9 million miles of optical fiber.

On average, more than half of these miles are lit-that is, the fibers are in use. The remaining fibers are dark-that is, the fibers are currently unused. The types of technologies that will be needed to provide upgrades to the network capacity along a desired route will depend very much on whether dark fibers are available or not on that route. In all these networks, optical fiber is used purely as a transmission medium, serving as a replacement for copper cable, and all the switching and processing of the bits is handled by electronics. We refer to these networks as first-generation optical

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networks, and they are widely deployed today in all kinds of telecommunications networks, except perhaps in residential access networks.

Examples of first-generation optical networks are SONET synchronous network) and SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) networks, which form core of telecommunication infrastructure.

Multiplexing Techniques:

The increasing demand for bandwidth, along with the fact that it is relatively expensive in many cases to lay new fiber, implies that we must find ways to increase the capacity on existing fiber. There are fundamentally two ways of increasing the transmission capacity on a fiber, as shown in Figure 2.

the transmission capacity on a fiber, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Different multiplexing techniques

Figure 2. Different multiplexing techniques for increasing the transmission capacity on an optical fiber. (a) Electronic or optical time division multiplexing and (b) wavelength division multiplexing. Both multiplexing techniques take in N data streams, each of B b/s, and multiplex them into a single fiber with a total aggregate rate of NB b/s.

The first is to increase the bit rate. This requires higher-speed electronics. Many lower- speed data streams are multiplexed into a higher-speed stream at the transmission bit rate by means of electronic Time division multiplexing (TDM).

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The multiplexer typically interleaves the lower-speed streams to obtain the higher-speed stream. For example, it could pick 1 byte of data from the first stream, the next byte from the second stream, and so on.

To push TDM technology beyond these rates, researchers are working on methods to perform the multiplexing and demultiplexing functions optically. This approach is called optical time division multiplexing (OTDM). Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the multiplexing/demultiplexing of several 10 Gb/s streams into/from a 250 Gb/s stream, although commercial implementation of OTDM is still several years away.

However, multiplexing and de multiplexing high-speed streams by itself is not sufficient to realize practical networks.

Another way to increase the capacity is by a technique called wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). WDM is essentially the same as frequency division multiplexing (FDM), the term FDM is used widely in radio communication, but WDM is used in The idea is to transmit data simultaneously at multiple carrier wavelengths (or, equivalently, frequencies or colors) over a fiber.

WDM provides virtual fibers, in that it makes a single fiber look like multiple "virtual" fibers, with each virtual fiber carrying a single data stream.

WDM and TDM both provide ways to increase the transmission capacity and are complementary to each other. Therefore networks today use a combination of TDM and WDM.

Second generation optical networks

In first-generation networks, the electronics at a node must not only handle all the data intended for that node, but also all the data that is being passed through that node on to other nodes in the network lf the latter data could be routed through in the optical domain, the burden on the underlying electronics at the node would be significantly, reduced. This is one of the key drivers for second-generation optical networks. Both OTDM and WDM networks based on this paradigm are being developed.

Services:

Second-generation optical networks may offer three types of services to higher network layers, as shown in Figure 3. The first service is a light path service, applicable for WDM networks. A light path is a connection between two nodes. ln the network, and it is set up by assigning a

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dedicated wavelength to it on each link in its path. Depending on the capabilities of the network, this light path could be set up or taken down upon request of the higher layer This can be thought of as a circuit-switched service, akin to the service provided by today’s telephone network: the network sets up or takes down calls upon request of the user. Alternatively, the network may provide only permanent light paths, which are set up at the time the network is deployed. This light path service is likely to be the most commonly used service to start with, and can be used to support high-speed connections for a variety of overlying network, Another service is the so-called virtual circuit service. Here the network offers a circuit- switched connection between two nodes. However, the bandwidth offered on the connection can be smaller than the full bandwidth available on a link or wavelength. Fixed multiplexing allocates a guaranteed amount of bandwidth to each virtual circuit. The bandwidth of all the virtual circuits on a link must equal the link bandwidth. Statistical multiplexing attempts to use the link bandwidth more efficiently by supporting a larger number of virtual circuits on the link. It makes use of the statistical properties of the virtual circuits Statistical multiplexing is implemented by breaking up the data on each circuit into short packets, and multiplexing and switching packets from different virtual circuits on a link. This is called packet switching.

