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Solid Solutions/Phase Diagrams C.

C. Nitriding: T < A1, Gas nitriding: only N, Carbonitriding: C and N both Modifiers: reduce melting temperature and viscosity for easy processing
Alloy: metal made with a pure metal + other elements diffuse to surface, Cyaniding – immerse in liquid cyanide (both C and N)
Components: elements that make an alloy Weldability of Steel: (a) Structure at Tmax (b) After cooling in a steel of low Glass Heat Treatment:
Phase: Same structure, atomic arrangement, same composition, hardenability (c) After cooling in a steel of high hardenability. Metal - Stress-relief Annealing: Heat up to annealing point and cool down
properties. A definite interface bw phase and surrounding phases. Zero Low C steels 1) Weld easily, 2) the strength of welded mater is greater slowly to reduce or eliminate the residual stress
DOF means you cant change the pressure or temp on a phase diagram than matrix (good). 3) Ductile, 4) Hard precipitates 5)Low hardenability Annealed Glass (no or little stress)
and vice versa. Medium-high C steels Form martensite easily after cooling of HAZ – brittle Tempered Glass (Compressive stress
Solid Solution: One or more solutes in solvent(solid). Not a compound, failure Glass Ceramics: Crystalline materials derived from amorphous glasses.,
crystal structure unchanged, single homogeneous phase. In Unlimited Stainless steels contain a minimum of 11% C, which permits a thing, Good mechanical strength/toughness, corrosion resistance at high
solubility, only one phase is produced, NOT A MIXTURE. Size is an imp protective surface layer of chromium oxide. Cr stabilizes ferrite phase; Ni temperature
factor! Hume Rothery Rule: size <15% diff in diameter, crystal structure stabilizes austenite phase. Types: Clay Products: Clays are hydrous sheet aluminum silicates with a
should be same, valence same, electronegativity same. In Limited Ferritic stainless steels :< 30% Cr, < 0.12% C, BCC, Good strength, crystalline structure, Use water as a binder for ceramic particles (silica),
solubility excessive atoms form a compound, two solid phases exist. FCC austenite (<0.2%C)  BCC martensite moderate ductility, Ferromagnetic, not heat treatable Common applications: Pottery/bricks Forming techniques: clay -> liquid
Excess material forms cluster. FCC austenite (higher C)  Body-centered-tetragonal martensite (no Martensitic stainless steels: < 17% Cr, 0.1-1% C, High hardness, corrosion phase formed -> glassy bond.
Solid Soln. Hardening: Increase in strength, hardness, creep resistance closed-packed plane, very hard) resistant, Applications: knives, ball bearings, valves Refractories: High melting-point ceramics, Used in production refining,
(high temp alloy are SS). Decrease in electrical conductivity. Plate martensite is harder due to more dislocations and crystal Austenitic stainless steels: Excellent ductility, formability, corrosion handling of metals/glasses., Three types: Acidic, Basic, and Neutral
Binary Isomorphous System: Liq phase is homogeneous, alpha phase is structure. resistance, Non-magnetic (good for cardiovascular stent), Can be cold Ceramic Alloys: Metal alloys: strengthening, corrosion resistance,
solid soln. If pressure is constant, can change the temp and composition. Tempering of Martensite: Martensite is a non-equilibrium phase, not worked to achieve higher strength, 304 stainless steel (18Cr-8Ni) – Ceramic alloys: sintering to full density, fracture toughness.
