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Alexandria University

www.elsevier.com/locate/aej

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

a,1 b,2 c,*

Farzaneh Nezami , Davood Farsadizadeh , Mohammad Ali Nekooie

a

Water Structures, Department of Water Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

b

Department of Water Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran

c

Department of Emergency Management, Malek ashtar University of Technology (MUT), Tehran, Iran

KEYWORDS Abstract The designed length of the rectangular side weirs sometimes becomes too long that

Hydraulics and hydrody- makes it non-practical from the engineering point of view. In order to decrease the length of channel

namics; opening with the desired water height, this study focuses on applying trapezoidal geometry for side

Models (physical); weirs. The discharge coefﬁcient needs to be found experimentally for any kinds of trapezoidal side

Trapezoidal side weirs; weirs. For this study experimental tests have been carried out for trapezoidal side weir in order to

Waterways and canals obtain the discharge coefﬁcient. The main dimensionless variables for the tests include: Upstream

end Froude number (F1), w/y1, L/B, L0 /L, w/L0 and sin (a). Finally, the relationship for De-

Marchi’s coefﬁcient in subcritical ﬂow for trapezoidal side weir is presented based on the non-

dimensional parameters of weir and ﬂow. Eventually, all the data points are within ±10% limit,

which shows the accuracy of the results of this study.

ª 2015 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria

University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/

licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

as dams or retention ponds. In some sections of the rivers or

A wide variety of different structures is employed to mitigate irrigation channels, the discharge might be increased and

any extreme ﬂooding event. In some ways, side weirs are the exceeded the discharge capacity of the channel. In contrast

most popular structure to make a diversion in ﬂood ﬂow. with the normal approaches, operation of the side weirs causes

Several of the large regions in ﬂoodplain areas resorted to spatially varied ﬂow. Using of side weirs causes the transverse

the use of side weirs [5,12,18]. These structures help the ﬂood variations of the free surface proﬁle and the velocity

ﬂow deviate from the main stream to non-hazard zone without distribution.

There were numerous studies on normal weirs, which are

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +98 912 1490601; fax: +98 perpendicular to the direction of the main stream. In that sit-

6075566157, +98 6072343869, +98 88021102. uation, upstream depth and the crest length are the most sig-

E-mail addresses: farzanehnez@yahoo.com (F. Nezami), niﬁcant parameters for weir discharge. Side weirs as control

farsadi_d@yahoo.com (D. Farsadizadeh), anmohammad2@live.utm. structures are framed in the side of a channel and steer the lat-

my (M.A. Nekooie). eral ﬂow to lateral channel. There are different types of side

1

Tel.: +98 914 3923069; fax: +98 411 3356007.

2 weirs with similar deﬁnitions and different applications and

Tel.: +98 411 3392792; fax: +98 411 3356007.

hydro-speciﬁcations and behaviour [1].

Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria

University.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2015.05.017

1110-0168 ª 2015 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article in press as: F. Nezami et al., Discharge coeﬃcient for trapezoidal side weir, Alexandria Eng. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.aej.2015.05.017

2 F. Nezami et al.

Nomenclature

B channel width (m); h head angle of the trapezoidal labyrinth side weir

CM De-Marchi coefﬁcient of discharge (–) (degree)

Cd discharge coefﬁcient (–) U varied ﬂow function (–)

E speciﬁc energy (m) r surface tension

F Froude number (–) So slope of the main channel bed (–)

g gravitational acceleration (m/s2) q mass density of the ﬂuid (–)

L opening length of side weir (m) l dynamic viscosity of the ﬂuid (–)

L0 effective length of trapezoidal side weir (m)

Q channel discharge (m3/s) Subscripts

Qw weir outﬂow discharge (m3/s) 1, 2 upstream and downstream conditions for the weir,

w weir height (m) respectively

x ﬂow direction (–)

y water depth in main channel (m)

a side angle (degree)

L¼ ðU2 U1 Þ ð3Þ

ing of side weirs is De-Marchi’s approach. Different geome- 2 CM

tries of side weirs imitate the assumption of constant speciﬁc where subscripts 1 and 2 present the upstream and down-

energy across the weir for subcritical ﬂow [4]. Eq. (1) could stream end of the weir in the channel. A large number of the

be applied for rectangular channel in the case of spatially var- studies have been conducted to obtain discharge coefﬁcient

ied ﬂow. for side weirs rely upon De-Marchi context. Table 1 provides

3B a summary of empirical relationships to determine discharge

x¼ Uðy; E; wÞ þ Const: ð1Þ

2CM coefﬁcient for sharp crest conventional side weirs Eqs. (4)–(12).

