You are on page 1of 276

DESIGN GUIDE

FOR
COOL THERMAL STORAGE

Principal lnvestigators
Charles E. Dorgan, Ph.D, P.E.
James S. Elleson, P.E.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers


1791 Tullie Circle, Atlanta, Georgia 30329
O 1993 by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning
Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved.

ISBN 1-883413-07-9

No part of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE,
except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a
review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means--electronic, photocopy-
ing, recording, or other-without permission in writing from ASHRAE.

ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated,
and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service,
process, procedure, design, or the like which may be described herein. The appearance
of any technical data, editorial material, or advertisement in this publication does not
constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service,
process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information
in this publication is free of errors, and ASHRAE does not necessarily agree with any
statement or opinion in this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information
in this publication is assumed by the user.

Printed in the United States of America


CONTENTS
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COOL THERMAL STORAGE ...........1-1
Background .................. 1.1
Cool Stomge Concept ........................................................................................................................1-2
Applications for Cool Storage ........................................................................................................... 1-3
Cool Storage Economics ................................................................................................................. 1-5
Reference Sources ..............................................................................................................................1-6
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................... 1-8

Chapter 2 FUNDAMENTAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ...................2-1


Calculation of Cooling Load Profiles ............................................................................................... 2-1
Cool Storage Types ............................................................................................................................ 2-6
Storage Media ............................................................................................................................. 2-6
Primary Energy Source .............................................................................................................. 2-8
Storage Technologies ................................................................................................................. 2-9
Equipment ........................................................................................................................................ 2-10
Refrigeration Equipment ..........................................................................................................2-11
Storage Tanks ........................................................................................................................... 2-14
Controls and Instrumentation ................................................................................................... 2-18
Operating and Control Strategies .................................................................................................... 2-19
Scheduling of Chiller Operation ..............................................................................................2-19
Charging Cycles ........................................................................................................................2-24
Optimized Operation ................................................................................................................ 2-26
Interface With Building Systems ....................................................................................................2-29
Chilled Water Temperatures .................................................................................................... 2-29
Cold Air Distribution ................................................................................................................ 2-32
Pumping Considerations........................................................................................................... 2-33
Glycol Heat Transfer Fluids ..................................................................................................... 2-34
Heat Recovery .......................................................................................................................... 2-36
Water-Side Economizer ............................................................................................................2-37
Dual-Use Cool Storage and Fire Protection ............................................................................2-38
Total Building Design for Thermal Storage ............................... ..... .................................... 2-38
Sizing of Cooling Plant and Storage ............................................................................................... 2-38
Determine the Building Load Profile ....................................................................................... 2-39
Select the Design Day System Operating Strategy .................................................................2-39
Calculate the Initial Chiller Size and Initial Storage Capacity .............................................. 2-39
Select the Appropriate Storage Technology ............................................................................2-40
Refine and Finalize the Chiller and Storage Equipment Selection .........................................2-40
Economic Evaluation ..................................................................................................................... 2-41
Utility Rate Structures .............................................................................................................. 2-41
Equipment Costs ....................................................................................................................... 2-43
Efficiency and Operating Costs .............................................................................................. 2-44
Operation and Maintenance ............................................................................................................. 2-46
System Optimization ..............................................................................................................2-46
Equipment Maintenance ...............................,,.......................................................................... 2-46
Water Treatment .......................................................................................................................2-47
Commissioning ................................................................................................................................ 2-50
Need for Commissioning.......................................................................................................... 2-50
Commissioning Process ............................................................................................................2.5 1
Performance Testing ................................................................................................................. 2-53
References ........................................................................................................................................
2-56
Bibliography -Fundamental Design Considerations ................................................................... 2-59
Bibliography -Cold Air Distribution ........................................................................................ 2-61

Chapter 3 COMPARISON OF STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES ................3-1


Chiller Type ....................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Storage Volume ................................................................................................................................. 3-4
Storage Cost ...................................................................................................................................... - 3 4
Charging Efficiency ........................................................................................................................... 3-4
Discharge Temperatures ....................................................................................................................3-5
Discharge Fluid ..................................................................................................................................3-6
Tank Interface .................................................................................................................................... 3-6
Other Considerations .........................................................................................................................3-6
References .......................................................................................................................................... 3-6

Chapter 4 CHILLED WATER STORAGE ..................................................4-1


Primary Features ................................................................................................................................4-1
General Description .......................................................................................................................... -4-1
Stratification .............................................................................................................................. 4-3
Multiple Tank ............................................................................................................................. 4-7
Membrane or Diaphragm ...........................................................................................................4-7
Labyrinth and Baffle .................................................................................................................. -4-8
Refrigeration Systems.............................,.......................................................................................... 4-9
Storage Tanks ...................................................................................................................................4-10
Tank Shape ............................................................................................................................... 4-10
Storage Tank Construction ....................................................................................................... 4-11
Diffuser Design ......................................................................................................................... 4-12
Diffuser Shape .......................................................................................................................... 4-16
Location of the Tank ................................................................................................................ 4-18
Controls and Instrumentation .......................................................................................................... 4-19
Operating and Control Strategies ................................................................................................... 4-19
Interface With Building Systems .................................................................................................... 4-20
Temperature Differential ......................................................................................................... -4-21
Distribution Pressure Control ................................................................................................... 4-21
Fire Protection ..........................................................................................................................4-23
Sizing ...............................................................................................................................................
4-23
Figure of Merit ..........................................................................................................................4-24
Size Calculations .................................................................................................................... 4-25
Chargepischarge Characteristics ...................................................................................................4-25
First Cost .......................................................................................................................................... 4-28
Tanks ............................
...... .................................................................................................4.28
Chillers ...................................................................................................................................... 4-29
Tank Interface ........................................................................................................................... 4-30
Efficiency and Operating Cost ........................................................................................................ 4-30
Operation and Maintenance ............................................................................................................. 4-31
Commissioning ................................................................................................................................4-32
References .................................................................................................................................. 4-33
Bibliography .................................................................................................................................... 4-34

Chapter 5 ICE HARVESTING SYSTEMS ..................................................5-1