Lever Rule: % x = (%A in alloy)-(%A in Liquid) / (%A in alpha) –(%A in shown on the phase diagram. Tempering releases the carbon atoms to medical grade High-Performance Ceramics:
Liquid)….. Use Tie line to do this. form α + cm. Becomes less hard but more ductility (toughness). Precipitation hardened (PH) stainless steel, e.g.,17Cr-4Ni (17-4 PH), Diamond: the hardest material. Industrial applications include coating,
Micro segregation: B/w dendrites, can be fixed by homogenization Contain Al, Nb Ta, Processing: A, quench to form M, temp to form Ni3Al abrasives (grinding/polishing)
Homogenization: Heat up below non-equil. solidus to promote diffusion Heat Treatment of Steels Duplex stainless steels: 50% Austenite + 50% Ferrite SiC: good oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Applications include
Macro segregation: b/w surface and center, fixed by hot working. 3 important microstructures = pearlite, bainite, tempered martensite. Cast Irons: Eutectic undercooled by 6C, graphite becomes Fe3C  white coating, abrasives(grinding wheels),
Heat Treatments of HYPOEUTECTOID Steels: iron, Bi – bismuth, Silicone reduces the amount of carbon contained in the
Dispersion Strengthening & Eutectic Phase Diagrams: -Process annealing (80-170oC below A1): remove residual stresses eutectic. Carbone equivalent (CE) = %C + 1/3%Si, 4.3%CE forms eutectic. Intermetallic Compound: contains two or more metallic elements,
-Austenitizing: Heat to above A3 to produce full austenite Annealing  soft ferritic matrix (not coarse pearlite as in steels!) producing a new phase with its own composition, crystal structure, and
-Annealing (Austenitizing at 30oC above A3, slow cool): coarse pearlite Austempere  bainite + graphite properties. Intermetallic compounds are almost always very hard and
-Normalizing (Austenitizing at 55oC above A3, rapid cool in air): fine Normalizing  pearlite + graphite brittle.
pearlite Gray Cast Iron: Small interconnected graphite flakes (eutectic cells), Low Stoichiometric intermetallic compounds have a fixed composition. On
Heat Treatments For HYPEREUTECTOID Steels: strength, low ductility, Good thermal fatigue resistance, vibration the phase diagram they have a vertical line.
-Austenitizing: Heat to above A1 to γ and Fe3C damping, thermal conductivity Nonstoichiometric intermetallic compounds have a range of
-Annealing (at 30oC above A1, slow cool): coarse pearlite White Cast Iron: Contains lots of Fe3C (instead of graphite), Hard, Brittle, compositions and are sometimes called intermediate solid solutions.
-Normalizing (55oC above Acm, rapid cool): fine pearlite Highly alloyed white irons have good resistance to abrasive wear, due to Solid Reactions: Solid to Solid
-Spheroidizing (30oC below A1, long time annealing): spherical Fe3C, alloy carbides and martensite. First solid to form, draw a tie line from liquid to solid region.
ductile (improved machinability) Malleable Cast Iron: Malleable iron is formed by the heat treatment of Final Microstructure cooled from liquid contains pieces of gamma and
Isothermal Heat Treatments white cast iron……Clumps of graphite, Better ductility than gray and lamellar structure around it.
-Isothermal annealing: above nose temp, produces pearlite while cast irons, very machinable, Ferritic malleable iron –Slow cooled
-Austempering: below nose temp, produces bainite Pearlitic malleable iron – Fast cooled in air or oil Artificial Age Hardening for Cu 10% Be alloy. 1)Solution treat bw 605-
Hypoeutectic: alloy with a composition bw the left end of the tie line Quenching and Tempering: Retained Austenite Ductile (Nodular) Cast Iron: CE ~ 4.3% with Mg., Contains spheroidal 850C. 2) Quench. 3)Age below 605(around 400).
defining the eutectic reaction and composition. Area left of 0.8. -Quenching: hardening graphite particles, Better strength and ductility compared to gray iron and
Hypereutectic: alloy composition bw the right-hand end and defining -Tempering: regain toughness, ductility malleable irons., Malleable iron has better fracture toughness than Cold Work= A_initial – A_final / A_initial
the eutectic composition & reaction. Area right of 0.8. -Retained austenite Nodular iron.
