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Chapter 2 – The construction of Ancient Indian History

Material Remains:

The ancient Indians left innumerable material remains. The stone temples in south, the brick
monasteries in eastern India show the great building history in the past. But sill the major part is buried
in the mounds scattered all over the country. Only few exposed has given some knowledge of Ancient

The Vertical dugs provides the good chronological sequence of the material culture. Horizontal digging
are very expensive and few in number, the result of excavations do not give us full and complete picture
of material life in many phases of ancient Indian history.


The science which enables us to dig in the systematic manner, in successive layers, and to form an idea
of the material life of the people is called archaeology.

EXAMPLES: and Cases: -

1) Reserves and mounds are found in better state of preservation in the dry climate of western UP,
Rajasthan and North West India. Excavation bought out that cities were built in 2500 BC in NW
2) Gangetic and Deltaic region has moist and humid climate, the iron has suffered corrosion and
mud structure becomes difficult to detect.

Gangetic region-- Material culture.

They show the layout of settlement in which people lived, the type of pottery they used, the
form of house in which they dwelt, the type of cereal they used as food and the type of tools
and implements they handled.

Deccan Region (Deltaic)- Megaliths Structure

Some people in South India buried tools, weapons and pottery along with the dead body, which
were encircled by the big piece of stone.

3) It is only the phase of burnt bricks structure and stones structure that are impressive and large
scale found in moist and alluvial area.

The dates of excavated/explored material remains were fixed by radio- carbon dating

Pollen analysis---were done on plants residue to identify the history of climate and vegetation. Ex: It
showed agriculture was practiced in Rajasthan and Kashmir in 6000 BC.

Material Artifacts were analyzed scientifically.

Examination of animal bones to identify if they were domesticated.


The study of coins is called numismatics. Coins and inscriptions have been found by digging and
unearthing the earth surface.

Ancient coins were made of metal—copper, Silver, gold or lead. Coins moulds made of burnt clay have
been discovered and most of them belongs to KUSHAN periods—the first 3 christian centuries. The use
of such moulds disappeared in post Gupta period.

Ancient people used to keep these coins in earthen wares or brass vessels and placed them on hoards.
Many of these hoards not only shows collection of Indian coins, but also Roman coins in various part of
the countries.

Coins of major dynasties have been catalogued and published in Indian Museum at Calcutta, of the
Indian coins in the British Museum in London.

Other museums in India are---Calcutta, Patna, Lucknow, Delhi, Jaipur, Bombay and Madras. Many Indian
coins are also found in Nepal, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan, as Britisher moved them.

Coins helps us in finding:

1) Reconstructing the history---Coins having the names of kings, gods or dates, these were found
in the region of circulation. For eg: coins found from Indo-Greeks, who came to India from north
2) Coins threw lights on Economic and trades of crafts and commerce—some coins issued by the
guilds of merchants and goldsmith with the permission of rulers. We get large coins in post
Mauryan times. These were made of lead, potin, copper, bronze, silver and gold.
3) Art and religion inscribed on coins.


The study of inscription is called EPIGRAPHY. And the study of old writing used in inscriptions and old
records is called PALAEOGRAPHY.

Inscriptions are found on seals, pillar, rocks, copper plates, temple walls and bricks or images.

In early time inscriptions were recorded on stones, but later in centuries of Christian era, copper plated
began to be used. But Stone inscriptions continued in Southern India on large scale.

written in the Prakrit language. Sanskrit came in 2nd AD and widespread in 4th and 5th AD.

Inscriptions bearing on the history of maurya, a post maurya and Gupta times are shown in series of
collection in Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum.

Harappan inscriptions, which awaits decipherment, seems to have been written in pictorial script to
express ideas and object. It has earlies inscription in 2500 BC.

Asokan Inscriptions were engraved in Brahmi script from left to right. Also few are Kharosthi script
written from right to left. Brahmi script prevailed till Gupta times. Oldest deciphered inscriptions is in
the 3rd century BC. The inscriptions of this period convey the royal orders and decision regarding social,
religious and administrative matters to officials and people.

An Asokan pillar inscription wqs found by Firoz shah Tughlaq in Meerut was not been able to
deciphered by Pandits in Delhi, was deciphered in 1837 by James Prinsep a civil servant of East India
company in Bengal.

For North western region Greek and Aramaic script was used.

There are inscription for the record of followers of Buddhism, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Saivism etc, who
put pillar as the remark of devotion. Some show the attribute and success of kings but do not show their
defeats or weakness.

DONATIVE records such as lands, cattle, gifts of money for religious purposes, not only made by kinfs
and princes, but also by artisians and merchants. They convey the land system and administration in
ancient times. They were engraved on copper plates and recorded in Prakrit, Sanskrit, Tamil and Telgu


Literary sources were written on birch and palm leaves but in central Asia, where prakrit language had
spread from India> MANUSCRIPTS were used when printing was not known. Sanskrit manuscripts are
found all over the country mostly in south India, Kashmir and Nepal.

Ancient sources:

Ramayana and Mahabharata, purana— They throw light on the social and cultural conditions of ancient
times but it is difficult to make them uses of context of time and place.

Rig Veda- 1500-1000 BC

Athar veda, Yajur veda, Brahmana and upnishads roughly to 1000-500 BC.

Rigveda contains prayers, while the later vedic texts mainly comprises not only prayers but also rituals,
magic and mythological stories. However Upnishadas contain philosophical speculations.

2 epic and the major pranas seem to have been finally complied by Circa AD 400.

Of the epics the Mahabharata is old age and possibly ----10th BC to the 4th AD. Originally it consisted of
Jayasamhita indicating the deals of victory.

The final compilation bought the verses to 100000 which came to be known as the Mahabharata or the
satasaharsi Samhita. It contains narrative, descriptive and didactic material. The main narrative which
relates to kaurava and pandava conflict may belong to later vedic times, the descriptive portion might
be used in post vedic times and the didactic portion generally for post mauryan and Gupta times.

