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# Biometrika Trust

## Further Applications in Statistics of the Tm(x) Bessel Function

Author(s): Karl Pearson, S. A. Stouffer and F. N. David
Reviewed work(s):
Source: Biometrika, Vol. 24, No. 3/4 (Nov., 1932), pp. 293-350
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2331971 .
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VOLUMEXXIV NOVEMBER, 1932 PARTS III AND IV

BIO METRIKA

## FURTHER APPLICATIONS IN STATISTICS OF THE

Tm(x) BESSEL FUNCTION.
BY KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER ANDF. N. DAVID*.

## (1) THE Tm(x) functionwas definedin a paperbyPearson,Jeffery and Eldertont

to be given by
Tqn(\$)=,\/1- 2 (i),
2mr (m + j)x r-(
Krn(K)
Fi)\$m
T. (x ........................

## whereKm(x) is the Bessel Functionof the second orderand imaginaryargument.

Here Tn (x) = Tm(- x), while x on the rightis always to be given its numerical
value. Remnembering this,we need not writeI mK. (I x j) in the equation.
If y-MT,, (x) .................................... (ii)
be treatedas a and runfrom-
curve,it willbe symmetrical
frequency oo to + co ofx.
The constantin (i) has been so chosenthat
r+r
j ydx =2M J YM(x) dx =MiV.
An integralformof Km(x) is given by+
m
Km(x)= 2 A + e-t(t2-I)n-idt .(iii).
2mI' (m +j)J
Hence we may write(ii) in the form

## (2) Considerin the next place the curve

y= Yoe a (1 + - ) ...........................
,,, (V)^

## the originbeing the mode at distancea fromthe startof the curve.

It followseasily that
M pP+le) (vi),
ahre(p .(visi)............... 1)
whereM is the total frequency.
* The suggestionof the problemand the selectionof the illustrativeexamples were providedby
S. A. Stouffer,the solutionthroughthe T.,,,(x)functionwas givenby K. Pearson,whois also responsible
forthe text. FlorenceN. David computedthetableof theprobabilityintegralof the Tm((x) distribution.
t Biometrika,Vol. xxi. p. 184.
1 G. N. Watson: A Treatiseon the Theoryof theBessel Itfnctions,p. 172, Equation (4).
BiometrikaXXIV 19
294 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof Tm.(x) BesselFunction
Thus the curvecan be written

{( + .(vii).
a Y =Ma a ) ..........I.......
r(p+1) (ai)
Writez =p (1 + and the momentsabout the startof the curve can be foundat
Mean = a (p + l)/p
Standard Deviation= = a P+ p. . (viii),
l=p1, s-3p+1
relation,2,82- 3,81- 6 = 0.
providingthe well-knlown
(3) Now suppose thereare twoindependentvariatesu and v both of whichhave
frequencydistributions
providedby Equation (vii). We assumethetwodistributions
to have the same p, but to have different
standarddeviationsa1 and o2, or,what
amountsto the same thing,different nmodaldistancesa and b. We will measureour
variatesu and v fromthe startof theircurves,whichthen take the form

## and y2=M e b (PV) /(p +i).

If we take w- MlM x w2we obtain the combinedfrequencysurface
M M

a bFr2(p+ 1) -a b).

## lNow pult X =P + anld Y=P (b-- ), then the elementforintegrationof the

abovesurfaceis dtudv,orifwe takeit d (P) d wP! we mayreplaceit by dXdY,
and we have forintegration
_
( +)22pe- (X2 Y2)p dXdY ..................... (x).
We have to integratethis out forX to get the distributioncurve of Y. In the
uipperoctantXOB (Fig. 1, p. 295) the limit forX is clearlyX = Y to X = oo along
the shaded area. Or, the curve ofdistributionof Y is

## Z =Fr2-(p+i1)22P,J e-X(X2_ Y2)P dX ............... (xbis).

Put X= Yt and we have
Z= _ P i
m 1',pJ
e-T
Co
. 1)p YIt(t2_1Pt
dt .
..................
(xi). x)

## * Phil. Tranls, Vol. 185DA,p. 37,3.

KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERANDF. N. DAVID 295

If we take the lower octantXOA, the limits of X are - Y to ao, but as Y is now
negativewe get preciselythe same result,or we say that the wholecurveof distri-
butionof Y is (xi), Y being taken as positive,and from0 to oo, and mirroredin the
V U
axis ofX. This resultalso flowsfromthe factthatthe distributionof v _ u mustbe
ba
a symmetricalcurve,as the frequencycurvesforu/a and v/bare identical.
Now if in (iv) we writex=Y, m-p + , we see that the z of(xi) is given by
z = MT9+j (Y) ....................... (xii),
whichleads to IM forthe area of our halfcurve. In otherwordsour curveforY is
the T2,, curvemirroredon itself The ordinatesof this curve have been computed
by Dr E. M. Elderton*.
B

Y |XX

o Au/
Fig. 1.

(4) Now the odd momentsof the mirroredcurvevanish. Let uisfindthe even
We have from(x)
moment-coefficients.

## wherethe limitsof X and Y are to be chosenso as to coverthe upperoctantBOX.

Now if we integratefirstwithregardto Y, the limitswill be from0 to X, and then
with regard to X from0 to so. Thus

F2s
1
22p-F2(p + 1)
00 rx
Jce-X Y28 (X2 J
Y2)P d YdX ......... (xiii).
-

## Put Y=XX and we have

1s = 22pk2(p e ? _ x2)pdXdX,
~2 +r (p + feX ~ 28+2p+l J O2s(1

* See Biometrika, Vol. xxi. pp. 194-201, or ITables for Statisticians and Bionietriciins, Part I.
pp. lxxix-lxxxviii and 138-144.
19-2
296 Further Applicationsin Statisticsof Tm(x) Bessel Function
or,ifX2= X,

## Generally (2s - 1) (2p + 2s) /12s-2 ................... (xv bis),

/22s
(2s-1) (2p + 2.s) -/2s-2
(tt2)s 2p + 2 (p2)S''

2 (s 1)
or, i-2 = (2S-1) I + ..................
2s-4(XVi).
Thus finally
=
(2S)(s -- 3.I I1+ s + I (1 + s 2). .........
(1).xvii).
,2,3-2
........ +
It will be clear that whenp ;o we obtain
82s-2 =(2s -1) (2s - 3) ... ,
the familiar/2,-2 formulaforthe normnal
curve,into whichthe Tp+? functionthen
passes.
Considerthe Type VII curve
1
J
(a= (2 + X2)In
Here we have
32s-2=(2s-1)(2s-3) ... 1(I+2n ?) )I (i++ (2 +n 5
and /t2 = a2/(n- 3).
Now it is clearthat we can make /2 anid P4 agree in the Type VII and the TP+?
cuirves*, but fartherthan thatwe cannotgo,althoughthe ,1's maynotdifferwidely
if n be considerable.The Tp+j curve has the furtheradvantage that no moment-
coefficients whileifn be an oddinteger,thoseforthe TypeVII
tendto becomeinfinite,
curve may becomeso. For values of p not too great the Type VII will fitthe dis-
tributionof Y considerablybetter than the normalcurve. For considerablevalues
ofp, both Type VII and the Tp?i curvespass into the normalcurve.
(5) A fewfurtherpointsmay be noted. If p = - I the TO-curveasyimiptotes to
the verticalat the origin,and this holds as long as p lies between- 1 and 0; if

## *We must take 21

1= Qrit= 2p? 7, and a = 2 -,/p+1) (p +2).
p+1 n-5
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 297

## p= 0, the T*-curvestartswitha finiteordinateand makes a finiteangle with the

vertical,it is the exponential curve. If p be positive we see from(xbis) that
dz/dY=O for Y=O, or the double mirrorcurves have a commontangentat the
axis of symmetry and will in appearance forma single curve. If p be a positive
integerit is possible to expand z in powersof Y, but the series does not present
When p = 11, Dr Elderton'sTables terminate,
but it is shownin the memoirby
and Elderton* that whenp = 11, the two curves
Pearson,Jeffery

and z = MTp+k(Y)
r
M P{ (2p + 7)} 1 .... ..(xviii)
V27r(p+1)(p+2) r(p+3) (1 + y( (2p+7)

4(p+l)(p+2)J
coincideforpracticalstatisticalpurposes.The areas ofthislattercurveup to given
values of Y have been tabledt fromp = - i to p = 12, but this hardlycarriesus
beyondthe Tm-tables.The completed(and now at press) Y'ablesof the Incomplete
B-function carryus up to 2p + 7 = 101, orp = 47.

(6) Now let us turnto the means of samplesofsize n drawnfromthe Type III
curve

## y=yo'e a (-) .' . (xix),

wherethe originis at the startof the curveand a is the distanceto the mode from
the start. Let us suppose a sample x1,x2, x3... xn drawn and let its mean be
Z'n = (X1+ X2+ ... + xn)/n.Then thechanceP ofa samplelyingbetweenx1and x1+ 8xi,
X2 and X2+ X'2 ... Xn and x, + &x. is given by

## Now get rid ofx1 by introducingXn as a variableand write12 for

We have
np~ / ~X2\p /x2\P /XS... X \
P=const.xex a -dn - dX2dX3 ... dx\$.
) -a (tn2

Put X2= 12x2'and integrateout forX2= 0 to 12or 02' Oto 1. Thiswill introduce
a B-functioninto the constant,but leave us with
* Cf. Biometrika,Vol. xxi. pp. 171 and 173 foraccordanceof the curves. Their equations are given
on p. 185, wherewe must writein - l=p + i, or n=2p + 3. The twocurveshave thenthe same firstfour
moment-coefficients. If 7 = Y/{2%/(p+ 1) (p + 2) }, thentheproportional area from = 0 up to anyarbitrary
value of I is given by JI1,(j, p + 1), where I,, (-, p + 1) =B,7 (j, p + 1)/B(j, p + 1), B7, and B being the
incompleteand completeBeta-functions.
t See Biometrika,Vol. xxii. pp. 253-283, or Tables for Statisticiansand Biometricians,Part II,
pp. cxxv-cxlii and pp. 169-177.
298 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof Tm(x) BesselFunction

22 dx3... dxz.

## Writel3= I s-, and proceeding

in thesameway,wefind

P = const.
xe-a dx, (l-)3 + dx4...dx,,
wherels= nan-4 - X5 Xn

n and find*

## We now put this into the canonicalforml

fora Type III frequencycurve,i.e.

## Hence we musthave P = n (p +1)-1, and P/A =np/a, or A na (p + 1)

Accordingly:
Mode of _=an(p+1) (x)

## Mean of , = M1'= p P X ............ (xxi),

~p
2M' _A2(P+1)1 p+1) 1 2

## wherei and o- are the mean and standarddeviationof the populationfromwhich

the sample of n is drawn. Lastly
4
B, = + and B2=3+3B1 .................. (xxii).

## Clearly,if n and p are not verysmall,then (xx bis) willapproachinuchnearerto

a normaldistributionthan the parentpopulation(xix).
(7) We can nowapplyour resultsto particularcases. If we drawtwoindividuals
out ofType III curveslike (xix), with the same skewnessas measuredbyp, then if
a and a' be theirmodal distances,and

Y=p
(X2
----
Xl\/ \ X2 XI\ = V
+ 1) \(x
(p
=-r? +
1(X2 x'
J
a,a2 /X XI t a-X

## forthese are all equivalent,then the distributionof Y is given by

z = Ml +j (Y).
If the two individualsare taken from population,i.e. a2=
absolutelythe samne 1 = a,
then
Y= (2-x =(p + l) =2-I = )X2 _.

## * Thisresultwas publishedby Church: see Biornetrika,Vol. xviii. p. 336.

KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 299

## Such results,however interestingin the case of experimentalsampling in the

Laboratory,wherewe have a knowledgeofthe parentpopulation,will hardlybe of
practicalservice,because we should usually lack a knowledgeofp, x and 0r.
Now turnto (xx), and suppose we have taken two samples of n and that their
means are !nand .7n',then the distributionof Y = P (\$n -\$4) will be
z= MT(,+1) (Y) .................. (xxiii).
Tp+ (Y) =
There are now a varietyof ways in whichit is possible to express Y. In the first
place P/A = P, wherep and a referto the parentpopulation,but mean - mode

_
=a_X say. Again P - 2 - Thus we have
p a o- N/8
=-n - n:('- 2 i) 2n............ ()xxiv).
X -Z -/a1 ?x

## Further,we need the value of the p + 1 in the degree of the Tm function;we

have
N_ ~ 2 4
.
X _(X)2 ........................ (xxv).

## Here \$, OC, a-,and ,81all referlikep to theparentpopulation.Clearlysometwoofthese

quantitiesXand \$, X and a-, or 81and -,,must be known,or we cannotdetermine
a and p. We shall see later that in certainotherapplicationsp is known,and then
probablya-,is the best quantityto seek for. It mightbe thoughtthat X wouldbe
easy to find. It may be so, if the startof the curvecan be determined,but it must
be rememberedthat Z is the mieanmeasuredfroma definitepoint of the parent
population,i.e. the startof the parentpopulation,and this may be quite unknown,
- does Inotinvolvethis knowledge,but the mode is not an easily determined
character. On the whole,81and o-, can probablybe most easily obtainedfromthe
samples. Of coursethis refersto cases in whichthe parentpopulationis unknown,
but suspectedof having a skewnesswhich may be approximatedto by a Type III
curve. The procedurehere wouldbe to determineto the secondand thirdmomnent
coefficients of the pooled samples,and thus obtain the best approximationwhichis
available to /]9 and a-. of the supposedparentpopulation.

We thentakeqn= ,B I! and
~~
2'~ 2n
2 '-
(xxvi),
.......................

## and test whetherthe probabilityintegralof TM.(Y) has a value sufficiently large

to justifyus in assutming
that SCt' and -Tncame fromthe same population.
Perhaps a moreusefulcase occurswhen one sample is sufficiently large to give
reasonablevalues forthe constants,and we ask whetherthe othercould have been
drawnfromthe same population. In this case we may determinep and a with
sufficientaccuracyfromthe large sample and measurethe probabilityofxn forthe
secondsample from(xx) or (xx bis) by aid of the Tablesof theIncompleter-function.
300 FurtherApplicationts
in Statisticsof Tm^
(x) BesselFunction
Generallywe may state our problemto be this: We wish to know fromthe
means of two samuples whethertheyare consistentwiththese samples havingbeen
both drawn fromthe same population. We have no reason for supposing that
populationfollowsa normnal distribution,or we may have good reasonforsupposing
its distributionskew. Shall we do betterto assume 81= 0 and the unknownparent
populationto be normal,or to workwith the value of fl]foundfromthe pooled
samples? Probablywithsamples of 25 or 20 the latterwould be the wisercourse;
at any rate,on comparisonwith the formermethod,it would give us some measure
of the extentto which skewnessmightinvalidate our conclusionsfromthe normal
hypothesis. Unfortunatelywe do not at present know the distributionof the
varianceof samples drawnfroma Type III curve,or indeed fromany skew curve.
Had we knownit, it miightbe possible to constructa quantitylike "Student's z"
numeratorand denominator.
(8) Type III curvegives the distributionof frequencyforotherstatisticalfunc-
tionsthan that of the means of samples drawnfroma Type III distribution.One
of the mostimportantcases is that of the distributionof the standarddeviations
(or of the variances) of samples froma normal parent population. If Y. be the
standarddeviation,M2 the varianceof the parentpopulation= 12, n -thesize of the
sample,o-its standarddeviation,/X2its variance,we have Helmert'sEquation forthe
distributionof a,
- n-2 no2
y= yo fe /5
2V 2
[da] ....................... (xxvii),
or,expressedin termsof the variances,the Type III equation
- n 3 7/i.2
Y= (/2) 2 e [ .................. (xxviii).

## Hence if we have two samples of size n withvariances,2, ,u2' taken fromnormal

parentpopulationsof varianceM2 and M2',the distributionof the difference

-2 M21v2 MdJ
is givenby z = jiIIT4(n-2) (Y) ....................(xxix).
We are thereforein a positionto determinewhetherthe variancesof two samples
each measured in terms of the variance of its parent populationare significantly
different.
If the two parentpopulationsare identical,thenY= - (,42' - U2)/M2 . If, as may
oftenbe the case, the parent populationbe unknown,then the onlyremedyis to
take forAl2the value providedby the two samples pooled. If we knowthe means
Yn and i4' of the two samples to be the samne,
this will be i (,a2' + /12), so that the
frequencyof the (lifference
will be given by

## z=iMZ4n-k) (n(IA2'- /2)) ....... (xxx).

KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERANDF. N. DAVID 301

## If on the otherhand we knowthat \$n is not equal to n', we have to put

M2= i (2' + P2) + i (\$n' _..n)2,
and have accordingly
z= la vln2) (2
iMTI( + (x2 j ........ x x
(xi).
~
- _j2)
2' + /2 + Xl t)
Dr Elderton'sTables providethe ordinates* of the above curvesup to samples
ofn = 25. For large samplesat presentwe are thrownback on the Type VII curve,
the probabilityintegralof whichis includedin the IncompleteB-functionTables.

frequenciesare
ml, M2, iv,
Mv.

n,,1n,2, ... nv

1

X2 , (xxxii),
ll 2 F,V

## wherefi8= M8N/M,then the distributionof Xfollowsthe curvet

y = yoe-x'Xv-12 [d] .(xxxiii)
and the distributionof i%x, the Type VII curve
v-3
= e ix2
y yo' (- (j e) [2 d( X2)] . (XXiV).

Now this Type VII curve,like that forthe variance,has its p known,= i (v - 3),
which can be foundat once fromv the number of categoriesin the sample.
Further,its a, i.e. its modal distance, = (v - 3), and its standard deviation
12 3+ 8
^(v -1). Again,if required,,81J
=i _1- and 82 = 3 +v-1

## Thus if we have two x2's,namelyx2 and X'2I fromtwo samples,the distribution

of theirdifferencewill be given by
= I MTJ(v-2(IX12
z..................... _,I) (XXXV).

## Accordinglywe have obtained a measure of whethertwo x2's supposed to be due

to sampling frornthe same population are reasonablyprobable. Given the e's
the solutionis independentofany knowledgeof the parentpopulation,beyondthe
numberofcategoriesused in determiningthe X2'S.
We may make sorneremarkson the curvein (xxxv). The standarddeviation
ofa Tmcurveis V2m+ 1 andin ourcase m= j(v - 2); therefore, if Y= i X'2- i x2,
y= v- = 4(v-i)+ j(v- 1)=IX2,, + a24x"
as it should do, since JX'2 and il2 are by hypothesisdue to independentsamples.
* A probabilityintegraltable of Tm(Y) accompaniesthis paper.
t Pearson,Phil. Mag. 1899, p. 239. For propertiesof the X2curve,see Drapers' CompanyResearch
Memoirs,BiometricSeries, VIII.
302 Further Applicationsin Statisticsof Tm(x) Bessel F-unction

## Again, BJ= 0, of course,since the Tmcurveis symmetrical,

and B2 = 3 + 6 *
Accordingly, B2 -3 = (/82- 3) of the JX2 distribution
. or the kurtosisis halved,
i.e. the 4XI'2- curve is 500/0 less leptokurticthan the parent population.
Further,the distributionof the %2 differencedoes not dependdirectlyton the
* See above, p. 294, Equation (viii).
1-Indirectly,of course,it does, a pointtoo oftenoverlooked.Take, forexample,the data forTyphoid
Inoculatedand Attacked,due to Greenwoodand Yule.