Strength of Eutectic Allows: Finer colony is better, interlamellar spacing -How: Austenite does not fully transform to martensite. Compacted Graphite Iron: Contains rounded but interconnected Cr is important in steels because H is a ferrite stabilizes and impacts
leads to faster solidification = finer = stronger, depends on amount of -Problem: After tempering of martensite, during cooling, retained graphite, Advantages of both Gray and Ductile irons: Strengths, ductility, stainless character to the steel
eutectic. austenite transforms to brittle martensite thermal conductivity, damping Mn is imp because H alters the phase diagram, reduces eutectoid temp
Primary Phase Refinement: Done by adding 0.05% Phosphorus to -Solution: need a second tempering and composition. It lowers the Cr requirement since it acts like a
encourage nucleation. Residual Stress: Induces Cracking. Surface cools faster, forms Ceramics: Ceramics may be crystalline, partially crystalline, or amorphous austenite stabilizer.
martensite. When austenite becomes martensite, expands and induces Ionic: typically metals and non-metals (e.g., NaCl, MgO, Al2O3)
Phase Transformations & Heat Treatment: tensile stress on surface, which leads to cracking. Covalent: metalloids and non-metals or pure elements, (SiO2, SiC,
Remove Surface Crack: Marquenching or Martempering, hold until the Diamond
temperature equalizes in the steel. Properties: Generally brittle but may behavior plastic under low strain
Purpose of alloying: solid solution strengthening, form alloy carbide rate and high temperature , Generally stiffer than metals, Density is often
Arrhenius relationship => Growth rate= A*exp(-Q/RT) precipitates (rather than brittle Fe3C); improve corrosion resistance; low (due to porosity), Most ceramics are intrinsically hard: Covalent bond
Lower T, Low T, higher nucleation, low diffusion  fine grains improve hardenability (changes H.T. curve); reduce carbon content, produces resistance to dislocation, Ionic bond structures produce
High T, higher diffusion, low nucleation  large grains phase stability electrostatic repulsion of opposite charged ions
Incoherent: Matrix is intact Hardenability: The ease to form martensite (in thick section of steels): a) Flaws: Porosity increases, strength decreases
Coherent: Matrix is distorted – more useful Plain carbon steel – low hardenability (difficult to form marten., need Apparent porosity =
Guinier-Preston (GP) zones: Tiny clusters of atoms that precipitate from very high cooling rate), b) Alloy steel – better hardenability
the matrix in the early stage of age hardening Ausforming – increase the strength without an adverse effect on
Good Age-Hardenability: Substantial solid solution region, Decreasing toughness.
solid solubility with decreasing temperature, Jominy test: Jominy test – compare hardenability of steels
Soft matrix and hard precipitates, Quenchable, Coherent precipitates Jominy distance – distance from the quenched end
Al alloys: Hardenable : copper, Mg+Si , Zn
Grossman Chart: Used to determine the hardness at the center of a
Fe-C System = Eutectoid Reaction round bar, Used to determine the need for different quenching methods
α-Fe: Ferrite, γ-Fe: Austenite, Iron Carbide: Cementite Surface Treatments:
0.8 is eutectoid point A. Case Hardening: Make surface strong – fatigue, wear resistance, Inorganic glass: Soda-lime glass, potash-lime glass, lead-glass (all contain
Controlling of eutectoid reaction: High strength is associated with: The Heating surface (T > A3), then cool down – Martensite on surface, soft Silica), Non-crystallization (amorphous), Metastable, hard/Brittle,
amount of carbon, Size of pearlite colonies, Size of the lamellar ferrite core, Heating technique: gas flame, induction coil, laser beam. Undercooled liquid – Density slope changes at Tg No transition at Tm
structure, Transformation temperature B. Carburizing: T > A3, C diffuse into surface – hardened surface, Much
thinner surface layer than heating induced surface layer Glass Former/Modifier: Formers: base material, amorphous
Intermediates: prevent thermal shock

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