Ramayana later consisted of 24000 verses

Grihyasutras belong to 600 300 BC.

Jatakas (previous 550 Birth Story in forms of aninmals)- The religious books of the Jainas and the
Buddhists refer to historical persons and incidents. These were written in Pah language, which was
spoken in Magadha or South Bihar.

This book tells not only tells about state of affairs in the age of Buddha, life of Buddha, historical king
riled over Magadha

Jain texts were written in prakrit language were finally complies in Valabhi in Gujarat. They however
contain many passage of political history of eastern UP and Bihar in the age of Mahavitra. The Jain
texts refer repeatedly to trade and traders.

Dharmasutra were compiled in 500-200 BC and principles were codified in 1st 6 centuries of the Christian

1) Laid down the duties of different varnas as wells as for kings and their officials.
2) Prescribes rules according to which property is to be held, sold or inherited.
3) Punishment for person guilty of thefts, assault, murder, adultery.

Law book- Arthashashtra of Kautilya. The text is divided in 15 books of which books 2 and 3 may be
regarded as of an earlier date. The text came in final form in Christian era. But the earliest portion shows
reflect the economy and society in the age of mauryas,- shows study of ancient indian polity and

Bhasa, Kalidasa, and banabhatta. Kalidas comprises of kavya and dramas, famous--
Abhijanasakuntalam. They show the social and cultural life of northern and central India in the age of

Tamil text—Sangam literature is avery major source of our information for the social, economic and
political life of the people living in Tamil Nadu in early christan era.

Foreign Accounts:

Indigenous literature can be supplemented by foreign acocunts like the visits done by Chinese, romans
and Chinese for touring or religious converts and they left behind few things.

Alexander invasion did not leave any thing and there is no mention in Indian sources. It is entirely from
Greek versions.

The greek version says that Sandrokottas a contemporary of Alexander the great who invaded India
in324 BC,. 322 BC is identified as accession date of prince Sandrokottas with Chandragupta Maurya.

INDIKA of megasthenes who came in the court of Chandragupta maurya, has been preserved only in
fragments quoted by subsequent writers. These fragments when read together, furnish valuable
information not only about the system of maurya.

The Periplus of the Erythean Sea and Ptolemy’s geography shows the ports and trade between India and
Roman Empire.

Chinese Visitors:-
1) Fa-Hsien---5th century AD came to India to visit bisshist shrines. They were Buddhist. They
describe the social, religious, and economic conditions of Indis in the age of Guptas.
2) Hsuan Tsang---2nd quarter of 7th century AD in age of Harsha Ruler.

Historical Sense:

Acient Indian are charged with lack of historical sense. It is obvious that they did not write history in the
manner it is done now not they did write history in Greek way..

We have a history in the Puranas, which provide the contents the way in encyclopedia, provide dynastic
history up to the beginning of the Gupta Rule.

Statements are made in future tense, even though the event has happened

The authors of Puranas were not unaware about the idea of change, which is the essence of history.
The Puranas speak of four ages---Krita, Tretaa, dvapara, kali. Each succeeding age is depicted as worse
then preceding and as one age slides into the other, the moral values and social institutions suffers

The idea of time, which is another vital element in history is found in inscriptions. They specify the years
during the reign of a king in which important events takes place. Events recoreded are

Vikrama Samvat---58 BC

Saka Samvat---78 AD

Gupta Era----319 AD

Inscription recorded the time and place and the purana and biographical work showed the cause and
effect of an event. All these were use to reconstruct the history, but they were not found in any
systematic form in Puranas.

Other Books:---

Harshacharitra- 7th century by banabhatta---rule off Harsha—court life of harsha, and social and
religious feature

Ramacharitra---Story of conflict between Karvarta peasants and the pala prince rampala, results in the
latters victory.

Vikramankadevacharitra----achievements of Vikramaditya (VI) (1076-1127)—chalukya king of Kalyan

Rajatarangini---“The stream of kings” written by Kalhana in 12th century biographies of kings of

kashmir…and it is considered as authentic.

Chapter 3---- Geographical settings of India

1) Geography of India:-
Indian Subcontinent is the tropical zone having Himalayas on the north and seas on the other 3 sides.

1) Himalayas and other Mountains:

Advantages of Himalayas:

 They protect the country against the cold arctic winds coming from Serbia and Central Asia
keeping the temperature warmer throughout the year and people do not require heavy
 Shields the country against the invasions from the North.

 Mountains on the north west, the Sulaiman mountain ranges are southward in direction and
could be crossed through Khyber and Gomal passes. The Sulaiman mountain ranges joins
southward in Baluchistan by the Kirthar ranges which could be crossed through Bolan pass.
Through these passes 2 – way traffic between India and Central Asia has been going from
Prehistoric times. Various people from Iran, Afghanistan and Soviet Central Asia came to India as
invaders and Immigrants.
 Hindukush the western extension of Himalayan system did not form an inseperable barrier
between the Indus and oxus system. The passes facilitated trade and cultural contacts between
Central Asia and west Asia on the other.
 Between Himalayan valleys there are Kashmir and Nepal, could be reached by various passes.
During winters people use to go to plains. There was economic and cultural interaction between
 The PAMIR plateau did not prevent it from becoming a transmitting centre it from becoming a
transmitting center of Buddhism for the adjacent central Asia.
 The Valley of Nepal smaller in size was accessible to people of gangetic plains people. Kasmir
becaome the center of cultivation of Sankrit. Both Kashmir and Sankrit have largest repositories
of the Manuscripts.
2) Rivers and Rainfall:
Ganga and Yamuna---Indus in the northwest.
Brahmaputra—Extreme East
 Rivers served as arteries of commerce and communication. The men and material were
moved by boat. These also helped in the movement of military and commercials. Even
the Stone pillars made by Asoka were moved by rivers.
 Rivers made the surrounding area fertile. They supplied waters to Canals.
 They also get flooded periodically and destroying towns and villages due to was aways.
 Important towns near rivers are Prayag, Varanasi, Patliputra and others.
 Rivers provided cultural and political boundaries. Eg: Kalinga in the Orissa Coastal belt
was covered by Mahanadi on north and the Godavari on South. Andhra Pradesh has
Godavari on North And Krishna on South. TN is situated with Krishna on North and
Kaveri on South
 Chola region- The Kaveri Delta extended in the south Pennar river a little before
christan Era. This area was different from the north of Tamil nadu, Which consisted of
uplands and came into prominence under the Pallavas in 4th-6th centuries AD.
 The East part of peninsula is bounded by coromandal coast. Although the coastline is
flanked by the eastern ghats or the steps , the ghats are not very high and have several
opening in the eastward flow of river to bay of Bengal
The communication between the eastern coast was not difficult (AP and TN). The port cities are
Arikamedu, Mahabalipuram and Kaveripattanam.

