Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40





2 Next generation energy management


In this work we describe the main elements and research work towards the next generation of
methods and tools for ship energy management. We start by describing the current challenges
and prospects, revisit the laws of thermodynamics and gain insights from them, introduce the
concept of exergy, and describe our proposal for a new - next generation energy management
methodology, utilising computer modelling and systems engineering concepts. Finally we give
some relevant application examples, highlighting the potential of our approach.

Contact Details:

Prepared by:
George Dimopoulos, Nikolaos Kakalis
Next generation energy management 3








Exergy analysis of a marine waste heat recovery system 24
Exergy analysis and optimisation of a steam methane pre-reforming system 28
Exergy analysis of the main engine sub-system of an aframax tanker 32


4 Next generation energy management


Energy eficiency has always been an inherent and eficiency, is imperative to both ship owners and
fundamental necessity for ships, going back to the charterers. The existing and impending stringent
times when our ancestors irst sailed to explore and environmental legislations are also very strong
conquer the seas of our planet. Although it may drivers for eficiency. An eficient energy conversion
not be evident at irst glance, our recurring needs process on board results in better fuel utilisation and
for ships to be faster, able to carry more goods, an associated reduction in emissions. Finally, there
sail further, consume less fuel, be cost effective are growing sustainability concerns regarding the
and/or be more environmentally friendly have all environmental footprint of existing and future vessels,
one underlying pre-requisite: an eficient energy with both the ship owners and charterers promoting
conversion process on board. As our technology and rewarding sound environmental performance.
and societies evolve, the manifestations of this In this case as well, energy eficiency is the most
underlying need change: from the slender hulls important factor in ensuring the optimal utilisation
that made the Athenian triremes the fastest ships and management of resources on board ships.
of their time; to harnessing the power of wind that
enabled Magellan’s caravels to sail around the world; These interrelated shipping market characteristics
to steamers burning coal that linked the continents and requirements result in an increased complexity
and formed sea trade; to propelling large VLCCs and of both ship systems and operations. The question
containerships that made shipping the most cost- now arises of how we can best navigate through this
effective and widespread means of global trade; to complexity. What are the necessary methodologies
hybrid and electriied modern vessels promising near and tools required to map energy eficiency
zero emissions in the imminent future. and losses accurately, to compare technology
alternatives, and to manage operations on board
In the current and future shipping landscape, the ships? The answers to these questions ultimately
need for energy eficiency is ever increasing. The pave the way towards further improvements in ship
shipping market conditions are characterised energy eficiency. This theme can be termed as ship
by tonnage overcapacity in most ship segments, energy management. In this work we describe the
increasing fuel prices, and a recessive global main elements and research needed to produce the
economy. Therefore, the need for cutting costs next generation of methods and tools for ship energy
and reducing the ship fuel bill, hence increasing management.
Next generation energy management 5

We start our journey by describing the current

challenges and prospects, revisit the laws of
thermodynamics and gain insight through them. “The real purpose of scientific
We then introduce the concept of exergy, and
describe our proposal for a new (next generation)
method is to make sure Nature
energy management methodology utilising hasn't misled you into thinking
computer modelling and systems engineering
you know something you
concepts. Finally we give some relevant
application examples, highlighting the potential don't actually know.” Robert
of our approach.
M. Pirsig, Zen and the Art of
Motorcycle Maintenance
6 Next generation energy management



In the introduction we argued that the quest for through a series of energy conversion processes that
eficient ships, both by design and during their transform a primary energy source (today usually
operation, has been an underlying fundamental and fuel, wind in the past – or perhaps in the future) to
constant aspect of shipping throughout the ages. In heat, to kinetic energy, perhaps electricity at some
this section we aim to deine the framework, basic stage, and inally to the required propulsive thrust.
concepts, and challenges related to ship energy A multitude of other energy conversion processes
eficiency and its improvement. cover the ship’s needs in electricity, heat and all other
forms of energy. Together, these constitute the ship’s
A ship’s operation is characterised by the energy energy conversion system. Many forms of energy
conversion processes taking place on board. Kinetic are required on board to cover the vessel’s needs
energy is dissipated to the sea, overcoming the for propulsion, manoeuvring, cargo handling, fresh
ship’s resistance, through the conversion of thrust water production, space heating, cooling, passenger
energy during sailing. This thrust has been derived comfort, etc., Fig. 1.

Hotel loads Cargo handling
Fuel Chemical energy

Propulsion Auxiliary machinery Manoeuvring

Figure 1. Indicative energy forms and demands on board ships.

Next generation energy management 7

The set of equipment that is used to perform the impose additional constraints on the layout of the
required energy conversion processes and to cover marine energy system in terms of location, volume,
its energy needs constitutes the ship’s energy footprint, and weight. Finally, in the modern shipping
system, often referred to as the marine energy environment, marine energy systems have to be
system. Marine energy systems usually convert the fuel-eficient and cost-effective, and environmentally
chemical energy of the fuel (primary energy source) friendly [Kakalis and Dimopoulos 2012]. Therefore,
to those forms that are required shipboard. They are assessing and improving a ship’s energy eficiency is
inherently complex – ships are resource-autonomous a far from trivial task.
factories sailing the seas – incorporating a multitude
of components and systems. Autonomy is of essence In engineering thermodynamics, a widespread and
here, since all resources (including various energy rather intuitive method of visualising the conversion
forms) needed during a voyage, have to be either processes within an energy system is by using
stored or produced on board. This is a key constraint Sankey diagrams. One interesting aspect of Sankey
and source of complexity. diagrams is that they have their origins in 19th
century marine engineering. They are named after
Thus, several constraints have to be met during the Irish Captain Matthew Henry Phineas Riall Sankey,
ship design and operation mandated by international who used this type of diagram in 1898 [Kennedy
regulations and design codes addressing safety and Sankey 1898; Wikipedia 2013] to describe the
of life at sea [SOLAS 2009], pollution prevention energy low and eficiency of a marine steam engine,
[MARPOL 2010], and rules concerning the safety Fig. 2. The energy low in a typical modern marine
and availability of the main functions of the onboard energy system is illustrated in Fig. 3. If we compare
machinery in order to maintain the essential Figs. 2 and 3, we can see that despite there being
services of the vessel [DNVGL 2013]. The vessel’s more than a hundred years between them, the
mission and its operating proile are also highly diagrams are inherently similar. This demonstrates
variable, depending on the trading route, weather the intrinsic and fundamental nature of eficiency and
conditions, and ship loading. In addition, the hull losses in marine energy systems.
shape, arrangement, and payload requirements

Figure 2. The energy low diagram of a steam engine made by Cpt. Sankey in 1898.
8 Next generation energy management

Figure 3. Typical energy low diagram of a modern tanker at sailing condition.

