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• A building is a structure with a

roof and walls, such as a


house, factory, school, hospital
etc.
• A construction is an action of
erect something, typically a
large structure in civil
engineering project.
• A technology is the application
of scientific knowledge for
practical purposes, especially in
construction industry.
• Hence, “the application of
scientific knowledge for
construction of a building in civil
engineering project”.
CO1. Able to apply knowledge in construction technology
in the construction of building and infrastructure.
CO1 – PO1 (Engineering knowledge)
CO2. Able to suggest appropriate construction materials
and techniques to suit various construction
requirements.
CO2 – PO1 (Engineering knowledge)
CO3. Able to evaluate construction problems and
provide technically viable solution.
CO3 – PO2 (Problem analysis)
Student should be able to:
1. Differentiate types of drawings in civil engineering
construction;
2. Explain the specifications in civil engineering
construction;
3. Describe main parts in setting out procedure;
4. Understand the procedure of site clearance
before the site is used for construction.
• Civil engineering project is a
professional engineering
discipline that deals with the
PROJECT OF ROAD AND
design, construction, and
maintenance of the physical DRAINAGE UPGRADING
and naturally built environment. AT JALAN SIRAM,
• Works include: roads, bridges, BUTTERWORTH NORTH
canals, dams, and buildings. DISTRICT OF SEBERANG
• Each civil engineering project PERAI, PENANG
has its own life-cycle and
divided into the various stages
within the life-cycle of the
project.
• Stages within the life-cycle of
Concept
the project:
1. The conception/
Design development stage;
2. Design stage;
3. Construct/commission;
Construction
4. Operate/maintain;
5. Removal/disposal.
Maintenance • This course is mainly dealing
with the stage-3: civil
engineering construction and
Disposal its stage delivery from the
stage-2 to the stage-3.

Stages within the life-cycle of the project


• Stages within the life-cycle of
Concept
the project:
Stage delivery is a procedure used by the
1. The conception/
key players of the project to
Design organizing
development and
stage;
financing the2.project
Design stage
3. Construct/commission
Construction
4. Operate/maintain
The form of delivery:
5. Removal/disposal
1. Contract• document
This course is mainly dealing
Maintenance
2. Constructionwithdrawing
the stage-3: civil
engineering construction and
3. Bill of quantity
Disposal its stage delivery from the
4. Specifications
stage-2 to the stage-3.

Stages within the life-cycle of the project


• Civil engineering construction
is about organizing and
coordinating the people,
equipment and materials so
that the construction work is
done efficiently, safely and in
an environmentally sensitive
and sustainable way. people equipment materials

• Civil engineering construction


projects may be classified as:
1. Building construction
projects;
2. Heavy construction
projects;
3. Industrial construction organizing and coordinating the people,
projects. equipment and materials
• Building construction projects
o Office buildings, large
apartment buildings,
shopping malls, etc.
o Designed by architects with
engineering support.
o Built by general
contractors;
o Privately or government
funded;
• Heavy construction projects • Industrial construction projects
o Infrastructure – roadways, o Steel mill, petroleum refineries,
bridges, dams, tunnels and chemical plants, automobile
canals; plants, etc.
o Designed by civil engineers; o Privately funded and very
o Built by heavy construction technical;
contractors with engineering o Quality and time are most
background or support; important.
o Typically publicly funded and
long duration.
• Principal players include: • Designer
– Engineers, architects, consultants;
– Assists the owner in developing the
scope, schedule and budget;
owner designer
– Prepare construction documents
that are used to build the projects;
– Responsible for the physical
integrity of the projects.