virtual circuits on a link. This is called packet switching. Figure 3.Different types of Time division

Figure 3.Different types of Time division multiplexing (a) fixed (b) statistical

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Finally the network support a datagram service which allows short packets or messages of information to be transmitted between nodes in the network, without overhead of setting up explicit connections.

Transparency

The levels of transparency achievable in an optical network depend on several parameters of the physical layer, such as bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratios. There are three types of regeneration techniques for digital data. The standard one is called regeneration with retiming and reshaping, also called 3R. Here the bit clock is extracted from the signal, and the signal is re clocked. This technique essentially produces a "fresh" copy of the signal at each regeneration step, allowing the signal to go through a very large number of regenerators. However, it eliminates transparency to bit rates and frame formats, since acquiring the clock usually requires knowledge of both of these. An implementation using regeneration of the optical signal without retiming, also called 2R, offers transparency to bit rates, without supporting analog data or different modulation formats .However, this approach limits the number of regeneration steps allowed, particularly at higher bit rates, over a few hundred Mb/s. The limitation is due to the jitter, which accumulates at each

regeneration step. The final form of regeneration is 1R, where the signal is simply received and retransmitted without retiming or reshaping. This form of regeneration can handle analog data as well, but its performance is significantly poorer than the other two forms of regeneration.

Competing Technologies:

The alternative to using second-generation optical networks is to continue developing the technologies underlying first-generation optical networks. This means increasing the transmission speeds on the fiber, as well as increasing the speeds, number of ports, and processing power of electronic switches. As transmission speeds increase beyond the few gigabits per second achieved today to several tens of gigabits per second, it becomes more and more difficult to perform all the switching and processing functions electronically.

WDM Architectures:

WDM network architectures can be classified into two broad categories: broadcast and select

architectures and wavelength routing architectures. A broadcast and select WDM network is shown in Figure 4.

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| Optical Networks-10EC833 Figure 4. A WDM Broadcast and select network The number of nodes in

Figure 4. A WDM Broadcast and select network

The number of nodes in these networks is limited because the wavelengths cannot be reused in the network-there can be at most one simultaneous transmission on a given wavelength-and because the transmitted power from a node must be split among all the receivers in the network. Figure 5 shows the nodes in the network are capable of routing different wavelengths at an input port to different output ports. This enables us to set up many simultaneous light paths using the same wavelength in the network; that is, the capacity can be reused spatially. The light path between A and D and the light path between C and D do not share any links in the network and can therefore be set up using the same wavelength λ1. At the same time the light path between B and D shares a link with the light paths between A and D, and must therefore use a different wavelengths.

A and D, and must therefore use a different wavelengths. Figure 5. A WDM wavelength routing

Figure 5. A WDM wavelength routing network

The optical layer:

The term optical layer is now commonly used to denote the functionality of a second- generation WDM optical network that provides light paths to its users. SONET networks today incorporate a variety of functions. These include point-to-point connections, as well as add/drop functions wherein part of a traffic stream is dropped at a node and the remaining passed through. SONET network also includes cross connects which switch multiple traffic streams. Finally, they are able to handle equipment and link

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failures in the network without disrupting the service they provide. The optical layer performs a similar range of functions. It supports point-to-point WDM links as well as an add/drop function wherein node drops some wavelengths and passes the remaining ones through.