Maharastra between the Tapti on north and the bhima in South.

Karnataks is between Bhima river on north and Krishna, and Tungabadra on South.
Tungabhadhra provided a natural source of vegetation. Chalukya King. The coastal in the
extreme southwest was covered by modern state of Kerala. The coast was called as Malabar
Coast. The communication between kerala and Karnataka was difficult because of western ghat.
The coastal areas of this state is fairly idented allowing the existence of several harbours.
Therefore from ancient times Gujarat has been famous for its coastal and foreign trade.
South of Ganga Yamuna Doab bounded by the Chambal river on the west , the Son rivers on
theast and the vindhya mountains and thr Narmada river on the south proved lies in the state
of MP.

In between the Indus and the gangetic systems in the north and the Vindhya mountains on the
south lies a vast stretch of a land , which is divided into 2 units of Aravali. The area west of the
Aravali is covered by Thar Desert, a part of Rajasthan. The life settlement was difficult however
there are few oasis, which made the life easier and soil slightly fertile

Crops and Cultivation

Indus Gangetic planes supported cultivation and produces rich crops producing wheat and
Barley (Indus and western Gangetic plains)
Middle and lower Gangetic plains produced rice, which also became staple diet in the Gujarat
and South of the Vindhyas.

To study

CHAPTER – 4 The Stone Age:

The Old Stone Age:

1) Man has been living in India from 5000,000 BC. He used Unpolished, undressed, rough stones,
which have been found in South India and in Sohan River in Pakistan.
2) Palaeolithic Sites were also discovered in Kashmir.
3) These chips of stones for used for cutting, hunting and other purposes. Man lived on hunting
and did not have idea of cultivation and house building. This continued till 8000 BC.


Paleolithic tools----In Chotanagur ----100,000 BC

KurNool, AP----25000 BC
Bone implementation of animals done in Belan, UP---shows cattles, sheep, goats were
domesticated from 25000 BC.

The old stone age or the Palaeolithic culture of India developed in the Pleistocene period or the ice age,
which is the geological period. The Pleistocene period comes immediately before the geological period
called holocene or period in which we lived and which began about 10,000 years ago.

In Pleiostecene period the major earth portion was covered with Ice sheets, particularly in high altitude.
But the tropical region except from mountain was free from ice. On the other hand they underwent
period of great rain fall.

Phases in the Palaelothic Age:

The old stone page or the palaeolithic age is diveided in 3 phases as per the nature of stone tools used
by the people and also according to the change in the climate.

1) The Lower or Early Paleolithic age:---- It covers the greater part of the Ice age.
 It features in using hand axes and cleavers. The axes are similar to be found in Westerm
Asia, Europe and Africa. These tools were used for chopping.

 Early Stone age sites are in Sohan river Pakistan. Lower Palaeolithic tools have been
found in the Belan valley in Mirzapur, UP. TheBelan sites contain caves and rock
shelters served as season shelters for human beings.

 Hard Axes are found in deposit of time of the second Himalayan glaciation .

 In this Period temperature was less humid.

2) The Middle old stone age or Middle Palaeolithic industries----all based upon flakes.
 Flakes are found in different part of India and show regional variations.
 The principle tools are scrapers made of flakes.
 Large number of bores and blade like tools are also found.
 Middle age tools are found in Sohan river of Pakistan and artifacts are found on the river
of Narmada, and also few near south of Tungabhadra river.
 We notice a crude pebble industry in starta contemporary with the third Himalayan
3) The Upper Palaeolithic phase—
 Last phase of Ice age where Temperature was less humid and climate became relatively
 We noticed use of blades and burins found in AP, Karnataka, Maharastra, Bhopal and
Chotanagpur Plateau. Massive flakes, blades, burins and scrapers are also seen in
Gujarat Dunes.
 Caves and rockshelters have been discovered at Bhimbetka 40 Kms south of Bhopal.
Hand axes, cleavers, blades, scrapers and few burins are found there.

The New Stone Age--- Neolithic Age

1) It brought in changes in Fauna and flora and made it possible for human beings to move in to
new areas.
Mesolithic age (8000 BC to 4000 BC)
2) The characteristics of late stone age sites are Microliths. The late stone age sites are found in
Chotanagpur, Central India and also south of the river Krishna. They began in 7000 BC
3) Neolithic age---6000 BC old. Settlements found in South India. Eastern India it is 1000 BC old.
4) Tools --- Polished stones, stone axes.