contractor
• Contractors
– Main contractors, sub-contractors,
• Owner construction manager and project
manager;
– a.k.a. client
– Interprets the contract documents
– Pays the bills and receives the and physically construct the
benefits; projects.
– Determine scope, schedule
and budget;
• Client retains designer to prepare • Drawings may contain
bid package for contractors. specifications in the form of
• Bid package (final design of the notes, charts, and other
project) fully describes project instructions.
such that contractor can construct • Specification is the written portion
the design and estimate the cost of the technical information from
to do so (i.e. prepare bid for the design engineer to
owner). contractors
• Final design of the project will • What must be described and the
consist of drawings and level of detail is dependent on the
specifications which fully describe current phase of the project.
the design.
• Civil engineers typically use 2-D
representations to describe
designs – drawings.
• For any construction project (in this • Following are the set of drawings in a
case buildings), construction Typical Set of Construction
documents, drawings, sketches and Documents:
plans are needed for proper 1. Architectural drawings
execution of the project. 2. Mechanical & Electrical drawings
• There can be plenty of different 3. Structural drawings
documents that make up the set.
4. Infrastructure drawings
• Different clients and buildings have
different requirements. Even the 5. Fire Fighting drawings
scope of the budget for the project 6. HVAC drawings
can change the drawing 7. Shop drawings
requirements of the project. 8. As-built drawings
• However, certain conventions have
become widely accepted.
• Different drawing is prepared for • A set of drawings are easily
different purposes. discussed in terms of different stages
• Such as, working drawing is of civil engineering project:
prepared for construction project, 1. Preliminary – a set of drawings
drawing for approval is prepared for are not suitable for construction;
submitting to government agencies 2. Tender – a set of drawings are
to approve, and approved drawing is consist almost 80% for
finally supplied to construction site. construction;
• Working drawing a.k.a construction 3. Construction – a set of drawings
drawings. used for construction;
• Construction drawing should have 4. As-built – a set of drawings of
detail measurement and clear post construction.
section of every part of building.
Preliminary drawings
• the initial plans for projects prepared • Notice that most of the design work
by the designer or architect’s and incorporated into the preliminary
engineer’s (A/E) firm during the drawings contain, as a minimum, the
early planning or promotional stage following information: site plans,
of the building development. architectural floor plans,
elevations, building sections,
• provide a means of preliminary finish schedule and
communication between the furniture layouts, interior and
designer and the user (customer). exterior mechanical and electrical
• These drawings are NOT intended data, and civil and structural
to be used for construction, but they details.
are used for exploring design • A typical set of drawings:
concepts, material selection, 1. Topographic base map
preliminary cost estimates, approval 2. Planning-level drawings
by the customer, and a basis for 3. Conceptual-level drawings
the preparation of finished
working drawings.
Topographic base map

• Created based on site


investigations and surveys;
• Used during feasibility and
conceptual stages of
project;
• Show contours (grade),
control points, natural and
artificial features, etc.
Planning-level drawings

• Used early in the project stage to describe the concept


• Limited engineering analysis
• May be sketch, or include key dimensions where cost information
necessary
• General plan and typical section views.

an artificial waterway constructed to allow the passage of boats or ships inland or to convey water for
irrigation.
Conceptual-level drawings

• Develop to compare cost, evaluate relative advantages/ disadvantages and


identify flaws so a preferred concept can be selected;
• Drawings are more detailed than planning-level, but not suitable for
construction;
• Plan and one (or more) cross sections views

an artificial waterway constructed to allow the passage of boats or ships inland or to convey water for
irrigation.
Tender drawings
• Tender drawings are referring to • A typical set of drawings:
tender documentation for
1. Architectural drawings
construction projects.
2. Mechanical & Electrical drawings
• The purpose of tender drawings is
to describe the project in sufficient 3. Structural drawings
detail so that the price submitted by 4. Plumbing drawings
the contractor can be expected to be
realistic.
• Drawings must show sufficient detail
so that there is no significant change
and subsequently no significant
change of the cost.
Construction drawings
• Working drawings or construction • A typical set of drawings:
drawings provide dimensioned,
1. Architectural drawings
graphical information that can be
used; by a contractor to construct 2. Mechanical & Electrical drawings
the works, or by suppliers to 3. Structural drawings
fabricate components of the works 4. Infrastructure drawings
or to assemble or install 5. Fire Fighting drawings
components.
6. HVAC drawings
• Along with specifications and bills of
7. Shop drawings
quantities or schedules of work, they
form a part of the 'production
information', that is prepared by
designers and passed to the
construction team to enable a
project to be constructed.
Construction drawings
• Used by contractors to construct design;
• Contain all necessary information (with specifications) to bid and build the
project;
• Used to support permit applications;
• Used to prepare accurate estimate of costs;
• More detailed and more drawings typically required.
• Typically a set of drawings is required to fully characterize the projects,
e.g.:
– Title sheet
– Abbreviation/ legends/ general notes
– Existing conditions
– Subsurface condition
– Group drawings (civil, structural, M&E, etc.)
– Miscellaneous details sheets
• All drawings must contain essential information, which may
include the following:
1. Name and address of the project;
2. Name and address of the architect or engineer;
3. Sheet title;
4. Sheet number;
5. Project number;
6. Date project is completed;
7. Space for initials of person making the drawing;
8. Space for initials of person checking the drawing;
9. Mark, date and description of all revisions;
10. North arrow – this may include true north and building
north;
11. Key plan.
Construction drawings/ Final design drawings