OTDM Architectures:

The simplest form of OTDM architectures is a broadcast and select network. The different nodes get different time slots to transmit their data. The mission of optical packet switching is to perform the functions at a much higher bit rates than electronic packet switching is shown in figure 6. One important factor is the lack of optical buffering. Optical buffers are realized by using a length of fiber and are just simple delay lines, are not real memories. Another factor is the relatively primitive state of optical switching technology, compared to electronics.

of optical switching technology, compared to electronics. Figure 6. An optical packet switched network System and

Figure 6. An optical packet switched network

System and network evolution

Figure 7 shows the evolution of optical fiber transmission systems.

Early experiments in 1960s demonstrated the capability of waveguides to transport information encoded in light signals. In early 1970s silica-based optical fiber has three low loss windows in the 0.8, 1.3 and 1.55µm wavelength bands with the lowest losss being around 0.25 dB/km in the 1.55µm band. These fibers enabled transmission of light signals over distances of several tens of kilometers before they needed to be regenerated. A regenerator converts the light signal into an electrical signal and retransmits a fresh copy of a data as a new light signal.

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Multimode fibers have core diameters of about 50 to 85µm. Light propagates in these fibers

in the form of multiple modes, each taking a slightly different path through the fiber and

thus effectively traveling at a slightly different velocity , for a given fiber length.

These multimode fibers along with light emitting diodes (LEDs) or multilongitudinal

modes (MLM) Fabry-perot laser transmitters in the 0.8 and 1.3µm wavelength bands.

These early systems had to have regenerators every few km to regenerate the signal, which

was degraded due to modal dispersion. In a multimode fiber, the energy in a pulse travels

in different modes, each with a different velocity. As a result the pulse get smeared after it

has traveled some distance along the fiber.

smeared after it has traveled some distance along the fiber. Figure 7. Evolution of optical fiber

Figure 7. Evolution of optical fiber transmission systems. (a) An early system using LEDs over multimode fiber. (b) A system using MLM lasers over single-mode fiber in the 1.3 pm band to overcome modal dispersion in multimode fiber. (c) A later system using the 1.55 pm band for lower loss, and using SLM lasers to overcome chromatic dispersion limits. (d) A current- generation WDM system using multiple wavelengths at 1.55 4.m and optical amplifiers instead of regenerators.

In 1980s, Single mode fiber were used which has a relatively small core diameter of about

8 to 10 µm, which forces all the energy in a light signal to travel in the form of a single

mode.

Even in single mode fiber, different frequency components of a pulse propagate with

different velocities. This effect is called chromatic dispersion.

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The silica based optical fiber has essentially no chromatic dispersion in the 1.3µm band, has significant dispersion in the 1.55µm band. Such fiber is called Standard single mode fiber.

The high chromatic dispersion at 1.55µm motivated the development of dispersion-shifted fiber. This is carefully designed to have zero dispersion in the 1.55µm wavelength window.

If we reduce the spectrum of the transmitted pulse to something close to its modulation bandwidth, the penalty due to chromatic dispersion is significantly reduced. This motivated the development of narrow spectral width single longitudinal mode (SLM) distributed feedback (DFB) laser, which spurred further increase in the bit rate to more than a Gb/s.

The next major milestone in the evolution of optical fiber transmission systems was the development of Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). The EDFA provides another major benefit: being transparent to bit rates and modulation formats.

Chromatic dispersion is still a major factor affecting the design of these systems. Nonlinear effects in fiber, the nonflat gain spectrum of EDFAs, and polarization related effects are now becoming significant impairments preventing further increases in transmission capacity. Nonlinear effects Self Phase Modulation:

SPM arises because the refractive index of the fiber has an intensity-dependent component. This nonlinear refractive index causes an induced phase shift that is proportional to the intensity of the pulse. Thus different parts of the pulse undergo different phase shifts, which gives rise to chirping of the pulses. Pulse chirping in turn enhances the pulse-broadening effects of chromatic dispersion. This chirping effect is proportional to the transmitted signal power so that SPM effects are more pronounced in systems using high transmitted powers. The SPM-induced chirp affects the pulse-broadening effects of chromatic dispersion and thus is important to consider for high- bit-rate systems that already have significant chromatic dispersion limitations. For systems operating at 10 Gb/s and above, or for lower-bit-rate systems that use high transmitted powers, SPM can significantly increase the pulse-broadening effects of chromatic dispersion. In order to understand the effects of SPM, consider a single-channel system where the electric field is of the form

the effects of SPM, consider a single-channel system where the electric field is of the form