Primary Features ................................................................................................................................ 5-1
General Description ...........................................................................................................................5-1
Refrigeration Systems ....................................................................................................................... -5-2
Storage Tanks .....................................................................................................................................5-3
Location and Construction ......................................................................................................... 5-3
Tank Geometry ..........................................................................................................................-5-4
Piping .......................................................................................................................................... 5-6
Controls and Instrumentation ............................................................................................................ 5-6
Operating and Control Strategies ......................................................................................................5-7
Interface With Building Systems ......................................................................................................5-8
Sizing ............................................................................................................................................... 5-10
Chargepischarge Characteristics ..................................................................................................-5-12
First Cost .......................................................................................................................................... 5-13
Efficiency and Operating Cost ........................................................................................................ 5-14
Operation and Maintenance ........................................................................................................... 5 - 1 5
Commissioning ................................................................................................................................ 5-16
References ....................................................................................................................................... 5-17
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................... -5-18
Chapter 6 EXTERNAL MELT ICE-ON-COIL STORAGE SYSTEMS 6.1 ..
Primary Features ................................................................................................................................6-1
General Description ........................................................................................................................... 6-1
Refrigeration Systems ..................................................................................................................... 6-3
Storage Tanks ..................................................................................................................................... 6-6
Controls and Instrumentation ............................................................................................................6-6
Operating and Control Strategies ...................................................................................................... 6-7
Interface With Building Systems ......................................................................................................6-8
Charge/Discharge Characteristics .................................................................................................... -6-9
Sizing ...............................................................................................................................................6-11
First Cost .......................................................................................................................................... 6-12
Efficiency and Operating Cost ........................................................................................................ 6-12
Operation and Maintenance .............................................................................................................6-12
Commissioning ................................................................................................................................ 6-13
References ........................................................................................................................................6-15
Bibliography .................................................................................................................................... 6. 15

Chapter 7 INTERNAL MELT ICE-ON-COIL STORAGE SYSTEMS 7-1 ...


Primary Features ................................................................................................................................ 7-1
General Description ........................................................................................................................... 7. 1
Refrigeration Systems ........................................................................................................................7 4
Storage Tanks ..................................................................................................................................... 7-4
Controls and Instrumentation ............................................................................................................ 7-5
Operating and Control Strategies ......................................................................................................7-5
Interface With Building Systems ...................................................................................................... 7-6
Sizing .................................................................................................................................................
7-7
Charge/Discharge Characteristics .....................................................................................................7-8
First Cost ..........................................................................................................................................
7-10
Efficiency and Operating Cost ........................................................................................................ 7-10
Operation and Maintenance .............................................................................................................7.11
Commissioning ................................................................................................................................ 7-12
References ........................................................................................................................................ 7-13
Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................7-14

Chapter 8 ENCAPSULATED ICE ................................................................8-1


Primary Features ................................................................................................................................ 8-1
General Description ........................................................................................................................... 8-1
Refrigeration System ..................... .................................................................................................8-4
Storage Tanks.....................................................................................................................................8-5
Controls and Instrumentation ............................................................................................................ 8-6
Operating and Control Strategies ......................................................................................................8-6
Interface With Building Systems ...................................................................................................... 8-7
Sizing .................................................................................................................................................8-8
Charge/Discharge Characteristics ..................................................................................................... 8-9
First Cost ..........................................................................................................................................8-12
Efficiency and Operating Cost ........................................................................................................8-12
Operation and Maintenance ............................................................................................................. 8-13
Commissioning ................................................................................................................................ 8-13
References ........................................................................................................................................ 8-15
Bibliography .............................., ....................................................................................................8-15
Chapter 9 EUTECTIC SALT PHASE-CHANGE MATERIALS ..............9-1
Primary Features ................................................................................................................................ 9-1
General Description ........................................................................................................................... 9-1
Refrigeration Systems ........................................................................................................................ 9-4
Storage Tanks..................................................................................................................................... 9-4
Tanks ........................................................................................................................................... 9-4
Containers ...................................................................................................................................9-5
Controls and Instrumentation ............................................................................................................ 9-6
Operating and Control Strategies ......................................................................................................9-6
Interface With Building Systems ......................................................................................................9-7
Sizing ............................................................................................................................................... 9-8
Charge/Discharge Characteristics ..................................................................................................... 9-9
.,
First Cost ................................. ...................................................................................................... 9-10
Efficiency and Operating Cost ........................................................................................................ 9-11
Operation and Maintenance ...................................................................................................... 9 -1
Commissioning ................................................................................................................................ 9-11
References ........................................................................................................................................ 9-12
Bibliography .................................................................................................................................... 9-13

Chapter 10 DESIGN PROCEDURE .............................................................10-1


Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 10-1
Calculate Load Profiles ................................................................................................................ 10-2
Design Example: Selection of Design Weather Conditions.................................................... 10-2
Design Example: Load Profile Calculation for New Construction ........................................10-4
Design Example: Load Profile Calculation for an Existing System ....................................... 10-8
Initial Economic Screening ......................................................................................................1 0 -11
Quick Sizing of Chiller and Storage ...................................................................................... 10-11
Design Example: Initial Sizing of Chiller and Storage ......................................................... 10-13
Design Example: Economic Comparison ..............................................................................10-20
Selection of Storage Type and Operating Strategy....................................................................... 10-24
Determine Storage Parameters and Piping Configuration.......................................................... 10-26
Perform Detailed Cooling Plant and Storage Sizing ................................................................. 10-28
Design Example: Detailed System Sizing. Internal Melt Ice Storage ..................................10-30
.
Design Example: Detailed System Sizing Ice Harvester .....................................................
Design Example: Detailed System Sizing. Chilled Water Storage ....................................... 10-39
10-36

Economic Evaluation .................................................................................................................. 10-42


First Cost and Operating Cost Estimates ............................................................................... 10-42
Capital Budgeting Analysis Example ....................................................................................10-54
Finalize Design .............................................................................................................................. 10-56
Commissioning ..............................................................................................................................10-57
References ...................................................................................................................................
10-58

Appendix A Units and Conversions .................................................................A-1


Appendix B Technical Bulletins by Subject Matter .......................................B-1

Appendix C Physical Properties of Water ......................................................C-1

Appendix D Terminology ..................................................................................D-1


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This Guide was developed by a cooperative effort between Dorgan Associates, Inc.
and cool storage experts who reviewed various drafts and provided both suggestions
and input data. Special thanks to Ron Wendland for making EPRI material available
for inclusion in the Guide. The input of the ASHRAE Project Monitoring Subcornmit-
tee, chaired by Chang Sohn, was instrumental in achieving a balance among the
viewpoints and knowledge of various segments of the cool storage industry.