The question that remains to be answered is how mover technology, waste heat recovery options, the
we can improve the eficiency of ships and reduce ship’s electriication level, etc. The second pathway
energy losses? Three pathways towards eficiency considers ships that are already in operation.
improvement during a ship’s lifecycle can be During the ship’s productive lifecycle, there are
recognised, as follows: various possibilities for ensuring that operation of
the individual machinery components is optimal.
a) Through the design of the ship and systems / These include optimal tuning of components
components design, i.e. the technologies on board. (e.g. main engine), optimal power management
strategies, trim optimisation, and minor retroitting of
b) Through the optimal operation of components additional components such as propeller ducts and
and systems, with the possibility of some retroitting, turbochargers. Finally, the third pathway addresses
i.e. operational optimisation. those management changes that will ensure the
fostering of an “eficiency culture” among seafarers
c) Through the optimisation of trading, operating, and operators, logistics optimisation and continuous
and ship management procedures. benchmarking / improvement policies. In addition,
as part of the same pathway, weather routing,
The irst pathway includes the technology optimal speed selection (e.g. slow-steaming), and
alternatives, ship concepts and solutions that can port/vessel synchronisation can also contribute.
be decided and implemented during the ship’s This list of possibilities is far from exhaustive, and a
design and construction phases. These include the more comprehensive list of eficiency improvement
hull shape and various hydrodynamic improvement measures has been presented in [DNV 2012]. In
concepts. On the machinery side, there are also Fig. 4, various eficiency improvement solutions are
various technology alternatives such as, prime categorised under the three pathways.
Next generation energy management 9

Figure 4. Ship energy eficiency improvement solutions.

As modern ships become more complex, the by which the eficiency of ships can be improved.
pathways towards improved ship eficiency However, the deinition of energy eficiency per
also increase in complexity and become highly se has not yet been considered. This omission,
interrelated. In addition, new technologies and that occurs frequently in studies and approaches
alternative fuels are gradually being introduced into in ship and marine engineering practice, is more
shipping. Advances in ship instrumentation and challenging and ambiguous than may initially
sensor technologies also create new opportunities be expected, and is a common problem when
and challenges for mapping and improving the addressing concepts that are fundamental in
energy eficiency of components and systems. science and engineering. In order to enhance our
To date, DNV GL offers a wide array of energy understanding further, it may be useful to revisit
management services covering the complete the laws of thermodynamics and exploit their
spectrum of solutions adapted to all three pathways fundamental principles in order to achieve a uniied
for improving energy eficiency (for more information and consistent approach towards ship energy
see www.dnvgl.com). The aim of this work is to eficiency.
provide a glimpse into current research in the ield
of energy eficiency mapping and characterisation,
as well as to introduce some novel concepts for
shipping that could ultimately lead to the next
generation of energy management solutions.

So far, we have provided the context in which

eficiency in marine systems is discussed and
handled. We have also described the pathways
10 Next generation energy management



Our fundamental understanding of energy systems of coffee will be transferred to the room, reaching
comes from thermodynamics - namely the irst thermal equilibrium with the room at the same
and second laws of thermodynamics. The irst law (ambient) temperature. This process is illustrated
of thermodynamics expresses the conservation of in Fig. 5(I). However, according to the 1st law of
energy. In common terms, the 1st law stipulates that: thermodynamics, nothing prevents the reverse
process occurring, i.e. the amount of heat initially
The change in (internal) energy of a system is equal transferred into the room being transferred back
to the difference between the heat added to the to the cup of coffee, Fig. 5(II)! Furthermore, the 1st
system and the work done by the system. law does not even specify which one of the two
processes happens irst. Therefore, heat is allowed
The 1st law is by far the most widely used principle to be spontaneously transferred to the cup of coffee
in assessing energy conversion systems. Energy by process II. This is, of course, counter-intuitive
conservation is a fundamental axiom in our and directly contradicts our own knowledge of the
description of the physical world and no physical physical world. Thus, in essence, by the 1st law alone,
processes have been shown to violate the 1st we are unable to determine the feasibility and the
law. Therefore, we can safely conclude that for directionality of physical processes.
processes to be feasible or possible, energy must
be conserved. Energy analysis and the deinition However, this impasse is resolved by the 2nd law
of energy eficiency take advantage of this. The of thermodynamics. This law states that (Clausius
question that arises is whether this is enough for a statement):
process that actually occurs in nature. To illustrate this
question further, we can use a well-known thought Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body
experiment. without some other change, connected therewith,
occurring at the same time.
Let’s imagine a hot cup of coffee inside a room
at normal ambient temperature. From our own The term “other change” in the 2nd law usually
experience we know that after a relatively short means external work put into the system. In the
period of time, may be 1 hour, heat from the cup light of the 2nd law it is clear that process II in Fig. 5
Next generation energy management 11

Figure 5: Heat flowing from a hot cup of coffee to the environment (I) and the reverse process (I

Figure 5. Heat lowing from a hot cup of coffee to the environment (I) and the reverse process (II).

cannot happen, and this reconciles our perception energy conversion processes (deine what is really
of the physical world with the coffee cup experiment. meant by useful energy). However, before doing this
Thus, the 2nd law provides us with the tools with we need to deine two concepts that are related to
which both the feasibility and direction of the the 2nd law: entropy and exergy.
thermodynamic (energy conversion) processes can
be determined. We might also say that the 2nd law Entropy is a state property of a thermodynamic
sets the precedence of the processes and thereby system, broadly deined as a measure of the disorder
controls the arrow of time in thermodynamics. or distance from thermodynamic equilibrium. A
direct implication of the 2nd law is that entropy never
It is interesting to note that in marine energy diminishes (stays constant in the ideal case) in a
systems, eficiency analysis and energy analysis are closed system, i.e. a system without external input of
traditionally performed using 1st law principles. work. This is elegantly coded in the Clausius theorem
However, given that the 1st law does not provide that stems directly from the 2nd law:
us with the full picture, we might well wonder
work. This is elegantly coded
whether our understanding of energy low in our
in the Clausius theorem that stems directly from the
marine systems is entirely complete, especially
when these are becoming more complex. We might
also wonder how much of our intuition and ad
hoc supplements1 to the 1st law we need to use in δ
order to depict with accuracy the useful energy low
and losses within our energy conversion systems. where S is the entropy, δQ is the path-dependent
Fortunately, incorporation of the 2nd law into our heat transfer, and T is the temperature. ΔS is the
analyses ameliorates many of these shortcomings. entropy change in a cyclic thermodynamic process.
This is a standard approach in land-based energy
systems analyses, but previously has been rarely This is the irst step towards characterising the quality
used in marine systems. With the aid of the 2nd law of energy at a speciic state of a system: the lower
of thermodynamics we are able to make a formal the entropy, the greater the potential for useful work
assessment of the quality of energy within a series of production through thermodynamic processes. The