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In the presence of fiber nonlinearities, we want to find how this field evolves along the fiber. For the monochromatic plane wave we have assumed, this means finding the propagation constant β0. The nonlinear dielectric polarization is given by

β0. T he nonlinear dielectric polarization is given by Thus the nonlinear dielectric polarization has a

Thus the nonlinear dielectric polarization has a new frequency component at 3ω0. The wave equation for the electric field is derived assuming only the linear component of the dielectric polarization is present. In the presence of a nonlinear dielectric polarization component, it must be modified. In general, electric fields at the new frequencies generated as a result of nonlinear dielectric polarization. Thus, in this case, the electric field will have a component at 3ω0. The electric field generated as a result of nonlinear dielectric polarization at 3co0 has a propagation constant 0, where β0 = β(ω0) is the propagation constant at the angular frequency coo. In an

ideal, dispersion less fiber, β =

c
c

n

, where the refractive index n is a constant independent of ω

so that β(3ω0) = 3β(ω0). But in real fibers that have dispersion, n is not a constant, and β(3ω0) will be very different from 3β(ω0). Because of this mismatch between the two propagation constant which is usually described as a lack of phase match~ the electric field component at 0 becomes negligible. Neglecting the component at 3ω0, the nonlinear dielectric polarization can be written as

0 , the nonlinear dielectric polarization can be written as When the wave equation is modified

When the wave equation is modified to include the effect of nonlinear dielectric polarization and solved for β0 with this expression for the nonlinear dielectric polarization, we get

Since

β 0 with this expression for the nonlinear dielectric polarization, we get Since , therefore, DEPARTMENT

, therefore,

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β 0 with this expression for the nonlinear dielectric polarization, we get Since , therefore, DEPARTMENT
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Thus the electric field E (z, t) = E cos(ω0t-β0z) is a sinusoid whose phase changes as E 2 z. This phenomenon is referred to as self-phase modulation. The intensity of the electric field

.Thus the phase change due tomodulation . The intensity of the electric field corresponding to a plane wave with amplitude E

corresponding to a plane wave with amplitude E is

SPM is proportional to the intensity of the electric field. Note that this phase change increases as the propagation distance z increases. Since the relation

between β and the refractive index n in the linear regime is β =

c
c

n

, we can also interpret as

specifying an intensity-dependent refractive index,

as specifying an intensity-dependent refractive index, for the fiber, in the presence of nonlinearities. Here, is

for the fiber, in the presence of nonlinearities. Here,

for the fiber, in the presence of nonlinearities. Here, is the intensity of the field, and

is the intensity of the field,

of nonlinearities. Here, is the intensity of the field, and is measured in units of W/µm

and is measured in units of W/µm 2. The quantity is called the nonlinear index coefficient and varies in the range 2.2-3.4 x 10 -8 µm 2 /W in silica fiber.

Effect of SPM on pulses:

Because of SPM, the phase of the electric field contains a term that is proportional to the intensity of the electric field.

Note that the sign of the phase shift due to SPM is negative because of the minus sign in the expression for them phase, namely, ω0t - β0z. The peak of the pulse undergoes the maximum phase shift in absolute value, and its leading and trailing edges undergo progressively smaller phase shifts.

Since the frequency is the derivative of the phase, the trailing edges of the pulse undergo a negative frequency shift, and the leading edges a positive frequency shift. Since the chirp is proportional to the derivative of the frequency, this implies that the chirp factor K is positive. Thus SPM causes positive chirping of pulses.