## Inoculated ... 56 6,759 6,815

Non-Inoculated 272 11,396 11 668

## Totals 328 18,155 18,483

What is the exact meaning of the 6,815 and 11,668? Are theysimplysamples of the two classes
Inoculatedand Non-Inoculated,thatthe recordershave taken,orhave theysomerelationto the numbers
in the communitywilling or unwillingto be inoculated? If the former,theyare subjectto the moreor
less arbitrarychoice of the recorders,and if we findx2 we are findingit subjectto the suppositionthat
the recordersrepeatedlymade experimentswiththe same numbers.In this case thereis onlyone degree
of freedomin this table, or K - 1 degrees,when two populationswith K categoriesare compared. It
seems in manyrespectsmoreadvantageousto treatthis problemin the mannerit was firstinvestigated,
namelyas the comparisonof two linear series,when the limitationon the degreesof freedomis seenat
once to arise and arise naturally(Biometrika,Vol. viii. pp. 250-254).
But supposethe numbersof Inoculated and Non-Inoculatedarise fromsome naturaldivision,as in
thecase ofvaccination,and non-vaccinationin tne countryat large,thenour tablerepresentsan arbitrary
sample of the total population,and thereare threedegreesof freedom,and this mustbe borne in mind
in determiningthe probabilityof the observedresult. In such a case we may or may not know the
relativefrequenciesof the inoculatedand non-inoculatedin the population under consideration.If we
do not, the onlything we can do is to use the observedratio, as if it werethe populationratio of the
two classes. In the case of the ratio of inoculatedto non-inioculated followingas a natural order,i.e. a
table obtained by a randomsample out of a generalpopulation,wherewe select an individualwithout
regardto whetherhe has beeninoculatedor attackedand afterwardsinquireintodetails,the X2 iS simply
proportionalto the total numberof individuals selected. Thus the %2 forthe above table is 56-234,but
had we takena sample of half the size it wouldbe (subject to variationof sampling)28-117. In other
wordsthe value of X2and accordinglyof P dependsverylargelyon the size of the sample, and the com-
parisonof X2'sfortwo tables of different totals can be made to give almostany value we please to the
probabilityof the two x2'Sbeingdue to samples of different sizes fromthe same parentpopulation. The
quantitywhichwould remainapproximatelythe same would be the 02, and in comparingtwotableslike
the above of different sizes to test whetherthey come fromthe same population,it is ratherthe com-
parisonof jk2 and 0'2, thanofx2andX'2whichshouldguideus.
If, on the otherhand, the sizes of thetwosamplesof Inoculatedand of Non-Inoculatedin a tablelike
that above have been arbitrarilyselected,the X2 will changewidelywiththose sizes. For example,if we
supposethe table formedby two independentsamplings,one of the Inoculatedand anotherof the Non-
Inoculated, and then recordingwhethertheyhad been attackedor not, the verticalmarginaltables are
at our choice,and forfivearbitrarysizes of the two sampleswe have approximately:
(a) (b) (c)i
56 6,759 6,815 56 6,759 6,815 56
5 6,759 6,815
272 11,396 11,668 159 6,656 6,815 68 2,849 2,917

## 328 18,155 18,483 215 13,415 13,630 7124 9,608 9,732

KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 303

size of the samples on which x2 and X'2are based, but solely on the numberof
cells used in computingthe X2'sbeing the same.
A point here is, perhaps,worthnotingas we have not seen it recorded. If we
take two sets of N samples each, and my.,ma.' be the means of the means of the
two sets, then my.and mg.' will be distributedaccordingto a Type VII curve,if
the originalparentpopulationis, because in thiscase Zn and \$n' are so distributed,

## (d) 3,407 (e) 28

28 3,379 3,379 3,407

## x2 568234 50&135 36-998 28-117 19-6802

02 1o003,042 *003,578 *003,802 *003,042 *003,112

## A similar variationof x2 arises if we take two arbitrarysamples of attackedand not attacked,and

inquire as to whethertheywereinoculatedor not. In otherwords,whenthereis no " natural" proportion
of the sizes of the two sampleswhichare beingcompared,X2 will varywidely(and accordinglythevalue
of P by whichindependenceis tested)owingto the size of arbitrarychosensamples. This variationof
%2 and of P, when thereis no naturalproportion in the two samples (as sex forexample),is oftenover-
lookedin interpreting resultswhereX2is realy largelydeterminedby the size of the samplescompared.
Anotherimportantpoint,to whichwe may draw attentionhere,is the relation,oftenpostulatedas
completelydefinite,that X2-=Nep2, whereN is the size of the sample. If we couple this relationwiththe
distributionof JX' as givenby the equation
y=y0'e iX2 (2)(v-) .........................(................... (a),

wherev is the numberof cells, then since the Mean of X2=v - 1 and its varianceis 2 (v - 1), we should
expect
Mean =v 1 a2,2 =2 (v-1) ......

Now, if therebe K columnsand X rowsin a contingencytable,v = KX, but the mean value of 02 and the
value of 24,2, even if therebe no association,are not
(KX-1)N and 2(KX-1)/N .(. y )
see ? 17 below of this paper. In the veryspecial case of no association and N large,they onlyapproxi-
mate to
(K-1) (X-1)/N and 2 (K-1) (X-1)/N2,
and even thenonlyagree with the values in (,y),whenK and X are indefinitely large,but of a definitely
lowerorderthan N. A contingencytableis hardlylikelyto be of practicalvalue undersuch conditions.
The fact is that when we are studyingthe 02 of a contingencytable taken as a sample froman in-
definitelylargepopulation,successivesampleswillnothave thesame marginaltotalsand the distribution
of 02 is not that of X2/N. Whenwe take two serieseach of definitesize, and testtheirindependenceby
a (X2,P) test,we are reallydealingwithwhat one of the presentwriterslong ago termed"partial con-
tingency,"but it behovesthe user to state verypreciselywhat is the originof thetotalsof his compared
series, and to rememberthat his P as measuringa degree of independenceonly applies to repeated
comparisonof series both of the same totals as the first,and that he cannotgeneraliseas to the degree
of dependencewhichwould arise had he used otherconstantsizes. For the sake of statisticalstudents
the seniorauthorof thispaper believesit advisableto keep verydistincttheusages of x2 and 02, and not
obscurea difficult topic by assuming02 is merelyX2/N.
304 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof Tq,(x) Bessel Futnction
we have forthe distribution
and accordingly mf' -mi., the
of the difference
curve
z = j MT Nnp,, (-aNP
3 (m.. -* . (xxxvi),

## whereM is the totalnumberofcases and p and a referto the originalparent

betweenthemeansofthemeans
population.We are thusabletotestthedifference
ofsetsofsamples.
Similarly m,,'denotethe meansof thevariancesof twosetsof samples
ifml,2,
ofn,each N in number,takenfroma normalparenit thenthedistribu-
distribution,
tionofthedifferenceofthe is
variances givenby

z = JMTIN(I1) (-N- 2
.
...............m (xxxvii).

be useful.
occasionally
Results(xxxvi)and (xxxvii)mnay
(10) Lastlysupposewe have a contingency table,the numberof cellsbeing
K x X,and a sampleofsize N. be takenfromit,thenwe shallfindthatthemean
squarecontingency,#2, ofsucha sample, undercertainconditions, obeysthelaw of
distribution
y= YO' (1 #12)P1 e-i'2,
but thate is notequal to N1 norpi to j (v- 3), wherev-cX = the numberofcells.
ofcellsK X and of thesamesize N be drawnunderthe above-mentioned condi-
tion,thenthefrequency oftheirdifference willbe givenby
y= i MTP+{ie (2
02)E
_
, .................
)(xxxviii).
The conditions referred to willbe discussedin a specialsectionlater.
But in manycasese willnotequal E',and it is perhapsin practice a moreusual
problem to determine whether #12maybe reasonably supposedtobe a samplefrom
thesamepopulation as #2, thanto dealwithX'2and X2. The lattercontainthetotal
sizesofthetwosamples,but the p2and#'2 denoting meansquarecontingency lead
us at onceto the problemof whether thecoefficients of meansquarecontingency
<4121(1 + cf/2)and V02/(1 + 02) and so thedegrees ofassociation in thetwosamples
maybe considered as reasonably accordanton thehypothesis of thesamplesbeing
selectedfromthe samepopulation.
Thedistribution of#12_ 02 willbe considered later.It willbe foundthat,under
certainconditions, it obeysthe same law of frequency of the
as the distribution
firstproductmoment coefficientpi,.
(11) Thereis anothermethod ofapproaching theseproblems,and onlyillustra-
tionsfromknown can tellus whichmethodis generally
curvesor surfaces themore
or
effective more suitablein a type
particular of cases. The wholeof our results
dependupon quantitiesY, 71';/2,/U2'; X2,X'2; #2, #P2, whichsatisfya surfacewhich
can be throwninto the form
w = woe-V+u)(VU)P [dVdU].
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 305

## So farwe have discussedthe differencedistributionV- U and shownthat it is

given by a Tmfunction.We maynowdiscussthe distributionof theratioz = V/U*.
Here V and U are independentand can take all values from0 to oo. If we inte-
grateout forthemand therebe M sets of V and U, we findM- W0 ?2(p + 1) which
determineswo. Now if we consider U and V as mneasured along two rectangular
=
axes, z constantgivesa line throughthe originat slope tan-1z,and if we transfer
to z and U as variants,we must integratekeepingz constantfromU= 0 to oo and
then fortan-'z from0 to 7r,or z from0 to oo.

## Thus we find w=woe-(l+z)u U2P+lzP [d Udz].

Put (1 + z) V= 4 and keepingz = const.,we have

W= -Oe
=wo e~ 2p+l Zp
+ Z)2p+2
dd]
[dtdz]
t2P+l(1

## wheret goes from0 to so.

Now integrateout for4and we find
w=wor (2p + 2) ( zZ)p+ [dz]

## This is the frequencycurveforthe distributionof the ratioz = V/U fora popu-

lationof M ratios. To findits probabilityintegral,we have the measure Pzo that
the ratioshouldbe greaterthan zo,
P (2p+2) fX zP
PZO =-2 (-p + 1
+ l)J (+Z2p2dz
Z)p+

Y
1

PZO

B 1 (p+l,p+l)

## or the incompleteB-functionratio forthe value 1-+Z . Here z0 maybe ;'/t' or

accordingto theproblem
jt2b/L2;or X12/X2, withwhichwe are dealing.The quantity
Ix (p', q') is that tabled in the Tables of theInconmplete and fromthem
B-functionz
Pzo can be readilyfound. In our case we have p' = q' =p + 1, or we are confined
to the "diagonal" values of that Table.
* Cases of the distributionof V/Uhave alreadybeen consideredby R. A. Fisher, V. Romanovsky,
and E. S. Pearson with J. Neyman. For the purposes of the presentpaper we give an independent
investigation,whichthrowsthe answerback on the Incomtiplete Table. Fisher has provided
B-fiunction
a table whichenables the probabilityof the ratio U/Vto be determined
bya trausformation of Equation
(xxxix).
306 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof T,a(x) Bessel Function
But the matterwould not appear to end here. What we have measuredis the
improbabilitythat V should exceed zoU. But we want to measurea certaindegree
of the probableroundz = 1; we must cut offthereforean equal angle * fromthe
1
OU axis, if f be the angle zo makes with 0 V. Clearlycot * = zo and tan =

ZWOO
V Z-zo

Z,oo ZZ0,

0 1jZO~~~~~~~~~~

Fig. 2.
1
the probabilitythat V/U<
therefore - or U/V< zo is given by
7 ZO ,,

## r,10 F(2p +2) jZo (1z)P+ dz.

z
Taking now Y'=1 1 we have
+Z'~~~~~

= Pz0,
as it should,forwe have cut offequal areas.
Accordinglythe total chance that V/U should exceed zo and U/V exceed zo is
Qz=2 (p+l,p +i1.............(xli),
as a measuire
whichmay be takenPt/z [((P l+?y- (1-') of the ratios V/U and U/V
of the improbability
y
occurring.
The Tables of theInzcomplete B-f-unctionprovideQz,0up to p = 50, and a small
portionof them are reproducedhereforcomparison.Clearlywe need the argument
onlyup to 0-5. (See Table II.)
(i) Two means I, and x-<,of two samples of size n fr-oma Type VII parent
population.
Qai y +(p= 1
h(pe+. + 1), (xlii).
KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERANDF. N. DAVID 307

## Thus unlessthe p of the parentalpopulationis known,it has to be approximated

to fromthe samples. Our test would determinewhetherit was very improbable
that the two samples were drawnfromthe same (a, p) curve.
(ii) Two variances/u2and 1U2'of two samples of size n froma supposednorrnal
population.
QA2,1A 21 1 {j (n - 1), j (n -1)} ........ . (xliii).
1+ P2 fs2
Our test would deternminewhetherit is likelythat both sampleswere taken from
normalpopulations,of the same variance,but notwhetherthosenormalpopulations
(iii) Two X2'Swiththe same numberof cells v in two samples.
21
Q 1%2 2I
= 1 { (v -1), I (v-1)}( .............. (xliv).

## (iv) In the case of the mean square contingencywe have, underconditionsto

be discussedin ? 16,
= 2 1 (pi + 1,pi + 1) .................. (xlv).
QCe',P2/eo2
1 + e0"/Co

## If E'= e,we have QO,S/ 2, but it wouldbe clearlybetterto be able to provideQo8s/*0

when e' is not equal to e (see p. 304 above), and this will be consideredlater.

## (12) The previous discussion has indicated the necessity of a probability

integraltable forthe Tm (x) curve. We may write

## Sm(x) = J Tm (x) dx .................... (xlvi).

A table of Sm(x) has been computedby Miss David (see below). The tabled
value beingSm(x), it followsthati (1 +a) the usual probabilityintegral= 5 + S (x),
and i (1- a) = *5 - Sm (x). Hence the probabilitythatan observationwill lie outside
the limits + x is given by 1 - 2Sm(x). Consideringthe case of X'2and X2, the
differenceX'2_ X2 and the ratio X'2/X2 tests will give equial probabilitywhenwe
have
1- 2Si (V 2) (X-X2 _ JX2) =2 1 {j.(v-1), i(v-1)} ...(xlvii),
1+ X'21/X2

wherev is the nutmiberof cells under consideration.If we now give v values from
2 upward,and to X'2/X2 = X values from1 to 100,we are able by meaIlsof Table II
to findthe right-handside of the equatiorn.Hence by Table I to determine

## S(v -2)(l -%=S_1(v-2)1i(X )%

and thus %2 and X'2 XX2. The curvesthus obtained are plottedin Fig. 3. Both
-

## the arithmeticalworkof computingtheirco-ordinatesand the draughtsman's work

in producingthe diagramwere verylaborious; the curvesasymptoteto the axes of
x2 and X'2 beingofcoursesymmetrical.
Theyare notrectangularhyperbolas,
although
they mightwell be describedas ;'hyperboloidea."
40
DIAGRAM IVING CURVES
OF EQUAL PROBABILITY

20 -10 20 30 40
SCALE OF X2
0 5 10 20 30 40
Fig. 3.
by whichwe enterthis diagram are not X'2and X2, we mustreplace
When the statisticalcoefficients
themby the followingas coordinates:
In case of:
Variancesfroma normalcurveAt2 and /A2t
n,92'/22,wheren is the commonsize of the two samples, and 22 the variance of the parent
72/12122,
populationor its substitute.
Meansfroma TypeIII curvein and Y.':
4n~Z, v , wheren is the common size of the two samples; Z the standarddeviationand ,3

## belongto the parentpopulationor its substitute.The v in both these cases is = n.

Two meanSquare Couttingencies022 and ?212:
02 02 2 wherep is the possiblerange of 4022=1
-1 ifK> \ V
p1 ' p- 1
givenby Equation (lviii).
Two CorrelationRatios 912 and r)'2 froma sztrfaceof zerocorrelationt:
(N - n - 2)r2, (N - n - 2) r)2, whereN is the size of the sample,n the numberof arrays,and v = n.
Two CorrelationRatios ,12and ,'2 fronta surfaceoffinitecorrelation:
2P2,2, 2P2 '2, where p, and P2 are given by Equiation (lxxiv), and v = 2p, +3.
Tivomutltiple correlationcoefficientsR2 and R'2:

Replace 'j2 and r,)2 by R2 and R'2 forthe above two cases.
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 309

## Given a value of v, sayv = 10,thenforvaluesof X'2and x2 lyingbetweenthe

curvemarkedv = 10 and its asymptotesthe ratio gives a lesserprobabilitythanthe
difference.In other words,the difference test is a more stringenttest than the
ratio for all points (X2,X'2) lyinginsidea givenv-curve, thatis to say a lesser
probability of the given hypothesisbeing correct. Since the area inside the curve
is alwaysfarlargerthan the area outside the curve-i.e. betweenthe curveand its
asymptotes-it would thus appear that the difference testwill as a generalrule be
likelyto be themorestringent.But bysimplynotingthe positionof the(X2,x 2)
point on the diagram(Fig. 3) it will be foundpossibleto determinewhich is the
morestringenttest of a given hypothesisin any particularcase.
It mayoccurto the readerthat if the P' or the P corresponding to X'2or X2, or
indeed bothbe so smallas to renderit improbablethateitherof the comparedseries
have a common origin,it is illogicalto testwhetherX'2and x2 haveanyrelation.
But a little considerationwill show this is not so. For example,let 01 and C2 be
two processesof inoculation,and let the two processesbe applied and the numbers
attackedunderthe twoprocessesbe recorded,in each case against a non-inoculated
control. Suppose we findin each case fromits x2 a veryslenderpossibilityof the
inoculated and controlseries,being samples of the same parent popiilation,we
concludethat inoculationin this matteris of service. But grantedthis we are at
libertyto inquire furtherwhetherthe twoprocessesof inoculationproduceresults
so divergentthat it is unlikelythat they themselvescould arise fromthe same
populationofinoculations. We are reallytestingwhetherone or other processis
the moreeffective.Generallyour problemwillturnon the probabilityofa difference
greaterthantheobserved
J%X'2JX2 ora ratioX'2/X2 Sinceno valueof
occurring.
definiteone whateverthe actual
x2 is "impossible,"this probabilityis a perfectly
maybe. It maybe veryimprobable
of X'2and x2 themselves
probabilities thatthe
x'2 samnplebelongsto a A,
parentpopulation or thatthe x2 samplebelongsto a
parentpopuilationB, neithercan be impossible,and accordinglythereis no logical
reasonto hinderus fromtestingthe probabilityof the comnbined differenceor ratio
we give to our result.
occurring.All we must be carefulabout is the interpretation

## (13) Constructton of Table I.

This table was computedin the followingmannerby Miss F. N. David.
It is knownthat*
dKm(x) = m - . (xlviii),
dx x
Km(x) K+, (x) ................

,
while TM (X) ,-( x)
= ...........j. (xlix).

## Substituting(xlix) in (xlviii) we have,aftera slightreduction,

In T.
ne i p T,n+l(X) = >~ _fi_
n t2m+ T,,(x)-2 d__
I d- dx.()
(\$ .*
........................ ()

coefficient
an equationprovidingthe differential of T,,,(xc).
* This followsat once fromthe equations in Biometrika,Vol. xxi. pp. 181 (footnote)and 184.
BiometrikaXXIV 20
310 Futrther in Statisticsof T.m
Appltications (x) Bessel Function
Integratingfromx = 0 to x, we find

## Srn+i (x) = Sm (x) - 2+ Tm(a)...................... (i).

Now since Dr E. M. Elderton'sTable gives Tm(x), we can froma knowledgeof
Sm(x) findS,,+, (x), and thus by repeated use of (ii) build up the table of S. (x).
Since we requirem to advance by 05 intervals,we need to findSi (x) and So (X).

## Now Si (a) = T1(x) dx, and Ti (x) =e;

accordingly
Si(\$) = i (1 -e-).
Thus Si (x) couldbe and was calculatedfromGlaisher'sTable ofthe Exponential.
From this value ofSi (x) all the values ofSm(x) form = 1P5,2-5,... 11P5in Table I
were computedby (li) in succession.