1 Such as isentropic eficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness as considered in the next section.
12 Next generation energy management

second element for characterising energy quality

comes from the fact, as stipulated by 2nd law, that
the higher the temperature the more thermal energy
can be converted to work. Therefore, we can devise
a metric that describes the maximum work potential
(i.e. useful energy) that can be derived from a system
in a given state. This metric is called exergy. We
measure exergy in the same units as energy, but
unlike energy, exergy can be destroyed, i.e. it is not a
conserved property. This is schematically illustrated
in Fig. 6.

Figure 6. Exergy, a measure of useful energy.

Figure 6: Exergy, a measure of us

Next generation energy management 13
14 Next generation energy management


In the previous section we introduced the concept

of exergy. Below we highlight the application of
exergy with respect to energy conversion systems
and set the scene for introducing exergy to marine
applications. Exergy – a measure of the quality of
energy – is usually deined as follows:

The exergy of a system at a given state is the

maximum useful work that can be obtained through a
process that brings the system into equilibrium with a
specific environment state.

The above deinition also indicates the alternative

name for exergy, which is available energy or
availability. The speciic environment state in
relation to which exergy is deined is usually termed
the reference state or dead state. In common
thermodynamics / engineering practices this
state is deined as normal ambient conditions of
1 atm pressure, 25oC temperature, and standard
atmospheric air composition. For every form of
energy in nature we can also deine its exergy
counterpart. The most common and engineering
relevant types of exergy are listed in Table 1.
Next generation energy management 15

Form of energy 
Form of energy Exergy 

Fluid flow, H  ℰ!" /! = ℎ − ℎ! − !! ! − !!  
Heat, Q  ℰ! = ! 1 −  
Potential energy, EPT  ℰ!" = !" ! − !!  
Kinetic energy, EKN  ℰ!" = !! !  
Mechanical or Electric energy, W  ℰ! = !  

Chemical energy, ECH 
!!!!!" !
Friction drag or ship resistance, R  ℰ! =  
where: T, m, u, h, s, g, z, V, yi, µ, R are: temperature, mass, specific internal energy, specific
enthalpy, specific entropy, gravitational constant, elevation, velocity, species concentration,
chemical potential and resistance, respectively.
Subscript “0” denotes the reference (dead) state of the environment. 
Table 1: Various forms of energy.

The analysis of energy conversion systems through be thought of as purely subjective and semantically
exergy-based approaches – exergy analysis – offers ambiguous as energy cannot be “lost” since it is
signiicant beneits. Exergy analysis can enhance our conserved.
understanding of the marine energy systems via two
tracks: Exergy can offer signiicant assistance in managing
the complexity of marine energy systems
a. It provides a clear and formal framework for engineering when we assess their performance
deining eficiency in energy systems, removing and try to improve their eficiency. The possible
ambiguities and shortcomings that often arise when applications of exergy analysis in marine systems
only the 1st law of thermodynamics is used. covers a broad spectrum, including performance
assessment, attributing losses to speciic
b. It serves as a uniied framework for the analysis components and processes, ranking these sources
of energy systems in an integrated manner, offering of losses, and monitoring / benchmarking eficiency.
a “common currency” [Camberos and Moorhouse These possibilities are described as a uniied
2011] for measuring and mapping losses and waste methodology in the next section. First, however,
of resources. it is important to illustrate some of the beneits of
2nd law and exergy analysis as compared with 1st
The two tracks described above can be better law energy approaches for a series of elemental
exempliied by consideration of Table 1: exergy can processes that often appear in energy systems. In
effectively characterise all energy forms appearing in each of the processes listed in Table 2, we deine
a marine energy system. both energy eficiency (η) in terms of energy (E) and
exergetic eficiency (ζ) in terms of exergy.
Again it should be noted that exergy is a non-
conserved property that can be destroyed. The Thus, in Table 2 we observe that for processes such
term exergy destruction (or irreversibility) is used to as throttling and luid mixing, exergy is the only
describe the degradation of a system’s energy that metric that can reveal their impact on eficiency
results in a reduced capacity for producing useful and losses. These two processes are particularly
work, e.g. when our hot coffee cup in Fig. 5 cools ineficient, and therefore should be avoided
down. In fact, a more consistent deinition of energy whenever possible, yet they both have energy
losses is exergy destruction per se. Using 1st law eficiencies equal to unity, with no alternative
principles the widely used term of energy losses can performance metric available.
16 Next generation energy management

We also note that in all these elemental processes, processes to the overall system performance.
the 1st law eficiency is equal to unity and for some Although we can add exergy losses / destruction,
we resort to alternative eficiency metrics (like how can we, for instance, combine turbine isentropic
isentropic eficiency or heat exchanger effectiveness) eficiency with economiser effectiveness? This is the
thereby yielding the distance of our process from key proposition for using exergy as the “common
an ideal one. Thus, when assessing losses by that currency” for losses in a system.
approach we are answering a “what if?” type of
question. In contrast, when using 2nd law – exergy The thoughts, considerations, and indings of this
eficiency, we are able to answer the “what is?” and the previous section will be used to forge a
question about the process. This advantage of methodology for applying exergy analysis to marine
using exergy is that it provides the ability to assess energy systems.
the contribution of individual components and

Process  Energy efficiency  Alternative Exergy efficiency 
Process Energy efficiency efficiency metric  Exergy efficiency
Efficiency metric


Heat exchange 


Fluid mixing 




Table 2: Energy and exergy eficiency of some elemental thermodynamic processes.

Next generation energy management 17
18 Next generation energy management


Armed with a better understanding of the issues hand, we are now able to describe a methodology
related to improving marine energy conversion for assessing and improving the eficiency of ships.
systems and with an array of methodological tools at The proposed methodology is outlined in Table 3:

# Description
Step 1: Identify and understand the ship system to be analysed
Step 2: Create the system’s productive structure lowsheet
Step 3: Assess data availability and identify gaps
Step 4: Use computer modelling to reconcile data and cover gaps
Step 5: Perform energy and exergy analyses
Step 6: Evaluate component, process and system metrics
Step 7: Map energy / exergy low and losses – identify improvement areas

Table 2: Ship energy low mapping methodology.