Neolithic settlement

1) 1st Group:
 One area is found in the north valley of Kashmir at a place called Burzahom at a distance
of 20 Km from Srinagar. Placing of domestic dogs and Pit Dwelling with the master grave
was only seen in Burzahom. The people of Burzahom used coarse Pottery.
 The Neolithic people lived in there on a Plateau Pits and probably had a hunting and
 Not seems to have knowledge of agriculture and domestication of animals.
 Not only used polished tools, also used weapons made of bones.
 The other bone implement place is Chirand, 40 Km fro Patna on the northern side of
Ganga. The bone implement have been found in a late Neolithic set up area with 100
Cm rainfall. Settlement became possible because of open land available joining 4 rivers
together--- Ganga, son, Gandak and Ghaghra. The bones found in Chirand was not
possibly dated are said to be of Copper stone age.
2) 2 Group:
 Lived in South India south of Godavari River. Settled on the top of Granite hills or on
Plateaus near the river banks.
 They uses stone axes and also some kind of stone blades.
 Fire baked earthen figuring suggest that they kept large number of cattles, sheep
and goats.
 They used rubbing stone querns, which show they knew art of producing grains.
3) 3rd Group
 Found in the hills of Assam. Neolithic tools are also found in Garo hills in Meghalaya
on the north eastern frontier of India.
 Neolithic settlements are also found northern spurs of vindhyas in Mirzapur and
Allahbad districts of UP. Allahabad saw cultivation of Rice in 6000 BC.
 Important sites of Neolithic age--- Maski, brahmagiri, hallur, Kodekal, Sangankaluu,
T Narshipura, Takkalakota in KA, Paiyampalli in TN. Pikilhal and Utnur are important
Neolithic sites in AP. (2500 BC to 1000 BC). Earliest determined date is Putnur---for
2300 BC
 The Neolithic settlers in Piklihal were cattle herders. They domesticated sheep,
goats, cattle etc. They set up seasonal camps surrounded by cowpens made with
post and stakes. In these enclosures they accumulated cowdugs, later used fire
camping. Hash and habiationsite are discovered in Piklihal.
 The later stage of Neolithic settlers were agriculturist who lived in circular or
rectangular house made of mud and reed. They produced Ragi and Horsegrams.
The polished tools are microlith blades.
 Early age pots are found for storing milk and foo grains. And in Later age they used
footwheels to turn up pots.

Difference in culture of Neoliths and Palaeoliths:


 Remarkable progress of technology in western Asia. People learnt art of cultivation, weaving,
building houses, domestication of animals.
 Some important crops were cultivated—Wheat, Barley, Rice. Appeared people were on
threshold of civilization.

Paleoliths---As they had to depend on stone tools an d weapons. They could not move far from hilly
rover area, and were not able to produce much for their living.
Chapter 5- The Stone Copper phase

Chalcolithic settlements:

Towards the end of Neolithic period began the use of metals. The first metal used was copper and
several culture were based on the use of Stone and copper implements.. Such culture are called

Settlements were found in:

1) South Eastern Rajasthan.---- 2 sites Ahar and the Gilund has been excavated. They lie in dry
zones of Banas valley.
2) Western part of MP--- In Malwa, Kyatha and Eran have been exposed.
3) Western Maharashtra.---But the most has been excavated in Maharashtra—such as Jorwe,
Nevasa, Songaon, Chandoli, Inamgaon in Pune and Nasik. These are semi arid area, with brown
black soil which has ber and babul vegetation but fell in riverine tracts. Navdatoli situated near
4) Eastern india---- Chirand on the Ganga, Pandu Rajar Dhibi in Burdwan districts and Mahishdal in
Midnapore district in WB

5) Some Chalcolithic sites are found in Allahbad region because of proximity of Vindhyas.

Chalcolithic cultures:

The people belonging to this culture uses small tools and weapons made of stone in which the stone
blade occupied an important position.

In many places the stone blade industry flourished, although stone axes continued to be used. They
were not situated far from hills, but also were near to riverine tracts.

Copper elements are found in Ahar and Gilund, which lay more or less in the dry zone of Banas valley in
Rakastha. At Ahar stone axes or blades are completely absent. On the other all hand axes and tools were
made of raw copper. But in Gilund, we see stone blade industry.

Flat, rectangular copper axes are found in Jorwe and Chandoli in Mahrastra and copper chisels at

The people of stone copper phase used different type of pottery, one of which is called black and red
and seems to have been widely prevalent. They were thrown on wheel and occasionally painted with
white linear design. This was seen in Rajasthan, Mahrashtra, Bihar and West Bengal.

People living in MP and Maharashtra produced channel spouted pots, dishes on stand and bowls on

and cultivated food grains. They kept cows, sheep, pigs and buffalos and hunted deers. People knew
production of wheat and rice. They also cultivated Bajra. They produced pulses like Masur, black gram,
green gram and grass pea. Alsmost all these grains have been found at Navdatoli situated on the
Narmada in Mahrashtra. The people of Navdatoli also produced ber and linseed.
Cotton was produced in the black soil of Deccan and Ragi, Bajra and Several millets cultivated in the
lower Deccan.

EASTERN INDIA--- Bihar And WB ate fish and rice the popular diet.

The houses of Chalcolithic group were made of mud bricks, these were constructed with wattle and
daub and seems to have thatched houses. At Inamgaon (western Maharashtra), large mud house with
ovens, and circular pit houses, have been discovered. Settlement became widespread in this phase,
which is called JORWE CULTURE (5 houses 4 rectangular room and 1 circular room). Jorwe village was a
nucleated settlement with more than 35 houses of a different sizes, cicular or rectangular shape. The
Chalcolithic economy therefore was village economy. In the grave at Chandoli and Nevasa in Western
Maharashta, Some children were buried along with copper based neclaces around their necks and Pots
and other goods.

Microliths---Small sized stone tools used by copper smiths and workers of stone.

People knew the art of spinning and weaving because of spindle whorls have been discovered in malwa.
Cotton, flax, and silk thread have been found in Maharashtra.

Burial practice;---

In Maharashtra people buried their dead bodies under the floow of their houses in the north to south
positions. Pots and copper vessels were also deposited in graves.

TERRACOTTA—figures of women suggest that the Chalcolithic people venerated mother goddess. A
igure of mother goddess similar to that found in western Asia has been found in Inamgaon, WB. In
Malwa and Rajasthan show bull served as religious cult.