Thirty-one individuals reviewed the final two drafts. The following deserve special
thanks for theirdetailedcomments, suggestions, and supplementalinformation: David
Arnold, John Andrepont, William Bahnfleth, Jim Denkmann, Bill Dietrich, Wallace
Donley, Don Eppelheimer, Don Fiorino, Don Gatley, Ken Gillespie, Jim Holtzapple,
Steve Houston, David Knebel, Ian Mackie, Mark MacCracken, Skip McCullough,
Frederick McDonough, Victor Ott, Bill Stewart, Martin Tirnrn, Sherrod Waites, and
Bud Wildin.

Dorgan Associates staff members who deserve recognition for their contributions
include technical writers Marion McGavock and Steve Parsons, whose input and
assistance in setting the concepts of the Guide down on paper were invaluable. Steve
Leight, Mike Armstrong, Steve Dingle, Naorni Sirndon, and Dane Taival assisted with
research, the development of illustrations, and example calculations. As always,
Marisue Quigley did an excellent job of word processing, proofreading, and final
editing and formatting.

ASHRAE staff who edited and prepared the pages for this guide were Robert Parsons
and Claudia Forman.
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND
ASHRAE commissioned this design guide in response to the need for a comprehen-
sive, current cool storage reference manual. This document will assist engineers and
owners to evaluate cool storage for specific applications, to select the appropriate
cool storagetechnology for a given application,and to design successful cool storage
systems. The guide is a valuable first-level reference, which discusses cool storage
fundamentals, compares cool storage technologies, and describes a rational proce-
dure for designing cool storage systems.

Cooling contributes 35%of the summer electric demand in many areas of theunited
States. Unlike other building electric uses, cooling incurs a peak demand for only a
few days or weeks each year. Electric utilities have recognized the ability of cool
storage to favorably alter electric usagepatterns.Many now offer incentiveprograms
and special rate structures that encourage cool storage usage. In addition, cool
storage technology has improved significantly since 1980. Designers and their
clients continue to express strong interest in the use of cool storage to reduce energy
costs.

While this manual is intended to provide guidance and technical information to


owners and designers, it is not a step-by-step design procedure. To keep the guide
concise, some details of cool storage design, as well as general topics covered in
other widely available publications, are addressed by reference to the appropriate
sources.Users should supplementthe material contained here with information from
the other sources listed.

The guide is organized into ten chapters. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides basic
background on cool storage concepts and terminology. Chapter 2, Fundamental
Design Considerations, presents information that is common to all cool storage
systems,regardless of the specific storage technology used. Chapter 3, Comparison
of Storage Technologies, provides an overview and comparative discussion of six
cool storage technologies. Chapters 4 through 9 provide detailed, specific discus-
sions of the six technologies. Chapter 10, Design Procedure, gives a step-by-step
1-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

description of the cool storage design process, with representative examples for
specific steps of the process. Appropriate references and a bibliography are provided
at the end of each section, and a complete reference list is included at the end of the
book.

All costs given in this guide are in terms of 1992 U.S.dollars, unless specifically
noted otherwise. Costs reflect United States averages and may be higher or lower in
some geographical areas.

COOL STORAGE CONCEPT


Cool storage systems remove heat from a thermal storage medium during periods of
low cooling demand. The stored cooling is later used to meet an air-conditioning or
process cooling load. The cool storage medium can be chilled water, ice, or a eutectic
salt phase-change material.

Early refrigeration systems used blocks of icecut from frozenlakes as stored cooling.
With the advent of mechanical refrigeration, most stored cooling systems were
replaced by instantaneouscooling systems sized to meet the maximum expectedload
at any time.

Interest in cool storage for commercial applications grew in the 1970s and 1980s,
when electric utility companies recognized the need to reduce the peak demand on
their generation and distribution systems. For many utilities, the peak system
demand is driven by the air-conditioning load on the hottest days of the year.

Utilities realized that if cooling could be generated and stored during off-peak
periods for later use, more peak capacity would be available for other uses, and off-
peak capacity would be more fully used. Many utility companies began to offer
financial incentives in the form of specialized rates, peak demand charges, rebates,
and subsidies to encourage customers to shift their on-peak energy consumption to
off-peak periods.

Cool storage systems permit such a shift by decoupling chiller operation from
instantaneous loads. A cool storage system meets the same total cooling load in a
given period as a non-storage system but with a smaller instantaneous cooling
capacity. The total cooling capacity distributed over the period is matched more
closely to the total cooling load encountered in the same period. Often, the money
saved by downsizing chillers can offset the cost of adding a cool storage medium.
Some cool storage technologies facilitate further cost reductions by making the use
of lower supply air and supply water temperatures practical and cost effective. Air
Introduction 1-3

and water distribution equipment can be downsized when supply temperatures are
reduced and operating differentials are increased.

By decoupling chiller operation from instantaneous load, cool storage systems also
facilitate more constant loading on the refrigeration equipment and increase chiller
efficiency due to lower condensing temperatures during nighttime operation. Cool
storagesystems can provide substantial operating cost savings by generating cooling
using cheaper off-peak energyand reducing or eliminating on-peak demand charges.

1.3 APPLICATIONS FOR COOL STORAGE

Owners and designers should consider selecting a cool storage system when any of
the following criteria apply:

The maximum cooling load of the facility is significantly higher than the
average load. This is true for most nonindustrial facilities.
The electric utility rate structure includes high demand charges, a significant
differential between on- and off-peak rates, or special rebates or incentives for
cool storage installations.
An existing cooling system is undergoing expansion.
An existing tank suitable for cool storage use is available.
Cooling is needed for an application in a remote region or country where
refrigeration equipment is extremely expensive.
Electric power available at the site is limited.
Backup or redundant cooling capacity is desirable.
Cold air distribution can be used, is necessary, or would be beneficial.

Office building cooling loads often peak at a level two or more times higher than the
daily 24-h average load. Some industrial processes also have load peaks or spikes
that rise much higher than the average load. A d a q , for example, might operate its
refrigeration system at full capacity to cool a batch of milk, then throttle back to
maintenance mode or even shut down completely. A cool storage system generates
cooling during low-load periods and meets the peak loads using stored cooling. The
higher the ratio of peak load to average load, the greater the potential reduction in
required chilling capacity using cool storage.