The goals of this methodology are to map the exergetic approaches, making use of onboard
sources of useful energy losses accurately and to measurements and computer modelling (when
identify the key components and operations with necessary) of the marine energy system. We propose
improvement potential. This analysis is based on the decomposition of the complete energy system
Next generation energy management 19

of a ship into its basic building blocks2, the use black-box with inputs and outputs of resources,
of exergy analysis to map losses, and then the products, and waste that low in and out across
examination of improvement solutions. Three main its boundaries. For instance, the engine room
dimensions are covered: a) energy conversion machinery of a vessel (considered as a whole, but
technologies, b) time varying operation, and c) excluding accommodation and cargo equipment)
on board processes. The irst dimension is more can be envisaged as a system, as presented in
relevant to newly built ships, while the latter two are Fig. 7. This black-box system can be decomposed
more easily applied to vessels in operation. However, further, in Step 2 of the analysis, in order to describe
it must be noted that all strands are interrelated the intermediate resources used and products, as
and need to be considered at the appropriate level well as the interrelations between sub-systems and
of detail, both for new-builds and for vessels in components. This results in a lowsheet diagram of
operation. the system that is usually termed productive structure
or functional diagram of the system [Erlach et al.
Step 1 of the methodology involves understanding 1999; Frangopoulos 1991; Tsatsaronis and Moran
the physical system that is to be analysed. In order 1997; von Spakovsky and Evans 1993]. An indicative
to perform the analysis, we need to identify the productive structure for the energy system of an LNG
boundaries of the system, its main function(s), carrier featuring dual-fuel – electric propulsion is
the resources used, and useful products. In that presented in Fig. 8.
respect, a system can be generically deined as a

Resources Exhaust gas Products
Fuel Propulsion thrust
Engine Room
Air integrated machinery Electricity
Sea Heat
(Fresh water)

Figure 7: An energy system deinition with its input and output streams.

Figure 8: Figure 8: The productive structure of a dual-fuel electric propulsion energy system of an LNG carrier.

2 The resolution of this decomposition to sub-systems and components depends on the scope of the study, criticality of various components/ sub-systems and data availability.
20 Next generation energy management

In Step 3, we assess whether the necessary data and used to support this type of analysis – something
information are available to quantify our analysis. that is also illustrated in the application studies of
In our approach, we use exergy analysis for which the next section. In addition, in order to calculate
various primary data must be available (see Table properties like enthalpy and entropy appropriate
1), like pressure, temperature, low, voltage, electric thermophysical property computer packages are
current, torque, rotational speed, ship speed, etc. needed, which, for our purposes, are also covered
Therefore, for ships in operation an assessment of by DNV COSSMOS. Finally, exergy analysis, as is
the available data acquisition and measurements / highlighted in the next section, also gives results
sensors infrastructure is required. Additionally, for on the most eficiency-critical components and
new-build ships alternative sources of data must processes. This information can guide additional
be identiied, like estimates from similar vessels / investments on measurement infrastructure, targeted
systems and design analysis calculated data. to these components/processes, so that they can be
more accurately and closely monitored.
Both for ships under construction and for those in
operation, computer modelling is a key facilitator In Step 5 of the methodology, the system exergy
for reconciling data, augmenting information, and analysis is performed. At each node of the
closing data gaps, in Step 4 of the analysis. Usually productive structure of our system (i.e. at every
not all values required for deining the exergy inlet and outlet of each component), the exergy
of every stream of the productive structure are (and energy) rates are calculated. This is an intrinsic
measured. In fact, when this methodology is applied step that is facilitated by the data acquisition and
during the design phase nothing can be measured, appropriate computer modelling performed in
as the ship does not yet exist! Predictive computer the previous steps of the methodology. The main
models, targeted to the modelling and simulation beneit of employing exergy analysis comes from
of marine machinery systems, can cover the the common basis for assessing losses, i.e. exergy
analysis data requirements both in the design and destruction, which is invariant regardless of the
operational phase. Our in-house, DNV COSSMOS energy form and quality. Therefore, all losses from
modelling framework [Dimopoulos and Kakalis the marine energy system can be brought to a
2010; Kakalis and Dimopoulos 2012] can be readily common denominator, Fig. 9.

Figure 9: Qualitative exergy low diagram in a marine energy system.

In Step 6 of our methodology, suitable component, Finally, Step 7 of the methodology involves the
process and system metrics are employed to utilisation of the results and metrics, derived in
transform the exergy (and energy) analysis results the previous steps, in order to identify the focus
into intuitive information and concrete indings. In and improvement areas with respect to energy
Table 4 the exergy-based and energy-based metrics eficiency. In this task, the insights and information
used are given. This set of energy eficiency and gained about the marine energy system, its
performance metrics can provide: a) the complete components and processes, will be materialised
mapping of the exergy destruction (losses) for into further actions, guidelines and investments in
a marine system, b) the ranking of individual eficiency improvement measures and technologies.
components, processes or sub-systems with respect The exergy analysis (Steps 5, 6), as well as the
to eficiency and losses, and c) a uniform and formal decomposition of the system through its productive
characterisation of energy eficiency across marine structure (Step 2), enables the system designer and
energy conversion systems. / or operator to compare eficiency improvement
Next generation energy management 21

strategies and technology alternatives in a uniied of investment in technology alternatives for both
and consistent framework. new-builds and for ships already in operation. In
fact, by applying exactly the same methodology for
The results and indings of the proposed energy evaluating different technology alternatives (either
management methodology can be readily at the design phase or for retroitting), the eficiency
incorporated into the Ship Energy Eficiency improvement potential, with respect to exergetic
Management Plan (SEEMP). This provides a uniform, eficiency and reduction of exergy destruction, can
tangible and quantitative identiication of sources be determined. This yields a consistent and common
of losses of useful energy to be used by crew and measure for evaluating the potential of various
operators in order to maintain and improve ship technological or operational strategy options, in
operations. In addition, ranking components and terms of difference of exergy destruction, Fig. 10.
processes with respect to their contribution to the
overall exergy destruction provides the baseline for In the following section, the potential of exergy
eficiency monitoring and determines the required analysis and the proposed energy management
focus areas in terms of investments on accurate methodology are illustrated by some relevant
instrumentation and data gathering. Furthermore, application case studies.
this identiication of focus areas enables prioritisation
Table 4: Exergy and energy performance metrics.
Name  Expression 
Expression  Description 
• Can  Can 
be  be 
applied  individual, 
to  components, 
to  individual,  components, 
processes and systems.  
processes and systems.  
• Takes  into  into 
Takes  account  all  required 
account  inputs 
all  required  /  resources 
inputs  /  resources 
Exergy efficiency 
Exergy efficiency  (denominator).  
  • Needs  a  definition  for  the  main main 
function(s)  –  – 
Needs  a  definition  for  the  function(s) 
product(s) (nominator). 
product(s) (nominator). 