## The value of So (x) To(x) dx is not so easy to determine,because To(x) is

f
infinitewhen x = 0, and no quadrature formulais applicable. It was therefore
resolvedthat S, (x) = T, (x) dx should firstbe foundby quadrature,and then
So (x) = Si (x) + xTO(x)
be foundfromthe result,sinceL,0o {\$xT(o)} =0, whichsurmountsthe difficulty, and
thus So (x) was determined.The values of S1 (x) obtained by quadraturesfrom
[I'i (x) were computedbyMr E. C. Fieller,and appear in the columnunderm= 10
ofTable I. The ordinatesweretakenat intervalsof002 fromx=O to O'6,01 ofx from
x = 0(6 to 4 0 and afterx = 4 0 up to x = 18&5by intervalsof 0 5. The workwas
laborious,the ordinatesbeing calculated to eight figureaccuracy,but the areas,
given to eight figures,were scarcelyto be trustedto the last digit,where there
mightbe an errorof 1 to 2. Thus the seventhdecimal mightsometinmes, but rarely,
be in errorin a unit. For this reasonMiss David's Table computedto eightfigures
was cut downto six forpublication.Althoughthe values of Sm(x) forintegervalues
+ 0 5 ofm could be obtainedwithany desireddegree of accuracy,those forinteger
values onlydepended on a quadrature,which it was difficultto make reliable to
eight decimal places. As a matterof factMiss David's eight figuretable was used
forall the illustrationswhichfollow,but as linear interpolationwas employed*as
adequate forthe purposewe had in view,we should have got ilearlythe same final
resultsfromthe six figuretable now published.
Those who have occasion to use the table must be carefulto note that from
x = 0 to 4 0, the table advances by 01, but fromx = 4 0 to x 18 0 by 0 5, and this
change miiust be borne in mindwhen interpolatinginto the table.
* In a fewcases wherethe value of x led us to thetop of thetablehigherdifferences
wereintroduced.
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 311

## If we are dealing withv categories,m= i (v - 2), and v is the numberof cells

indicatedby n at the head of the column.

of Table II.
(14) Construction
The probabilityof a ratio, e.g. X12/X2 = X, iS given by Equation (xlvii), and
demands a table of I 1 4 (v - 1), j (v - 1)}, where I,, (p, q) is the incomplete
1+X
B-functionratio,or
xP-1(I - 0)-1
= dx
Ix(p,q) ..................... Of....
i).
xP-
(I.-l(x)q?-
dx
ratiosmaybe notedhere,
An importantrelationbetweentwokindsof B-function

## IX(p,p) = i tl + 1 (, p)} .................(...... (liii),

where x' = 4 (x -

In the actual table* we shouldnot findI\$ (j, p) but only e,,(p, O). The relation
betweenthemis
I\$, (11 P)=lI (p, -);

## I\$ (p, ) (p, )t ............... (liii bis),

wherex' =4 (x -)2.
In actual practicethisrelationshipnmay be ofconsiderablevalue as trarnsforming
a value of the incompleteB-functionfroma partofthe table whereinterpolationis
difficultto anotherpart whereit is easier.
Those who wish to findIx (p, p) can eitheruse the presentpaper's Table II or
use the values of P, (n.) whichhave alreadybeen published in the Tables of the
Probability Integral for SymmetricalCurves issuied in Biometrika,Vol. XXII.
pp. 274-283, or in Tablesfor Statisticians(Part II), pp. 169-178. In this case
P., (n) = i {1 + Tx,(i, p)} is actuallyprovided: and equals I, (p, p), where

## The presentTable II rendersthe discoveryof the value of I, (p, p) veryeasy.

It has not been carriedfurtherthan x = 50, forX onlytakes values from1 to co.
* Now at press,and shortlyto be issued.
t For example,consider1.7(6, 6); its value takenout directlyis *921,775,209. Now x= 7, x'= 16,
and 1- x'= 84, thus the table gives
1.84(6, i) = *156,449,582.
Hence 1 - Ur.84(6, A)= 1 --*078,224,791=
_921,775,209,
wliichis the value of I.7 (6, 6) founddirectly.
- Thus in the exampleof the previousfootnote,we iiiustlook out under.\(i - 1) = 6, and ' = 16, and
wP find *9'21.775-2=I ., (.(6.G to epvenfi0nres,.
20-2
312 Farther Applicationsin Statisticsof Tmn
(x) Bessel Function
Table II was extracted fromthe Incomplete B-fiunction manluscriptby Miss
M. T. Beer, and, as that table does not go furtherthan 10-5 for the half-unit
intervals,the values forp = 11 5 were computedby Miss Brenda Stoessigerde novo
in orderthat the range of Tables I and II mightbe the same. We have cordially
to acknowledgetheir aid as well as that of Miss M. Kirby forthe diagrams,in
particularforFig. 3.

(15) Illustrationsof the Methodof using Tables I and II, and of thevalue of
Fig. 3.
Illustration(i). The followingtables are taken froma paper by K. Pearson: A
Studyof TrypanosomeStrains*.

## TABLE i (a) oES MEMOIR.

in Microns.
Lengthof Trypanosomes

_
Goat as
_
Host _
112 and 13
~~~~~~under _
14
_
|1 _
16
_
17 and
over Totals
_

## Wild G. morsitansStrain 37 53 60 32 12 4 200

Wild Game Strain ... 17 37 73 38 26 9 200

## TABLE i (b) OF MEMOIR.

Lengthof Trypanosomes
in Microns.

## Wild G. miorsitansStrain 17 34 41 40 19 9 160

Wild Game Strain ... 12 31 57 50 24 6 180

## If we applythemethodofBiometrika, Vol.vIII. pp. 250-254, to ascertainwhether

the Wild G. mnorsitansStrainand Wild Game Strain are probablysainplesfromthe
samepopulation, wefindx'2= 17-216from Tablei (a) andx2= 4-745from Tablei (b)
leading to P' = -0042and P = '4499 in the twocases respectivelyforsix cells. From
thegoat as host we should probablyargue that the twostrainsof trypanosomes were
different,fromthe dog as hostthat theywerethe same. While the X'2 forthe goat
is veryimprobable,we must rememberthat it is not impossible. Two possibilities
nowarise: (a) the twostrainsare notdifferentiated by theirhosts,(b) the twostrains
are differentiatedby theirhost in the same manner. Are the two X21Scompatible
witheach otheron eitherof these hypotheses? We have

## X12 I 2- 6=3555 and X = 3'6282.

1Biometrika,
Vol. x. 1914-1915, pp. 117-118.
KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERANDF. N. DAVID 313

in these two
What do our two testsgive us forthe probabilityof compatability
x2)'s? We have for the differencetest
Pi X2 _ = 2 {5 - S2 (6&2355)}= 2 tf5- 493,187}

= 0136, fromTable I,
QX12/x2= (25, 2 5) = 2 x *0918,7173
2I.2161
= 1.837,fromTable II.
Fig. 3, p. 308, indicatesat once thatwithX'2 = 17 216 and x2= 4 745,our point
is veryconsiderablyinside the curveforv = 6, orwithoutworkingout the numerical
resultswe knowthat that difference testwill be morestringentthan the ratio test.
Clearlythe ratio test gives us a moderateprobabilityof either(a) or (b) being the
fact,but the difference test suggeststhat neitherhypothesisis correct,or that goat
and dog reacton the trypanosome manlners.This is in accordance
strainsin different
withtheP' andP foundin thefirstplace forthetwotables,but theratiotestbeingless
stringent obscuresthefirstinmpressions drawnfromP' and P. This particularillustra-
tionwas takelnwithoutany knowledgeof what the tests wouldlead to. A similar
example,with the XI2 smaller,might have made it less easy to draw any definite
fromP' and P, whilePi
conclusions - and Q mightoneor bothgiverise
to conclusiveresults.
Illustration (ii). To illustratethe last remarkwe will take two furthertables
fromPearson'sMemoiron Trypanosomes.They are as follows:

TABLE ii (a).
in Microns.
Lengthof Trypanosomres

## Goatas Host 11 and

under 12 13 14 15 16 and
over Totals

## Wild G. morsitansStrain 16 21 55 60 32 16 200

Mvera Cattle Strain ... 5 14 22 26 19 14 100

TABLE ii (b).
in Microns.
Lengthof Trypanosomes

## 11 and 14 16 and Totals

Dog aS Host under 12 13 105 ~~~~~~~~over

Wild G. mnorsitans
Strain 3 14 34 41 40 28 160
Mvera Cattle Strain ... 3 11 27 30 21 8 100

## The x2 forTable ii (a) obtained with a view to testingwhetherthe Wild G.

morsitans and the Mvera Cattle strainscould be samples of the same trypanosonle
population= 5-468,renderingforsix cells a probabilityP =-3646, or we nmay
say
314 FurtherApplications
intStatisticsof Tm^
(x) BesselFubnction
the Goat as Host cannotbe consideredas distinguishingbetweenthe two strains.
We now turn to Table ii (b) with the Dog as Host and findX'2= 6-391, with the
probabilityP = -2728. The probabilityis somewhatless, but far fromsufficiently
less to enable us to say that theDog as Host willdistinguishbetweenthe twostrains.
We can nowak on thebasis ofboth testsif it be indifferent
whetherthe differ-
ence betweenthe two strainsbe testedon Goat or Dog?
What is the probabilityin factthat,in the case of these two strains,the Dog
resultsmighthave been obtainedfromthe Goat or the Goat resultsfromthe Dog?
WAehave forthe difference
test
P ix 2iX2 = 2 {5 S2(x4615)},or,fromTable I,
-

## = 2 {-5- *096,251}= -8075.

Again,forthe ratiotest,since X'2/X2= 11688.5,

## QX 2/x2= (265, 2 5), or,fromTable II,

21.m,07
=-8682.
We see that fromeither test there was high probabilityof the goat or dog as
host being indifferent, but the differencetest gives slightly the more stringent
resultas Fig. 3 a priori indicatesit mustdo, althoughthe (X2, XI 2) pointis not far
removedfromthe v = 6 curvewherethe two testsgive equivalentresults.
We might draw fromIllustrations(i) and (ii) the conclusionthat when the
but when the strainsappear to
strainsare sensiblyidenticalthe hostis indifferent,
be differentone host may give a moremarkedreactionthan another.

Illustration (iii). Table iii (a) below was obtained from the schedules of
Pearson'sinquiryinto the conditionof the Polish and Russian Jewimmigrants into
the East End of London. Table iii (b) was adapted fromTable VII, p. 255, of
Franz Boas's workDescendantsofInntigrants,New York,ColumibiaUniversityPress,
1912. The problemto be answeredis this: The distributions of Cephalic Indices of
the Jewishchildrenbornin their adopted countryand those bornin theirland of
origin are significantlydifferent.Can this differencebe attributedto the same
causes in England and in America?
The tables are as follows:

## TABLE iii (a). (PEARSON'SDATA.)

CephalicIndices (Central Values).

## Borinin England 12 10 13 20 28 31 24 29 20 19 8 7 11 232

Born ini Eastern
Europe ... 3 2 3 2 13 7 7 15 13 11 13 4 12 105
KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 315

## TABLE iii (b). (BoAs's DATA.)

CephalicIndices (Central Values).

Male Jewish Boys Under 77 5 78.5 79|5 8 X 8 X 855 86 | 875| 88 and Totals
aged 6 to 15 years 77 over Ttl

Born in America 66 48 121 155 248 263 305 289 244 192 140 69 119 2259
Born in Eastern
Europe ... 8 6 10 23 40 47 87 92 93 105 84 82 116 793

The x2of Table iii (a) is 27 907 corresponding to a P of 0057, and the X12 of
Table iii (b) is 257-399corresponding to a P' < 000,0001. Thus the chance of the
distributionof the Cephalic Index of Jewishboysbornin England being the same
as that of Jewish boys born in Eastern Europe is small; the chance that Jewish
boysbornin Americahave the same distribution of CephalicIndex as thatofJewish
boysbornin Americais vanishingly small. Boas attributesthedifference forAmerica
to the influenceof the Arrmerican environmentcausing the head shape of Jewish
childrenbornin America* to approachthe Gentilevalue. Pearsonsupposesit mnay
be due in the correspondingEnglish case to some admnixture of Gentile blood.
Whatever the originsof the differenceof X21s'we may ask how far is there any
likelihoodof the differencesbeing due to a commoncause. In other words,if we
tooksamplesof the childrenof immigrantJews beforeand afterimmigration, what
is the chance that two samples will have a differencein theirX2's equalling or
exceedingthat observed?The numberof cells is 13, and a recourseto Fig. 3 shows
us thatthe point(X'22 '2) lies well withinand awayfromthe v=13 curve;the
difference methodwill therefore be farmorestringentthan the ratiomethod.
We have-1%2 _ 1%2= 114-746 and
{ 5-55.5(114 746)1.
PjX12 - j2 =2

But Table I showsus that S5.5 (18) = *499,989and S5.s (114'746) must be much
nearer'5 than this,or
- IX2 < 000,022.
tx2
PjX12
and
Again,X'2IX2-9=2234,
= 2Io0-2M(6, 6) =
Qx'21X2 2IO67 (6, 6)
= '000,534.
Both testsindicatethatit is veryimprobablethatthe cephalicindexdivergences
have the sanmecause in America and England, but the differencetest is far more
stringent.
Thus farwe have merelyappliedthe (X2.X'2) test and drawnan apparent
conclusionfromit, but in doingso we have reallyoverlookedthe warninggiven in
in Illustrations(i)
the longfootnoteto p. 302. Whilein the case ofthe trypanosomes
and (ii). we have been dealingwithtotalfrequenciesof muchthesame orderin both
* It is importantto note that themereresidencein Americais notsupposedto modifythehead shape
of childrencomingto America. It is the factof birthin Americawhichis creditedwiththe change.
316 FurtherApplications
in Statistics
of Tmn
(x) Bessel Functiona
the two sets of tables,so that N' and N of X'2 and X2will hardlyaffectthe result;
in thepresentillustrationBoas's totalnumberofindividualsis nine timesPearson's.
Hence, if his proportions remainingthe same were reduced to Pearson's total, his
x'2 would be 28-600 and i (X2 _ X2)= 03465, giving S5.5(03465) instead of
S.r (114-746). We should thus reach
PJX'2 - X2 9149,
or witha high degree ofprobabilityconcludethat the difference betweenPearson's
and Boas's Jews and Gentilescould be attributedto a commonsource.
We do not say that the process here adopted is whollylegitimate,but it does
indicate the need for caution in applyingthe (X '2, e2) test in either form
*, and
suggeststhat a (0I2, 02) test may be betterapplicablewhenthe marginaltotalsare
so different
and so arbitraryt.
Illustrationt(iv). The matterof the precedingillustrationmay be pursuedin
a somewhat differentdirection. The cephalic indices of Jew and Gentile are
markedlydivergent. If we take as our Gentiles two such closely allied races as
English and Swedish, with an almost identical mean index, will either of our
testssufficeto indicatea markeddifference betweenthe x2's forthe two series?
Two such seriesare shownin Tables iv (a) and (b). Table iv (a) is taken froma
paper by Nathaniel 0. M. Hirsch, entitled: "Cephalic Index of American born
Childrenof threeForeign Groups\$."
Table iv (b) is based on Pearson'sdata forthe JewishChildrenof East London,
and on his data forEnglish School Children.

## TABLE iv (a). (HIRCs's DATA.)

CephalicIndex (Central Values).

## Malesborn Under 74.5

in America 74 75 5 76 5 7775 78 5 79.5 805

Russian Jews 5 2 4 11 21 34 46 65
Swedes ... 17 19 17 19 18 22 12 18

in America over

## Russian Jews 5:3 1 52 49 34 27 17 14 434

Swedes ... 17 10 9 5 4 4 6 197

## Here x2 = 134-1757, giving a P for 15 cells< 000,0005, and there is no

practicalprobabilityofthe two samples comingfromthe same population.
* Q (6, 6) = *9670,the difference
21.'4939 test beingthe morestringent.
,2/x2=
t Tte ratio of numbersborn in the adopted countryto those born in the nativeland is hardlya
"natural" one; forEngland it is 2-21 and forAmerica2-85.
t AmericanJourn(alof Physical Anthropology,Vol. x. 1910, pp. 79-90, Table I, p. 80.
KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERANDF. N. DAVID 317

## TABLE iv (b). (PEARSON'SDATA.)

CephalicIndex(Central Values).

Malesborn Under
in England 73-95 |7445 75-45 76-45 77-45 78 45 79 45 80 45

Eastern Jews - 5 7 10 13 20 28
English ... 146 86 167 226 272 342 266 230

Male
Males bOrn { 81 45 | 82 46 I L 1 S |86'95 |
bongln 81-45 82-45 83-45 84-45 85-45 86-45 and Totals
+
in England
~~~~~~~~~~over

## Eastern Jews 31 24 29 20 19 8 18 232

English ... 188 145 99 61 39 25 21 2313

Here X'2= 234-6659forthe 15 cells,and again P' is < 000,0005. Thus both series
of data are in accordin indicatingthat the Jewishmale child differsessentiallyin
head shape fromeither of these series of Gentile male children. But a new
problemarises: Is it indifferent whetherthe Gentiles consideredare English or
Swedish, what is the probabilitythat X'2 and X2 could result fromtwo samples
drawnfromthe same Jew-Gentilepopulation?
= 1 748,954,and we have,since
We will apply firstthe ratio test. Here X'2/X2
v=15, and i(v-1)=7,
Qx 2/X2=2I. (7, 7) = 3077.
Thus on the basis ofthe ratio test,it is notat all improbablethatX'2 and x2 could
have arisen fromthe same population,i.e. it is indifferent whetherSwedish or
English boysbe comparedwith the Jews.
Now let us consider the differencetest. We have iX'2 - 2 = 502451, and
i(v-2)= 6-5. Hence
Pi X12 X2 = 2 [5 -S6.5 (50 2451)}.

Now 502451 is outside the limits of our Table I and S6.5(18) = -499,97663,so
S6.5(50'2451) has a greatervalue than this,and we can onlysay that

## In other words,we should conclude that the difference test stronglypoints to a

divergencebetweenthe tuseof English and Swedes as the Gentile factor,and this
would certainly be in accordance with the views of anthropologists,and in
particularcraniologists. We thus see that the greaterstringencyof the difference
test has led us to a result more in accordancewith fact than the ratiotest,and
318 Fubrther
Applicatiotsin Statisticsof Tm(x) BesselFunction
this mightapparentlyjuistifyus in grantingit a positionat least alongsidetheratio
test as a statisticalmethod. But here again: Is any conclusionlegitimatebased
upon the series to be comparedbeing as arbitraryin size as the fourseries of these
two tables? These sizes are perfectlyarbitraryin the two cases, they were deter-
minedby the data each observerchancedto collect,and not by any "natural" pro-
portions. All our analysistell us is: that if a long series of furtherexperiments
were made, always with the same totals for the four series, we should have
frequenciesdeterminedby the above PAx,2-x2 and Qx,2 2 But what if we
sacrificethe increasedaccuracyobtainedin the case of Hirsch's Jews and Pearson's
English and reduced all fourseries to a commontotal M? Pearson's formulaof
1911* gives

X (fs f s)2
(N+ N')2 f+f I
N +N'
Here the part withincurled bracketsconsistsonly of proportionalfrequencyand,
neglectinginfluenceof randomsampling,would remain unchangedif N and N'
if we multiplyeach X2by
were modified. Accordingly,

(N + N')2 MM'
NN' X(M+M,)21

we shall reduce it to what would arise if we had the series M and M' instead of
1Vand N'. As thereis no reason whateverwhywe should not take as manyJews
as Gentiles,we mayput M = M', or the multiplieris (NV+ N')2/4NN'. For Hirsch's
data the multiplieris 1-16424,and forPearson's3 01753. Thus we have
M2 = 156 2127, MX% =708-1139,

## Pi2 - =X2 1 - 2 56.s(275 9506) < 000,047

and muchless; and
Qx12/x2
= 2I.Iw7w(7, 7) = *007,787.

## Both probabilitiesnow oppose the suggestionthat we are merelycomparingJew

between Jews compared
and Gentile,theyindicate that there is a real difference
with Swedes and Jews comparedwith English. The differencetest is, however,
much the morestringent.

## Illustration(v). We maynowturnto anotherformof applicationof our method,

nanmely to judicial statistics. We take our data fronmJudicial Statistics,England
and Wales,1925 (CriminalStatistics),Table VII, pp. 68-69, and 1930, Table VII,
pp. 56-57; puiblishedby H.M. Statioinery Officein 1927 and 1932 respectively.
* Biometrika,Vol. viii. p. 252.
KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERANDF. N. DAVID 319

## in England and Wales in Assizes and QuarterSessions,

Males convicted
byAge Groups.
TABLE v (a).
Crimesagainst thePerson.

## Year Under 16 and 21 and 30 and 40 and Over Totals

16 under21 under30 under40 under60 60

## 1925 12 137 369 318 297 45 1178

1930 6 124 326 259 257 36 1008

## Totals 18 261 695 577 554 81 2186

TABLE v (b).
Crimesagainst PropertywithViolence.