an artificial waterway constructed to allow the passage of boats or ships inland or to convey water for
irrigation.
Architecture drawing
• An architectural drawing or • Architectural drawings are used by
architect's drawing is a technical architects and others for a number
drawing of a building (or building of purposes:
project) that falls within the – to develop a design idea into a
definition of architecture. coherent proposal,
• It gives a complete view of – to communicate ideas and
building. It describes the location concepts,
of a building and where to place – to convince clients of the
every parts of building etc. merits of a design,
• It holds many other drawing – to enable a building contractor
sheets of different names, such to construct it, as a record of
as plan, elevation, section etc. the completed work, and
– to make a record of a building
that already exists.
Structural drawing
• A structural drawing, a.k.a. type of • They do not address architectural
engineering drawing, is a plan or details like surface finishes, partition
set of plans for how a building or walls, or mechanical systems.
other structure will be built. • The structural drawings
• Structural drawings are generally communicate the design of the
prepared by registered building's structure to the building
professional structural engineers, authority to review.
and informed by architectural • They are also become part of the
drawings. contract documents which guide
• They are primarily concerned with contractors in detailing, fabricating,
the load-carrying members of a and installing parts of the structure.
structure.
• They outline the size and types of
materials to be used, as well as the
general demands for connections.
Structural drawing
• Structural drawings would typically 5. Notes on specifications, finishes
include the following information: and all cross-references
1. North Point affecting the construction.
2. Setting out dimensions for the 6. Provide the detailer with the
concrete structure on site. layout and sectional information
3. Plans, sections and elevations required to specify the length,
showing layout, dimensions shape and number of each type
and levels of all concrete of reinforcing bar.
members within the structure.
4. Location of all holes, chases,
pockets, fixings and other
items affecting the concreting
work.
• Plumbing and sanitary drawing: • Shop drawings might be prepared
This type of drawings show the by contractors, subcontractors,
location of sanitary and water suppliers, manufacturers or
supply piping and fixture and fabricators. They generally relate
how to connect every fixture etc. to pre-fabricated components,
• Electrical drawing: This kind of showing how they should be
drawings describe the location manufactured or installed. They
and details of electrical wiring, take design intent drawings and
fixtures and sub-station etc. It specifications prepared by the
also shows the electrical load project design team and develop
calculation. them to show in detail how the
• Finishing drawing: It includes all component will actually be
drawing about finishes and out manufactured, fabricated,
looking of building such as tiles, assembled or installed.
marble granite etc. Sometimes
this type of drawing included with
architectural drawing
Working drawings are actually the end
result of the entire drafting and design
effort. These are the drawings used by
contractors to construct the structure.
• Some of the most important • They reflect all changes made in
Operations and Maintenance the specifications and working
(O&M) documentation products drawings during the construction
of a construction project are the process, and show the exact
AS BUILT drawings. dimensions, geometry, and
• Definition: location of all elements of the work
Revised set of drawing completed under the contract.
submitted by a contractor upon • Also called record drawings or just
completion of a project or a as-builts.
particular job.
What Should Be Included in As Built?