Different approaches have been applied to determine dis-

where CM is the De-Marchi coefﬁcient (or side weir discharge

charge coefﬁcient for side weirs. For instance, Ghodsian stud-

coefﬁcient) which represents the performance of the side weir

ied behaviour of the rectangular side weir under the conditions

and x represents the length in ﬂow direction, B is the constant

of supercritical ﬂow [13]. Photometry was used by Khorchani

channel width. With regard to Eq. (2), y is the ﬂow depth, E is

and Blanpain with a full-scale experiment using digital cameras

the speciﬁc energy, w is the weir height and A is a varied ﬂow

[17]. Since the crest length has the greatest inﬂuence on the dis-

function deﬁned as follows:

charge capacity among parameters based on previous studies,

0:5 0:5

ð2E 3wÞ Ey Ey the effective length was introduced by researchers [20]. By

Uðy; E; wÞ ¼ 3 sin1 using the idea of the duckbill spillway [11] crest length can

ðE wÞ yw Ew

be increased while the opening length can still be kept constant

ð2Þ

by folding the weir into more sections. Different duckbill and

By using Eq. (3), the design detail of side weir could be labyrinth side weirs were designed with various shapes and

determined due to the expected CM value for conventional side presented in the recent decade. Studies show that most of the

weir. It is clear that the amount of weir height and weir length designed labyrinth side weirs could perform better than con-

(opening length) could be designed for required outﬂow dis- ventional side weirs. Table 2 illustrate the sketch of each type

charge (Qw) [25]. of recent side weirs presented in the literature.

CM ¼ 0:622 0:222F1 (4) [30]

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2þF2 (5) [19]

CM ¼ 0:432 1þ2F12

1

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2þF2 (7) [14]

CM ¼ 0:485 2þ3F12

1

CM ¼ 0:33 0:18F1 þ 0:49w=y1 (9) [29]

CM ¼ 0:71 0:41F1 0:22w=y1 (10) [15]

CM ¼ 0:7 0:48F1 0:3w=y1 þ 0:06L=B (11) [1]

(12) [26]

Cd ¼ ½1 þ 0:33ðL=BÞ 0:105ðL=BÞ2

½1 þ 0:034ðw=y1 Þ 0:491ðw=y1 Þ3 þ 0:421ðw=y1 Þ4

½0:348 þ 0:22ðF1 Þ 0:203ðF1 Þ2 þ 0:303ðF1 Þ3 0:168ðF1 Þ4

Please cite this article in press as: F. Nezami et al., Discharge coeﬃcient for trapezoidal side weir, Alexandria Eng. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.aej.2015.05.017

Trapezoidal side weirs 3

Type of labyrinth side weirs Sketch of diﬀerent labyrinth side weirs

Please cite this article in press as: F. Nezami et al., Discharge coeﬃcient for trapezoidal side weir, Alexandria Eng. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.aej.2015.05.017

4 F. Nezami et al.

Figure 1 Trapezoidal labyrinth side weir by Emiroglu and Kaya [8] (a) plan and (b) ISO sketch.

Table 3 Buckingham dimensionless argument.

trapezoidal labyrinth side weir which was the combination of

one main trapezoidal side weir and two side rectangular Argument Description

shapes. Fig. 1 illustrates the detailed design of their study. p1 L0 y1

1

The width of each rectangular is equal to the half apex width p2 w y1

1

[8]. p3 L y1

1

However, they concluded that, this type of trapezoidal p4 B y1

1

labyrinth side weir has higher performance rather than conven- p5 1 1

V1 g2 y1 2

tional side weirs, but slightly higher than triangular labyrinth

p6 sinðaÞ

side weir. Most of the aforementioned researcher, who made p7 CM

an experiment on geometrical labyrinth side weirs, introduced

new effective parameters. The new parameter that made an

important role in discharge coefﬁcient was side or head angle.