## Year Under 16 and 21 and 30 'and 40 and Over

Yea^r | 16 under21 under30 under40 under60 60 Totals

## 1925 19 591 1059 423 287 47 2426

1930 28 877 1389 506 327 61 3188

## Totals 47 1468 2448 929 614 108 5614

Superficiallyit would appear that Crimes against the Person have decreased at
each age, and Crimesagainst PropertywithViolencehave increasedat each age*.
The x2 forTable v (a) = 2-0207indicatinga value of P forsix cells of *8460; the
samples forthe two yearsmightaccordinglyhave arisenfromthe same population,
or we cannot by this test assert a fall in the five years of Crimes against the
Person.
Turning to Table v (b) we have X'2= 10-5304 with P' = 0626; this is not
absolutelyagainst the 1925 and 1930 resultsbeing samples of the same popula-
tion-if they were, one sample in about 17 would give a greater discrepancy
betweenthe two yearsthan the presentone-but it does not like the P of the x2
of thefirsttable suggestno change in the intensityof crimeforthe twoyears.
We may now turn.to the usual secondaryproblem: Is it likely that such
changesas are exhibitedin the two tables are compatiblewitha commonorigin?
We ask iftheX'2andx2 couldarisefromsamplingfroma common source.We do
not definethis commonsource; it maybe that both crimesagainst the personand
against propertywith violenceat each age are decreasingor are stationaryor are
*
It is to be notedthat the data pay no attentioni
to changesin the populationof each age group in
the fiveyears.
Applicationsin Statistics
320 FFurther of Tm(x) BesselFunction
increasing.None of these possibilitiesis definitelyruled out by an overwhelming
but some of themare not veryprobablein eitherone or othercase.
improbability,
We have to considerwhetherX'2and x2 are improbableas a resultof samplingfrom
a commonpopulation.
test will be the morestringent,but
Our Fig. 3 again showsthat the difference
we are not so farfromthe v = 6 curveas to believe the two tests will differmuch
in any inferenceto be drawnfromthem. We have at once,

## i X'1jX2- = 2 {-5- S2 (425485)J

= -0646,fromTable I.
Again =21
QX12/X2 1 (2'5, 2-5)
%X 1+5-2112R6
= 2I.16,oo
(2-5, 2 5)
0942, fromTable II.
=

## The differencetestis again morestringentthantheratiotest,theformer givesoddsof

16 to 1 and the latterof 10 to 1 roughlyagainsta commonbasis forthe twotables.
On the whole we should probablyconclude that the changes noted mightnot be
attributableto a commonsource,but we slhouldnot ventureto be dogmaticabout
such a conclusion. It will be noticed that the Pi,22 - 2 probabilityis almost the
same as the P' forJX'2, or the differencetest pays here little attentionto the
table in whichthere is a high probabilityof the two series being samples of the
same population.

## Illustration(vi). We will take furtherdata fromthe same source,and consider

whetherthe changesin the age distributionsof those convictedof simple larceny
in the years 1925 and 1930 can be contributedto some commoncause in the case
of the two sexes. The Tables vi (a) and vi (b) are taken from the Judicial
Statistics,England and Wales, Table X, p. 81, for1925, and Table X (A), p. 70,
for1930.

## Sex and Age of Personsconvicted

of SimpleLarcenyin Courtsof SummaryJuris-
diction(including
Juvenile
Courts),Englandand Wales,1925 and 1930.
TABLE vi (a).
Males.

## Year Under 14 and 16 and 21 and 30 and 40 and Over Totals

14 under16 under21 under30 under40 under60 60

## 1925 828 726 2682 4786 2775 2352 347 14496

1930 334 588 2662 4937 3273 2474 390 14658

## Totals 1162 1314 5344 9723 6048 4826 737 29154

KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 321

TABLE vi (b).
Females.

## Year Under 14 and 16 and 21 and 30 and 40 and Over Totals

14 under16 under21 under30 under40 under60 60

## 1925 59 54 172 460 489 537 5 1846

1930 17 36 123 455 516 618 61 1826

## Totals 76 90 295 915 1005 1155 136 3672

The main featureof the two tables is the decreasein juvenile and the increasein
adult thieving. Is the sourceof this the same forthe two series*?
The X'2for Table vi (a) is 272 6336, which forv = 7 connotesa probability
P' < 000,0001 forthe two yearsbeing samples ofthe same population. The x2 for
Table vi (b) is 42'7161, connotinga probabilityP < 000,0005 for the two years
being samples of the same population. Thus in the case of bothmalesand fenmales
therehas been a most significantchange in the age distributions.We then turn
to the problemof whetherthis change can be attributedto the same sourcein the
two sexes. We have
12/X2= 6 3825 and _
JX'2 Jx2= 114 95875.
Turiningto the ratio test first,
Qx/2/x2= 2I.i (3, 3)
= 0403.

On the ratio test accordinglythe odds are about 24 to 1 against twvosuch values,
x'2and x2,occurring, iftherewerea common source.We shouldsaythereforethat
it was unlikely,but not excessivelyimprobablethat the age changes in larceny
were the same forthe two sexes.
We next take the difference
test,
'2-i2=2 { ,5-S2. (114 95875)}.

The value of this S2.5 functionlies outside our table, but we can say it is con-
siderablygreaterthan 2.5(18) = -499,9996,or we have

## PJX2 - Jx2< *000,0008.

In otherwordsthe difference test showsthat the probabilityof the changesin the
two sexes being due to a commonsourceis so vanishinglysmall thatwe maysafely
assert that theyare notso due.
* The " source" or "Isources" may not be changesin the economicor moral state of thepopulation:
insteadof beingof sociologicaloriginthe sourcemaylie in policeregulations,or in juridicalclhanges;we
hazard no suggestion.
322 FurtherApplicatiou8in Statisticsof Tm (x) Bessel Function
conclusionthantheratiotestdoes. It maybe notedthat the marginaltotalsin
sizesof samples,theyare theactual
(v) and (vi) are notthearbitrary
Illustrations
populationsof criminalscaught and convictedand we cannot modifytheir
numbers.
typeof
(vii). We will now apply our methodsto a different
Illu,stration
namelyto testingwhether
investigation, themeansandvariancesofsmallsamples
are differentiated.
The following data are drawnfromDr M. H. Williams'measurementsofboys
aged 12 in ruralschoolsin Worcestershire*.

TABLE vii.
Schoolboys.
CentralHeightsin Inchesof 12 yearsold Worcestershire

Group 48 49 50 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 Totals

## School E ... ... 1 - 3 2 1 - 4 3 - 1 1 - - -- 16

SchoolF ...... ... - - - 2 3 4 1 4 1 - - 1 - - 16
Aggregate ... ... 2 1 8'5 22'5 24'5 27 45 50 38 32 18'5 4 6 5 - 1 285
Aggregate less E and F 2 - 8S5 19'Sa20'5 23 41 45 31 31 17'5 3 5 5 __ 1 253
ComnbinedE and F _ 1 - 3 4 4 4 5 i 7 1 1 1 1 - - - 32

Mean Variance 3

## School E ... ... 54"'0000 7'291,667

School F ... ... 54"`6875 4'006,510
Aggregate ... ... 54"'7105 6'539,012 '0085
A ggregate less E and F 54" 7569 6'128,3283 '0384
ComnbinedE and F ... 54"'34375 5'767,2526 '0163

## If we have no information as to the /31of the aggregate,whichsufficiently

indicatesthe symmetry we have (a) the experiencethatthe
of the distribution,
distributionof statureis veryapproximately normalfora givenage,and (b) the
evidencethatit is so fromthecombinedsamplesE and F. The normality of the
parentdistribution beingassumed,we can proceedto testthe hypothesis of the
equalityof the variancesforthetwoschools. The requisiteformula is deducible
fiom(xxxi),ifwe supposethemeansofthetwosamplesto be unequal.We have
p~~ 25- ( n(A2' - t12)

* "A StatisticalStudyof Oral Temperatures,"by M. H. Williams, M.B., Julia Bell, M.A. and Karl
Pearson. Studies in National Deterioration,Drapers' CompanyResearchMemoirs,No. IX, Table LXII,
p. 109, CambridgeUniversityPress.
KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERANDF. N. DAVID 323

## Now n = 16, /42 - Y2= 3-285,157,

/12 + P2= 11'298,177,
xn -Xn = *6875.

## Hence P, -2 = 2 {'5 -S7 (4 55698)}

=-228,37 by Table I.
It is thus quite possible that t2' and (2 would be equal, if the samples were
increased.
indefinitely
Let us considerwhat would happen if we took instead of the varianceof the
combinedsamples the varianceM2 of the aggregateof the Worcestershire schools,
i.e. 6-539,012. In this case the argumentof the Sm is
function
n/12 - 2 8 x 3-285,157
2 /2 6-539,012
and p2 y2= 2 t5- S7 (4-019,148)}
= *285,09.
This inakes the equality of the variance in differentschools somewhat more
probable,but still of much the same order,while if we take the aggregate less
Schools E and F, we shall get an intermediatevalue. This example suggeststhat
it will be adequate in manycases to use the variance of the combinedsamplesin
place of the usuallyunknownvarianceof the aggregate.
The appropriateequation to use when the samplesare of the same size forthe
ratiois (xliii), or since 2'/P,2= 1 819,955,we have
=
Q127102 21.3546(p5, 7to
= *258,01.
The differencetest is here slightly more stringentthan the ratio test, but
neitheris incompatiblewith the hypothesisthat the standarddeviationsmay be
the same in the two schools. The reader must be cautious in applyingFig. 3 to
such a case; he must not use '2' and /h2 as correspondingto X'2 and x2 and deter-
mine the point (Ff2', P2) an the diagram. If he did so,he wouldfindthat pointwell
outside the v = 16 curveand so concludethat the ratiotest was themorestringent.
Equations (xxix) to (xxxi) indicate that the correspondenceis between X'2 and
n/A2'/M2and %2 and np2/ the values
M2, or in our particularillustration,
16 x 7-291,667 ad16 x 4-006,51Oor
20-229 and 11-115.
5 767,2526 and 5 767,2526
Lookingthispointout on the diagramwefinditjust insidethev =16 curve,showing
test
that the tests will give approximatelyequal probabilities,but the difference
the smaller one. A like procedure must be adopted in testing on Fig. 3 the
relativestringencyof otherapplicationsof the two methods,i.e. we must inquire
fiom the argumentof the Sm fiunctionwhat values correspondto X12 and x2.
Comnmoni factorsdisappearingin the ratio are apt to mislead,when we apply the
differencetest.
324 Further Applicationsin Statistics of T,, (x) Bessel Function
It will be foundgenerallyadvisable to use (xxxi) instead of (xxx), unless a
preliminaryinquiryhas settled whetherX' and X, may be consideredequal. The
tests forthis may be practicallytreatedas twofold.
(a) If w; and Y, be the means of two samples of the same size taken froma
normalpopulationofstandarddeviationX,and the samplesbe perfectly independent,
then 2 - X1 will be distributed normally with standard deviation (212/n)i.
Accordinglyif we formthe ratio
- 71) Vn
(X2

we can test forits probabilityby the integralof the normal curve. When we do
not knowthe parent population,the best value to give to Z appears to be that of
the combinedsamples. But here a question arises: Should 2 be taken equal to
2 (i2' + 42), whichit would be if actuially\$2= \$1-our hypothesis-or to
i (2' + /12) + 4 (-\$2
whichis the observedvalue? We inclineto the latteralternative. Accordingly
(-72)-Vn1)
'%)n -6875 x4 8097
v/I2 + /2 + i (\$2- l2 411v534,5O5
in our presentcase.
The probabilityof a ratio as large as or larger than this is *20906,and taking
the possibilityof either sign for x2- x, we have *4181 for the chance of a
deviationof this size. The test thereforeindicates that it wouldbe legitimateto
considerthe difference between Z2 and xl as due to randomsampling.
If we take for 12 the value 6-539,012of the aggregate, whichwould render
our theorymore accurate*, we find the probability= 4470, and although this
to some extentfrom4181, it leads to preciselythe same conclusion.
differs
(b) XYe may adopt "Student's z test." Here the same assumption of
normalityforthe parentpopulationis made,but we divide X2 - \$1 by the observed
= V/(/I2
standarddeviationof the difference + p1) Thus in our case

*=6875 *20454,
V11298,177
fromwhichwe obtain the chance of the mean difference of the samples lyingout-
side + 6875 to be *4406,a value lying between the two values deduced from
method(a), and thus confirmingthe resultthat the schoolsveryprobablyhave-the
same mean statureforboys of 12.
But to assume thismakesno sensibledifference alreadydrawn
in the concluisions
with regardto the variancesof the two samples.

## Illustration(viii). The followingdata forpulse rate and oral temperatureare

taken fromthe memoirreferredto in the last Illustration,Table XI, p. 84.
* Not absolutelyso, because the theoryassumes that we sample froman indefinitely
large popula-
tion,and that this populationis strictlynormal.
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 325

TABLE viii.
in Children.
Pulse Rate and BodyTemperature
Pulse Rate

Body 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76
Temperature 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67971 73 75 7TOta1

A. 98A4... ... 3 7 6 5 1 - -- .
_ 22
B. 994 ... ... - 2 2 8 5 3- 2 - 22
A and B.. ... _. 3 7 8 7 9 5 3 - 2 - 44
All Temperatures 3 33 91 189 272 134 88 34 12 7 2 2 - 1 1 869

## Before we discuss our samples let us ascertain somethingabout the parent

population,of which of course we might have no knowledge,or we might not
knowthat pulse rate curvesin childrenare veryskew. We findthat the following
of the distribution:
are the chiefconstanlts
Mean = 56-8665, Variance= M2 = 101732,8.53,
Standard Deviation = = 3X276,103,
d = 97i,479, /2= 6 159,378,
decidedlyskew and also markedlyleptokurtic.
the distributioncurveis therefore
The distributionof means would have forits constantsin the case of samples
of 22:
Mean = 56-8665, Variance - M2 -487,857,
n
B I
- 04=)44,158, B2= 3 + /2-3=- 3143,608.
n n
This is not verywidelyremovedfrorna normaldistribution,and we might well
conclude that a normal distributionforthe means,as we do not know the true
curve,wouldbe sufficientin thiscase. An examinationofthechartofthe 1,,82plane*
indicatesthat the corresponding Pearson curvewouldbe Type IV, but that we are
so close to the Gaussian point,that the normalcurve would be likelyto give us
quite reasonable results. Hence we are thrownback on (at) or (b) of the last
Illustration.We have
_
(Z2-\$1)
Y2-
_ 5n-
yl) _Vn 5727,2727
= 5 727,2727 21= Vi 5 798,1076 .......(liv).
IV2- 3-276)103
This correspondsto a probabilityof about 000,000,007 of such a difference
occurring,if we based our investigationon a knowledgeof the parentpopulation.
It means that samples confinedto temperatures98.40 cannot be consideredas
randomlychosenor that thereis, whichwe knowthereto be, a correlationbetween
pulse rate and body temperature.But what are we to do if we do not knowthe
* See p. 66, Tablesfor Statisticians,Part I.
BiometrikaXXIV 21
in Statistics
326 FurtherApplications of Tm.(x) BesselFunction
actual parentpopulation,but suppose it forgood reasonto be skew? We may put
our data as follows:
Pulse-Rate

## A. BodyTemperature 9840... 54-454,546 4-460,055 024,044

B. Body Temperature 994?...4 60-181,818 8-997,245 '343,350
A and B combined ... ... 571318,182 14*929,068 *237,756
Aggregateofall Temperatures 56-866,513 10'732,853 '971,479

## Now assumingthat pulse ratescan be approximatelygivenby a Type III curve,

we turn to equations (xxiii) and (xxiv). Consideringfirstthe argumentof the
we see that the firstvalue of Y in (xxiv) would be appropriateif we
T,, function,
knewthe mean and modal pulse rates,but the latterinvolvesthe determinationof
the mode. Now we can determinethese quantitiesfromEquation (viii). We have
p = -1 = 4 117,433 in the present case, * = a (1 + )and a= 7' 1 hence

## a= a'Vi +p. Thus, forthe presentcase,

4 117,433 x 3'276,103 5-962,908.
/V5'117,433 '
Mean - mode a = a 1'448,210,
p
and -1 modal pulse rate,accordingly,
is given by
= 55'418,303.

Now Y= (- +P -f X)
and forour particularcase
Y= 87'003,946.
Again,the curve being given by
Z = JNTn (p + l) -i (Y)

## and n (p + 1)- - 112'083,526,we have, forthe distributionof Y,

z = jN T112.0s( Y),
and we need the area beyond87'003,946.
But neitherTm(Y) nor Smn ( Y) is tabled to such orderof the functionor to such
an ordinate. We turn thereforeto p. 297, where we see that afterm = 11'5 the
Tm(Y) functioncoincideswith Pearson'sType VII curve. In orderto obtain this
Type VII curve,we must write,forthe p + i in (xviii), p. 297, n (p + 1) - i of the
presentnotation.It then transforms to
z =2 Z.......(lV).
= Zo ~~
~~y2 \n (p + 1)+ r (v

4( (p + 1) {ft(p + 1) + 1)
* T is measuredfromstartof the pulse ratecurve,whereasT.' and x,, are absolutevalues of the means.
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 327

## In our particularcase n (p + 1) + 2-5= 115-083,526,but forsuch values a Type VII

curveis forall practicalpurposesa normalcurve,i.e.
Y2 {n (p + 1) + 2-5}

## Substitutingthe value of Y, this becomes

n(.'- _)2 n(p+l)+2
22 n (p+1)?l 5
z = Zoe

but the latterfactorin the exponentis unityto the same degree of accuracyas we
have used in passing fromthe Type VII to the normalcurve.
Thus our Bessel functionTm(Y) curvehas reducedto the normalcurve
2Zn ' - x.)
222
z =Ze (1vi),
=zoe-* .......................
not compatiblewithbeing randomsamples fromthe pulse rate population.
It may seem a misfortunethat the example chosen does not fall within the
range of Table I.- We will accordinglytry if we have any better luck with the
portantpoint must be borne in -mind,\$n' and \$n are not the absolute means,but
thosemeans measuredfromthe startofthe curve. We musttherefore subtracta or
5 962,908fromZ the modalvalue or 55-418,303,to get the startof the curvewhich
is accordinglyat 49-455,398pulse rate*. Thus we have
=n -60O181,818 - 49 455,398= 10O726,420
and Xi = 54 454,546 - 49455,398 = 4-999,148,
givingthe ratio\$'/\$ = 2-145,650,or
QE,/=2I.j79o(112-583,526, 112-583,526).