Utilities impose demand charges based on a customer's highest power demand


during on-peak hours and during the entire billing cycle. During on-peak periods,
when demand on the utility system is highest, demand charges are highest. Cool
storage systems spread the generation of cooling over a longer period of time than
nonstorage systems, resulting in a lower demand for power at any one time. Cool
storage systems can also generate all required cooling during off-peak hours,
1-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

completely eliminating on-peak demand charges for chillers, condenser water


pumps, and cooling towers. Many utilities charge less for electrical energy con-
sumed during off-peak hours. The reduction in on-peak demand and energy con-
sumption provided by cool storage is particularly beneficial in areas where on-peak
demandchargesare high, or where on-peakenergy charges are much higher than off-
peak charges.

Cool storage can be beneficial when an existing cooling system needs to be


expanded. This may occur when a building is enlarged or remodeled, or if increases
in loads necessitate additional cooling capacity. The addition of cool storage to an
existing system can allow cooling capacity that is currently unused during low-load
periods to be used. Particularly with large systems, or with multiple-building or
campus systems, the cost of adding cool storage capacity can be much lower than the
cost of adding new chillers to meet the higher load.

In some retrofit situations,particularly in industrial applications,existing tanks may


be available for cool storage use. Existing fire protection tanks can often be used to
store chilled water with minimal modifications. Other unused tanks may be compat-
ible with storage of chilled water, ice, or phase-change materials. Even if cleaning
or relining is required, a large part of the tank cost can be avoided, improving the
economics of cool storage.

Where chilling equipment has to be imported, equipment costs can be especially


high, and thecost reduction resulting from a lower required chiller capacity can more
than offset the cost of adding cool storage capacity to a system.

In some cases, electric power available to a site may be limited, or the availability
of additional power may depend on the addition of expensive transformers or
switchgear. Here the use of cool storage can significantly reduce electric demand for
cooling.

Cool storage can provide short-termbackup or reserve cooling capacity for computer
rooms and other critical applications. Cooling loads can be met from storage simply
by operating pumps, thus reducing the required size of emergency generating
equipment. For f i i backup capacity, storage must be oversized to provide the
desiredresemeeven if a chiller goes down at the end of the normal discharge period.

Cool storage technologiesusing ice as the storagemedium permit the economical use
of reduced supply water and air temperatures. In such systems, engineers can
downsize pumps, piping, air handlers, and ductwork and realize substantial reduc-
tions in first cost.
Introduction 1-5

Cold air distribution systems using supply air between 42 and 49'F (6 and 9°C)
provide several benefits to building owners (see Section 2.5). They include reduced
distribution system costs, improved comfort and indoor air quality, and reduced
construction costs in some high-rise buildings. In buildings where cooling loads
have increased beyond the capacity of the existing distribution systems, the in-
creased loads can be met with colder supply air. Increasing the capacity of the
distribution system in this way requires minimal changes to existing ductwork. In
applications where the benefits of cold air distribution are of primary importance,
cool storage systemsusing ice as the storage medium are generally preferable to low-
temperature nonstorage chillers.

1.4 COOL STORAGE ECONOMICS

An evaluation of cool storage economics for a given application compares the first
costs and the operating costs of a cool storage system with those of a nonstorage
system. In applications particularly favorable for cool storage, the total first cost of
a storage system can be lower than that of a nonstorage system. However, the fist
cost of a storage system is usually greater than that of a nonstorage system. The
operating costs for a storage system are lower than those for a nonstorage system.

System first cost includes refrigeration equipment, storage tank, controls and
instrumentation, and air and water distribution equipment. Refrigeration equipment
for a storage system is generallysmaller and less expensive than that for a nonstorage
system. Therelative costs of refrigeration equipment and storage capacity depend on
the storage technology and operating strategy selected for the application.

Distribution system costs can often be reduced by using cool storage systems. Many
storage technologies take advantage of wider water temperature differentials than
typical nonstorage systems; this reduces the size and cost of pumps and piping
systems. Cool storage systems using ice as the storage medium can supply air at
reduced temperatures, thus decreasing the cost of air distribution systems.

First costs for cool storage systems can also be reduced by direct utility subsidies.
Many utilities offer incentive payments or rebates to building owners who install
cool storage systems, generally in the range of $100 to $500 per kilowatt of on-peak
demand reduction.

Operating costs for electrical energy and demand are reduced for cool storage
systems. The amount of reduction depends on the utility rate schedule, including
demand charges, differentialbetween on-peak and off-peak energy charges, and the
length and schedulingof on-peak periods. Reductions in operating costs also depend
on the load profile for a given application.
1-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

1.5 REFERENCE SOURCES


Additional information on cool storageis available from several sources. Areference
list and bibliography are provided at the end of each section in this guide, listing
citations that were referenced in the chapter and additional related references. A
complete list of references pertaining to cool storage is included at the end of the
Guide. Additional information is available from the following sources:

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engi-


neers, Inc. (ASHRAE)
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
The International Thermal Storage Advisory Council (ITSAC)
The Thermal Storage Applications Research Center (TSARC)
Cool storage vendors
Utility companies
Trade magazines

1.5.1 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning


Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE)
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers,
Inc. (ASJ4RAE) publishes technical papers and other publications and sponsors
research covering a wide range of subject matter of interest to the HVAC&R
industry.Technicalpapers presented at society meetings are published semiannually
in the ASHRAE Transactions. ASHRAE's Technical Data Bulletins contain
collections of papers pertaining to specific subjects. Three issues of the Technical
Data Bulletin devoted to thermal storage have been published to date and are
included in the reference list in this Guide. Further information on ASHRAE
publications can be obtained by contacting ASHRAE Publications, 1791 Tullie
Circle NE,Atlanta, GA 30329; Phone (404) 636-8400; Fax (404) 321-5478.

1.5.2 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provides funding for research of
interest to the electric utility industry. EPRI has funded most recent research related
to cool storage, and has published a number of research reports. These reports are
available at no charge from EPRI member utilities, or researchers, by contacting the
EPRI Distribution Center, 207 Coggins Drive, PO Box 23205, Pleasant Hill, CA
94523;Phone (510) 934-4212.EPRI also supports the Thermal Storage Applications
Research Center (see Section 1.5.4).
Introduction 1-7

1.5.3 International Thermal Storage Advisory Council (ITSAC)


The International Thermal Storage Advisory Council (ITSAC) publishes a monthly
newsletter covering current events in the thermal storage industry, and a monthly
Technical Bulletin with articles covering cool storage applications, case studies,
research reports, and design issues. An index of ITSAC Technical Bulletins is
provided in Appendix B. ITSAC can be contacted at 3769 Eagle Street, San Diego,
CA 92103; Phone (619) 295-6267.