• In order to make your as built as • Including changes in sizing,


clear and useful as possible, you materials, dimensions, location,
must include a wide variety of installation, fabrication and so
details and documents. This on;
information includes, but is not • Noting unexpected obstructions
limited to: encountered, and the solutions
• Recording changes in scale, or decided upon;
ideally using the same scale as • Noting dates when changes
the original drawings; were made;
• Recording any changes made as
• Using clear labels and
a result of final inspection;
descriptions rather than vague
• Attaching all related shop
phrases such as “similar” or
drawings and appendices.
“equal to”.
• Specifications are the written • The purpose of specifications is to
portion of the construction contract convey specific written, technical
documents and include the scope of information from the design
work, administrative requirements, engineer to contractors, suppliers,
and technical design requirements and inspectors so that the
for a particular part of the project. required materials can be
• Specifications are an important part provided and construction can be
of the system for obtaining bids and performed and monitored.
administering construction contracts. • Drawings may contain
• To be efficiently applied, the specifications in the form of notes,
specifications must be prepared and charts, and other instructions.
utilized within the context of the total
system.
• Used in conjunction with • For building construction in
drawings to fully describe all of Malaysia, two main
the technical requirements specifications are used:
necessary to complete a 1. Standard Specification for
project Building Works-JKR 2005
• Should not overlap information 2. Construction Industry
with drawings Standard-CIDB-CIS 7-
• Includes things like material 2006
requirements, testing
requirements for quality
control, installation procedures
and tolerances, schedule
requirements, safety issues
and responsibilities etc.
• The standard is referred as JKR 20800-132-23.
• It covers 14 matters:
1. Preliminaries & general conditions
2. Piling works
3. Excavation and earthworks
4. Concrete works
5. Brickwork
6. Soil drainage
7. Roofing works
8. Carpentry, joinery and ironmongery works
9. Structural steel and metal works
10. Plastering, paving and tiling works
11. Water supply plumbing, sanitary and
rainwater goods installation
12. Glazing works
13. Painting works
14. External works
• CIDB is a government agency was 2. To advise and advise the
established under the Ministry of Government on the construction
Works Malaysia through the industry;
Construction Industry
3. Develop, encourage and
Development Board Act 1994 (Act
undertake research related to
520)
the construction industry;
• It is a body/ institution that function
4. Develop, encourage and
in relation to the construction
facilitate export of services in
industry in Malaysia.
relation to the construction
• Functions related to the industry;
construction industry:
5. Provide consulting and advisory
1. Develop and promote the services with regard to the
development, repair and construction industry;
expansion of the construction
6. Promote quality assurance in
industry;
the construction industry
7. Enhance standardization and 10. Accredited and registered
repair of construction construction contractors
techniques and building including canceling, suspending
materials; and re-enrolling any registered
8. To engage and maintain the contractor;
construction industry 11. Accredited and certified skilled
information system; construction workers and site
9. Advise, develop, review and supervisors.
coordinate training programs
organized by public and
private construction training
centers for skilled
construction workers and site
supervisors;
There are no fixed procedures according to which setting out has to be
done since each case can be different.
However, to be able to form an idea of the different measurement activities
and the methods and instruments which can be chosen in each case, the
main parts of a setting out procedure can be described as follows:
1. Planning for setting out
2. Initial setting out
3. Setting out first stage
4. Setting out second stage
5. Setting out levels
6. Transfer of points and lines
7. Measuring with a tape
8. The measuring of distances with EDM instruments
9. Application of International Standard for setting out
• Setting out is the process of
extracting information from the
construction drawings, and
pegs, profiles or other marks
are then set to control the
This can be in the form of
construction works and to
building corners, sewers,
ensure that each features in
the drawings are constructed in earthworks, road works, steel
the right position and to the structures or line works
correct level.
• Setting out is the process of Setting out is defined as the
extracting information from the establishment of marks & lines
construction drawings, and to define the position & level of
pegs, profiles or other marks elements of the construction
are then set to control the work so that works may
construction works and to proceed with reference to
ensure that each features in them.
the drawings are constructed in • This process is contrasted with
the right position and to the the purpose of “surveying”
correct level. which is to determine the
• According to ISO_7078: 1985 positions of existing features on
Building Construction – site by measurement.
Procedures for Setting out,
Measurement & Surveying –
Vocabulary & Guidance Notes:
• Often used definition: setting • Good knowledge is vital, as the