## Again we findno such high values of the incompleteB-functionhave been tabled.

Writingm for112-583,526,we have
31l790o
J:xm-1 (1 x
x)m-1dx
QXn'/2n= 2 1 -
(m-1 x)m-ldx
0

## Put x, x-a' gives us

and the transformation
= .5

-
( _,'2)mdx'

test foreesus
* It mustbe remarkedthat in this case as in othersthe ratio as well as the difference
to make appeal by way of knowledgeor of hypothesisto the real or supposed parent population. See
furtheron this point p. 328, ftn.
21-2
328 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof Tm(x) Bessel Function
But m is so large thatwe can safelyreplaceourcurveby the normalcurve,and thus
Jr5 e_4mw'2 dx'
Q\$n'ln=2+.5
=2 1821 d'
e-4MX/2 dxt
Write 4mx'2= - 42, and we have

Q7 nIlx-=21;_ 7ree d.
\8rnx1821

## x -= 14-93877and may be replacedforthis integralby oo and

Now /8mn
V/8mx1821=54407;

thus -2f - .2
QF
or,using the probabilityintegraltable of the normalcurve, -000,000,05. Thus we
see that on the ratio hypothesisthe randornnessof the two samnples
is onlyslightly
less improbablethan on the difference test. Both involvea knowledgeof thepulse
ratedistribution.It nmay be asked,what can we learnwithoutthisknowledge?The
replymustbe that we can onlyworkwith the combinedA and B as representing
to some extent*(!) the generalpulse rate distribution.This gives
/31= 237,7557, o:= 3 863,8146, p + 1 = 16 823,9941

## and Y= 2_ :T2 = 133 757,708,

= n (p + 1)-
in1 = 365 627,8?71,
or z = INT35.627,8n (1337 57,708),
a value still fartherremovedthan beforefromthe range of m and Y in the Tmand
Sm tables, and still more appropriateto the application of a normal curve. The
* In manycases probablywe could appeal to experienceas to what sortof value is likelyto take;
/l
we knowits value formanytypesof variate,weight,pulse rate,barometerheights,etc. If we do not have
any suggestionfromexperience,the onlyvalue we can take is thatobtainedfromthecombinedsamples,
even if it appears ludicrousto find81 on fortycases. But is it afterall verymuch more absurd than
findinga varianceon twentycases,whichtheproblemalso requires?Again,itmaybe said thatthedifference
testmakes moreappeal to or hypothesesabout the supposed or knownparentpopulationthan the ratio
testdoes. But the reader mustnot forgetthat the whole theoryof x'2in relationto x2 is based on the
assumptionthat the relative frequenciesof the parent population may be replaced by the relative
frequenciesof the combinedsamples. This is clear enoughif we approach x2 as Pearson has done in
Bionietrika,Vol. viii. p. 252.
If FR/Jllbe the relationfrequencyof the sth categoryof the parentpopulationM, thenthe truex2 iS
givenby
'
SsS'NN N';/
f8I\2 /E,
(N +N') /MN
F8
and it is not till we put A ,fX,i.e. the relativefrequencyof the combinedsamples, thatwe obtain
JIl N?+N'')
the value given by various writersforX2.In otherwords,the verybasis of the x2 methodis an appeal
to the combinedsample relativefrequenciesas a representationof an infiniteparentpopulation. The
weakniessof this whenthe samples may consistof 10 to 20 individualsis onlytoo obvious.
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 329

## normalcurve in question will be that given by (lvi). We mustnow writeforg in

(liv) o-,forX, or 3-863,8146for3-276,103,and we obtain
?= 4-916,178,
givinga probability
=
PF Xn -000000,88,
notnearlyso stringentas the resultwhenwe knowthe parentpopulation,but amply
between the mean pulse
sufficientto indicate that there exists a real difference
rates at temperatures 98.40 and 99 4?.
We have based the above investigationon the assumption that the parent
population was a Type III curvewitha considerableskewness,but we reach the
importantconclusionthat,even witha f81of order1 0, it will be adequate to apply
the normalcurve as describingthe distributionof samples; with smallersamples
and stillgreaterskewnessin theparentpopulation,i.e.p smnaller,them = n (p + 1)-1
may be small enough to come into the range of our Sm table, or to bring
Iz {n (p + 1), n (p + 1)}
into the range,n (p + 1) = 50, of the B-functiontables.
whenwe turnto test the standarddeviationsof the pulse rates
Unfortunately
of temperatures 98.40 and 99.40 we are somewhat at a loss fora method, for,as faras
we are aware,no one has so farfounda curvegivingthe distributionof eitherthe
standarddeviationsor the variancesof samples froma Type III curve. All we can
provide at presentis a curvehaving the same firstfourmomentsas the required
curve. To do so would lead us somewhataway fromthe main topic of the present
paper. We can, however,give anotherillustrationof Equation (xxxi) if we assume
that we shall not go far wrongby using the Type III distributionof 2 to apply
approximatelyto this case.
we easily
If we confineour attentionto the two samples and theircombination,
findfromithe table on p. 326, that
( i 2' ( -
it2) = 35343,9825 =
11 x445379)4

## and m=I(v-2)= (u-2)=10.

Thus PA = 2 {( 5 - Sio (3 343,0825)}
=-4532 fromTable I.
If we had used the variance of the total temperaturecurve,i.e. 10732,853,
we shouldhave foundP,l,,- = -3000.
Both indicate that it is not unreasonableon our hypothesisto suppose the
varianceof the two samples the same. Turningnowto the ratiotest,we have,since
/12//P2= 2 017,2946,
= 211,b (10T5,10I5)
-*1159 by Table II.
330 Fuirther
Applicationsin Statistics
of Tmn
(x) BesselFunction
This is not entirelyopposed to the equality of the two standarddeviations,but
gives that equality onlya fourthof the probability.Thus forthe firsttimein these
illustrationsthe ratiogives the morestringenttest. Let us see if thiswoulda priori
have been indicatedby Fig. 3, p. 308; we nmust take

forX12:?U2 andforX2: /2
~M2M2
where M2S=i (p2' +.tj) + j ("- )2 = 14-929,063,or 6 6293 and 3-2862 are the
required values. The diagram indicates that this point is well outside the curve
v = 22, and thus the ratio will give the morestringenttest.
We have forthe purposeof illustrationused throughoutboth tests,but Fig. 3,
p. 308, willalwaysenable the investigatorto choosea priori the testwhichprovides
the lesserprobability.
(16) We next turn to the importantproblemof determiningfromthe mean
square contingencieswhethertheymay be consideredas samples froma common
parentpopulation.Now if we have a x x X contingencytable,whereK 3 X,the mean
square contingency )12 must lie between 0 and X -1.
Thus as faras a Pearson curve may be consideredapplicable-this is our first
condition-it must theoreticallybe of the limitedrange typeor ofform
y = yo [d/12].....................
( i2Y'I (p - 0112p2 (lvii),
wherep= X-1. In the case of such a curveof knownrange the values of pl and
P2 can be determinedin termsof the mean 012 and of the variance. Let these be
412
and a then we have

1) (
pi +1 = +1)2 (4 (P- *.) (
lviii).
P2+1 =(-0) ( _1)-1

Now when the size of the sample is fairlylarge,the varianceof 012 will be a small
quantitycomparedwiththe productof the two segmentsof the range as divided
by the mean S612,i.e. 4.12 (p - 012).
The mostunfavourablecase forthe largenessof eitherpi or p2 occurswhenthey
are nearlyequal and N the size of the sampleis small. For example,if 4i2= *5and
a'2,L2 is of the order*01and Kc= X = 2, thenpl = P2 = 11 . (lvii) becomes in this case
a Type II curve and the distributionof means of samples fromsuch a curvehas
not yet been solved in any practicallyuseful manner. But the /82 forthis case is
about 2-8 and we should not errgreatlyby treatingthe distributionas practically
normal*, and then the distributionof the means of 2 wouldalso be normal.
ProfessorKondo has made a second experimentfora 3 x 3 table withN= 250
(loc. cit.in footnotebelow, pp. 441, 419-420). The numberof cells is here again
* ProfessorKondo (Biometrika,Vol. xxi. pp. 416-418) has dealt with a case of this kind. He has
dealt with the observedmean and variance of 012 in 804 samples of 100, froma parentpopulationof
0i2= 5; here the observedvalue of 12=499,8005 renderedthe curveslightlyskew.
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 331

## verylimited,but any one who has endeavouredto take severalhundredsamples of

contingencyfor2 x 2 tables will appreciatethe amountof labour involved. In this
second experimentp2 is large, and it would be adequate practicallyto replace
(lvii) by
P2
02
P
e..............................
y = yo (012)Pl (lix).
If pi were the larger,we should have to measureour variate012 fromthe otherend
of the range and it would be the termwith powerpi whichwould be replacedby
the exponential. If thereforeeitherpi orpg be large,we can writeour distribution
of 4)2
y = YO (je4)12)pl e -.eq5l ....................... (lix bis),
wherele = 7, and pi and P2 are given by (lviii). In this case the distributionof
p
4)i/2 - 2)12,if the samples are of the same size and the same numberof cells, is
given by
z =iMTpl +is (4)i2- (lx),

## and the probabilityofa difference

as great or greateris given by

p12/,12
= 1-2S 1+1ije (01t2 -12)1 . (xi).

## probabilityof the ratio 4)'2/4)2 is given by

The corresponding
Q '12012 = 2I 1 (pi + 1,pi + 1) . (xii).
11 +,01/2/,012

## Thus the difference test involvesthe determinationof one moreconstantP2 than

the ratiotest withpi only. But thisdoes notmuchincreasethe labour,as pl already
involvesa knowledgeof both 4)12 and a2s, which are the laboriousquantitiesto
determine. The values of these quantities to a secondapproximationare given in
the memoirby Professor Kondo,alreadyreferred to. We willnowdiscussspecialcases.

## (17) The problemto be discussedin this sectionis to findthe probabilitythat

two values 4)1t2 and 012 of mean square contingencycould have been obtainedfor
samplesof the same size, N, the same numberofcells,K x X,witha parentpopula-
tioinofzero contingency.
In this case we knowthat approximately*

)N(1.+ (lxiii),

## = )( (1+ ' .(Ixiv).

o?l N2(-)(-)4 N 2Nf)

## We might computethese forany given case N, fc,X, and then substitutein

(lviii). But as the approximationis onlyof the second order,we can save workers
some troubleby making the substitution,algebraicallyneglectingin the process
termswhichwe are not warrantedin retaining.
* Kondo, loc. cit. p. 408.
332 FiurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof Tm^
(x) Bessel Function
Rememberingthat p = X - 1, if X < K, and calling F the factorcommonto pi
andp2, we have
_
F=,1 =W -1 IV (X-_1) {1 + N+ (C-1)(X1 (v + i)} (Iv),

## wherev = (c -1) (X-1)-c -2)- 2

Now

plj+ l= xF=i(K-1)(X-1) (1 + ){ (- (v +
p N2~N N
1+ v+ ( 1 ( 1)(v +
+) + V ...(lxvi).

## For the extremecase of N-.*oo, we see that pi+ 1 (Kc-1)(X- 1), or we

have forthe ratio test
Qo'121,12=2I 1 {j(K-1) (X-1), (K-1) (X-1)}.
1+ r1,2/012

## For thex2 testwe found

Qx2/x2=2 1 {(v - 1), (v -1),
1 + x/2/X2

so that we cannotpass to the 012 test by writingmerelyv = KX. This would only
be true if Kcand X were verylarge indeed,whichwould be veryrare in practical
work. For the like reasonpi + i can onlybe taken as i (v - 2), wherev = KcX,when
notonlyN is verylarge but (c + X - 2)/(KX)is a verysmall fraction.For example,if
K = X= 10, or a contingencytable of 100 cells,whichis veryunusual,we can hardly
assertthat 18/100is a verysmall fraction.
Next turningto p2 we have

P2 + 1 = I N X- 1) {1-K N (1 + )(1+ + (1 X1
- - 2) (v +
=IN(x 1) (1+ v (c- 1)+ ( l 1)
{(X -}) . ..(xvii).

## Illustration(ix). Suppose K = X = 5 and N= 400, what is the probabilitythat

012= *02 and 01'2= =07 could both be drawnas samples of N froma population of
zero contingency?
Here we findfrom(lxiii) and (lxiv) that 4i 2= -040,100, and a 2v,02= 0001,9199,
whilep = X - 1 = 4.
We may now proceed to findp, and P2 either from(lviii), or from(lxvi) and
(lxvii). We cannotsay that (lviii) is moreaccurate than (lxvi) and (lxvii),because
in (lviii) we retain termswhich are of an order we have neglected in (lxiii) and
(lxiv), and whichoughtto be neglectedbecause theyhave beernneglectedin passing
from(lvii) to (lix). Workingwith (lviii) we findfirstfrom(lxiii) and (lxiv),
f12==040,100, U2 12 = 0001,9199,
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 333

## whencethe commonfactorF= 826-0847. Furtheri12/p= -010,025,and

1 +- = .989,975,
p
pi= 7-2815 and p2 =816-7803.
Workingwith(lxii) we have at once
V= 16-3- =12-5,
whence F= 800 (1 + *03125+ *0013)= 826-0400.
Thus p,= 7-2811 and P2 = 816'7589.
We see thereforethat the two methodsaccordwell,and furtherthatP2 is so
where se = 204,1897.
large that (lix bis) will adequatelyexpressthe distribution,
Finally,by (lxi), the probabilityof the occurrenceof the difference
01 -2_ 12 = .05
is given by P12_2= 1- 287.7815(10 2095).
And again = 21222,2n2
Q0l8/IL2 (832815,8 2815).
Both involve a twofoldinterpolationwith regardfirstto the arguments,and
secondlyto the ordersof the functions.For the purpose of appreciatingthe pro-
babilitiesthe hyperbolicformula* will suffice.From Table I we find
(102095) = *4920,0818
S7-7815
and thus POL,2_0L2= -01598.
Again fromTable II we have
1.222,222(8-2815, 8'2815) = *008,324,230,
and accordingly Qo1t2/12 = *01665.
Such values would onlylead us to say that it is notveryprobablethat 01'2 and
were samples froma population having zero contingency.Here, as so often,
the difference test is, if onlyslightly,still morestringentthan the ratio test.
In orderto determinethis'a priorifromourdiagram,Fig. 3, p. 308, we mustfirst
findv fromthe relationi (v - 2) = 7-7815, or v = 17-563. The curvecorresponding
to this is nearly mid-waybetweenthe curvesforv = 17 and 18. Corresponding to
x2 and RX2we have Eq12 and e-112, or 8+1676and 28-5866. This point is just inside
the v = 18 curveand so clearlywithinthe v = 17-563curve; thusthe difference test
is the morestringent.
(18) The previoussection indicates that the solution of the problemof two
mean square contingenciesarisingas samplesfromthe same populationis relatively
easy,if that populationhas zero contingency.This followsfrointhe factthat the
approximateexpressionsfor 12 and a0,i2 are knownand relativelysimnple.In the
case where the contingencyis not zero the problenm is muchharder,as although
approximateexpressionsare knownfor012 and cr2al2they are laborious to determine
in particularcases.
* Tablesfor Statisticiansand Biometricians,Part II. Formula (a), p. xviii,i.e.
= + oXzol+ 0&Zio+ Xz1'-.................................... (lxviii).
tzx 00oo
334 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof Tm(x) Bessel Function
Illustration(x). We will firstillustrate the method in a particularexample
providedby Kondo and then considerwhat is needed in order that the values of
Kondo took 250 samplesof size 200 froman infinitepopulationofa 3 x 3 table
withthe followingproportionalfrequencies*:

## 0831 '0786 '0270 1887

'1032 '2864 *0862 *4758
*0335 *1235 '1785 '3355

## From this table Rondo computes

(i2= '206,503, a20 ,,2=
-0043,3796.
Clearlyp = X-1 = 2, and thus
=
4Pi2/p '103,2515 and p - 2= 1793497.
Using Equations (lviii) we find
pi= 7'712,064, P2 = 74'665,056,
onlydifferingslightlyfromKondo's valuest. P2 is considerable,and we take it that
the distributioncurveof 012may be reasonablyrepresentedby (lixbis), or

## Y = Yo' j (74'665,056 pL2)7 n2,0A e-i(74 "w05f)0i2.

Accordinglythe chance of a difference as great as or greaterthan -
J1'2 2
ob iS
= 1 - 2S8.U2,06
P,L,2-L2 [j74'665,056 (OI'2 -12)}

## and the chance of a ratio at least as great as f1'2/42is

= 21 + 1 (8'712,064,8'712,064).

Now Kondo has given the 250 values of 412 whichhe obtainedforhis samples;
the largestof these is '370,502 and the least '054,2014. Let us inquirewhatis the
chanceof such a difference occurringin samplesof 200 takenfromthe table above.
The difference
01'2 '316,301 and the ratio 1't2/012= 6'835,704; hence we
-_ =

require
S8.21,064(11'808,316),
and (8'712,064,8'712,064).
IL27,6n
Using the hyperbolicinterpolationformula(lxviii), we find
S8=212,00'(11808,316)=496,3113,
and .127,621(8'712,064, 8'712,064) = 000,111,08.
Accordingly p,L,2_,2= '007,3774 and QOL,/,OL2= '000,222,16.
' Biometrika, Vol. xxi. p. 411.
t Biometrika, Vol. xxi. p. 419. 1 Ibid. p. 412.
KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERANDF. N. DAVID 335

## Referringto Fig. 3, p. 308, we have to enterwith e4)'2= 27 66, epl2= 4 05 and

v = 18 424, or since this point lies well below even the v = 18 curve the ratio test
is here the more stringent.With 250 samples of 200 we should expect by the
difference test 1'8 cases witha 12 differenceas greatas or greaterthan-316. Kondo
experimentally foundone,but a second*313 runs it close. By the ratio test we
should expect only -0555,say 06 of a case in 250 samples. Thus whiletheratiotest
is the morestringentin this particularcase, the difference test accordsbetterwith
Kondo's experience,and would determinemoreaccuratelythe rangeof 4)2 in such
an experimient. It maybe remarkedthatneitherKondo'smaximumnorhisminimum
41 2 s are outlyingvalues; theyrun:
At top -370,502,-367,532, 362,669, .343,805,
and at bottom'054,201, -063,055,-080,840,*098,408.
Thus the two methodscould not be broughtmore into accordanceby the ornission
of an exceptionaloutlyer. Assumingthe arithmeticto be correct,and it has been
carefullychecked,this case seems to be of importanceas an indicationof the value
of the difference test whensubjectedto experimentalverification.
The above illustrationshowsthat thereis no difficulty in applyingthe difference
test to two values of 4)12, if the parent populationwith a definitecontingencybe
supposedknownand the twosampleshave thesame size and thelikecell distribution,
provided412 and a2012 can be determined.When we have no real or hypothetical
parent population,our only method is to suppose the parent population to be
obtainedfromthe combinedsampleswhichare used to give the relativefrequencies.
(19) The problemremains as to what can be done to simplifythe labour of
obtaining412 and a2,os in the case ofcontingency
tableswitha reasonablylargesize
of sample. Now ProfessorKondo has shown* that,to a secondapproximation,

S612 C+ -N IV2 1
_
+ 2)2t*@--@6@?6s6**li
............(lxix),
=f, *2
(2+1 +

## where*1, #2, fi, f2 are functionsof the relativefrequenciesof the parentpopulation

-i.e. of its cell frequencieson the basis of a totalfrequencyof unityt-and 012 is
the mean squared contingencyof the same population++.
Now if we substitutethesevalues in (lviii),theexpressionsforPi and p2 become
verycomplicated,even if we onlyretainthe firsttwo termsin the expansion. We
get simpleresultsif we retainonlythe leading term. In this case
-
-(2i 2)( ei2)

.
-
............(lxx).
N4)i2(P )i2)2}
P2 = f
* Biometrika,Vol. xxi. p. 413.
t They are in factthe chances thatan individualwill be drawnfromeach particularcell.
T 012 is of course the mean of the mean squared contingency of samples and only approaches\$,2
as N is increased.
in Statisticsof Tl,,(x) BesselFunction
336 FurtherApplications
These expressionsdo not contain #l, #2 orf2, whichwould not thereforerequire
calculation. How farcan (lxx) be used instead of (lviii) and the fullerbut still
incompleteresults(lxix)? This cannot be determinedtill far more experimental
workhas been undertakenon the twosetsofapproximations.We mayplace herethe
formulaefromwhichOi2 and fi are to be determined.Let Cpq be the chance that an
individualwill be drawn fromthe pth rowqth column,Cp. the chance that it may
be drawnfromanywherein the pth rowand C.q fromanywherein the qth column.
q=x
C.q)and Cp. = S
Let Cpq = Cpq/(cp. Cpq, i.e.thesumoftheCpq forthepth row; in the
q=1

same mannerlet C., S Cpq or be the sum of C., forthe qth column. Then
p=1
=12 (Cpq) - 1 ....... "I (lxxi),
whereX denotesa summationforthe wholetables,and
f4= (42pq\ -( q (C 2q +
21 . *..(lxxii).
p..
Cpq p= ' Cp. q=1 C.q /Cpq

## A sampleof the actual workingrequiredto obtainan fi is providedon the following

page, it is forthe table of Kondo's on p. 334 of this paper. It is considerable,but
not prohibitivefora table of 3 x 3 cells. We can now illustratethe approximate
formulae(lxx) on this case where
2i= .188,8925, p= 2, f= 804,0440.
These give us p,= 7 0370 and p2= 76-0590,whereaswhenwe use (lviii) with the
fullervaluesgivenby Kondo for412 and c24,12we have pi = 7-7121and p2 = 74-6651*.
We shall have is = 38-0295,and accordingly
PO12_12 = 1- (12-0288).
2S7.070
From Table I we find
(12 0288) = *4971,7440
S7.5370
and accordingly P12_,a2 = -00565.
Thus in 250 samples we might expect 1-4 occasions on which a differenceas
great as or greaterthan that observedwould arise. Accordinglywe have actually
approachednearerto the experimentalresultby using the less approximatevalues
For such a table as we are dealing with,it is clear that Equations
of 012, and -2?12.
(lxx) will amplysufficeforpracticalpurposes.
(20) We can still furtherextendthe usefulnessof our Tm.(Y) functionand its
probabilityintegral to many cases wvherewe wish to investigatethe difference
betweentwo squared correlationratios or two squared multiplecorrelationcoeffi-
cients. If these be 2 and R2,those quantitiescan only varybetween0 and 1, and
an appropriatecurve fortheirdistributionswill be
y= yo (I 2)p, (1 -_ 2)P2 ..(lxxiii).
or =-YO
(R2) p,(1 _R2) p2.........