• Same as above (exergy efficiency). 
Same as above (exergy efficiency). 
Energy efficiency 
Energy efficiency 
• The  The 
basic basic 
exergy  balance 
exergy  equation 
balance  that  that 
equation  yields 
exergy destruction.  
exergy destruction.  
Exergy destruction 
Exergy destruction 
(irreversibility)  • Can  Can 
be  formulated  on  a on 
be  formulated  component  or  system 
a  component  or  system 
(irreversibility)      basis. 

• Can  Can 
be  component‐  and  and 
be  component‐  /  or / sub‐system‐based 
or  sub‐system‐based 
(index i).  
(index i).  
Relative exergy 
Relative exergy 
destruction  • Provides  the  ranking 
Provides  of  a  of 
the  ranking  system’s  elements 
a  system’s  with with 
destruction      respect to their contribution to losses. 
respect to their contribution to losses. 

• Can  Can 
be  formulated  on  a on 
be  formulated  component  or  system 
a  component  or  system 
Exergy destruction 
Exergy destruction 
ratio ratio  • The denominator can be defined on a fuel or on a 
The denominator can be defined on a fuel or on a 
    total resources input basis. 
total resources input basis. 

  4: Exergy and energy performance metrics.


Ranking  of  technology  alternatives  or  operational  measures 
Figure 10: Ranking  of  technology  alternatives  or  operational  measures  with  respect with  respect  to  their 
to  their 
exergetic performance
Figure 10: Ranking of technology alternatives or operational measures with respect to their exergetic performance.
exergetic performance
22 Next generation energy management

Next generation energy management 23

In this section we illustrate the application and beneits of exergy analysis on the
performance and eficiency assessment of marine energy systems. The cases described
cover complex integrated marine waste heat recovery systems, novel technologies for
fuel cells, and performance assessment of ships in operation.
24 Next generation energy management


Waste heat recovery (WHR) systems are promising operation optimisation [Dimopoulos et al. 2011]
solutions for eficient, cost-effective, and yielded a WHR system capable of delivering an
environmentally friendly power generation and additional 5.9 MW of power, with an overall energy
propulsion on board ocean-going ships. However, eficiency of 51.3 %, representing an annual proit of
their complexity is signiicantly increased by 680 thousand USD, with a capital cost of 2.6 million
machinery space and weight limitations, multiple USD, net present value of investment of 3.6 million
safety and operational constraints, and inherently USD, and a payback period of 8.1 years.
higher capital costs. In addition, WHR are tightly
integrated systems that have many eficiency Fig. 11 shows the WHR system model lowsheet, as
trade-offs between their various components implemented in DNV COSSMOS, along with a legend
and sub-systems. In order to investigate these of the acronyms for the major components that are
aspects, we have conducted a number of used hereafter for our exergy analysis. This lowsheet,
techno-economic modelling, simulation, and in terms of our analysis methodology of the previous
optimisation studies on integrated WHR systems, section, serves as the productive structure for the
using our in-house modelling framework DNV WHR system. In the optimal coniguration identiied
COSSMOS [Dimopoulos et al. 2011; Kakalis and in [Dimopoulos et al. 2011], we perform the exergy
Dimopoulos 2012; Kakalis et al. 2013]. Based on analysis, evaluating exergy at each node of the
these studies, we have been able to determine the system and the relevant exergetic indexes. The
optimal techno-economic design and operation exergy analysis yielded an overall exergetic eficiency
coniguration for multiple ship types and sizes of 47.8 %. The chemical exergy input from fuel at the
[Dimopoulos et al. 2011; Kakalis et al. 2013]. design point is about 85 MW and the useful power
(propulsion and electricity) produced is 42.7 MW. The
For these inherently complex systems, often rest of the fuel chemical exergy is divided into 3.5
featuring more than 70 components, exergy MW losses through exhaust gas to the environment
analysis can strengthen our techno-economic and 38.7 MW of exergy destroyed in the various
optimisation approach further, offering better processes and components, Fig. 12.
insights into the energy conversion process by
identifying and ranking the components of the In addition to the exergy balance results at a systems’
system with respect to their contribution to the level, component level exergetic performance is also
overall exergy destruction. This approach has evaluated. The metric of most interest for our case is
been presented in detail in [Dimopoulos et al. the component-relative exergy destruction . Using
2012]. We used the WHR system for a 4500 TEU this index, we can rank the system components
containership with a 36.5 MW diesel engine. A based on their contribution to the overall exergy
DNV COSSMOS techno-economic design and destruction (i.e. losses), as summarised in Table 5.
Next generation energy management 25

Figure WHR system flowsheet with listing of components, acronyms, and numbering of stream 
WHR system flowsheet with listing of components, acronyms, and numbering of stream 
Figure 11: system lowsheet with listing of components, acronyms, and numbering of stream nodes used in the exergy analysis.
nodes used in the exergy analysis. 
nodes used in the exergy analysis. 


3.5 MW Losses to the


39.6 MW Propulsion

Fuel input 85 MW
3.1 MW

Exergy flow diagram33 of the WHR at its design point.
Exergy flow diagram  of the WHR at its design point. Exergy
38.7 MW

Figure 12: Exergy low diagram3 of the WHR at its design point.

While energy low diagrams are referred to as Sankey diagrams, exergy low diagrams are usually called Grassmann diagrams.
26 Next generation energy management

Table 5: Ranking of WHR system components based on their irreversibility contributions.