Limitation of Chalcolithic Cultures:

1) Burial of large number of children. Inspite large of a food producing economy the rate of infant
mortality was high. No evidence of epidemics , or nutrition facts are not known.
2) Rural Background—during this phase copper supply was limited and as a metal copper had
limitation. By itself a tool made of copper was pliant. People did not know the art of mixing tin
with copper and thus forging the much stronger and useful metal called bronze.
3) The people did not know the art of writing, nor they lived in cities.

The Copper Age in india:

More than forty hoards consisting of copper objects have been found in a wide area ranging from
Chotanagar plateau to the upper gangetic region. The copper hoards comprise celts, harpoons,
antennae swords and anthropomorphic figures. These artifacts served several purposes. They were not
only met for fishing hunting and fighting but also for artisanal and agricultural use. They presuppose
good technological skill and knowledge on the part of copper smith and cannot be the handiwork of
nomadic people on hunters.

At several places in upper gangetci basin these objects have been discovered in association with orche-
colored pots and some mud structures. This shows that the people who used the copper hoards led a
settled life and were one of the earliest primitive agricularist and artisians to settle a good portion of
the doab. Most of the orche-colored pottery sites are found in the upper portions of the doab, but
copper hoards are found not only in the area but also in the plateau areas of Bihar and the neighbouring

Chapter 6- The Harappan Civilization

The Indus valley or harappan civilization is older than the Chalcolithic cultures. It arose in the north
western part of India.

This is called harappan civilization because it was discovered in 1921 in city of Harappa in the province of
west Punjab in Pakistan.

Geography -> covered part of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and the fringes of western
UP. Jammu from the North to Narmada Estuary in the South and from Makran Coast of Baluchistan in
west to the Meerut in North East.

Although over 250 Harappan sites are known but 6 is regarded as cities. Two major cities are Harappa
in Punjab and Mohanjo-daro in Sindh both in Pakistan.

Other cities -> Chanhu-daro about 130 KM from Mohanje-daro in Sindh, Lothal In Gujarat at the head of
GULF OF CAMBAY, Kalibangan in Northern Rajasthan, and last one is Banwali is situated in Hissar district.

Town Planning and Structures:

 Haraapa and Mohenjo-daro had its own citadel, which was possibly occupied by ruling class.
 The Citadel in each city lay a lower town containing brick houses. These brick houses were
arranged in grid system.
 Roads were cut into 90 degrees and the city was divided into so many blocks.
 Mohenjo-daro had a great bath tank of 11.88x7.01 m and 2.43 meters deep. There were side
rooms for changing clothes. Water was drawn from a large well in an adjacent room, and an
outlet to send waste water to drain.
 There were series of brick platforms off six granaries laid few meters away from river’s bank.
Each measured 15.23 meteres x 6.09 meters was great granary at Mohenja-daro. There was
working floor at the south of granaries for labour to threash grains like wheat, and Barley
 There were Barracks to accommodate laborers.
 The drainage system of Mohanje-daro was very impressive. There were courtyard and
bathrooms in all houses. Water flowed out of houses from drainage system. In kalibangan, many
houses had well. Water flowed out of houses to drams were covered with bricks and some times
with Stone Slabs.
 The remains of streets and dams are found at banwali.

There was burn bricks used in Harappan cities is remparkable because contemporary building in Egypt
used baked bricks and Mesopotamia.


 One of the historian of Alexander tells that Sindh was a fertile part of the country. In early times
Indus possessed more Natural vegetation, which attracted more rainfall.
 It supplied Timber fuel for baking bricks on a large scale and for construction. Later natural
vegetation was destroyed by the extension of agriculture, large scale grazing and supply of fuel.
 The region was fertile because of the inundation in the Indus river. Walls were made of burnt
brick raised for protection show that floods took place annually. It was NILE OF INDIA, had more
Alluvial Soil than Egypt. People use to sow seeds when flooding starts and reaped after flood
water receded and reaped.
 It is not known plough was drawn by men or oxen stone
 Indus people produced wheat, barley, rat, peas etc. A good quantity of barley has been
discovered. They also produced sesamum and mustard. In Lothal rice was produced.
 Cereals were used for the purpose of taxes to pay wages to labors and stored in granaries.

Domestication of Animals:

 As Harappans were practicing agriculture, animals were kept on large scale. Oxen, buffaloes,
goats, sheep, and pigs were domesticated.
 The humped bulls are favored by the harappans.
 Sign of feet of dogs and cats are also found.
 Horses were also there, terracotta of them are seen in Lothal.
 Elephants were well known to the Harappans, who were acquainted with Rhinoceros.

Technology and Crafts:

1) Harappan was the Bronze age:

a) They were well acquainted with the manufacturing of Bronze. Bronze -> Cu + Sn
They were not so easily available. Conpper was obtained from the Khetri copper mines of
Rajasthan and from Baluchistan. Tin was available from Afghanistan and Hazirabagh from

 Bronzesmiths were the Artisians

 Axes, utensils, saws, knives and spears.
b) A piece of woven cotton has been recovered from Mohenjo-daro and textile impressions
found on several objects.
c) Huge Brick Structures suggest that brick laying was an important craft. There is also
existence of masons.
d) Harrapan also practiced boat making
e) Goldsmiths made jwellery of gold, silver and precious stones. The 1st 2 was available from
Afghanistan ,and last from South India.
f) There pottery activity going on.


 Barter system was used for exchange of goods, as there is no evidence of metallic money.
 They used grains in exchange of finished goods (metals) from the neighboring areas through
Boats and Bullock carts.
 They practiced navigation on the coast of Arabian sea. They knew the use of wheel, and carts
with solid wheels, harappan used modern Ekka (carts).
 Commercial links with Rajasthan, Afghanistan and Iran. Their cities carried on commerce with
those in the land of Tigris and Euphrates. Many Harappan seals were discovered from
 The Mesopotamia records from 2350 BC texts that they had tade relations with Meluha (Indus
Region). The Mesopotamia texts speak of 2 intermediate trading stations called Dilmun and
Makan, which lay between Mesopotamia and Meluha. Dilmun can be Bahrain on Persia of Gulf.