Emiroglu and Kaya [8] mentioned that the discharge coefﬁ-

respect to the conventional and other labyrinth side weirs.

cient Cd increased with reduction in sidewall angle.

For analysis of results the approach of spatially varied ﬂow,

Moreover, Eq. (13) was provided for this type of combined

has been conducted.

trapezoidal side weir.

h

Cd ¼ 1:063 ðL=BÞ0:002 0:069 ðL=L0 Þ

0:074

þ 0:0045 1.1. Dimensional analysis

38:754 #222:104

5:209 h 2:582 There are different parameters involved in achieving the dis-

ðw=y1 Þ 5:195 sin þ 0:003F1

2 charge coefﬁcient (CM) for labyrinth side weirs. The physical

characteristics of the experiment conditions could be men-

ð13Þ

tioned such as the width of the channel (B), the width of the

On the other hand, the performance of the labyrinth is trapezoidal labyrinth side weir (L), the slope of the main chan-

reduced by increasing the water head (y1 w) on the weir edge nel bed (So), the Manning roughness coefﬁcient of the main

while this matter has been mentioned by Falvey [11]. The ﬂow channel (n), the head angle of the trapezoidal labyrinth side

over labyrinth weirs can be complicated by the interference of weir (h), the weir crest length (effective length (L0 )), and crest

the jets from adjacent crests. The degree of impact increases as height (w). Furthermore, effective ﬂow characteristics were

the angle between the crests decreases and as the ﬂow depth mentioned by studies such as ﬂow depth at the upstream end

over the crest increases. This interference could signiﬁcantly of the side weir (y1), ﬂow velocity at the upstream end of the

reduce the efﬁciency of labyrinth weirs. For labyrinth weir, side weir (V1), acceleration due to gravity (g), dynamic viscos-

Parvaneh et al. [24] have discussed this difﬁculty for labyrinth ity of the ﬂuid (l), surface tension (r), and mass density of the

side weirs [11,24]. ﬂuid (q).

Doubtless, improving the efﬁciency of side weirs would be Based on Borghei et al. the effect of slope is negligible.

expected from the new designs. Since the previous design of Moreover, the effect of n, r and l on discharge coefﬁcient

trapezoidal labyrinth side weir is the combination of rectangu- for elementary ﬂow particle is not considerable. Since the min-

lar and trapezoidal, therefore, the aim of this paper was to imum knob height over the side weir is less than 30 mm in this

introduce and evaluate the performance of pure trapezoidal study, the ‘‘We’’ number is less than 9 and the effect of surface

labyrinth side weirs with one cycle on ﬂow diversion with tension is negligible.

Please cite this article in press as: F. Nezami et al., Discharge coeﬃcient for trapezoidal side weir, Alexandria Eng. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.aej.2015.05.017

Trapezoidal side weirs 5

According to Bukingham’s method (p theorem) to develop was pumped from the main tank to the Flume. The overﬂow

physical model, the following related variables in Eq. (14) from side weir was diverted to the inferior reservoir tank. A

should be investigated [22]. rectangular spillway was installed there to measure the outﬂow

discharge (Qw). The downstream discharge (Q2) was measured

fðCM ; y1 ; L; L0 ; w; V1 ; g; q; B; sinðaÞÞ ¼ 0 ð14Þ

using standard rectangular spillway with the average accuracy

of 2% and the maximum accuracy of 2.5% using limnimeter.

h

a¼ ð15Þ The ﬂow depth of the downstream could be adjusted by

2

using an adjustable valve at the end of the Flume. The water

The governing variables are g, q and y1 using basic dimen- surface proﬁle could be measured by digital point gauge

sions. 7 Non-dimensional arguments (p1, p2, . . ., p7) have been placed on the upper edge of the ﬂume. For most researches

presented. All of the three governing variables are repeated in the presumption is used that, the ﬂow at the channel centre

all arguments with different exponents and the other variables is more stable than at the bank of the weir. Thus, the data

are presented as a forth variable in each argument. Table 3 at the upstream end of the side weir at the channel centre

illustrates the arguments due to related variables. had been used by them [1,27,28,9,8,10]. However, in this