out is the reverse of setting out phase is one of the
“surveying”, i.e. surveying is a most important stages in any
process of producing a plan or civil engineering construction
a map of a particular area, project.
while, setting out begins with • Mistakes in setting out can be
the plan and ends with the costly and should be borne by
various elements of an the contractor.
engineering project correctly
positioned in the area. (Uren, J.
et al., 2006)
• Good work practices &
techniques in setting out is
essential to minimize errors &
to ensure the construction
process proceeds smoothly.
• Even though the “surveying” • Two main aims when
and “setting out” are opposite undertaking setting out
processes to each other, but operation:
the techniques and instruments 1. Various elements of the
used for both processes are scheme in the construction
identical. drawings must be correct
• Among all parties who are in all three dimensions,
involved in construction works, both relatively and
the “setting out” is the absolutely, that is each
responsibility of the contractor. must be in its correct size,
• Three main principles of setting plan position and correct
out operations: reduced level.
1. Horizontal control 2. Once setting out begins, it
technique must proceed quickly with
2. Vertical control technique little or no delay in order
that the works can proceed
3. Positioning technique
smoothly & the cost can be
minimized.
• Overall, there are three stages
of setting out need to be
carried out in construction
works:
1. Initial setting out – limits of
work and site
2. Stage 1: Setting out of
foundation and sewer
pipeline;
3. Stage 2: Setting out the
design points.
• Example of specification with
regards to “setting out” in
Construction Drawing
• Overall, there are three stages
of setting out need to be
carried out in construction
works:
1. Initial setting out – limits of
work and site
2. Stage 1: Setting out of
foundation and sewer
pipeline;
3. Stage 2: Setting out the
design points.
• Example of specification with
regards to “setting out” in
Construction Drawing
• Example of Setting Out
Drawing in Construction
Drawing
• Overall, there are three stages • To set out the limits of works
of setting out need to be and site, at least two
carried out in construction coordinate points are needed –
works: i.e. setting out coordinate
1. Initial setting out – limits of points.
work and site
2. Stage 1: Setting out of
foundation and sewer
pipeline;
3. Stage 2: Setting out the
design points.
• Example of specification with
regards to “setting out” in
Construction Drawing
• Example of Setting Out
Drawing in Construction
Drawing
• Overall, there are two stages of
setting out need to be carried
out in construction works:
1. Stage 1: Setting out limits
of work and site;
2. Stage 2: Setting out the
design points.
• Example of General Notes with
regards to “Setting Out” in
Construction Drawing
• Example of Setting Out
Drawing in Construction
Drawing
• To set out the limits of works
and site, at least to coordinate
points are needed – i.e. setting
out coordinate points.
• Overall, there are three stages • To set out the limits of works
of setting out need to be and site, at least to coordinate
carried out in construction points are needed – i.e. setting
works: out coordinate points.
1. Initial setting out – limits of • BS 5964-1:1990 is concerned
work and site with the complete range of
2. Stage 1: Setting out of setting-out on building sites.
foundation and sewer • In summary, BS has
pipeline; highlighted three-stage order of
3. Stage 2: Setting out the reference systems commonly
design points. adopted for large and complex
• Example of specification with building projects.
regards to “setting out” in 1. Primary system
Construction Drawing 2. Secondary system
• Example of Setting Out 3. Position points
Drawing in Construction • Position points give the
Drawing location of the details of the
building.
Reconnaissance 3. The positions of the
proposed building and
• A reconnaissance of the site ancillary works ;
and planning of the setting out 4. The sequence of
are essential. excavation and
• Based on the construction construction woks.
drawing, a suitable reference • The chosen reference system
system should be selected and should be such that redundant
established. observations are possible and
• A suitable reference system that the measuring points can
selected will depend on: be referred to during
construction.
1. The shape and size of the
site; • The position of the main
ground station should be
2. The positions of any chosen and protected such that
existing buildings or they are at a min. risk to
obstructions. damage or movement and
unobstructed lines of sight can
be maintained.
Grid • Structural grid are used by
designers to define the position
• Location grids are used to of structural elements, usually
assist the planning authorities their center-line.
and designers in plotting the
location of boundaries,
buildings, roads, underground
utilities or other features.
• If the building to be set out, it is
important to mark on the plan
of the building site the
approximate position of the
structural grid or site grid.
• Site grids can be considered
as the transfer of the location
grid from the plan or drawing to
the site by setting out.
Initial setting out 3. Offset method
• The marking of site clearance 4. Method of free station
and excavation areas. points
• Methods of setting out: • Establish permanent point
1. Polar setting out method • Position of permanent point
2. Intersection method • Establish benchmark
Stage 1 setting out Stage 2 setting out