*
Kondogivesfi = 801,842,butwe have failedto finda slip in our arithmetic.This leads to p=7 7059,
p.2= 76-271 and PIP1 ~=J 00490.
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 337

## c21q -0069,0561 -0061,7796 -0007,2900 Cl. = S (COq)= 246,7601

ClpCgq *0414,7626 *0921,7995 *0550,4379 C21.=o0608,9055
clq *166,4955 i067,0206 013,2440 C2i =-322-6844
C2Iq *0277,2075 *0044,9176 *0001,7540 Cl.
C2lq/clq *333,5830 057,1471 *006,4963 S (21q\ = 397,2264
Clq/Clq 2-003,5560 *852,6794 *490,5185 \q
Cl /

## C22q *0106,5024 *0820,2496 *0074,3044 C2.=S (C2q)=508,2788

C2.C
cq *1045,8084 *2324,2830 -1387,9086 C22. = -2583,4734
C2q -101,8374 *352,9044 *053,5370 C22.5429747
C22q 0103,7086 1245,4152 *0028,6621 c '
C2 2qlC2q *100,4928 *434,8517 *033,2507 (2< -568,5952
Q9q/C2q -986,7965 1-232)2081 *621,0789 C2q ,

## C23q *Q011,2225 *0152,5225 *0318,6225 C3. = S ( C3q) = -433,8536

C3. C.q '0737,4290 *1638,9175 *0978,6535 C23. = -1882,2890
03q -015,2184 -093,0629 -325,5723 C023.
C23q 0002,3160 *0086,6070 1059,9732 - = *561,0401

6370,8631

## C.q C.1= -2198 c.- *=4885 c.3= -2917 c.. =1-0000

=
C.q | 283,5513 512,9879 -392,3533 | Cptht1?188,8925
Ithuis~2= 188,8925

Sv C2p) 1-426,6992
c2.q -0804,0134 -2631,5659 -1539,4111 CP
(Sq = 1-432,2344

qCL
Cq~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
-365,7932 -538,7034 -527,7378 2 (CC-PY=I+S2. +S3.
= 1-636,6847

p=3(-('0 1) S p (P2
(0=3
c ) | S C ) | pyCp. C")
p=1 Cpq pJ1 p=1 (ilCPI
Cpl CP2 p=1 Cp (,p
= 1-1930,5669 =1 1636,4101 =1-2280,4222 9 1-4170530
Sarmex C.q *33812928 -596,9338 -481,8264

Finally,by (lxxii),
=4 x 1-636,6847- 3 x 1-426,6992- 3 x 1-432,2344+ 2 x 1-417,0530
= -804,0440.
Applicationsin Statisticsof Tm(x) Bessel Function
338 Fuqrther
Curves of this formare knownto be accuratewhenwe are samplingfroma popula-
tion,whereinthereis no correlationofcharacterand thedistributionis ofnormaltype.
Equations (lviii) to findpi and p2 will then apply and we may writethem
2
pl + l s(f 2,9 ), p2+1=(-s) df-)

## p+1 R2(RS (I - )- 2),p2+i = (1_ 2) (2 ( ...(XXiV).

The values ofp, and p2 can be determinedif the mean and varianceof '2 or R2 be
known.
If eitherp, or p be large,say p2, we are thrownback on the Type III curve
y= Yo' (J2P2 92)P,e-42P2 ,2 l (lxv)
or y= yo'(J2p2 R2)Pi e Jxv),
R2.l
and accordinglythe distributionof the differenceof the ,2 of two samples,or the
R2, will be given by
y _MT= 11 I.2(n12 _ n2)} .
i (lxxvi),
or y= iMITp,T+1
{pp(R2 _ R2)}
and Table I can be applied, or
(fl'2 _ .
PI, _2 = 1-2Spl+j {P2 2) . (lxxvii).
and PR,2 _ R2 = 1 - 2Spl+j{p2(R2 _ R2)} .......

It is needlessto add that the ratio test can be also used in such cases, or
Q,,21/,,=2I __ (pl+l,pl+1)

and QR2/R
= 1
2I 1 (p + 1 + 1. (lxxviii).
1+ R12/R2

## Here as beforewe need apparentlyonlypi to findQ, but we have actuallyto find

or we have no justificationforreplacing(lxxiii) by (lxxv)
P2,

## Illustration. In the special case of a niormalpopulation with uncorrelated

characters,we knowthat
p1= ?(n-3), p2=i(N- n-2) .................. (lxxix),
wherefor q2, N is the size of the sample and n the number of arrays on which
I is based,while forR2, N is again the size of the sample and n total numberof
variates considered,i.e. the dependentvariate and n - 1 variateswith whichit is
multiplycorrelated.
Now it is obvious that in a verylarge numberof cases N will be large,often
verylarge as comparedwithn. In such cases (lxxv) will apply,and we may write
p?2 _ 2= 1 - 2Sj(n-2) {i (N-n - 2)(q'2 f2)} (lxxx)) -

## and forthe case ofthe ratio,

Qq,2/q2=21 1 {.(n-1), (n-l)}

## R 1 (-1), (- 1)} ............ (lxxx bis).

1 + R12)R2
KARL PEARSON,S. A. STOUFFERAND F. N. DAVID 339

## The length whichthis paper has alreadyreached hindersour providingspecial

numericalexamples forthis section,but they would only be similar in type to
thoseof the earliersections,and accordinglylittleharmwill be done by theiromis-
sion.
(21) A limitationwhich detractssomewhatfroma full use of the present
of samples whichare not of the same size.
In this case our two originalequationsare of the form
M(Yr,+1 uT ' and My2'r\$1
YU = F Qr+ l)le-Yll yv (T2+1)VrSe 2v

## and the combinedfrequencysurfaceis given by

IV= MY" x YV M7( r+l)r(2 + l) e-Yju+y,v) Ur, VrT [du dv] . . .(lxxxi).
Let us firstapproachthisfromthe standpointof the ratioofv to u, and writez = v/u.
Then (lxxxi) becomes

1 (T1 + 1) 1 (ra + 1)
Write = (ryl + rY2Z) u and we have

W M1r+1 '(
F(fM(Tj 2+
*
1)e e-t~rTT+r2+1 [d4dz].
t+ir(2 (71T+ + ry2Z)rl+r2+2
z7)T+2+

## Keeping z constantintegrateout for ~, the limits of which will be from0 to X

correspondingto u from0 to oo. Thus we find
W l71r1+17y2 r,+1 Zr'3z .......(xxi Z)?r[zlrsxi
W B(1 + 1, T +? ) (Y1+72

## forthe distributioncurvesof the ratio.

Now put Z'= zy2/1ey and integratefor the probabilityP'z0 of a ratio greater
than zo,
7111r+172r2+1 (0 zTsdz
B (T; + 1, T2 + 1)) ....(xxi) (lxxxiii).
=
(7y + 72Z)rj+T2+2 .

## Now put ! + and hencedz dy; furtherwhenz =oo, y=O, and

Y 1
whenz = zo,y = 1 Thus we reach
1+ Z072
71 1

Jo

## =1 1 (1+l, T2+1) ...............(lxxxiv),

1+ !.0 _Ya
w1
whereI is the functiontabled in the IncompleteB-functionTable now at press.
(x) Bessel Function
Applicationsin Statisticsof Tmn
340 Futrther

Just as earlier (see p. 306) we should add to this the other equal wedge for
1
U/V > zo, or z taking values from0 to -. Calling this P"z, we have, from
(lxxxiii),
1
t2 dz
z
p =B yrT+1 7Y22+? z
B (ri + 1, T2 + 1 )J (71+ Y2Z)Tl+T2+2

## Now transformour integralby taking y = 2 , or limits will be y= 0 and

71 + Z 7
xy
= z 71, and the integralbecomes
1+ zoyi
72

## + ~lyV, (i2 y)rl dy

phO B(Tj + 1, +J 72y1

+.X071
Y2

## Combining(lxxxiv) and (lxxxv),we reach finally

Qzo =I1 (r1+1, '2+1)+I 1 (T2+1, Tr+1) ...... (lxxxvi),

+ Lo.2 1 + X--Y
Yi 72
a resultinvolvinga double entryinto the B-functionTable.
Thus, if we use the ratio test, (lxxxvi) shows that the determinationof Qzo
involvesverylittle moretroublethan in the cases we have alreadydealt withwhen
71= 72 and r1= T2

## Illustration. Suppose we have two samples renderingvariances with values

o-2 and o22,but that the size of one sample is n, and of the othern2,and we wish
to test whethertheymay be consideredas drawn fromthe same parentpopulation
of variance 2. Then,by (xxviii),
TI a i(z1-3), T2= i(22-3), 71=2X2n22 72 =

Accordingly
1 { (n1- 1), (n2- 1)1+I{I(n21 - 1),.E(n, - 1) ... (lxxxvii).
Q2/=12=I
QO'2'2 2tF
1 2-b
+-- I'2 21
~~~~~~1+ -2
A question may arise as to whetherthe sum of the two I-functionsmay not be
greaterthan unityand so Q022/,12> 1 and impossible. Clearly the denominatorsof
ratiosare equal, since
both B-fuinction
B {1 (ni-1), E (n2-1)1 =B {(1(n2-1) i (nl-1)}.
We can thereforewrite QI22/,12 in the form

## f A(711-3) (1 -X)i(n2-3) dx + f i(N-3) (1 -X)i(l-3) dx

2/0,12B
QO'2 1(v-3), -3)}
-21(n2
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 341

where 1
1 ~~~~~1
and '=
1+ a2 n2 + O2-n
0.22 aj8 n2
Writex = 1- x' in the secondintegral,and we have
Q A(n-3)
(1n-lX)i(N2-8) dx+ f a' j(n1-3) (1 - x')i("r-3)dx'

## '12fl/rl2- B {j (n- 3), i (n2- 3)}

Now the numeratorwill certainlybe less than the denominatorif X < 1 -',
forthen the two integralsdo not make up the completeB-function. Hence our
conditionis that
o22n,
0.a2 n1

122 n2a212
~~~2
2n
+-72- 1 +-.2 n-
0.1
22
or that 1< 2
a'l

## This is a conditionalways satisfied,since we have startedby supposing022 > 0.12

and asked how much greaterthat ratio may be than unity,withoutbeing too imi-
probableforboth samplesto have a commonsource.
We now turnto the problemof the difference v - u. Taking Equation (lxxxi),
let us put
u+v=X, v-u= Y,
then the surfacebecomes
w = VO' e-iYrV21) Y e-i(L +2)x (X - Y)vl (X + Y)Ta [dX d Y].
Now we desireto integratethiswithregardto X fromY to o , keepingY constant,
forthe portionof our surface,preciselyas in ? (3), p. 295. Now writeX = Yt and
the limits of t will be 1 to o; thus the frequenicy surfaceforY, whichgives the
difference,is
(t - I)T (t +
z-=wO" e-i(Y2-Y)Y YTl+r2+1J e-i(YL+ys)2yt 1)T2 dt ...(lxxxviii).

This curve is allied to the Tm(x) Bessel Function curve and passes into it when
= T2= r, but as faras we are aware has not yet been studied. Its consideration
is leftforanotheroccasion. If T1 = r2=r and we write
Y= (1 + 72) Y, p = 72 'Yl
" and rn= +j,
72+7Y1
we have, by the properchoice ofwo01,
(1 _ p2)m+i e -Py T2,( Y') [dY'] ...... (lxxxviiibis),
z=M
Tm(Y') not changingsign with Y', and whenwe put Y' negativewe get the other
sectionof thearea we need to integrateto get rid ofX as in ? (3), p. 295. This cuirve
has been fullydiscussed in Biomerika, Vol. xxi. pp. 168-187. Its area when
integratedforY' between- oc and + so equals M, and we have its ordinatestabled*.
* See Biornetrika, Vol. xxi. pp. 195-201, or Tables for Statisticiansand Biometricians,Part II,
pp. lxxix-lxxxviii and pp. 138-144.
BiometrikaXXIV 22
342 FurtherApplications in Statisticsof Tmn
(x) Bessel Function
In termsofthedifference
Y,
Z= =M (71
(4y17
+ y)r?1
e2)2.t?
-
e+2VaV Yr+
T+ {i (Y1 + 7Y2) Y} [dY] . . .(lxxxix).
Thiscurveforpracticalpurposesmaybe replacedbya Pearsoncurveof thesame
firstfourmoments afterT= 11*.
to have , = r2? We replyat once for92 and R2, when the sizes of the samplesare
considerableas conmpared withthe numberofarraysin 1?2 or the numberof variates
involvedin R2. This is the case wherewe are jfistifiedin usingrEquations (lxxv),
and consequently(lxxxix). If n be the numberof arraysor the total numberof
v.ariates,and N, IV' be the sizes of the samples,then we have
Tj= T2 = T= i ( - 3),
while y1j=j(i-n-2), 'Y2=i(N'-n-2),
and the curveof distribuition of;say,t'2 - q2 will be given by
= M {(N -n
2) (N' -2)}Fl
-2) -n N'-N YT
Z =_z2MAl e-I N'-2 t4) Y} [dY],
j (N N) - ni- 2}n-2 4n-2) {i(Nl+

where y}=,72
-2 .................................... (xc),
aiid we assume the parentpopulationto be withoutassociationin its characters.
There is small difficulty in plotting this curve fromDr Elderton'sTable of
ordinates,and at presentthe plainimeter or a quadrature formulamust be applied
to determiine the requisiteareas beyond the values + (q'2 _ q2) observed. An im-
portantpoint arises froinboth the Equations (lxxxviii) and (lxxxix),namelythat
whenthe sizes of the samples are unequal, then the differenceof two statistical
measuresdoes not give a symmetricalcurve,but one whichlike that of the distri-
bution of the firstprodtuct-momyrent coefficientmay be notablyskew. The fuller
discussionof these curves must,however,be left to a furtherpaper. It may be
bility, should we deal furtherwith the more complicated expressionsfor the
probabilityof the difference?The answer,we think,is that the resultsof the two
testsare oftennot so closelyin accordthat we can be confidentone may not fora
particularcase be morecorrectthan the other. The probabilitydeduced leads at
once to a frequency, and the touchstoneof the more correcttest is that it should
give this frequencythe moreexactlyand moreoften.The onlyway of determiining
this is the experimentalone. This would not be hard in the case of the range of
x2'sbased on pairs ofsamplestaken froma uni-variatepopulation. It would,how-
ever,be farnmore laboriousin the case of samiplecontingencytables taken froma
bi-variatetable. Still it is to be hopedthatsuch workwill eventuallybe undertaken.
(22) General Conclusions.
The main purposeof the presentpaper has been to discussan alternativeto the
ratio methodin dealing witha numberof statisticalcoefficients,such as X2,O2,)2,
2, R2, (2, whichon certainhypothesesas to the parentpopulationobey accurately
* loc. cit. p. 181.
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 343

## or approximately theType III formn ofdistribution.We have seen thatthedifference

followsin its distribution
oftwolike statisticalcoefficients theTm(Y) Bessel-Function
curve,orin certaincases themoregeneralskewformePy Tm, (Y). We have provided
a table (Table I) of the probabilityintegralof the formercurve,byaid of whichthe
probabilityof a givendifference can be rapidlyfound.We have postponeddiscussion
of a still moregeneralcurve,i.e. (lxxxviii),to a later paper.
A numberof suitableillustrations werechosenbyone of our numberat random;
that is to say withoutknowledgeof whatwould flowfromthem,and thedifference
and the ratio mnethods both applied. The restultsshow that in the great majority
of cases the difference test is more"stringent" than the ratio test. By this we
merelyunderstandthat the probabilityof the observedresultis less by the foriner
test. Under such conditions,however,it is reasonableto suppose that preference
test along-
ought to be given to it. At any rate it justifiesthe use of the difference
side the ratio test. In order to simnplify the application of the latter test,it has
been approachedby a new tnethodand a table (Table II) is providedby whichthe
probabilityon the ratio testcan be at once determined. We have furtherprepared
a diagramby aid of whichit can be rapidlyascertainedwhichof the tests will be
foundthe morestringentin a particularcase.
In the courseof our workwe have pointedout difficulties whichoccur in using
the x2 methods,and warnedthe studentof difficulties whichmay arise if the two
series fromwhich %2 iS obtained are of verydifferent sizes in the case when their
relativesizes are whollyarbitrary;we indeed questionwhether,when the relative
sizes are not "naturally" fixed,we ought to use x2 at all*. In the case of the
comparisonof two X2'S we have withsome diffidence suggesteda possible method
of overcomingsomne ofthe difficulty. The readerwill see that muchyet retnailns to
be done-especially experimnental spade-work-to obtainsatisfactory testsforeither
the difference or ratio of these statisticalcoefficientsin the case ofdifferentsized
samples.esDeciallvsmall ones. when the parentpopulationis unknown.
* Thereis anotherpoint about the usual x2 distributionfrequently
overlooked. Given two seriesof
v categorieseach and sizes N and N', thenthemaximumpossiblevalue of X' is N+ N'. Accordingly the
distributioncurveis limited,and should take some such formas
y= yo (iX2)PY(N + N' x2)P2 ..........................................(el

## ratherthan y =y & 2)( ev-3. - W ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.........I................ (CO)

If N+ N' be large,and thenonly,approachwill be made to
p1= (K-1) (X-1)-1 and P2= (N+ N') (X--1)-1,
but iu our case X= 2 and K=V. Thus (e1) becomes

y
=
yol (V
_X%2)& ~
N)(1- +N *( N'

whichtakes the formof (e.,)if N + N' be verylarge. The Type III curveis therefore no moreexact in
the case of x2than it is in the case of 2 or R2, it dependsupon the largesize of N+N'. This pointis
frequently overlooked,but it is actuallyinvolvedwhen we replacethe binomialdistributionsby normal
curvesin our deductionof (e2).

22-2
344 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof T,,,(x) Bessel Function

m r-.4 cq M ',t XO W 1- GO = C
m -'t e: Co r- OD m 0 M xo 00 0

61 .l & 'N 6q 6q t
.el
PI-,)
.114 in. km m aq 11114 00 LO N 0

m xo 1- -t 't xo 00 0 m m N Co m N. M Lm t- m 0 0 00 00 m t- m to
- M r-4 N 01 o W 0 Ql GI r-4 t- 0 N "--4 00 M W =
M XO 00 0 Gq M M Gq 00 00

## '--4 m 1- m G4 ^m xo = t- 00 Co m m m m 00 00 t- w -tt m "-4 m r-

G4 " = m io 0
t- oo C) cq M LO W t- 00 = C) 0 r-O
1-4 N M "t W r- 00 m 0 Gq M "t 10 W
M M M
. C) (::)
. 0
. C)
. (=>
. (::>
. .
(::> a)
.
r-4
.
-4
.
"-4
.
"-4
. .
..q "-4
.
r-
.
r-4
. .
GI
. . Gq
. Gq
. . al
. cq
. cq
. Gq
. cq
. . . .

In w 'It C)
+
O Gq
m
=
1-
"14
QC
r--4 w
m
t-
=
xo
00
m
M
R
o
00
C.N
Co
00
r-4
"-4
Xn Co
00 r--4
,14 t-
r-
=
1-
OC) r-
r--4 CD
L-
aq
M
,,14 C)
M
(=)
14
Gq
k-,M
10 xo
C) r--j
t-
aq
Xn
00
t-
r-
Co
(::>
C)
r--4 r--4 00
I
cq
=
t-
10
00
CD
Co
ql
Gq
m
Xo
CeD
00
XM
00
M

## Gq 10 OC) r-4 -,14 1- = Gq " W OC) (=) rq -.14 10 Co t- 00 00 M 00 00 1- CD Xo '--t Gq 0 00

= r--4 r-q 't xo Co I- 00 = 0 -4 N. Gq
C-q ^.1 in. CD t- 00 C) r- aq M xo CD ]L- 00 C) oz
o r--4 P--4 r-4 r--4 r-t r--4 Gq Cq Gq Cq GN GI N. GI C-q --I M OZ M M
C) 0 0 0 0 0 "-4 p-4 "-4 . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .

## CO N. "It M -14 M M xo CC t C."ll 0 r--4

C., 00 00 0 Co LID Vt 0 0 1- 00 QC, n m to cq 00
t- xo t- GI C) Cq I- M r-4 -4 M t- M
r--4 aq 00 U-.' '^. C) .t M. in C) CO GI = xo 00
N t- m w t- to "-4 " r-4 xn I- CD Gq xo XO M
r-4 o Co m m "t m VIZ zo t- t- in. Co m m

t 1- 00 = 0 C) 0 m 00 I- Co "t N. C)
M t- 0 ,14 r- -4 -,t t- 0 M Co 00 0 aq Co 0
14 aq M XCD W 1- 00 oo m 0 '--4 GI ?.YZ
r-4 Gq ,!t kf W oo M 0 GI M 10 t- QC
0 0 0 0..... 0 Gq C. m
..... M. m
......C) 0 ..... ..... .....

+ m = t- r--4 00 w
+to Co m w 1- 00
0 xn oc t- P-4 xn V' r--4 M. t- 00 0 aq
r--4 00 r--4 Gq m 0 Co O N C-q X0 "-4
't M 00'0 " 0 W Xo Co C.' ^."
M " N 00 0 = L t- 'Tt
.14 M r-4 W 00 M W 00 = t- N.

--4 r-4 N. C V. M M N. N, 0 m t- xn m
--,14 00 -t r-
N Gq C't to

. . . . m.
xo t- 00 C C)

. . .
C1.1 't CO

. 'NM
4'- 00 m 0

## . N.. aq. aq. Cm . Gq

CM ?- w

. Gq
ko t- oc N Itt

. . . . .
0
C>
. . . . . .
80-000,C) 0
. . . . .
- r-4 --4 r-4 r--4 r--4 P--4 r--4 N. m m ^m

## m 00 r--4 m r--4 G9 I- UO 00 m Gq N XCD Co m

Cli 0 0 00 XCD = cq "!t 0 t "-4 r-I CM 00 0 CO M
aq C?.,, m t- "t in r--4 r--4 CO 1- xo
C) (-,-I 0 M Co 00 ITO M r-4 r- 00 GI r- m Co t- m km aq Co
=
+ W M = 00 N. Cq N r-4 t- = 00 6-tz -,14 Gq t-
xr (=) CC N t- ..j tj, W -t!-.H (M Gq to Co t (=)

t- I- 00 00 k- W XO 'I GI O t-
O in. r- W cq V- Gq I- N. CO '--q XO Gq xo 00 o M 't CO
C"Z -t C f- M C) M Co 1- C' M " I 4 XO
f.,l (=) -j M tJ4 xo Co t- 00 aq Co Co

## IN . . . . . . -4 P--4 -4 r--4 --4 --4 --4 N

. . . . . .
V., V.,
. .
t."Z cl
. M
.

+Ll + M
+
N. Co 14 r--4 N, 10 ill 00 p- Xn Cq = m m 00 O t-
C)
m r-4 Co Gq C.14 m M r--4 CO CC (m 00 oo 00 (M 'Itt
O C) C.0 m -t xn r--4 L- (M -t C) -It m C)
0 M C) 00 t- Di GI m m Gq P--4 CD t- "t I- Co cq
oo = 00 t- t 0 14 ^.' M r-.4 km t- Itt

## o Co vp0 I- -t Co cq t- m 00 cq Co C) m Co m 1- r-111 C)Ntxo xo `+ m aq 0 00 Co m

LID W oc -4 M r- -.14 W t- 00 M r-4 C.,j e.VD Nt
M 0 LI-) W w
Cq
t- 00
C^. ,14 Xn
t-- r--4 r-4 -4 P- C-m N. N' aq M GI GI N. M M M M M MMM. mm
0 0 0 r-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

+ +
+
0 r--4 I- M 11,14 00 ^M aq -t 1.14 xo cq m *1 w
I- V- ,!14 r-4 0 Xn In C 00 N 00 ko
t- r--A = = r-4 xo 0 Co It Co m t- 00 0 Gq
t 14 00 7 1- M 00 (=> Zo ,Z11 M C) Co (=)
"-4 Xn 14
1- m GI CO 'tt oo = 00 = (m Co = to (M r- 0
t- "'t = M "'14 Vz 00 0
OC 1- XL-D 1- '114 -4,14 C O
U-
. ._4 -,14 00 Gq U., 00 C) M -,14 -. N. '-4 Cj Co CY.
cl' in. t- C= P--4 N. "t Co t- C., C) N. vz xo CO L- = "-4 N. OZ "t LO CO t- V- 00 m 0
-- r-4 N, N GI Cv".' Cy., m VI., M VD m m m M m Nt
r- P--4 --4 -4 N. N, G9 N. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14) +jf +
Gq _111 (Z> Co r- M C) ,tJ4 X , r, 00 M t- 00 1- 00 OC>
m
t CC 14 (M N.
Co
xo
1-
(0
Gq
00
m Co
O vt "It m O IN (::> V'., C) o xn w m N14 40
4.Q
W Gq p-4 -,t r--4 Cq Co Xo (M 1- C) 00 Gq XO tO
cq M -.4 CC 0 00 r--4 00 xCD 00 14 M. Co
CO Gq 00
r -- 4 -. I M.. Co -4 Xo (M N It
r-4 C.'l ,14 xo W L- 00 <7. C) - r-4
g! N. -t CZ OC N -It tO 00 (M r--4 t- OC) 0 M
. 'i . . . .tJ4
. M,, 14
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## --I " W t- t- m xn m 0 w m 00 m OC) m I-

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r--i ko t- 00 (m C) P--4 Gq '74 M M "'t It X0 X0
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## '-:4 Gq m t 'm 0 t- Go m 0 km 0 km 0 ko 0 km 0 km 0 km 0 km 0 km 0 km o km 0 ko 0 km 0 IfD ko

m C;zC;zC;zC;z C; C; C; cb 6 6 & 6 ':- ': q q C; 4 4 -D D D &
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+ + I I
t- 00 Lo N. r--l ka 00 VD as Vj It 11 M 00 M w M VD ko M CM 0 CO aq r--l 00 W -.q"L- C; w t- ":t M
m t- 00 t- 11 m Gq CYD m m GN xo m xo m ^M Gq 11-t C11404 11 m m 11 00 t- IRt l-Rlt00 t- "IZP m GN to m t- co 00
o m 't m 0 11 t- L- 10 r-4 --4 10 m 0 N GN m m -It 0 m m m r--4 w 0 m lzll m t- 00 00 m (71.1C., mzm
10 Gq m m m m xo P-4 r- m oo co Nt 00 00 c Gq CD 0 vt 'Tt m t- co 00 m m m m m m m m m m mm=
Gq TIZ n I" 10 km m r- r- 00 o Gq Nt km CD t- 00 00 m m 01. m m m m mmmmm m m m m m m m m
m m m m VD VD M VD VD m -V It 11 " 1.14 1-t "iq I" Nt ":t " I" It 1114Nt Itt -P "It 11 11 11 Ikt "liq 't Nt
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(o co t- m w 00 zo io 1- to CD It c Gq t- t- t- 10 m Nt m r- w 10 0 m
m 00 r--l m 1.11 t- Gq km 1- 1.11 00 m km m 00 vl moo m
wt-0000mmmm mm=
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10VD
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01 Gq r-4 w O r-4 M CD O r-, 't t- t- M 0 M ^M aq 114 0 r-4
r-4 t- m t- m r-4 m Gq C) 10 m N 1t m t- 00 00 m m m m m m m m m m m mm=
VD lw 10 to m k- r- 00 00 m r--l m km m r- oo 00 00 m m m m m m m m m m m m mmmmm =mm
m VD VD m VD VD VD m I.YD m "iq "iq "iq Nt Itt IRt ll!t " Nt 1"4 11 11 11 11141114 Nt 11 11 't I" "liq IRt IRt v IT14 I" IRt "liq
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I I + + +
00 10 ":t r--l M 10 Gq 00 00 t- CO rM M w N Lo .1 00 lomo N= 0 "14 0 t "t 00 - 1- 00 ko 0 M w
r--l m 00 1- m t- 0 00 m to r-4 t- GM 0 00 0 "It 0 r- r- N t- 00 r- CD t- 't m cq xo CD t- 00 m (M m
oo C) m w 0 aq Gq 00 m to Nt Nt to m 'Itt CO r" to M r- M 00 km M 04 L" CO t- 00 00 M M M M M MM=
r- ko r--l 00 to r-4 t- Gq 00 PM w IRt 00 m t- M 00 r--l ^M xo w t- 00 00 M M M M M M M M M M M MM=
Nt km m m t- oo 00 m m 0 Gq Nt ko CD 1- 00 00 m m m CZ m m C.N m m m m m m C) m m m m m 1-11 m
m m m VD I.YD M m ?.YD "M "It "It -1 Nt " It " I" -t -1-14It .1 11 11 't Nt N14 11 " Itt It 'Itt " 1-14111141.14 " "liq 1-d4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . .

+ I
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t- 00 m m GN m 't to to m km r--l m r- m 1-1 m r- t- '.14 M Gq io w L- 00 00 M M C." M M m M M m
I- I t- M 00 "14 M -tI4 ko Gq 10 '.14 r--f to 0 VD km w r- oo 00 M m m M M m M M '- M M m M (m M
w r- 00 00 m m 0 0 m km it- 00 co m m m m m m M m m m m m m m m m m m m m
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+ I + + I
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r- 00 00 M 0 C) r-4 Gq N t- 1- 00 00 m m Cs m mm= cnm m m m m m M M M M m M M
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t-
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+
in CD Co = t- r- ^M ":t N to t- V. + V- 00 m
Gq xo 00 G9 00 t- C) 1- m co m 00 t- Gq In t- 00 C., m m m 1-1r. m
Gq r--4M t- VD M r--4 W L- 00 M M C; M M M M M M
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

## vo m m m z z z z ,. 4v 4 D D D 6o D a lb 6 r:. 1:4 ;.q r:.qI... 4v l I D

,-4 --4 -4 r--4 r--4r-4 r--4r" --q -,4 r-4 -14 r-4 P-4 P-4 P-4
346 FurtherApplicatiom in Statisticsof T,,,(x) Bessel Function

## koolocto ulotooxo olooloo

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## Gq "t O t- r-4 M aq *1 Gq r--4 M r- M t- "t W M 10 -t Gq t- 1- M 0 00 "t m N.

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.
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.
mmmmm
"
.
.14 ".
.
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.
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.
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t
.
-14 R* t
. . .
,14
. .
.14
.

+ +
ci r- m w Gq m m G9 m co r--f m M ut co t- to km 00 r- m 't I- m m 8 co to Gq 00 0 co 00
em r--4 M M oo 0 rll N. 00 r--4 0 0 0 N W M P" CD r--4 CD 00 r- 00 00 0 M " 0 r--4 1- O.N t- IIZP 00 -
o m 4 co C) LO m 1- m " LO Gq 00 w m 0 m 0 m CD m 10 co r--l CVI.) m m LO m Gq 111410 co r- 00 a0 M

4 X 1- m 00
n -t 00
m
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co 0 m co
10
00
& ^.0 00
ci m
0
ic
r- M
co co
Co r-4 10
r- 00 00
00 r--l Cv' 10 Co
xmmmm
1-
m
1-
m
QC 00 M
m 01.1 m
MMMMM
m m m m m
M
m
M
m
_-) r--4 r--4 N. r.1I m M M llt It I" 1t - It It -V It "It -t " -t -, "t -t -tq -t " --t -Rt "It --t It I"
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

## Gq N. M Gq r-4 e M ,t ',t c I- nq 00 ao -1 r--f C) a 0 Gq C-N OC L- 0 00 co M 00

o 0 m Gq OD w L- C5 00 C) in W t- M "t CM "-4 c I- M ao km m I- W M aq W M W W Gq t- r--4 VD
0 L-z r-- a., .4 m C Gq oo o r- co 4 t 1-- L- r--l m 10 CD 1- 00 00 m C.,
C) C) L- M Im M r--l 00 CM N M VD 10 " N. OD VD t- 0 N. t 10 Co L- 00 00 C., M M M M M M M M
I o 0 -t m M. t- C) I" zo m Gq I" 10 CD 1- r- 00 00 m M m m m mmmmm OMMM m m m
" ,"
In 11 V, V .It tl II . . . ". .t
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. . . . ,I,
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.
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.
0 1,1

+ +
r--4 00 t- Gq Gq L- t- 10 L- m kfl --t r-11 00 t- r--l Gq Co 00 Gq t- C) M 00 0 10 M r- M L- C) 00 km 't
C) -4 0 00 r--4 O".) 00 M M M I- C xO r--f t t- 04 CD --( t- - I- M 00 I- -V O (M ,t ,t r-4 L- 0 VD kO
1- ("q ko m cq It CD OC) 10 m ko w LO w M k- N oo n t 10 r--l co 0 m llt w 1- 00 00 m m m
N. m Gq r--l 1- 00 10 00 00 -t 00 M 00 10 r- 10 M "-4 M in Co t- 00 co M M M MMMMM M M
10 0 eo m -V 00 r-4 " 1- m r--l m -t Lp co 1- 00 00 oc qz m m q D m m m a., -n.m m m C--m m m m
CD 0 -4 -q "-4 N. N. m VD M M " t -t --t " " -: -t -,v -iq -iq ,II -iq - 't 't 't 't -t "" ,zt "t '1114 ,t "'t
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

+ +
C) m c C xn C) "-4 C) t- N M tc r--4 ,di OD -t W m t- -4 V." Co km Gq M., t- C) Itil co w m ^M rIq m L-
0 OC Ll C'. 0 G9 I- Gq (N Cq CD M Gq C 0 I- 0 "-4 00,14 J.- ,It I- W in. a"., " w -4 CM C) w C) m 10 c
0 0 00 t- 00 1- ^M "zt N. M M 1- IrD = r--4 L- 00 1- 00 "-4 m Gq Gq s 10 n Gq 't w I- co oc m m m m
-t L- t- 10 M C.,10 Co M ll" "t 0 ^MM (,.-IOCM L- C) C".'t Cor- 00 00 00 cn M M cn cn cn M M M M
C) in. 0 -V 00 CM lfll 00 o Gq -Tt 10 w L- t- ac 00 m mmmmm mmmmm mmmmm m m
r--4 r--4 (,11 N N.MMM '4di -t -P
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

+
N, 00 1- - r--4 O llf - It N rq C., LO CO M 0 r- CO
0 00 ^M Co C'. 10 N Gq Co 1- Co M ^-Z MM C) 0 1- 00 't Ll W 00 r- W 00 CM 00 0 M to M M to W
-4 w L- I- Gq M 00 r--4 cq xo 14 10 r--4 I- w r--4 W #.,^. M 00 M 00 't 00 r--4 ,t ll-D L- 1- O-C 00 M M cn
r--4 ^M Gq 1- 00 VD 't "-4 M r--l CD 00 00 xn. r--4 CD M Gq -t el CO P- 00 OD ON. M M M MMMMM M M
Ll r--4 W "-4 LO M M w M "-4 M "t 10 I- 00 00 00 M cn M M M M MMMMM MMMMM (7-1 M
C) -- - N. I-N N. M M VD -t -t -t 't -V --v -P -,t -,-P ,zt -t -t -t -,t -,t -,t 't -V - -M -, -V -t4 -V "t Itt
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

+
I r.11 jfl C) OC 00 (7.1-,f r--j Cvl.) _t -tq t _ N. 1_ C) C) CD G,,j M.Z f- N tJ4 -iq = r- W 00 O Co Co -t
'-7 C) -t M 00 't ll, Itt N. CD C) M 00 Co in
- tI rl I
M W or, M r--4 IN 00 0 00 L- rN OC W M OC I(,. cn ---l 10 w I- 00
i' 1-0 ifZ -t - L- O '-q N 0 M Cl"Z " t- ,t tZ CO N. I- - M in. C I- OC 00 M M M (M M
-4
CY.1 1., .% C) OC r"l Cv' (,,,I M -t x ^M 10 W L- 00 30 M M C., M M M M (M M (M M M
I - -M W 0 --V t- M V ^M 10 w 1-- 1- cc) 00 M M M M C= M M M M =.', cn M M (7-% M M M M
"- 4 N. N. M v 1. M ^M "tt 't -t -,t -t -V -t -,:r -tq -t di -V -t -t -P -M -" --V -1, " - '14 I" '". ,t "di "
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

## . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.:': C lf 1- C) kn. in, C) iz", C) In, C) lr, C) 10 C) 10 C) xn,C)

C) 0 "" "-4-N "14 ir. LI c c 1- 60
r-4 r--4 r--4 r-4 "-4 -4 r-4 r-li 1-4 r-li r-4
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 347

TABLE II. Values of I, 41(v - 1), I (v -I )},v = 2 to 25 and x = '01 to '50,for determining
theProbability ofRatios,e.g-.x%1x2.
x- 01-*50 v=2--7

v=2 3 4 5 6 7
X
(V-
l)=03 1 1l5 2 25 3

'01 '063 768 56 '010 000 00 '001 692 55+ '000 298 00 *000053 74 '000 009 85+ '01
'02 '090 334 47 '020 000 00 '004 772 77 '001 184 00 '000 300 75- '000 077 62 02
'03 '110 824 69 '030 000 00 '008 741 44 '002 646 00 *00( 819 78 '000 258 00 '03
'04 *128188 43 '040 00000 '013 417 07 '004 67200 '001 664 48 '000 602 21 '04
'05 '143 566 29 '050 000 00 '018 693 04 '007 250 00 '002 875 76 '001 158 12 '05
'06 157 542 43 060 000 00 '024 496 26 010368 00 '004 486 12 '001 970 27 '06
'07 '170 463 43 '070 000 00 '030 772 22 '014 014 00 '006 521 83 *003079 93 '07
'08 '182 554 89 '080 000 00 '037 477 97 018 17600 1009004 21 004 525 26 08
'09 '193 973 37 '090 000 00 '044 578 42 '022 842 00 '011 950 56 '006 341 28 '09
'10 '204 832 76 '100 000 00 '052 044 02 '028 000 00 015 374 72 '008 560 00 '10
*11 '215 219 03 '110 000 00 '059 849 42 '033 638 00 '019 287 59 '011 210 48 '11
'12 '225 198 90 '120 000 00 '067 972 43 '039 744 00 '023 697 45+ '014 318 90 '12
'13 '234 825 47 '130 000 00 '076 393 38 '046 306 00 '028 610 26 '017 908 63 '13
'14 '244 141 78 '140 000 00 '085 094 64 053 312 00 '034 029 90 '022 000 29 14
'15 '253 183 31 '150 000 00 '094 060 20 '060 750 00 '039 958 35- '026 611 88 '15
'16 '261 979 76 '160 000 00 '103 275 47 '068 608 00 '046 395 85+ '031 758 75- 16
'17 '270 556 26 '170 00000 '112 726 99 '076 87400 '053 34109 '037 453 76 '17
'18 '278 934 34 '180 000 00 '122 402 29 085 536 00 '060 791 27 '043 707 34 '18
'19 '287 132 59 '190 000 00 '132 289 75- 094 582 00 '068 742 25- '050 527 51 '19
'20 '295 167 24 '200 000 00 '142 378 49 '104 000 00 '077 188 63 '057 920 00 '20
'21 '303 052 54 '210 000 00 '152 658 26 '113 778 00 '086 123 84 '065 888 31 '21
'22 '310 801 12 '220 000 00 '163 119 39 '123 904 00 '095 540 22 074 433 78 '2'2
'23 '318424 23 '230 000 00 '173 752 67 '134 366 00 105429 11 '083 555 66 *23
'24 '325 931 94 '240 00000 184549 36 '145 15200 '115 780 88 '093 251 17 '24
'25 *33333333 250 00000 '195 501 11 '156 25000
o 12658500- 103515 62 25
'26 '340 636 66 '260 000 00 '206 599 90 '167 648 00 137830 12 '114 342 43 '26
'27 '347 849 40 '270 00000 '217 838 05+ '179 33400 o 149 50409 '125 723 19 '27
'28 '354 978 44 '280 00000 '229 208 15- I '191 29600 '161 59404 '137 647 82 '28
'29 '362 03007 '290 00000 '240 703 03 '203 52200 '174 08640 '150 104 54 '29
'30 '369 010 12 '300 00000 '252 31579 '2)1600000
o 18696696 '163 08000 30
'31 375923 99 '310 00000 '264 039 69 '228 71800 '200 220 90 '176 559 34 '31
'32 '382 776 69 '320 00000 '275 868 23 '241 66400 '21.3832 81 '190 526 26 '32
'33 '389 572 92 '330 000 00 '287 795 04 '254 826 00 '227 786 80 204 963 09 '33
'34 '396 317 08 '340 000 00 '299 813 93 '268 19200 '242 066 44 '219 850 85+ '34
'35 '403 013 32 '350 00000 '311 918 83 '281 75000 '256 654 85- 235169 38 '35
.'36 '409 665 53 '360 00000 324103 8:3 '295 48800 l 271 534 73 '250 897 31 '36
.37 '416 277 43 '37000000 '336 363 11 1 '309 39400 '286 688 37 267012 22 '37
'38 '422 852 55+ '380 000 00 '348 690 97 '323 456 00 '302 097 72 283490 70 '38
'39 '429 394 26 '390 00000 '361 081 79 '337 66200 I:317 744 35+ 300308 37 '39
'40 '435 905 78 '400 000 00 373530 04 '.352000 00 '333 60956 31744000 '40
'41 '442 390 22 '410 000 00 '386 030 28 '366 45800 '349 674 '6 334 859 57 '41
'42 ! '448 850 58 '420 000 00 '398 577 12 '381 024 00 ':365 919 48 '352 540 34 '42
'43 | 455 289 74 '430 000 00 '411 165 24 '395 686 00 ':382 325 47 370 454 92 '43
'4-1 '461 710 54 '440 (000 00 '423 789 37 '410 432 00 '398 872 64 '388 575 33 '44
'45 '468 115 72 '450 000 00 '436 444 29 '425 250 00 '415 541 14 406 873 12 '45
'46 '474 507 97 '460 000 00 '449 124 80 '440 128 00 '432 310 98 425 319 39 '46
'47 '480 889 93 '470 000 00 '461 825 74 '455 054 00 '449 162 04 '443 884 85+ '47
'48 '487 264 21 '480 000 00 '474 542 00 '470 016 00 '466 074 10 '462 539 98 '48
'49 '493 633 ;38 '490 000 00 '487 268 45+ '485s002 00 '483 026 87 '481 255 00 49
'50 ' 500 000 00 '500 000 00 '500 000 00 '500 000 00 '500 00000 ' 50 000 00 '50
348 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof Tm(x) Bessel Function