However, it is possible to combine various dimensionless study water proﬁle in both of the centre line (line 1 in

arguments. For instant the p1/p4 = L0 /B, p2/p1 = w/L0 , Fig. 3) and the bank of the side weir line (line 2 in Fig. 3)

p1/p3 = L0 /L and p5/p6 = F1/sin (a) so that, Eq. (16) is the is taken every 0.05 m.

dimensionless equation in a functional form. Fig. 4 illustrates that the water surface in the centre line

0 0 is smoother than the bank of the side weir. It indicates that

L L w w F1

CM ¼ f ; ; ; 0; ð16Þ

B L y1 L sinðaÞ

This equation has been applied to current research. F1 is the

Froude number at the upstream end of the side weir at the

channel centre which was applied in previous studies.

Laboratory of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran. Fig. 2 sketches

the experimental setup. It was equipped with eight metres rect-

angular ﬂume with 0.80 m width and 0.50 m height. The slope

of the channel was considered zero in all the experiments.

There is a series of stabilizing plates. The side weir was set

far enough from downstream of the channel to let fully devel-

Figure 3 Plan of trapezoidal side weir with the illustration of

oped turbulent ﬂow occurs in the approach channel. The side

centre line and bank of the side weir line.

weirs’ model was made of 2 mm thickness steel plates. Water

Please cite this article in press as: F. Nezami et al., Discharge coeﬃcient for trapezoidal side weir, Alexandria Eng. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.aej.2015.05.017

6 F. Nezami et al.

Figure 4 The water surface proﬁle for opening length (a) 1 m in bank of side weir (ys); (b) 1 m in centre line (yc); (c) 0.8 m in bank of side

weir (ys); (d) 0.8 m in centre line (yc); (e) 0.6 m in bank of side weir (ys); (f) 0.6 m in centre line (yc).

the effect of water diversion in side weirs has less inﬂuence smallest practical angle by studies [24,20]. Moreover, the

on centre line rather than closer situations to the bank of extension of weir into the side channel should be practical.

side weirs. The design system for trapezoidal side weirs is based on 3

Table 4 describes the range of variables for the experimen- ﬁxed ratios for L/L0 . As a result, for all side weirs with

tal tests. The depth of water over the side weir was always kept a = 30, L/L0 = 0.7 and with a = 45, L/L0 = 0.8 and with

more than the requirement for omitting the surface tension a = 60, L/L0 = 0.9 have been used. This system tries to pro-

effects (more than 30 mm [21]). As shown in the table, 90 tests vide longer oblique part rather than horizontal to use its

were conducted for Trapezoidal side weirs with one cycle. The advantages unless for small angles (a = 30). When the head

range of the variables has been chosen in order to be more angle (h) decreases the side angle (a) becomes sharper than

practical. For instance by choosing the lowest value as 30 before. Therefore, the diversion of ﬂow is increased for the side

for a, the head angle becomes 60 which is mentioned as the wall of trapezoidal side weirs. Thus, with sharper side angle,

Please cite this article in press as: F. Nezami et al., Discharge coeﬃcient for trapezoidal side weir, Alexandria Eng. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.aej.2015.05.017

Trapezoidal side weirs 7

n = number of experiments

Table 4 Description of variables in the experimental tests.

El-Khashab and Smith [6], reported 5% for the energy loss

Height of Opening a () F1 Q1 Number of for the conventional side weirs [6]. Fig. 6 shows the state of

weir w (cm) length L (lit/s) conducted test Energy error versus F1. Hence, the De-Marchi equation was

(cm) used for further calculations on the trapezoidal side weirs.

15,10 60 30– 0.1– 20– 30

45– 0.3 30 2.2. Effect of different parameters on the out ﬂow

60

15,10 80 30– 0.2– 20– 30

45– 0.4 35 Former studies on the conventional side weir show the effect of

60 3 main parameters for developing discharge coefﬁcient (CM)

15,10 100 30– 0.2– 30– 30 (Borghei et al. [1,15,14]). These parameters are F1, w/y1, L/B.