• In practice, 1st stage setting out • 2nd stage setting out continues
involves the use of many from the 1st stage setting out.
horizontal and vertical control • E.g.: Beginning at the ground
techniques. floor slab, or road sub-base
• The purpose of this stage is to level, etc.
locate the boundaries of the • Up to this point, all the control
works in their correct position points will be outside the main
on the ground surface and to construction.
define major elements. • E.g.: The pegs defining building
• In order to do this, horizontal corners, center lines and so on
and vertical control points must will be knocked out during
be established on or near the excavation works and only the
site. original control points will be
undisturbed.
Horizontal control technique 1. The control points should
be located through out the
• Establish horizontal control site in order all the design
points in the E and N points can be fixed from at
coordinates points on the site least two of them so that
so that the design points for the work can be
each of the elements of the independently checked;
scheme in the construction 2. The design points must be
drawings can be correctly fixed set out to the accuracy
in position; stated in the specifications.
• Two factors to consider in
establishing horizontal control
points:
Horizontal control technique

• The construction and protection


of control points is very
important.
• Wooden pegs are usually used
for non-permanent marking
(control points).
• Concrete mark is used for
permanent marking (control
point).
• Horizontal control points can
be:
1. Baselines
2. Reference grid
3. Offset pegs
Baselines 1. Two specified points
joined;
• A baseline is a line running 2. Run between two
between two points of a known buildings;
position. 3. Mark the boundary with an
• Any baseline required to set existing building/
out a project should be development;
specified on the setting out 4. Mark the center line for a
plan/drawing by the designer new road;
and included in the contract.
• Baseline can take many forms:
Reference grids

• A control grid enables points to


be set over a large area.
• Several different grids can be
used in setting out: (1) survey
grid; (2) site grid.
Offset pegs

• Whether used in the form of a


baseline or a grid, the
horizontal control points are
used to establish design points
on the proposed structure.
• Once excavations for the
foundations begin, the corner
pegs will be lost. To avoid this
extra pegs, offset pegs are
used.
Vertical control technique Positioning technique

• In order the design points can • For setting out by coordinates,


be positioned at their correct a control network consisting of
levels, vertical control points of coordinated points (with
known elevation relative to heights) must be established
some specified vertical datum on site.
are established. • These can be obtained by
• Some vertical control using theodolite, taped, GPS
techniques: and total station.
1. TBM
2. Sight rails
3. Travellers and boning rods
4. Slope rails or batter boards
• Before the excavation for the proposed foundation is commenced, the site
shall be cleared of vegetation, brushwood, stumps of trees, debris, etc.
• Next is to set out a baseline for the work.
• For setting out the foundations of small buildings, the centre line of the
longest outer wall of the building is first marked on the ground by
stretching a string between wooden or mild steel pegs driven at the ends.
• For accurate work, nails can be fixed at the centre of the pegs.
• Two pegs, one on either side of the central peg, are driven at each end of
the line. Each peg is equidistant from the central peg, and the distance
between the outer pegs corresponds to the width of foundation trench to
be excavated.
• Each peg may project about 25 to 50 mm above ground level and may be
driven at a distance of about 2 m from the edge of excavation so that they
are not disturbed.
• When string is stretched joining the corresponding pegs (say 2-2) at the
two extremities of the line, the boundary of the trench to be excavated can
be marked on the ground with dry lime powder.
• The centre lines of other walls, which are perpendicular to the long wall,
are then marked by setting out right angles.
• A right angle can be set out by forming a triangle with 3, 4 and 5 units
long.
• These dimensions should be measured with the help of a steel tape.
Alternatively, a theodolite or prismatic compass may be used for setting
out right angles.
• Similarly, outer lines of the foundation trench of each cross-wall can be set
out, as shown in the following figure.
The six corners of a proposed L shaped excavation shown in Figure 1 (a)
below have been set out on site.

Figure 1 (a)

Offset pegs have been established to help define the sides of the excavation.
The proposed formation level of the surface of the excavation at point R is
95.72 m. The surface is to fall at 1 in 150 from R to W and is to rise at a slope
of 1 in 100 at right angle to the line RW.

Figure 1 (b)

The cross-sections for lines P1RWP2 and P4UTP3 are as depicted in Figure
1 (b) and (c), respectively.
To help with excavation site, rails are to be erected above the offset pegs for
use with a 2 m traveler. Given the reduced levels of the offset pegs, calculate
the heights of the sight rails to be used at P1, P2, P3 and P4.

Figure 1 (c)
Solution for line P1RWP2
Formation level at P1 = 95.72 + (3/150) = 95.74m
Formation level at P2 = 95.72 – (48/150) = 95.40m

For offset peg P1


Required top of sight rail level = 95.74 + 2.00 = 97.74 m
Actual of peg level = 96.95 m
Therefore, distance above P1 = 0.79 m

For offset peg P2


Required top of sight rail level = 95.40 + 2.00 = 97.40 m
Actual of peg level = 96.45 m
Therefore, distance above P2 = 0.95 m
Solution for line P4UTP3
Formation level at Z = 95.72 - (15/150) = 95.62m
Formation level at P3 = 95.62 – (28/100) = 95.90m
Formation level at P4 = 95.62 - (3/100) = 95.59m

For offset peg P3


Required top of sight rail level = 95.90 + 2.00 = 97.90m
Actual of peg level = 97.12m
Therefore, distance above P3 = 0.78m

For offset peg P4


Required top of sight rail level = 95.59 + 2.00 = 97.59m
Actual of peg level = 96.75m
Therefore, distance above P4 = 0.84m