1.5.4 Thermal Storage Applications Research Center (TSARC)

The Thermal Storage Applications Research Center (TSARC) at the University of


Wisconsin-Madison manages and conducts research, provides information, and
performs technology transfer activities pertaining to thermal storage and other
demand-side management and air- conditioning-related issues. TSARC is partially
funded by EPRI and manages much of EPRI research on thermal storage. One of the
tasks of TSARC is to disseminate information on thermal storage to a broad
audience. TSARC can be contacted at 150East Gilman Street, Suite 1200, Madison,
WI 53703; Phone (800) 858-3774; Fax (608) 262-6209.

1S.5 Cool Storage Vendors


Manufacturers and installers of cool storage equipment can provide valuable
information concerning the use of their products in specific applications. While this
information is typically biased, discussions with advocates of several technologies
will generally yield a useful comparison. Manufacturers' representatives may also
offer assistance in sizing storage and selecting piping configurations.

1.5.6 Electric Utility Companies


Local electric utility companies are often a good source of information on cool
storage. Many utilities have staff members devoted to encouraging application of
cool storage in their service territories. In particular, utility contacts can provide
information on applicable rate schedules and incentive programs, as well as local
area cool storage installations.
1-8 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

1.5.7 Trade Magazines


Trade magazines often carry articles covering cool storage installations and techni-
cal design issues related to cool storage. The reference list contains citations for
numerous articles from trade magazines. Additional references may be found in the
most recent issues of magazines such as ASHRAE Journal, HeatinglPipinglAir
Conditioning, Consulting-Specifying Engineer, and Engineered Systems.

1.5.8 References Essential for Cool Storage Design

Throughoutthe guide, citationsare given forreferencesthat provide additionaldetail


on the subject matter. The references listedin the following bibliograpy are essential
supplementsto this guide; all those pursuing design of cool storage systems will find
them valuable. Additional references are found at the end of each chapter and in the
comprehensive bibliography at the end of this guide.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ahlgren, R.M. 1987. Water treatment technologies for thermal storage systems.
EPRI EM-5545.December.
ASHRAE. 1985. Technical Data Bulletin: Thermal Storage.
ASHRAE. 1989.ASHRAE Guideline 1-1989,Guidelinefor Commissioning HVAC
Systems.
ASHRAE. 1989. Technical Data Bulletin: Cool Storage Applications 33).
ASHRAE. 1989. Technical Data Bulletin: Cool Storage Modeling and Design 5(4).
ASHRAE. 1993.1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.
Dorgan, C.E. and J.S. Elleson. 1988. Cold air distribution design guide. EPRI EM-
5730, March.
Gatley, D.P. 1992. Cool storage ethylene glycol design guide. EPRI TR-100945,
September.
Gatley, D.P.and J.J. Riticher. 1985. Successful thermal storage. ASHRAE Transac-
tions 91(1B):843-55. Reprinted in ASHRAETechnical Data Bulletin: Thermal
Storage (January):37-49.
Mackie, E.I. and G. Reeves. 1988. Stratified chilled-water storage design guide.
EPRI EM-4852s, May.
Mackie, E.I. and W.V.Richards. 1992. Design of off-peak cooling systems. ASHRAE
Professional Development Seminar.
Chapter 2 FUNDAMENTAL DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
This section introduces the concepts essential to the design of cool thermal storage
systems. These concepts apply to cool storage systems in general, regardless of the
specific storage medium or storage technology selected. The design considerations
relevant to specific storage technologiesarediscussedin Chapters4 through 9, while
application of the fundamentals to the design procedure is discussed in Chapter 10.

The following design fundamentals are discussed in this chapter:

Calculation of cooling load profiles


Cool storage types
Equipment considerations
Operating and control strategies
Interface with building systems
Sizing of cooling plant and storage
Economic evaluation
Operation and maintenance
Commissioning

2.1 CALCULATION OF COOLING LOAD PROFILES

The cooling load profile over a period of 24 h or more is as important as the peak
hourly load for design of a cool storage system. In a nonstorage system, the total 24-
h system capacity is 24 times the peak hourly load, allowing sufficient "catch-up"
capability if the &sign load is exceeded for a short period. However, a cool storage
system must be designed to be able to meet the extended load over time as well as
the peak hourly load. Therefore, it is important to accurately calculate the total
integrated load over the complete storage cycle.
2-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

2.1.1 Design Weather Conditions


The selection of design ambient temperature conditions for cool storage systems is
subject to the same considerationsas for nonstorage systems. However, cool storage
systems generally have less capacity to recover than nonstorage systems if design
loads are exceeded. Therefore, it is advisable to use a more conservative selection of
design temperatures. For example, in an application for which the 2.5% design
temperatures would be used for a nonstorage design, the 1% values are recom-
mended for a cool storage design. In some cases, it is advisable to use even more
conservative values, such as the "median of annual extremes" data tabulated in
Chapter 24, Table 1, of the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.

Designers may elect to use less extreme design weather conditions for full storage
systems, since a full storage system can fall back to partial chiller operation if design
loads are exceeded. Owners shouldbe informed that at very high loads some on-peak
operation of cooling equipment may be required.

The ambient temperature profile on a design day can be estimated using the method
given in Example 1, Chapter 26, of the 1993ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.
The temperature for any hour can be calculated by subtracting the tabulated
percentage of daily range from the peak dry-bulbtemperature. Thesepercen tages are
reprinted in Table 2-1. Local weather data can also be used to develop a more
accurate profile.

Table 2-1 Percentage of the Daily Range

Hour % Hour % Hour %

71 17 10
56 18 21
39 19 34
23 20 47
11 21 58
3 22 68
0 23 76
3 24 82

This method has been constructed to result in an approximately sinusoidal variation


in dry-bulb temperature, with a maximum at 3 P.M. and a minimum at 5 A.M. standard
time. Estimates of corresponding wet-bulb temperatures can be calculated using the
approximation of constant dew point through the design day.

Historical weather data are generally preferable to constructed data, particularly for
locations where occasional extreme temperature episodes may not be accurately
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-3

reflected in the tabulatedaverage design temperaturesand daily ranges. Guttman and


Plantico (1988) discuss the frequency,duration, and magnitude of cold events during
which temperatures fall below the 99% design values. A similar approach could be
applied to hot events, when temperatures exceed 1%design levels. In such cases, an
actual temperature profile from an extreme weather day can be used for calculating
design loads.