45– 0.4 40 Previously the effect of F1 was the main contribution to CM

60 value [19,3,25,30]. Based on this study the effect of Froude

number in the upstream end is reverse. It means, the secondary

longer horizontal crest is needed to provide enough space for ﬂow with regard to the lateral ﬂow is affected by increasing the

ﬂow diversion and prevents any vortex in side weir area velocity of ﬂow, which is presented by Froude number (F1).

(Fig. 5). On the other hand, it helps control the knob length However, in this type of side weir, the increase of the

to make side weirs more practical. Froude number causes the deduction of the separate zone

and reversed ﬂow near the downstream end, as Fig. 7 illus-

2. Experimental results and discussions trated that the Froude number has a descending order with

discharge coefﬁcient (CM) under the control of side angle (a).

2.1. Energy constancy Fig. 7 illustrates the effect of ﬂow in different knob length,

which is considered in this study.

Therefore, the parameter with the combination of F1 and

In accordance with De-Marchi assumption the energy should sin (a) is preferable. The behaviour of discharge coefﬁcient ver-

be constant along the side weir. For all the tests the energy sus F1/sin (a) has been investigated in Fig. 8. The results in

at both sides of the weir was calculated. The Coriolis coefﬁ- Fig. 8 indicate the values of discharge coefﬁcient grow up with

cient was considered equal to one according to Olivito et al. increasing the values of the F1/sin (a). Based on Fig. 8, the

[23]. The energy in the upstream end (E1) and downstream slope of the increasing is similar for weirs with lower height

end (E2) was calculated by Eq. (17). The average error (RE) rather than weirs with w = 15 cm. However, higher values

for energy differences in this study achieved by Eq. (18) is for L/B cause less increasing gradient for discharge coefﬁcient

equal to 0.41%. side weirs and higher weirs (15 cm) get better CM rather than

Q2 lower one (10 cm).

E¼yþ ð17Þ To study the effect of w/y1 on discharge coefﬁcient of trape-

2gB2 y2

zoidal side weir Fig. 9 shows the values of CM versus w/y1. The

100 X jDEj data indicate the reduction of w/y1 by increasing the CM val-

RE ¼ ð18Þ ues. However, the experiments with higher height of the weir

n E1

Figure 5 The ﬂow direction in trapezoidal side weir for this study (a) out ﬂow view and (b) inside view.

Please cite this article in press as: F. Nezami et al., Discharge coeﬃcient for trapezoidal side weir, Alexandria Eng. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.aej.2015.05.017

8 F. Nezami et al.

2:24

0:081 0 0:372 F1

CM ¼ 1:35 Lw0 þ 0:384 LB þ 0:059 sinðaÞ

0:176 0

1:37 yw 0:979 þ 0:755 LL

1

ð19Þ

The results from Eq. (19) in terms of calculated values for

CM should be compared with the actual measured values. It

seems, from Fig. 11 and, that the calculated parameter pro-

duces precise results within ±10% range.

The Discharge coefﬁcient (CM) that is calculated from

Eq. (19) is substituted into Eq. (3). The depth of ﬂow (y) is

taken as the ﬂow depth at the upstream end of the side weir

at the channel centre (y1) to estimate the Energy in the

Upstream end (E1) and downstream end (E2) for Eq. (2) based

Figure 6 State of Error of the Energy versus F1 to approve

on the outﬂow discharge (Qw). Therefore, by using Eqs. (2), (3)

energy constancy among side weir.

and (19) the total ﬂow over the side weir (Qw) can easily be

obtained.

could achieve higher CM. Fig. 9 illustrates the effect of L0 /L Eventually, to measure how well Eq. (19) predicts the actual

with the CM corresponding to the same w/y1 values. value of the discharge coefﬁcient, the sum of squares’ terminol-

Another parameter which is not favoured by the previous ogy has been used. This terminology tries to deﬁne the vari-

studies is w/L0 . The relation between w/L0 and discharge coef- ability in the data by using R2. In the current study, the