From the results in Table 5 we can see that which the system integrator has limited power of
diesel engine combustion is by far the greatest intervention, being restricted to selecting from
contributor (81.7 %) to the system’s exergy engines available in the market.
destruction. Next, at 6.1 %, is losses to the
environment. These results indicate that the A sub-system of interest is the engine turbocharger,
combustion process of marine diesel engines with a cumulative contribution of 3.6 % to the
is a key item for future research and system overall exergy destruction. This sub-system is
improvement. However, this is usually a ield in actually the largest contributor after the diesel
Next generation energy management 27

engine combustion block and the inevitable exhaust eficiency has a profound impact on the viability
gas losses to the environment. One possibility of the investment, producing a 30 % increase in
when designing WHR systems is to include the the net present value and reducing the payback
turbocharger matching and selection into the period to 4 years. This beneit is achieved due to
optimisation process. This clearly has the potential to the turbocharger now being more suited to the
result in an eficiency improvement, as indicated by WHR system, allowing for increased exhaust gas
the results in Table 5. temperatures that lead to the same WHR power
production but with a lower system footprint. This
The techno-economic design and operation smaller footprint enables more container slots to
optimisation of the WHR system is then repeated, become available on board and thereby a greater
including in the process the turbocharger design, proit is achieved as compared with the previous
with its performance maps shape and design igures design. This is an example of how exergy analysis
included as independent decision variables (for and better insights on the true sources of losses with
more details the reader is referred to [Dimopoulos the WHR system can lead to tangible improvements
et al. 2012]). The optimisation results in a WHR in both energy eficiency and in system costs.
system that is capable of delivering an additional 6
MW of power (the same as the previous solution), Thus, this application study illustrates how exergy
but with an energy and exergy eficiency of 51.7 % analysis can be used to improve systems and
and 48.2 %, respectively. These igures represent a concepts, allowing our efforts to be directed towards
relative improvement in energy and exergy eficiency the suitable focus areas for eficiency.
of about 1 %. However, this moderate increase in
28 Next generation energy management


Next generation energy management 29

This application study involves the exergetic analysis Next, we perform exergy analysis, and then, we
and optimisation of a steam methane pre-reformer optimise the reformer with respect to its exergetic
system (SMR) for marine fuel cells. High temperature performance. Our methodology is based on the
molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are a promising modelling of the thermoluid and chemical reactions
option for marine use due to their high eficiency and of the system components using DNV COSSMOS.
high-energy content exhaust gasses. This technology The models developed are spatially distributed
has already been installed as an auxiliary power in order to account for, and give insights into, the
unit on board the offshore supply vessel Viking internal process characteristics of each individual
Lady (Eidesvik Offshore ASA) during the research component. In addition, spatially distributed exergy
demonstration project FellowSHIP [FellowSHIP balances are considered within the component
2012; Ludvigsen and Ovrum 2012]. The SMR is a models to capture the interrelations of the local
key component of MCFC, which completely reforms exergy destruction (irreversibility) with component
the higher-chain hydrocarbons contained in LNG design geometry, coniguration, and process
and partly reforms methane to hydrogen in order to phenomena. A design optimisation problem is
assist the internal reforming process within the fuel then formulated that minimises the total exergy
cell stack. The complete MCFC module is illustrated destruction of the steam methane reforming system
in Fig. 13. subject to design, technical, operational, and space
constraints. The system model lowsheet developed
In this study, irst we develop a dynamic is shown in Fig. 14. This study has been presented in
mathematical model that describes the physical/ detail in [Dimopoulos et al. 2013].
chemical behaviour of the pre-reformer system.

Exhaust gasses

Steam/ Reformer

MCFC stack

Water Fuel pre-processing system

Figure 13: Marine MCFC module: fuel pre-processing (reforming) system and fuel cell stack
30 Next generation energy management

Marine MCFC module: fuel pre‐processing (reforming) system and

Figure 14: SMR system process model flowsheet.

Figure 14: SMR system process model lowsheet.

Our approach demonstrated the sources of exergy acronyms) to the overall exergy losses are depicted
destruction, and provided a low irreversibility in Fig. 15. The largest sources of exergy destruction
optimal design with a reduction in exergy destruction are the water evaporation and steam/methane
of over 50 %, from 75kW to 38kW. This represents mixing processes. The exergetic optimisation results
an increase in exergy eficiency from 17.4 % to in the evaporator losses being reduced by 67 %.
35.3 %. The optimisation problem considered the However, the mixing process exergy destruction
design and geometry characteristics of the system’s is not affected by the optimisation and can be
heat exchangers and reactors in detail in order to considered as an unavoidable source of losses. In
link exergy eficiency and footprint / volume of the the optimal solution, the mixing process contributes
system. The problem also considers all the necessary 21.5 % to the overall system exergy destruction. The
space, operability (pressure drops, velocities, steam/methane heater contributes 9.8 % and 6.6 %
hydrogen production, and water content) and safety to the initial and optimal design, respectively. This is
(maximum allowable temperatures and hydrogen another component in which the exergy destruction
content) constraints. This signiicant rise in exergy is signiicantly reduced, by 66%, via optimisation. We
eficiency is mainly obtained via the increase in size note that exergy-based optimisation can substantially
of the various system heat exchangers, whilst still improve heat exchange components (like XEV and
being within the required space constraints. This link XHX) that conventional 1st law approaches often
between heat exchange eficiency and size is readily cannot address effectively. The SMR contributes
available through the exergy-based approach, while, roughly 6 % to the overall system exergy destruction.
in contrast, 1st law analysis requires a number of The SMR exergy destruction in the optimal solution
workarounds and implicit steps in order to deine is greater than in the initial design due to the higher
eficiency and link it with heat exchanger size. temperature proile within the reformer. Finally, the
steam drum has nearly constant exergy destruction in
At a component level, the contributions of XHX, both designs, with a contribution from 1.5 % to 3 %.
XEV, SDR, MIX and SMR (see Fig. 14 for component
Next generation energy management 31

Figure 15: Component exergy destruction (a) and relative exergy destruction (b).

Figure 15: Component exergy destruction (a) and relative exergy destruction (b).

The exergy analysis and optimisation proved to be reveal the full picture of losses within the system.
particularly suitable for this chemically reacting and By using exergy analysis / optimisation and the
heat exchanging system. This is because traditional identiication of the sources of losses within this
energy (1st law) and calculations based on the pinch system, we have achieved a design with 50 % less
analysis have certain shortcomings that often fail to losses, thereby doubling its exergy eficiency.
32 Next generation energy management