The selection of design days for weekly cycles requires the evaluation of local
weather patterns. The most conservative approach is to design for five consecutive
weekdays with peak temperature profiles. If such an extreme episode is unlikely to
occur in a given area, it may be reasonable to use a design week consisting of two or
three peak days with the remaining days at lower temperatures.

Today, most load calculations are performed using a computer program. Many
programs will calculate hourly temperature profiles and hourly loads for a design
day. In other cases, temperature profiles may have to be calculated manually, as
discussed earlier.

2.1.2 Load Calculations

Load profiles must be calculated for the entire design charge-discharge cycle of the
cool storage system. The most common cycle is 24 h long, but weekly cycles are also
applied when appropriate. Longer or shorter cycles are also possible for certain
applications. Charging cycles are discussed in greater detail in Section 2.4.

The calculation procedure for the hourly load is similar to that for a nonstorage
system. Chapter 26 of the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals provides a
detailed discussion of cooling load calculation procedures. Mackie and Reeves
(1988) and Fields and Knebel(1991) discuss load calculation specifically for cool
storage systems.

Calculation of the design load profile requires accurate estimation of schedules of


occupancy, lighting, and equipment use schedules. All sources of heat within the
conditioned space must be included. It is important not to neglect relatively small
heat gains that are present for the entire occupied period or even the entire day. Such
loads may be a small part of the peak hourly load, but a significant portion of the
integrated daily load. Gatley and Riticher (1985) present a detailed listing of heat
sources that could significantly affect the integrated load profile. In general, all
electric input to the building ends up as a load on the cool storage system.

Pull-down loads are important to consider in cool storage design. In systems that
provide cooling only during occupied periods, unoccupied heat gains are generally
2-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

met during the first hour or two of operation. These pull-down loads normally do not
affect sizing of nonstoragesystems,but they must be taken into account in the design
load profile for cool storage systems.

Pull-down loads vary with the weekly day type: Monday, Tuesday through Friday,
Saturday and Sunday. These day types depend on building occupancy and use. For
example, for office buildings, Mondays have the highest pull-down loads if the
building HVAC systems are off during the previous day(s). All thermal energy
entering the building through solar gains, envelope transmission, or internal heat-
producing devices since the building HVAC system was last operated becomes a
pull-down load on Monday morning.

The designer of a cool storage system should bear in mind that many buildings,
particularly office facilities, have their HVAC systems shut down before solar
irradiation ceases on building surfaces. This solar heat gain becomes a pull-down
load on the following day. Care should be exercised when running computer
software to be sure that pull-down loads are properly accounted for.

For daily cycle systems,not all weekend hours are needed to charge storage. Monday
morning pull-down loads can be met by starting chillers one or two hours early, or
by providing additional storage capacity, which can be charged during the available
weekend hours.

Personal computer equipment represents a particularly important heat gain. Most


modem offices are equipped with one or more computer terminals per person.
Wilkins et al. (1991) show that even though actual equipment heat gains were
generally less than 50% of nameplate power ratings, a gain of 1.75 to 2.5 w/ft2 (19
to 27 w/m2) could be expected in a computerized office. If computers are left on
during unoccupied periods, their heat gain must be included in the load profile.
Turning computers off or using automatic power reduction is recommended for
successful cool storage operations.

If supply air temperatures are to be reduced, latent heat gains due to infiltration
should be calculated based on the expected space relative humidity.

The design load profile must also take pump heat and heat gains to the storage tank
into account. While pump heat represents a small instantaneous cooling load, the
contribution to the total load over the entirecycle can be significant. All chilled water
pumping energy appears as a load on the cooling system. Pump heat during charging
can be considered as a reduction in the chiller capacity available to be stored; pump
heat during discharging represents an increase in the cooling load.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-5

Heat gains to the storage tank are generally referred to as thermal losses, consistent
with the loss of cooling capacity due to the heat gains. Thermal losses are another
relatively small instantaneous load that becomes significant over the design cooling
cycle. Thermal losses can be treated as adirect reduction in stored cooling capacity.

Thermal conduction losses are typically in the range of 1 to 5 % of storage capacity


per day but may be higher with uninsulated tanks. Extreme ambient temperatures, or
exposureof tanks to direct sunlight,also increase these losses. Actual thermal losses
can be calculated from the tank surface area, heat transfer coefficient, storage
medium temperature, and ambient temperature.

Some computer programs used for sizing cool storage systems offer the option of
using generic load profiles for various building types. Typically, a generic profile is
expressed in terms of the percentage of full load for each hour. An estimated profile
for a specific building can then be generated by multiplying the percentage for each
hour by the peak load for the building.

This approach should be used only for initial economic screening purposes, to
evaluate whether more detailed load and sizing calculations are warranted. The use
of such generic profiles for final sizing and design cannot be justified unless it is
known that the generic profile represents the actual building load profile.

2.1.3 Existing Load Profiles


In a retrofit application, where cool storage is to be added to an existing cooling
system, measuring the existing loads is preferred to estimating the loads. Load data
may be available from the following sources:

History logs collected by the building control system


Chiller logs maintained by building operators
Measurement of loads over a period of several days to several weeks of design
or near-design weather
Computer models based on data collected during off-designconditions,and run
for design weather

All field measurements must be verified by comparison with reference instruments


of known accuracy, by energy balance calculations or other checks on the consis-
tency of the data, or by some other external verification. It is dangerous to assume
that, for example, pump flows are equal to design values; this is rarely true in the
field. In some cases, operators' perceptions of design load profiles can be useful, but
these impressions should not be accepted without question, since they may be based
on readings from uncalibrated instrumentation.
2-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

A combination of load measurements and modeling may be the best method of


determining design load profiles for existing facilities. A load calculation model can
be developed based on counts of actual occupancy, lights, and heat-producing
equipment. By comparing the model results with measurements of the load profile
at given weather conditions, the model can be calibrated and refined. The actual
design load profile can then be determined by running the model with design weather
conditions.

2.2 COOL STORAGE TYPES


The possible approaches to cool thermal storage for cooling buildings can be
characterized according to storage medium, primary energy source, and storage
technology. Storage media include chilled water, ice, and eutectic salt phase change
materials. The primary energy source for generating cooling can be electricity,
natural gas, steam, or recovered heat. Storage technologies include chilled water
tanks, ice harvesting, ice-on-pipe or ice-on-coil, encapsulated media, and slurry
systems.