ﬁcient (CM) has been depicted in Fig. 10. Since the study con- ratio of R-squared is equal to 0.903, which shows a precise cor-

sidered three side angles as a = 30, a = 45 and a = 60, the relation between measured and calculated discharge coefﬁcient

results of comparison are split by these angles. However, based (CM). Since the RMSE indicates the goodness of the ﬁt related

on three different L/B, the ascending gradient for L/B = 1.25 to high discharge coefﬁcient values, this study tries to apply

is signiﬁcantly bigger than other values. Furthermore, dis- another important criterion such as Normalized Root Mean

charge coefﬁcient (CM) increases signiﬁcantly with an increase Square Error (NRMSE). Eq. (20) shows the terminology of

in w/L0 . Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE).

The study tries to use an empirical correlation to predict the vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

uP

discharge coefﬁcient by trapezoidal side weir with the men- u ðFðxÞ fðxÞÞ2

tioned non-dimensional parameters. Eq. (19) presents the best NRMSE ¼ t P 2

ð20Þ

ðfðxÞ fÞ

correlation based on non-dimensional analysis.

Figure 7 CM versus different F1 with a = 30, a = 45 and a = 60 and different knob length.

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j.aej.2015.05.017

Trapezoidal side weirs 9

Figure 8 The effect of F1/sin (a) on discharge coefﬁcient of trapezoidal side weir with different L/B.

where F(x) is predicted (or calculated) value and f(x) NRMSE decreases as the accuracy of the correlation increases.

measured value and f is the average of the measured values. Thus this value shows high accuracy for the results of this

Accordingly, the value of NRMSE for this study is 0.31. The study.

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j.aej.2015.05.017

10 F. Nezami et al.

Figure 10 CM versus different w/L0 with a = 30, a = 45 and a = 60 and different L/B.

Measure discharge coefﬁcient.

Figure 12 Comparison of CM values for trapezoidal labyrinth

side weir with the values obtained from the former equations.

higher than conventional side weirs. Furthermore, this type

of side weir achieved slightly better results compared with tri- Based on the results from laboratory experiments, by changing

angular side weirs. However, the smaller knob length for this a normal side weir to a trapezoidal side weir the efﬁciency of

type of side weirs makes it more practical rather than others. the weir improves considerably. The effect of the dimensionless

Fig. 12 illustrates the comparison and preference of trape- parameters F1, w/y1, L/B, L0 /L, w/L0 and sin (a) on discharge

zoidal side weir versus other types such as conventional and coefﬁcient has been investigated precisely. From a practical

triangular side weirs. point of view, trapezoidal side weirs have been tested

Please cite this article in press as: F. Nezami et al., Discharge coeﬃcient for trapezoidal side weir, Alexandria Eng. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.aej.2015.05.017

Trapezoidal side weirs 11

experimentally with one cycle. Therefore, an empirical correla- [10] M.E. Emiroglu, N. Kaya, H. Agaccioglu, Discharge capacity of

tion was developed for calculating CM with a different combi- labyrinth side weir located on a straight channel, J. Irrigat.

nation of effective non-dimensional variables. The main Drain. Eng. 136 (2010) 10.

ﬁndings can be summarized as follows: [11] H.T. Falvey, Hydraulic Design of Labyrinth Weirs, ASCE

Publication, 2003.

[12] H.M. Fritz, W.H. Hager, Hydraulics of embankment weirs, J.

Application of trapezoidal side weir with one cycle Hydraulic Eng. 124 (1998) 963–971.

decreases the knob length in contrast to triangular labyrinth [13] M. Ghodsian, Supercritical ﬂow over a rectangular side weir,

side weirs with one cycle with the same effective length (L0 ); Can. J. Civil Eng. 30 (2003) 96–100.

The efﬁciency of a trapezoidal side weir is greater than a [14] W.H. Hager, Lateral outﬂow over side weirs, J. Hydraulic Eng.

conventional side weir. 113 (1987) 491–504.

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The author wishes to thank Dr. Ali Hosseinzadeh Dalir and Awasthy (Eds.), Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (ASCE),

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side weirs, Sharif University of Technology, MSc, 2006.

gratitude goes to Tabriz University for supporting this study.

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j.aej.2015.05.017

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