In this case study, energy and exergy analyses are The ship has a two-stroke slow-speed marine
conducted in order to assess the performance of diesel engine delivering 11300 kW at 97 rpm at
the main engine of an existing aframax tanker. The its maximum continuous rating. Here, the engine
analyses are based on actual operational data, as is considered as a sub-system comprising the
recorded in the main engine periodic reports that the turbocharger (compressor, turbine), charge air
crew submits to the ship operators. The goal of this cooler, main engine cylinders / combustion block,
study is to highlight the signiicant increase of useful and exhaust gas economiser. The data available
information, the improved insights into the system are mainly pressures and temperatures at different
and its processes, and the accurate mapping of the locations in the fuel, air, water, steam, and exhaust
sources of useful energy losses that can be achieved gas path, and fuel low rate. In addition, using the
through our exergy-based methodology. turbocharger performance maps, we are able to
Next generation energy management 33

estimate (quite accurately) the air and exhaust through the exergy analysis. Taking into account
mass lows. Finally, DNV COSSMOS is used for the the exergy input of all resources used (fuel, air and
thermophysical property calculations, as well as cooling water), the exergy eficiency of the main
the derivation of the exergy and energy rates. The engine sub-system is 44.9 %. With respect to cooling
performance report obtained is for a sailing condition and heat losses, the exergy-based igure amounts
with the engine operating at 80 % of its nominal load. only to 1.9 % of the total exergy input, since these are
low grade heat losses that have limited potential for
First, an energy-based analysis is performed as shown useful energy extraction. In addition, another 2.2 %
in Fig. 16. From this diagram we observe that the of the total exergy input is destroyed in the charge
energy eficiency of the main engine sub-system is air cooler. Thus, a signiicantly different picture is
48.1 %. The heat losses (charge air, jacket, lube-oil reached, with 4.1 % (exergy losses and destruction)
coolers and radiation) amount to 26.6 % of the fuel compared with the 26.6 % of losses as was derived
energy, while another 25.1 % of the fuel energy through 1st law energy analysis. The exergy low of
leaves with the exhaust gasses. Finally, 647 kW of the exhaust gasses leaving the engine is 10.4 % of the
heat are recovered and converted to service steam in total exergy input, compared with the energy-based
the exhaust gas economiser. This leads to an overall 25.1 %. Furthermore, through the exergy analysis,
system eficiency of 51.5 %. Based on the results of the engine turbocharger is identiied as an important
Fig. 16, the greatest sources of losses are the charge source of exergy destruction, with 6.9 % of the total
air cooler, jacket cooler, and the exhaust gasses. exergy input; this igure cannot be determined by
Therefore, the attention and efforts of the operators 1st law energy analysis. Finally, the largest source of
should be focused towards accurate monitoring and exergy destruction is the combustion process, with a
improvements in these sources. contribution of 33.9 %.

However, our insights change signiicantly when

exergy analysis is applied, as given in Fig. 17. The irst
important difference between the two approaches is
the signiicant increase in information gained through
the better decomposition of losses and exergy
destruction per component. This leads to improved
mapping and better understanding of energy /
exergy low in the system. Furthermore, many of the
conclusions drawn using energy analysis are altered
34 Next generation energy management

Figure 16: Energy low – Sankey diagram of the main engine sub-system of an aframax tanker.

Figure 17: Exergy low – Grassmann diagram of the main engine sub-system of an aframax tanker.
Next generation energy management 35

This comparison of energy and exergy analysis importance of the combustion process and of the
reveals important disparities and distinctions. When turbocharger is not readily identiied by the energy
using exergy analysis, the mapping of losses is analysis of Fig. 16. Rather, energy analysis indicated
different and more detailed From exergy analysis that heat rejection is the most important process,
we have identiied the major sources of exergy while exergy analysis proved this to be contributing
destruction in the system: the combustion process far less to the overall losses. In addition, energy
contributes 77.9 % of the total exergy destruction, analysis does not identify the turbocharger as an
turbocharger 15.7 %, charger air cooler 5.1 %, eficiency-critical component. Finally, these results
and exhaust economiser 1.2 %. The total exergy immediately set the focus areas for close monitoring
destruction amounts to 43.5 % of the total exergy of the performance / condition of components and
input to the system, while losses to the environment for the introduction of improvement technologies.
(cooling and exhaust) are only 10.8 %. Finally, the For instance, engine-tuning methods can be
overall exergy eficiency of the system (power and prioritised to improve combustion, and turbocharger
steam production) is 45.9 %. modiications (e.g. variable turbine area) can also
contribute to improved energy eficiency.
This study reveals the power of exergy analysis for
assessing the performance and revealing the true
sources of losses in ships during operation. The
36 Next generation energy management


In this work we present next-generation methods a) Gaining clearer insights into the complex energy
and tools to address the eficient use of energy on conversion process through identiication and
board ships. Ship energy eficiency has been an ranking of the components that contribute most to
area of focus since the irst vessels sailed the seas, the overall system losses of useful energy.
and has remained important as ship technology
evolved and our societies changed over time. b) Enhancing systems’ optimisation by accurately
In practice, whether we demand faster, bigger, and correctly identifying the true sources of losses.
more cost-effective or more environmentally
friendly ships, eficiency of the onboard energy c) Alleviating the shortcomings of the traditional
conversion process is a common denominator. energy (1st law) analysis that often fail to reveal the
This is especially so as ship systems, operations, full picture of losses within complex systems.
and the legislative framework have become more
complex. As such, it is becoming increasingly d) Establishing a “common currency” in the
dificult to assess and even deine “eficiency” with quantiication and categorisation of energy losses for
any accuracy. the complete marine system (hull, propulsion power-
train, machinery, primary energy converters) that
To meet this challenge, rather than accept common could lead to concepts for next-generation methods
perceptions and deinitions of eficiency, we of energy management.
have returned to basics, irstly by revisiting the
fundamental laws of thermodynamics. In the theory This methodology provides the ability to assess
of thermodynamics we have found the necessary energy eficiency in a consistent manner, from the
conceptual and methodological tools to address fuel primary energy source to inal consumers, like
ship energy eficiency in a formal, consistent, and electricity and resistance. In our approach, onboard
uniform manner. The main concept facilitating ship data and measurements are seamlessly fused
this work is exergy: a metric that describes the together with computer modelling (DNV COSSMOS)
maximum useful energy that can be derived and thermodynamic computations to create a
from a system. Exergy analysis is then employed generic methodology that is capable of addressing
to develop a methodology for assessing the both new-builds and ships already in operation.
energy eficiency of ship systems and to identify
improvement areas. Exergy analysis aims towards:
Next generation energy management 37

Some beneits of our methodological approach unit and resulted in a remarkable reduction of exergy
using exergy analysis were highlighted via three case destruction and losses by 50 % - effectively doubling
application studies. its exergetic eficiency.