2.2.1 Storage Media

The most common cool storage media are water, ice, and other phase-change
materials, commonly known as eutectic salts. These media differ in the amount of
energy stored per unit volume, the temperaturesat which they store cooling, and the
physical requirements of storing energy.

Chilled Water
Chilled water storage uses the sensible heat capacity of water-1 Btu per pound per
degree Fahrenheit (4.184 kJ/kg=K)-to store cooling. The storage volume depends
on the temperature differencebetween the water supplied from storageand the return
water. A temperature difference of 20°F (11°C) is the practical maximum for many
building cooling applications, although systems with differentials above 30°F
(17°C) have been installed.

The storage volume of chilled water storage is also affected by the degree of
separation maintained between the stored cold water and the warm return water. The
practical minimum storage volume for chilled water is approximately 10.7 ft3 per
ton-hour (0.086 m3/kWh) at a 20°F (11°C) temperature difference. With a 30°F
(17OC) differential, the storage volume is about 7 ft3per ton-hour (0.056 m3/kWh).

Chilled water is generally stored at temperaturesbetween 39 and 42°F (4 and 6°C).


These temperatures are directly compatible with most conventional water chillers
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-7

and distribution systems. Return water temperatures must be kept high to maximize
usable storage volume. This requirement may involve some departure from conven-
tional design practice.

Ice
Ice thermal storage uses the latent heat of fusion of water-144 Btujlb (335 kJ/kg).
The storage volume depends on the final proportion of ice to water in a fully charged
tank and is generally in the range of 2.4 to 3.3 ft3per ton-hour (0.02 to 0.03 m3/kWh),
depending on the specific ice storage technology.

Thermal energy is stored in ice at the freezing point of water- 32°F (0°C). To store
this energy, refrigeration equipment must provide charging fluid at temperatures of
15 to 26OF (-9 to -3OC). This is below the normal operating range of conventional
cooling equipment for air-conditioning applications. Depending on the ice storage
technology, special ice making equipment is used, or standardproduction chillers are
selected for low-temperature service.

The heat transfer fluid for ice making may be a refrigerant or a secondary coolant,
such as glycol or some other antifreeze solution.

The low storage temperature of ice also provides the ability to produce lower
temperature air for cooling. The lower chilled water supply temperature available
from ice storage allows a higher temperaturerise at the load, up to 25OF (14OC). The
benefits of cold air distribution are discussed in Section 2.5.2.

Eutectic Salts
Eutectic salt phase-change materials are available in various formulations to melt
and freeze at selected temperatures. The most common formulation for cool storage
applications is a mixture of inorganic salts, water, and nucleating and stabilizing
agents, which melts and freezes at 47OF (8.3OC). This material is encapsulated in
rectangular plastic containers stacked within a storage tank through which water is
circulated. The net storage volume of such a system is approximately 6 ft3 per ton-
hour (0.048 m3/kWh),including piping headers, containers, and water in the tank.

The 47OF (8.3"C) phase-change point of this material allows the use of standard
chilling equipment to charge storage. Discharge temperatures are higher than the
supply temperatures of most conventional cooling systems, so operating strategies
may be limited.

A eutectic salt formulation that freezes and melts at 41°F (5OC) is currently being
developed. Its 41 to 43OF (5 to 6OC) discharge temperature will be compatible with
conventional distribution and air handling systems.
2-8 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Eutectic salt mixtures are also available for lowering the storage temperatures of ice
systems. Additives that produce freezing temperatures of 28OF (-2OC) and
12OF (-1 1°C) in ice storage tanks are available. These additives reduce the latent
heat capacity of water, as well as lowering the freezing point.

2.2.2 Primary Energy Source


The most common primary energy sources for cool thermal storage systems are
electricity, natural gas, and steam. Heat recovered from a cogeneration system or
other heating process may also be used. Cool storage systems can also be advanta-
geous in a facility served with chilled water from a central cooling plant.

Since most cool storage systems use electrically driven compression chillers to
generate cooling, so this type of refrigeration plant receives the greatest emphasis
here. Compressors may also be driven by steam turbines or natural gas engines.
Absorption chillers may be used for certain storage applications.

The choice of operating strategy for engine- or turbine-driven cool storage systems
should be based on different considerations than those for systems with electrically
driven chillers. Electric demand and energy charges for the chiller are eliminated by
using the alternative prime mover. The operating strategy will probably be selected
primarily to minimize the required size of cooling equipment and storage. A load-
leveling strategy will achieve this goal. Selection of a chiller priority or storage
priority operation depends on the other cooling equipment available and on operat-
ing costs for the various types of system operation.

Operation and maintenance of engines and turbines is more complex than that for
electric motors and is beyond the scope of this guide. Engine and turbine drives are
discussed in Chapter4 1of the 1992ASHRAE HandbookSystems and Equipment.

Absorption chillers may be used to generate cooling for some cool storage systems.
Since absorption chillers are limited to minimum chilled water temperatures of 40
to 41°F (4 to 5*C), they will generally be applicable only to chilled water storage or
eutectic salt systems or to precooling applications.

Absorption chillersmay be direct fued by natural gas (or other fossil fuels)or indirect
fired by steam or by heat recovered from another process.

Operating strategies for cool storagepowered by aprimary energy source other than
electricity are selected based on the following considerations:
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-9

Hours of availability of the primary energy source


Cost schedule for the primary energy source
Availability of other cooling equipment powered by electricity
Electric rate schedule
Overall electric demand profile of the facility

Some examples of operating strategies for nonelectrically powered cool storage


systems follow:

A steam turbine or steam absorption system could store cooling during periods
when ademand for steam for other uses is low. The stored cooling couldbe used
to meet the entire cooling load of the facility, to supplement nonstorage cooling
equipment when the load exceeds the nonstorage system capacity, or to replace
electric chiller operation during on-peak hours.
An engine- or turbine-driven chiller could operate in the load-leveling strategy,
minimizing the required sizeof the chiller and prime mover. When loadsare less
than the chiller capacity, the prime mover could operate at its peak efficiency
point.
An absorption system using recovered heat could store cooling whenever an
incinerator or other heat-producing process is in operation.

Facilities served by a central district cooling plant can reduce the size of service
mains by generating and storing cooling during low-load periods. Cordaillat and
Tamblyn (1988) describe a new cooling system that reduced its initial, one-time cost
for connection to a central district cooling loop by using storage to reduce its peak
demand on the central system. Cost savings may also result if chilled water charges
vary with time of day.