Political Organization:

Not much Evidence. May be great bath was used for Ablutions, but no temples.

Religious Practices.

In Harappa numerous terracotta figurines of women have been found. In one figurine a plant shown
growing from the Embryo of a woman. It can image of goddess of earth and it was connected with origin
and growth of plant. The harappan looked upon earth as fertility goddess and worshipped her in same
manner as Egyptians do for Nile goddess Isis. Egyptians is a Matichiacal society but no evidence if
Harappa was.

The Male Deity in the Indus valley:

The Male deity was represented on seals. This god has 3 heads and has horns. He is sitting like a Yogi
wounded by elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros and has buffalo below has thrones. At his feet appear 2
deers. -- Resembles to Pasupati Mahadeva. Animals may have served a svehickes to god in 4 direction
of earth.

Image of Shiva also came in prevalence of the Phallu worship, which became so intimately connected
with Siva in later times.

Tree and Animal Worship:

1) The people of Indus region also worshipped trees. The picture of a god is represented in the mid
set of the branches of pipal tree.
2) Animals were also worshipped, and many of them are represented on seals. Most of them were
Humped Bulls.
3) They worshipped Trees, Animal and Human Being. There were
4) Amulets were also found in large numbers.
5) The Athar veda which is considered to be Non Aryan work, contains many charms and spells and
recommends amulets for warding of diseases and evil forces.

The Harappan Script:

They invented the art of writing. They did not write large inscriptions, they were recorded on seals and
contains only a few words. 250 to 400 pictographs, and in the form of pictures each letter stands for
some sound isea for object.

Harappan Pottery and Terracotta:

The Indus valley peopled were great experts in the use of the potter’s wheel. Large number colored pots
are found and generally decorated with the design of trees and circles. The image of men are also found
on some pottery fragments.
Seals: Picture of One horned bulls, the buffalo, the tiger, the rhinoceros, the goat and the elephant.
2000 seals.

Terracotta Figurines

Figurines made of Fire baked earthen clay commonly called Terracotta. These either used as toys, or
object to worship. They represent birds, dogs, sheep, cattle, and monkeys. The seals and images were
manufactured by great skills, but the terracotta pieces represent unsophisticated artistic works. The
contrast can be seals was used by upper class and terracotta by common people. The Harappan were
poor in artistic work made of stones.

Origin, maturity and death:

 Harappan culture existence --- 2500 BC and 1750 BC. Maturity Phae lay between 2200 BC to
2000 BC.
 Throughout the existence it seems to have reatins same kind of tools, weapons and houses. The
whole style of life appears to be uniform.
 Same Town planning, seals and Terracotta figures.
 Changes in pottery activity.
 In 1750 Harrappan and Mohenja-daro disappeared.
 No clear indication on pre-settlements of harappan culture have been found in Baluchistan, and
kalinbangan in Rajasthan, but the connection with them was not clear.
 There is no relationship between Indus and Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia do have some trade
relation but have shown haphazard growth. There was inianness in harappan culture in town
planning—the chess board system, streets, drainage pipes and cess pits, rectangular houses
with brick lined bathrooms and well together with staircases wre found there but not in
Western Asia.
 Produced Seals, pottery, Invented their own script bears no resemblance to Egyptian and
 Although it was a Bronze age, but not used much.
 Reason disappearance can be due to decreasing in fertility n account of the increasing salinity of
soil caused by expansion of the neighboring deserts.
 Other attribute it to a sudden subsidence or uplift of the land which caused floods.
 Some says it destroyed by Aryans.
 In later phase there were some exotic tools and pottery inddcate the slow procolation of new
peoples in Indus Basin
 A few signs of Violence appears in the last phase of Mohenje-daro. Hoards of jwellery were
buried at places and skulls were huddled together at one place. New type of Axes, draggers,
knives with Mid ribs and flat tanga pear on upper level of Mohan Je-daro.New type pottery was
seen in Baluchistan graves. This can be attributed to Barbarian act done by horse riding from

Chapter 7--- Advent of the Aryans and Age of Rig Veda.

Origin Home and Identity:

 Aryans lived in the area east of Alps--- Known as EURASIA. Animal names like goat, dog, horse
and certain plant names like pine, maple are similar to Indo Europeon languages.
 Life of Aryans seems to be Pastoral, agriculture being a secondary occupation.
 Aryans did not live a settled life, hence could not leave behind any solid matters.
 Horse as an animal played important role in their lives. It enabled them and some allied peoples
to make a successful inroads to western Asia from 2000 BC.
 First appeared in IRAN, where indo Iranians lived for a long time.
 Evidence comes from RIG VEDA (The earliest specimen of Indo-Europeon language).
 Rig Veda is a collection of prayers offered to Agni, Indra, Mitra, Varuna, and other gods by
various families of poets and sages. Books 2 to 7 are its earliest portion and Books 1 and 10 are
latest additons.
 Rig Veda is common to Avesta (the oldest Iranian Text). Shows same name of gods and social
 Aryans Names mentioned in the Kassite inscriptions of 1600 BC and the Mitanni inscription of
1400 BC found in Iraq show that Aryan moved from West.
 1500 BC Aryans moved to India (No clear Archeological traces). They used tools like socketed
axes, bronze dirks and swords discovered in Northwestern India.
 Geography- Stayed in Afghanistan, Punjab, and Fringes of Western UP. Kurbha river in
Afghniastan and Indus- 5 branches river are mentioned in Rig Veda. The SINDHU, identical with
the Indus is river par excellence of the Aryans and is mentioned many times. Another River
mentioned is SARASWATI, which is now lost in sands of Rajasthan; the area represented by it is
covered by Ghaggar river.
 Obtained Copper from Khetri river in Rajasthan. The Aryans in India were settled in Land of
Seven Rivers.
 The Aryans came in several waves in 1500 BC. They came into conflict with the indigenous
inhabitants called DASAS, DASYUS etc.
 Dasas are also mentioned in Iranian literature, they seem to have been a branch of the early
 The Rig veda mentione the defeat of Sambara by Divodasa, who belonged to Bharata Clan. In
this case the term dasa appears in the name of divodasa. Possibly the dasyus in the Rigveda
represent the original inhabitants of the country and an Aryan chief who overpowered them is
called Trasadasyu. The Aryan chief was soft towards the dasas , but strongly hostile to dasyus.
The term dasyuhatya, means slaughter of dasyus is repeatedly mentioned in the Rig Veda. The
dasyus worshipped the phallus and did not keep cattle for dairy.