The irst study involved the exergy analysis of marine The third study involved the energy and exergy
waste heat recovery systems that are complex, analysis of the main engine sub-system of an aframax
tightly integrated, and with multiple eficiency tanker using actual operating data. The analysis
trade-offs. Through our exergy-based methodology, utilised onboard measurements from standard
the true sources of losses and exergy destruction periodic reports in combination with DNV COSSMOS
were identiied, revealing a picture that is far from modelling and data post-processing. The exergy
self-evident. This new knowledge about the system analysis provided a consistent and accurate mapping
was then used to direct further techno-economic of the true sources of losses within this system. It is
improvements by using model-based optimisation worth noting that such mapping cannot be derived
in DNV COSSMOS to re-design components critical by an energy analysis alone. In fact, the energy
to eficiency. This approach yielded an increase in analysis failed to identify the turbocharger as being
fuel savings that halved the payback time of the the second largest contributor to losses. In addition,
WHR system. the mapping of losses derived by energy analysis
was completely reverted by the exergy analysis.
The second study involved the exergy-based design
optimisation in DNV COSSMOS of a fuel pre- These studies highlight the power and generic
processing sub-system for marine fuel cells. This is a nature of next-generation energy management
critical sub-system for a complete fuel cell unit that methods. By having and using the right set of
involves integrated heat exchange and chemical methodological approaches and computer tools
reaction processes. Exergy analysis and optimisation we have the capability to manage the complexity
is particularly suitable here as 1st law energy analysis of modern ship energy systems successfully and
has many shortcomings in consistently deining to identify their true eficiency potential, as well as
eficiency for this type of system. The exergy-based sources of losses. Empowered by this knowledge, we
optimisation provided a thorough insight into the can have conidence in inding the right pathways for
energy and exergy lows in the fuel pre-processing safer, greener, and smarter ship energy systems.
38 Next generation energy management

[1] J. A. Camberos and D. J. Moorhouse, 2011, Exergy Analysis [5] G. G. Dimopoulos, I. C. Stefanatos and N. M. P. Kakalis,
and Design Optimization for Aerospace Vehicles and Systems, 2013, Exergy analysis and optimisation of a steam methane pre-
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. reforming system, Energy, Vol. 58, No. 0, pp. 17-27.

[2] G. G. Dimopoulos and N. M. P. Kakalis, 2010, An integrated [6] DNV, 2012, DNV Fuel Saving Guideline – For Bulk Carriers,
modelling framework for the design, operation and control Containerships, Tankers, Det Norske Veritas, (available at: www.
of marine energy systems, Proceedings of 26th CIMAC World dnv.com).
Congress, June 14 - 17, Bergen, Norway.
[7] DNV GL, 2013, Rules for classiication of ships, DNV GL,
[3] G. G. Dimopoulos, C. A. Georgopoulou and N. M. P. Kakalis, (available at www.dnvgl.com).
2011, Modelling and optimisation of an integrated marine
combined cycle system, Proceedings of 24th International [8] B. Erlach, L. Serra and A. Valero, 1999, Structural theory
Conference on Energy, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and as standard for thermoeconomics, Energy conversion and
Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS), 2-5 July, Novi- management, Vol. 40, No. 15-16, pp. 1627.
Sad, Serbia.
[9] FellowSHIP, 2012, FellowSHIP project web page, Available
[4] G. G. Dimopoulos, C. A. Georgopoulou and N. M. P. Kakalis, at: < http://www.VikingLady.no >, [accessed 15/12/2013].
2012, The introduction of exergy analysis to the thermo-
economic modelling and optimisation of a marine combined [10] C. A. Frangopoulos, 1991, Intelligent Functional Approach:
cycle system, Proceedings of 25th International Conference A method for analysis and optimal synthesis-design-operation
on Energy, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental of complex systems, Energy, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 267-274.
Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS), 26-29 June, Perugia, Italy.
Next generation energy management 39

[11] E. P. Gyftopoulos and G. P. Beretta, 1991, Thermodynamics: [15] K. B. Ludvigsen and E. Ovrum, 2012, Fuel cells for
Foundations and Applications, Macmillan Publishing, New York shipping, Position Paper 13/2012, Det Norske Veritas, Research
(NY) USA. & Innovation, (available at: www.dnvgl.com).

[12] N. M. P. Kakalis and G. Dimopoulos, 2012, Managing the [16] MARPOL, 2010, International Convention for the
complexity of marine energy systems, Position Paper 11/2012, Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 as modiied by the
Det Norske Veritas, Research & Innovation, (available at: www. Protocol of 1978, Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from
dnvgl.com). Ships.

[13] N. M. P. Kakalis, G. G. Dimopoulos and I. Stefanatos, 2013, [17] SOLAS, 2009, International Convention for the Safety of
Model-based techno-economic assessment and optimisation Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, as updated in 2009, (available at:
of marine waste heat recovery options, Proceedings of 27th www.imo.org).
CIMAC World Congress, May 13 - 16, Shanghai, China, May
13 – 16. [18] G. Tsatsaronis and M. J. Moran, 1997, Exergy-aided cost
minimization, Energy conversion and management, Vol. 38, No.
[14] A. B. W. Kennedy and H. R. Sankey, 1898, The thermal 15/17, pp. 1535-1542.
eficiency of steam engines. Report of the committee appointed
to the council upon the subject of the deinition of a standard [19] M. R. von Spakovsky and R. B. Evans, 1993, Engineering
or standards of thermal eficiency for steam engines: with an Functional Analysis--Part I, Journal of energy resources
introductory note. (including appendixes and plate at back of technology, Vol. 115, No. 2, pp. 86-92.
volume). 1898 Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of
Civil Engineers, vol. 134, pp. 278-312. [20] Wikipedia 2013, Sankey diagram (http://en.wikipedia.org/

NO-1322 Høvik, Norway Driven by its purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment, DNV GL enables organisations to advance the
Tel: +47 67 57 99 00 safety and sustainability of their business. DNV GL provides classiication and technical assurance along with software and
www.dnvgl.com independent expert advisory services to the maritime, oil & gas and energy industries.

It also provides certiication services to customers across a wide range of industries. Combining leading technical and
operational expertise, risk methodology and in-depth industry knowledge, DNV GL empowers its customers’ decisions and
actions with trust and conidence. The company continuously invests in research and collaborative innovation to provide
customers and society with operational and technological foresight. DNV GL, whose origins go back to 1864, operates
globally in more than 100 countries with its 16,000 professionals dedicated to helping their customers make the world safer,
smarter and greener.

DNV GL Strategic Research & Innovation

The objective of strategic research is through new knowledge and services to enable long term innovation and business
growth in support of the overall strategy of DNV GL. Such research is carried out in selected areas that are believed to be of
particular signiicance for DNV GL in the future. A Position Paper from DNV GL Strategic Research & Innovation
is intended to highlight indings from our research programmes.

The trademarks DNV GL and the Horizon Graphic are the property of DNV GL AS. All rights reserved.
©DNV GL 03/2014 Design and print production: Erik Tanche Nilssen AS

Похожие интересы