Because of the relatively small value of the nonlinear susceptibility X (3) in optical fiber, the effects of SPM become important only when high powers are used (since E 2 then becomes large). Since the SPM-induced chirp changes the chromatic dispersion effects, at the same power levels, it becomes important to consider SPM effects for shorter pulses (higher bit rates) that are already severely affected by chromatic dispersion.

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These two points must be kept in mind during the following discussion. The effect of this positive chirping depends on the sign of the GVD parameter β2. Recall that when β2 > 0, the chromatic dispersion is said to be normal, and when β2 < 0, the chromatic dispersion is said to be anomalous. The pulse-broadening effects of chromatic dispersion. Since the SPM-induced chirp is positive, SPM causes enhanced, monotone, pulse broadening in the normal chromatic dispersion regime.

In the anomalous chromatic dispersion regime even the qualitative effect of SPM depends critically on the amount of chromatic dispersion resent. When the effects of SPM and chromatic dispersion are nearly equal, but chromatic dispersion dominates, SPM can actually reduce the pulse-broadening effect of chromatic dispersion.

When the effects of chromatic dispersion and SPM are equal, the pulse remains stable, that is, doesn't broaden further, after undergoing some initial broadening. When the amount of chromatic dispersion is negligible, say, around the zero-dispersion wavelength, SPM leads to amplitude modulation of the pulse.

Cross Phase Modulation:

In WDM systems, the intensity-dependent nonlinear effects are enhanced since the combined signal from all the channels can be quite intense, even when individual channels are operated at moderate powers. Thus the intensity-dependent phase shift, and consequent chirping, induced by SPM alone is enhanced because of the intensities of the signals in the other channels. This effect is referred to as cross-phase modulation (CPM). To understand the effects of CPM, it is sufficient to consider a WDM system with two channels. For such a system,

consider a WDM system with two channels. For such a system, The nonlinear dielectric polarization is

The nonlinear dielectric polarization is given by,

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| Optical Networks-10EC833 The terms at 2ω 1 + ω 2 , 2ω 2 + ω
| Optical Networks-10EC833 The terms at 2ω 1 + ω 2 , 2ω 2 + ω

The terms at 2ω1 + ω2, 2 + ω1, 1, and 3ω2 can be neglected since the phase-matching condition will not be satisfied for these terms owing to the presence of fiber chromatic dispersion. We will discuss the terms at 2ω1 - ω2 and 2ω2 -ω1 in The component of the nonlinear dielectric polarization

1 in The component of the nonlinear dielectric polarization . When the wave equations are modified

. When the wave equations are modified to include the effect of nonlinear dielectric polarization and solved for the resulting electric field, this field has a sinusoidal component at ω1 whose phase changes in proportion to (E1 2 + 2E2 2 ) z. The first term is due to SPM, whereas the effect of the second term is called cross-phase modulation. Note that if E1 = E2 so that the two fields have the same intensity, the effect of CPM appears to be twice as bad as that of SPM. Since the effect of CPM is qualitatively similar to that of SPM, we expect CPM to exacerbate the chirping and consequent pulse-spreading effects of SPM in WDM systems. In practice, the effect of CPM in WDM systems operating over standard single-mode fiber can be significantly reduced by increasing the wavelength spacing between the individual channels. Because of fiber chromatic dispersion, the propagation constants βi of these channels then become sufficiently different so that the pulses corresponding to individual channels walk away from each other, rapidly. This happens as long as there is a small amount of chromatic dispersion (1-2 ps/nm-km) in the fiber, which is generally true except close to the zero-dispersion wavelength of the fiber. On

at the frequency ω1 is

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account of this pulse walk-off phenomenon, the pulses, which were initially temporally coincident, cease to be so after propagating for some distance and cannot interact further. Thus the effect of CPM is reduced. For example, the effects of CPM are negligible in standard SMF operating in the 1550 nm band with 100 GHz channel spacings. In general, all nonlinear effects in optical fiber are weak and depend on long interaction lengths to build up to significant levels, so any mechanism that reduces the interaction length decreases the effect of the nonlinearity. Note, however, that in dispersion-shifted fiber, the pulses in different channels do not walk away from each other since they travel with approximately the same group velocities. Thus CPM can be a significant problem in high-speed (10 Gb/s and higher) WDM systems operating over dispersion- shifted fiber. Four wave mixing:

In a WDM system using the angular frequencies

ωn, the intensity dependence of the

refractive index not only induces phase shifts within a channel but also gives rise to signals at new frequencies such as 2ωi - ωj and ωi j –ωk This phenomenon is called four-wave mixing. In contrast to SPM and CPM, which are significant mainly for high-bit-rate systems, the four-wave

mixing effect is independent of the bit rate but is critically dependent on the channel spacing and fiber chromatic dispersion. Decreasing the channel spacing increases the four-wave mixing effect, and so does decreasing the chromatic dispersion. Thus the effects of FWM must be considered even for moderate-bit-rate systems when the channels are closely spaced and/or dispersion-shifted fibers are used. To understand the effects of four-wave mixing, consider a WDM signal that is the sum of n monochromatic plane waves. Thus the electric field of this signal can be written as

Thus the electric field of this signal can be written as the nonlinear dielectric polarization is

the nonlinear dielectric polarization is given by,

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| Optical Networks-10EC833 Thus the nonlinear susceptibility of the fiber generates new fields (waves) at the

Thus the nonlinear susceptibility of the fiber generates new fields (waves) at the

.This phenomenon is termed four-wave mixing. The reason for this term is that three waves with the frequencies ωi, four-wave mixing. The reason for this term is that three waves with the frequencies ωi, ωj, and ωk combine to generate a fourth wave at a frequency

and ω k combine to generate a fourth wave at a frequency . Solitons: Solitons are

.

Solitons:

Solitons are narrow pulses with high peak powers and special shapes. The most commonly used soliton pulses are called fundamental solitons. The shape of these pulses is shown in Figure 4. Most pulses undergo broadening (spreading in time) due to group velocity dispersion when propagating through optical fiber. However, the soliton pulses take advantage of nonlinear effects in silica, specifically self-phase modulation, to overcome the pulse-broadening effects of group velocity dispersion. Thus these pulses can propagate for long distances with no change in shape. A pulse propagates with the group velocity 1/β1 along the fiber and that, in general, because of the effects of group velocity dispersion, the pulse progressively broadens as it propagates.

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| Optical Networks-10EC833 Figure 4. (a) A fundamental soliton pulse and (b) its envelope When the

Figure 4. (a) A fundamental soliton pulse and (b) its envelope When the chirp is induced by SPM, the degree of chirp depends on the pulse envelope. If the relative effects of SPM and GVD are controlled just right, and the appropriate pulse shape is chosen, the pulse compression effect undergone by chirped pulses can exactly offset the pulse- broadening effect of dispersion. The pulse shapes for which this balance between pulse compression and broadening occurs so that the pulse either undergoes no change in shape or undergoes periodic changes in shape only are called solitons. The family of pulses that undergo no change in shape are called fundamental solitons, and those that undergo periodic changes in shape are called higher-order solitons. The significance of solitons for optical communication is that they overcome the detrimental effects of chromatic dispersion completely. Optical amplifiers can be used at periodic intervals along the fiber so that the attenuation undergone by the pulses is not significant, and the higher powers and the consequent soliton properties of the pulses are maintained. Solitons and optical amplifiers, when used together, offer the promise of very high-bit-rate, repeaterless data transmission over very large distances. The main advantage of soliton systems is their relative immunity to fiber dispersion, which in turn allows transmission at high speeds of a few tens of gigabits per second. On the other hand, in conventional on-off-keyed systems, dispersion can be managed in a much simpler manner by alternating fibers with positive and negative dispersion.

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