Tribal conflicts:

 No evidence of weapons, but we hear Aryan peoples defeated their enemies with cause of
INDRA. In Rig Veda Indra is called Purandar, which means that he was the breaker of Forts. But
no evidence of Forts during pre-aryan times, only Harappan culture was seens.
 They used horses for chariots, and soldiers were probably equipped also with coats of mail
(varman) and better arms.
 Two types of conflicts- Fought with Pre-Aryans, and secondly among themselves with support
of local and other people.
 Aryans were divided in 5 tribes (panchajana). The Bharatas and Tritsu were the ruling Aryan
clans and they were supported by priest Vasishtha.
 Bharata ruling clan was opposed by a host of 10 king (5 aryan and 5 non Aryan)---known as
battled of 10 kings. This was fought on the river Parushni identical to river Ravi and it gave
victory to Sudas and established the supremacy of the Bharats. The most important defeated
tribe was Purus. Bharatas joined hand with Purus to make new tribe called Kurus. The Kurus
combined with the Panchalas and they together established their rule in upper gangetic region.

Material life:

 The Rig vedic people possessed better knowledge of Agriculture. Ploughshare is mentioned
in the earliest part of Rig veda. It may be made of wood.
 They were acquainted with sowing, harvesting and thrashing and knoew about different
 They were Pastoral people. The term cow is mentioned in Rig Veda most of their wars were
fought for the sake of Cow. The term war is Rig Veda is GAVISTHI or search of cows.
 Cow was considered as wealth and gifts to priest were given in the form of cows and women
slaves and not in measurement of lands.
 Rig Veda mentions about the artisians like carpenter, the chariot maker, the wever, the
leather workers, the potters. The term ‘ayas’ used for copper or bronze shows that metal
making was known.
 No Evidence of Trade or sea/ocean. Although the term Samudra was used for collection of
 Eg: Bhagwanpura site excavated in Haryana and 3 sites of Punjab, a painted grey ware is
found along with late harappan pottery from the time 1600 BC t0 1000 BC. Along 13 room
houses in Bhagwanpura made of mud along with cattle bones.

Tribal Polity:

 The administrative machinery worked with a tribal chief called Rajan because of his successful
leadership in war. King post was hereditary. Although king di not exercise the unlimited power,
for had to reckon with the tribal organization. Also there are some traces of election by the
tribal assembly called the Samiti. The king was the protector of his tribe. He protected its cattle,
fought its war and offered prayers to god on its behalf.
 Tribal assemblies like Sabha, samitis, vedatah, gana was organized for exercising deliberative,
military and religious functions. The most important assemblies from the political pint of view
seem to have been Sabha and Samiti.
 In Day to day administration, the king was assisted by purohitas- Vasistha and Visvamitra. They
inspited the tribal chief s to action and lauded their exploits in return for handsome rewards in
cows and women slaves.
 Another functions was Senant, who used spears axes, swords etc.
 No Evidence of taxes. Or jurisdiction for justice.
 There were thiefs and burglaries happening of cowes. Spies were employed to keep eye on
unsocial activities.
 Some officers were seem to be attached with the territories. They enjoyed positions of authority
in the pasture grounds and settled in villages. The officer who enjoyed authority over the
pasture were called Vrajapati. He led the head of the families called kulapas or the head of the
fighting hordes called gramanis. In the bgininning the graminis was just the head of tribal
fighting units. But when the unit settled in the gramani becomes the head of the village identical
to Vrajapati.
 The king do not maintain any regular or standing army, but in times of wars, he mustered a
militia whose military function s were performed by different tribal groups nata, ganas, grama,

Tribe and Family:

 People gave primary loyalty to the tribe which is called Jana. Jana as a term is mentioned
275 times in Rig veda. The term janapada is not mentioned.
 Another important term mentioned is Vis (170 times). Vis was divided into grama or small
tribal units meant for fighting. When grama clashed with one another it caused sangrama or
war. The most numerous varna of vaisya arose out of vis.
 The family was a large joint unit. The term kula (family) is rarely mentioned in Rig Veda. In
vedic phase the family eas indicated by the term griha, which occurred many times in veda.
 Large patriarchal family headed by the father. Generation lived in same roof. Desire for
brave son is indicated in rig veda , as the fought in war and no desire is expressed for
daughters. Women could attend assemblies. They could offer sacrifices along with their
husbands. Hyms shows evidence for upto 5 to 20 cases.
 Institution of marriage was established. Evidence showed proposal made by Yami, the twin
sister of Yama, for establishing relationship (love), but the offer was resisted with Yama.
 Indication of polyandry. Eg: Maruts enjoyed with Rodasi and 2 Asvin brothers are
represented as living with Surya, the daughter of the sun god.
 No Evidence of Child marriage.

Social Divisions:

 Varnas was used for term for colour and it seems that the Aryans were fair and indigenous
inhabitants were dark in complexion. The color distinction may have partially given rise in
social orders, but its importance has been exaggerated by those western writers, who
belived in racial distinction.
 The most important factor contributed most to creation of social division was conquest of
Dasas and the dasyus who were conquered by Aryans were treated as slaves and Sudras.
The tribal chief and Priests acquired largest share of booty and naturally grew at the cost of
the common people, which created social inequality in the tribe.
 Gradually tribal society was divided – warriors, priests and the people on the same pattern
as an Iran. The 4th is Sudras.