TABLE II (continued).
x= 01---50 v= 8-13

v7=8
(v-1) =35
9
4
10
45
11
5 1 12
515
13
6

## *01 *o00 001 83 o00000o 34 *o00 000 06 *ooo ooo o0 *01

02 *)00 020 26 )000005 34 *o00 001 41 *o00 000 38 *000 000 10 *o00 000 03 *02
*03 o00o082 12 *000 026 36 o00o008 52 *000 002 77 *o00 000 90 *000 000 29 *03
*04 )00o220 32 )00o081 28 )00o030 18 *o00 Oll 27 000 004 23 1)00 001 59 *04
*05 000 471 53 1)00 193 58 000 079 99 *o00 033 22 )00o013 86 o00o005 80 105
*06 )00o874 69 )00o391 49 )00o176 34 '000 079 84 '000 036 30 *000 016 56 06
*07 *001 469 99 *000707 24 *000 342 42 1)00 166 62 *000081 42 )00o039 92 *07
*08 '002 298 07 *001 176 28 )00o605 82 000 313 58 *000 162 98 *000 085 00+ *08
*09 *003399 45- *001 836 58 000 998 30 1)00 545 31 '000 299 08 *000 164 59 *09
*10 *004 813 96 *002 728 00 001 k55 21 )00o890 92 1)00 512 41 000 295 71 *10
*11 *006 580 38 *003 891 63 *002 315 12 001 383 83 *000 830 43 *000 499 98 *11
*12 *008 736 05+ *005369 26 *003 319 17 002 061 48 *001 285 31 *000 803 99 12
*13 011 316 60 '007 202 82 *004 610 61 '002 964 92 001 913 91 *001 239 42 *13
*14 *014 355 68 *009433 86 '006 234 16 *004 138 37 '002 757 43 *001 843 09 14
15 017 884 79 *012 103 17 008 235 49 005 628 66 003 861 14 002 656 86 15
e16 |021 933 07, 015 250 28 '010 660 61 007 484 70 '005 273 88 '003 727 40 16
17 '026 527 17 '018 913 11 *013 555 36 '009 756 81 '007 047 55+ '005 105 78 '17
*18 031 691 16 '023 127 64 '016 964 83 012 496 17 '009 236 46 '006 847 03 *18
.19 *037446 37 027 927 56 020 932 88 015 754 09 011 896 70 *009 009 50+ *19
*20 *043 811 41 033 344 00 025 501 63 019 581 44 015 085 40 '011 654 21 *20
.21 050 80204 *039 405 31 '030 71100
o 024 027 96 018 859 97 0]04 843 99 21
*22 058 431 15+ *046 136 81 '036 598 30 *029 141 65+ 023 277 34 *018 642 73 *22
*23 066 708 79 '053 560 62 *043 197 81 034 968 19 028 393 20 '023 114 40 *23
*24 '075 642 09 061 69.5 47 *050 540 44 041 550 31 034 261 18 028 322 19 *24
'25 *085 235 33 '070 556 64 058 653 40 048 927 31 *040 932 12 *034 327 51 25
.26 '095 489 93 '080 155 78 *067 559 93 '057 134 50- 048 453 32 '041 189 04 *26
'27 *106 404 49 *090 500 89 '077 279 01 *066 202 79 *056 867 88 '048 961 83 '27
*28 117 974 83 '101 596 24 *087 825 23 076 158 25+ '066 213 99 057 696 37 *28
*29 130 194 04 I *113 442 36 *099 208 53 *087 021 75+ '076 524 39 '067 437 74 *29
*30 *143 052 55+ *126036 00 *111 434 17 *098 808 66 *087 825 79 078 224 79 *30
*31 156 538 20 *139 370 22 '124 502 57 *111 528 58 *100 138 40 '090 089 40 31
*32 170 636 31 *153 434 35+ '138 409 26 *125 185 15+ *113 475 54 '103 055 86 *32
*33 1 '185 329 77 '168 214 12 '153 144 92 '139 775 93 '127 843 33 '117 140 27 '33
'34 1 '200 599 12 '183 691 68 '168 695 35- 155 292 26 '143 240 39 '132 350 07 '34
'35 '216 422 66 '199 845 73 '185 041 56 '171 719 29 '159 657 74 '148 683 72 '35
'36 '232 776 57 '216 651 65+ '202 159 85- 189 035 96 '177 078 63 '166 130 40 '36
'37 '249 634 99 '234 081 58 '220 021 92 '207 215 12 '195 478 62 '184 669 86 '37
'38 '266 970 13 '252 104 62 '238 595 07 '226 223 66 '214 825 60 '204 272 46 '38
'39 '284 752 43 "270 686 94 '257 842 33 '246 022 66 '235 079 98 '224 899 18 '39
'40 '302 950 64 '289 792 00 '277 722 72 '266 567 68 '256 194 90 '246 501 87 '40
'41 '321 531 96 '309 380 70 '298 191 47 '287 809 02 '278 116 57 '269 023 54 '41
'42 '340 462 20 '329 411 61 '319 200 28 '309 692 05- '300 784 62 '292 398 79 '42
*43 *359 705 85+ *349 841 12 '340 697 63 '332 157 58 '324 132 59 '316 554 32 '43
'44 '379 226 29 '370 623 73 '362 629 05+ '355 142 26 '348 088 40 '341 409 58 '44
'45 '398 985 85- '391 712 20 '384 937 50- '378 579 05+ '372 574 95+ '366 877 42 '45
'46 '418 946 02 '413 057 85+ '407 563 65- '402 397 68 '397 S10 74 '392 864 92 '46
'47 '439 067 55+ '434 610 74 '430 446 28 '426 525 10 '422 810 52 '419 274 23 '47
'48 '4-59310 62 '456 319 93 '453 522 63 '450 886 10 '448 385 98 '446 003 47 '48
'49 '479 634 96 '478 133 75 '476 728 77 *475 403 74 '474 146 52 '472 947 73 '49
'50 '500 000 00 '500 000 00 'S00 000 00 '500 000 00 |SOG 000 00 '500 000 00 '50
KARL PEARSON, S. A. STOUFFER AND F. N. DAVID 349

TABLE II (continued).
a= '01-*50 v= 14-19

v=14 15 16 17 18 19
x (v-1)=6'5 7 7-5 8 8'5 9

*0l *01
*02 *000ooo 01 *02
*03 'oo 000 10 *000 000 03 *000 000 01 *03
*04 *000 000 60 *oo0 000 23 *000 000 09 *o30000 03 *000 000 0] *04
a05 000 002 44 *000 001 03 '000 000 43 *000 000 18 '000 000 08 *000000 03 '05
'06 000 007 58 *000003 48 *o00 001 60 *ooo o00 74 *000000 34 *000 000 16 '06
'07 '000 019 64 *000009 68 *000004 79 *000 002 37 o(0o ool 18 *000 000 58 07
'08 000 044 46 *ooo 023 32 '000 012 25+ *ooo 006 45+ *000 003 40 '000 001 80 *08
*09 000 090 84 *ooo 050 26 '000 027 87 *000 015 48 '000 008 62 '000 004 80 '09
'10 000 171 14 '000 099 29 i000 057 73 '000 033 63 '000 019 62 '000 Oll 47 '10
'11 '000 301 88 '000 182 71 '000 110 82 *oo 067 34 '000 040 98 I'000 024 98
'12
'12 000 504 31 '000 317 09 '000 199 79 *o 126 12 '000 079 74 00() 050 49 '12
'13 '000 804 83 '000 523 85+ 000 341 67 '000 223 26 *00 146 11 '000 095 76 1 '13
'14 '001 235 25+ '000 829 80 '000 558 56 '000 376 66 '000 254 40 '000 172 06 i '14
'15 '001 833 03 '001 267 55- 1 000 878 26 '000 609 61 '000 423 79 '000
2o95 03 '15
'16 '002 641 24 '001 875 80 '001 334 80 '000 951 48 '000 679 29 '000 485 63 '16
'17 '003 708 45+ '002 699 49 '001 968 83 '001 438 39 '001 052 45- 1000 771 11 '17
'18 '005 088 43 '003 789 71 '002 827 82 '002 113 61 '001 582 13 '001 185 88 '18
'19 '006 839 73 '005 203 53 '003 966 12 '003 027 93 '002 315 06 '001 772 34 '19
'20 '009 025 04 '007 003 56 '005 444 77 '004 239 75- 003 306 16 '002 581 46 '20
'21 '011 710 56 '009 257 38 007 331 16 '005 814 91 '004 618 74 '903 673 27 '21
'22 '014 965 07 '012 036 80 '009 698 41 '007 826 37 006 324 38 '005 116 96 '22
'23 018 859 04 015 416 95- '012 624 57 '010 353 56 '008 502 51 006 990 84 '23
'24 '023 463 59 '019 475 23 '016 191 67 '013 481 54 '011 239 78 ',009 381 85+ '24
'25 '028 849 42 '024 290 14 '020 484 48 017 299 84 '014 629 02 '012 384 78 '25
'26 '035 085 64 '029 940 04 '025 589 25- '021 901 19 '018 768 05- '016 101 16 '26
'27 '042 238 66 '036 501 79 '031 592 19 '027 379 97 '023 758 09 1020 637 80 '27
'28 '050 370 99 '044 049 36 '038 577 95+ '033 830 47 '029 702 04 '026 104 99 '28
'29 059 540 16 '052 652 47 '046 627 96 '041 345 12 '036 702 44 '032 614 43 '29
'30 '069 797 56 '062 375 21 '055 818 76 '050 012 54 '044 859 37 '040 276 94 '30
'31 '081 187 50+ '073 274 66 *066 220 38 '059 915 58 '054 268 23 '049 199 94 '31
'32 '093 746 17 '085 399 64 '077 894 69 '071 129 37 '065 Ol 36 '059 484 84 '32
'33 '107 500 85+ '098 789 54 '090 893 88 '083 719 39 '077 185 82 '071 224 36 '33
'34 '122 469 15+ '113 473 24 '105 259 06 '097 739 68 '090 841 13 '084 499 88 '34
'35 '138 658 39 '129 468 23 '121 018 94 '113 231 13 '106 037 17 '099 378 86 '35
'36 '156 065 13 '146 779 78 '138 188 78 '130 220 07 '122 812 26 '11i5 912 48 '36
'37 '174 674 82 '165 400 43 '156 769 47 '148 716 95+ '141 187 52 '134 133 51 '37
'38 '194 461 65- '185 309 55+ '176 746 88 '168 715 38 '161 165 45+ '154 054 43 '38
'39 '215 388 47 '206 473 17 '198 091 45+ '190 191 42 '182 728 93 '175 666 06 '39
'40 "237 406 98 '228 843 95+ '220 758 00 '213 103 18 '205 840 51 '198 936 49 '40
'41 '260 457 95+ '252 361 44 '244 685 83 '237 390 78 '230 442 12 '223 810 52 '41
'42 '284 471 69 '276 952 44 '269 799 10 '262 976 59 '256 455 25- 250 209 65+ '42
'43 '309 368 62 '302 531 68 '296 007 46 '289 765 87 '283 781 46 '278 032 49 '43
'44 '335 059 97 '329 002 56 '323 206 91 '317 647 66 '312 30:336 *307 155 7:3 '44
'45 '361 448 66 '356 258 18 '351 280 94 '346 496 07 '341 885 97 '337 435 62 '45
'46 '388 430 23 '384 182 49 '380 101 86 '376 171 82 *'372378 46 '368 709 89 '46
'47 '415 893 90 '412 651 52 '409 532 32 '406 524 00 '403 616 22 '400 800 13 '47
'48 '443 723 76 '441 534 89 '439 427 07 '437 392 14 '435 423 24 '433 514 52 '48
'49 '471 799 96 '470 697 27 -'469 634 78 '468 608 41 '467 614 74 '466 650 88 '49
'50 '500 00000 '5(0 000 00 .500 000 00 '500 000 00 '50() 000 00 '|500 000 00 '50
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ _---I__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _J__ _ _I__ __
(x) Bessel Function
350 FurtherApplicationsin Statisticsof T?fl

TABLE II (continued).
x= '01-'50 v= 20-25

v=20 21 22 23 24 25
X 11 X
i(v - 1) =95 10 10.5 11.5 12

*01 '01
-02 '02
-03 -03
-04 '04
'05 '000 000 01 '000 000 01 -05
*06 '000 000 07 '000 000 03 '000 00001 '000 000 01 .06
0 000 000 29 '000 000 14 '000 000 07 '000 000 04 '000 000 02 000 000 01 '07
.08 '000 000 95+ '000 000 50+ *)00 000 27 *o)00000 14 '000 000 07 '000 000 04 '08
o09 )00 002 68 '000 001 50- )00 000 84 '000 000 47 '000 000 26 '000 000 15- *09
'10 '000 006 71 '000 003 93 '000 00'2 30 '000 001 35+ 0oooooo 80 '000 000 47 '10
'11 '000 015 25- '000 009 32 000 005 70 '000 003 49 '000 002 14 -000 001 31 '11
'12 '000 03201 '000 020 32 000 012 91 000 008 21 000005 23 000 003 33 '12
'13 '000 062 85- o000041 29 '000 027 16 '000 017 88 '000 Oll 78 '000 007 77 '13
14 '000 116 53 '000 079 01 '000 053 62 '000 036 43 '000 024 7 o000016 86 '14
'15 '000 205 65- '000 143 51 '000 100 25- '000 070 09 '000 049 05+ '000 034 36 '15
*16 '000 347 61 '000 249 10 '000 178 69 '000 128 30 '000 092 20 '000 066 31 '16
'17 '000 565 66 '000 415 42 '000 305 38 '000 224 70 '000 165 47 '000 121 96 '17
'18 '000 889 94 '000 668 58 '000 502 78 '000 378 44 '000 285 08 '000 214 92 '18
'19 '001 358 45+ '001 042 34 '000 800 56 '000 615 42 '000 473 48 '000 364 55+ '19
'20 '002 017 96 '001 579 12 '001 236 90 '000 969 70 '000 760 83 '000 597 39 '20
'21 '002 924 66 '002 331 03 '001 859 63 '001 484 85- '001 186 54 '000 948 85+ '21
'22 '004 144 68 '003 360 54 '002 727 27 '002 215 21 '001 800 70 '001 464 80 '22
'23 '005 754 21 '004 741 03 '003 909 79 '003 226 96 '002 665 41 '002 203 14 '23
'24 '007 839 40 '006 556 89 '005 489 06 '004 598 86 '003 855 91 '003 235 21 '24
'25 '010 495 75+ '008 903 28 '007 558 96 '006 422 71 '005 461 25- '004 646 85- '25
'26 '013 827 25+ '011 885 44 '010 224 94 '008 803 24 '007 584 63 '006 539 01 '26
'27 '017 945 01 '015 617 59 013 603 19 '011 857 54 '010 343 10 ' 009 027 87 '27
'28 '022 965 53 '020 221 26 '017 819 13 '015 713 86 '013 866 69 1 *()2 244 30 '28
'29 '0'29 008 64 '025 823 31 '023 005 53 '020 509 80 '018 296 81 I '016 332 51 '29
'30 '036 195 01 '032 553 36 '029 300 01 '026 389 94 '023 784 0() 021 448 00 '30
*31 044 643 52 '040 540 98 '036 842 03 '033 502 81 '030 484 93 '0227754 67 ':31
'32 '054 468 26 '049 912 51 '045 769 58 '041 997 35- '038 558 78 |035) 421 14 '32
'33 '065 77-556 '060 787 68 '056 215 44 '052 018 98 '048 163 08 '044 616 45+ '33 I
-34 '078 660 87 '073 276 06 '068 303 28 '063 705 29 '059 449 03 '055 505 05- '*34
'35 '093 205 72. '087 473 60 '082 143 66 '077 181 50+ '07*2 5c56 54 '068 241 42 '35
'36 '109 474 85- '103 459 16 '097 830 02 '092 556 03 '087,609 19 i '082 964 44 I '36
'37 '127 513 53 '121 291 33 '115 434 93 '109 915 98 '104 709 14 '090 791 71 '37
'38 '147 345 27 '141 005 53 '135 006 62 '129 323 12 '123 932 38 '118 814 04 i '38
'39 '168 969 90 1]62611 64 '156 565 91 '150 810 19 '145 324 36 '140 090 39 '39
'40 *192 362 12 '186 092 02 '180 103 87 j '174 377 87 '168 896 34 I 't63 643 44 '40
'41 '217 470 63 -211400 28 '205 580 00 '199 992 54 1 '194 622 51 '189 4.56 14 1 '41
'42 244 217 84 '238 460 66 '232 921 30 '227 584 86 '2'22 438 11 '217 469 18 1'42
'43 "272 500 17 '267 168 16 '262 022 11 '257 049 ,35- '252 238 59 '247 579 79 '43
i44 *302 188 97 '297 389 37 '292 744 90 '288 244 94 '283 880 06 '279 641 85+ '44
*45 |333 132 07 '328 964 09 '324 921 83 '320 996 61 '317 180 7,5- '313 467 35+ '45
'46 '365 155 90 :361 707 62 '358 357 27 "35-,098 03 I *351 923 82 ! '348 829 25+ '46
'47 '398 068 17 *395 413 72 '392 831 04 I '390 31505- '387 861 26 '385 465 66 '4
'48 '431 660 95+ '429 858 18 '428 102 39) '426 390 22 '424 718 70 '423 085 19 1 '48
'49 '465 714 30 '464 802 84 '463 914 59 '463 047 90 *462
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'50 '500 000 00 -500000 00 '(500 000 () | 500 000 00 '500 000) 00 '500 000 00 '50