Rig Vedic Gods:

 The Aryans found it difficult to explain the advent of rains, the appearance of the Sun and
the Moon, and the existence of rivers, mountians. The renamed these natural forces with
living being attributes.
 The most important divinity in the Rig Veda in Indra, who is called Purandara or breaker of
forts. Indra played warlord, leading the Aryan soldier to victory against demons. 250 hymns
are devoted to him. He is considered as rain god.
 The 2nd position is occupied to Agni (fire god) to whom 200 hymns are devoted. Plays
primitive role used in burning forests, cooking. The oblations offered to Agni were supposed
to be carried in the form of smoke to the sky and thus transmitted to god. Agni acted as a
messenger/intermediate to god.
 Varuna (water god) was supposed to uphold the natural order, and whatever happened in
the world was thought to be relection of his desires.
 Soma was considered to be god of plants and intoxicating drink named after him.
 Maruts personify the storm.
 Aditi and Ushas represented the appearance of dawn.
 The mode of workshipping the gos was through the recitation of prayers and offering
sacrifices. Both collective and individual prayers were made. They did not worship for
spiritual uplift or for ending miseries. They asked for child, cattle, fodd, wealth and health

Foundations of Psychology

1. Introduction:
Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century;
Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural
sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.

2. Methods of Psychology:
Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research: Survey,
observation, case-study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-
experimental design, Quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming,
grounded theory approach.

3. Research Methods:
Major steps in Psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research
designs, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing)
Fundamental versus applied research; Methods of data collect ion ( interview, observat ion, quest
ionnaire); Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental); Application of statistical technique (t -
test, two way ANOVA correlation, regression and factor analysis); Item response theory.

4. Development of Human Behaviour:

Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in
determining human behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development -
Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the
life span.

5. Sensation, Attention and Perception:

Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance;
Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of
perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences,
perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual
readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal

6. Learning:
Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models);
The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization; Programmed learning, probability
learning, self-instructional learning, concepts; Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape,
avoidance and punishment, modeling and social learning.

7. Memory:
Encoding and remembering; Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic
memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic
techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure:
Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.

8. Thinking and Problem Solving:

Piaget's theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing,
Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of
problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and
judgment; Recent trends.

9. Motivation and Emotion:

Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and
emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors
influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.

10. Intelligence and Aptitude:

Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence - Spearman, Thurstone,
Gullford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P; Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement
of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple
intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

11. Personality:
Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural,
interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement
of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for
personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different

12. Attitudes, Values and Interests:

Definition of attitudes, values and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of
attitudes; Measurement of attitudes, values and interests; Theories of attitude change; Strategies for
fostering values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour; Theories of
attribution; Recent trends.

13. Language and Communication:

Human language - Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-
predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development - Skinner and
Chomsky; Process and types of communication - effective communication training.
14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology:
Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence ;
Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousness - sleep - wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation,
meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception
Simulation studies.

Psychology: Issues and Applications
1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences:
The nature of individual differences; Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological
tests; Types of psychological tests; Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests; hical issues in
the use of psychological tests.

2. Psychological well being and Mental Disorders:

Concept of health-ill health; Positive health, well being; Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety
disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance
abuse disorders); Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life;
Happiness disposition.

3. Therapeutic Approaches:
Psychodynamic therapies ; Behaviour therapies; Client centered therapy; Cognitive therapies;
Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation); Bio-feedback therapy; Prevention and rehabilitation of the
mentally ill; Fostering mental health.

4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour:

Personnel selection and training; Use of psychological tests in the industry; Training and human
resource development; Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter
and Lawler, Vroom; Leadership and participatory management; Advertising and marketing; Stress
and its management; Ergonomics; consumer psychology; Managerial effectiveness;
Transformational leadership; Sensitivity training; Power and politics in organizations.

5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field:

Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process; Learning styles; Gifted,
retarded, learning disabled and their training; Training for improving memory and better academic
achievement; Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and
career counseling; Use of psychological tests in educational institutions; Effective strategies in
guidance programmes.

6. Community Psychology:
Definition and concept of community psychology; Use of small groups in social action; Arousing
community consciousness and action for handling social problems; Group decision making and
leadership for social change; Effective strategies for social change.

7. Rehabilitation Psychology:
Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes - role of psychologists ; Organising of
services for rehabilitation of physical ly, mental ly and social ly chal - lenged persons including old
persons, Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal
behaviour; Rehabilitation of victims of violence, Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims, the role of social

8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups:

The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation; Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences
of disadvantaged and deprived groups; Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards
development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.

9. Psychological problems of social integration:

The concept of social integration; The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and
prejudice; Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group; Causal factors
of social conflicts and prejudices; Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices;
Measures to achieve social integration.

10. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media:

The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of
psychologists; Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass
media; Distance learning through IT and mass media; Entrepreneurship through e-commerce;
Multilevel marketing; Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media; Psychological
consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.

11. Psychology and Economic development:

Achievement motivation and economic development; Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour;
Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development; Consumer rights
and consumer awareness, Government policies for promot ion of ent repreneurship among youth
including women entrepreneurs.

12. Application of psychology to environment and related fields:

Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding; Population psychology:
psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density; Motivating for
small family norm; Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.

13. Application of psychology in other fields:

a. Military Psychology Devising psychological tests for defence personnel for use in selection,
Training, counseling; training psychologists to work with defence personnel in promoting
positive health; Human engineering in defence.
b. Sports Psychology Psychological interventions in improving performance of athletes and
sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team Games.
c. Media influences on pro and antisocial behaviour.
d. Psychology of terrorism.

14. Psychology of Gender:

Issues of discrimination, Management of diversity; Glass ceiling effect, Self fulfilling prophesy,
Women and Indian society.