2.2.3 Storage Technologies


Current cool storage technologies can be divided into the following categories:

Chilled water storage. Chilled water is storedin tanks, using natural stratifica-
tion or other techniques to separate cold water from warm return water.
Ice harvesting.Ice is formedon an evaporator surfaceand periodically released
into a water filled storage tank.
External melt ice-on-coil. Ice is formed on submerged pipes or tubes through
which a refrigerant or secondary coolant is circulated. Cooling is discharged by
circulating the water that surrounds the ice pipes, melting the ice from the
outside.
2-10 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Internal melt ice-on-coil. Ice is formed on submerged pipes or tubes, similar


to those of the external melt system. Cooling is discharged by circulating warm
coolant through the pipes, melting the ice from the inside.
Encapsulatedice. Water inside submergedplastic containersfreezes and thaws
as cold or warm coolant is circulated through the tank holding the containers.
Phase-change materials. A eutectic salt phase-change material freezes and
thaws in response to circulated cold or warm water. The most common approach
has the phase-change material in submerged containers similar to those in the
encapsulated ice technology.

A comparative overview of these technologies is provided in Section 3, and the


technologies are discussed in detail in Sections 4 through 9.

Ice sluny storage has also been used in some systems, but this approach has not seen
wide commercialapplication. With this approach,suspendedice crystalsare formed,
typically in an antifreeze solution, in a scraped surface evaporator or by other means.
The ice crystals are concentrated and stored in a tank. Cwling is discharged by
circulating a warm antifreeze solution through the tank.

Ice slurry storage has the advantages of separating the storage of ice from its
generation, providing flexibility in the location of refrigeration equipment, and
eliminating the defrost losses of ice harvesters. However, specialized equipment is
required, and costs are high.

A variation of ice slurry storage is being developed for application with ice
harvesting equipment. In this "slippery ice" approach, additives are added to the
system water to allow ice to be released from evaporator surfaces without using a
defrost cycle. Current research is focusing on identifying the combination of
additives that will provide the desired release characteristics while minimizing the
freezing point depression.

Ice slurries are also being investigated for application in district cooling systems,
where their high latent cooling capacity can offer significant reductions in pumping
energy. Winters and Kooy (1991), Graham et al. (no date), Sukhwal et al. (1987),
Sukhwal el al., and Heavener (1986) discuss applications of ice slurry storage.

2.3 EQUIPMENT
Equipment for cool storage systems consists primarily of refrigeration equipment
and storage tanks. In addition, controls and instrumentation are also important.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-1 1

2.3.1 Refrigeration Equipment


The major refrigeration components to be selected for cool storage systems are
chillers and condensers, whose selection dependsprimarily on temperatures achiev-
able by the equipment, capacity range, efficiency, and cost. The type of refrigerant
used and required controls are additional considerations.

Chillers
Most cool storage applications use packaged chillers to generate cooling. Some
systems use built-up refrigeration plants. Ice harvesting systems typically use
specially designed packaged ice making plants (Chapter 5). Some externalmelt ice-
on-coil systems are installed with built-up refrigeration systems (Chapter 6). Many
of the considerations for packaged chillers can also be applied to the selection of
compressors for built-up systems.

Chiller types include reciprocating, rotary screw, centrifugal, scroll, and absorption
chillers. The primary consideration in selecting the chiller type is capacity. Typical
capacity ranges for each type of chiller are given in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2 Capacity Ranges for Various Chiller Types

Ca~acitvRanee

Type Models Available Typical Selection Range


Tons kW Tons kW

Reciprocating <25 - 450 <90 - 1600 <25 - 150 <90 - 530


Screw 25 - 1,250 90 - 4400 50 - 500 180 - 1800
Centrifugal 80 - 10,000 280 - 35 000 200 - 2,000 700 - 7000
Scroll <20 - 60 <70 - 210 20 - 60 70 - 210
Absorption 40- 1,600 140 - 5600 200 - 1,600 7000 - 5600

The leaving fluid temperature achievable by the chiller is another major consider-
ation, especially for ice systems, which typically operate at charging temperatures
of 15 to 26OF (-9 to -3OC). Reciprocating and rotary screw chillers are adaptable to
a wide range of leaving temperatures and can generally be applied to ice storage
systemswith little difficulty. Centrifugalchillerscan also be applied for ice making,
but the selections must be made for the specific anticipated operating conditions.
Harmon and Yu (1991) discuss the proper selection of centrifugal chillers for stable
operation at ice making conditions.

An existing centrifugal chiller originally selected to produce chilled water at 42 to


44°F (5 to 7OC) will not produce the temperatures needed for ice making without
modification.
2-12 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Scroll and screw compressorsmay have a maintenanceadvantageover reciprocating


compressors in the same size range, since these machines are more tolerant of liquid
refrigerant in the suction line.

Lithium bromide absorption chillers can produce leaving fluid temperatures as low
as 40°F (4.4OC), but are not applicable for ice making. Ammonia absorption chillers,
which are able to produce leaving temperatures below -40°F (-40°C), have been
used for ice making. However, ammonia absorption chillers are not readily available
as packaged equipment.

Efficiency is highest for centrifugal chillers, with typical ratings of 0.6 to 0.7 kW/
ton (5 to 5.9 COP) for 40 to 44OF (4 to 7OC) discharge temperatures, and 0.85 to 1.0
kW/ton (3.5 to 4.1 COP) for ice making. Packaged chillers using reciprocating and
rotary screw compressors are less efficient, with ratings around 0.65 to 0.85 kW/ton
(4.1 to 5.4 COP) at conventionaltemperatures, and 0.9 to 1.2 kW/ton (2.9 to 3.9 COP)
for ice making. Rotary screw compressors are typically more efficient than recipro-
cating compressors at a given rating point. Rotary screws have lower part-load
efficiency but better capacity modulation than reciprocating chillers.

Scroll compressors operate at 0.85 to 1.15 kW/ton (3.1 to 4.1 COP) at standard
temperatures and approximately 1.2 to 1.3 kW/ton (2.7 to 2.9 COP) at ice making
temperatures. Absorption chillers operate with typical COPS of 0.65 to 1.0.

Chiller capacity for ice making is generally 60 to 70% of nominal capacity. Packaged
ice harvesters are rated by ice making capacity, and chilling capacity is 30 to 60%
higher than the ice making rating, depending on return water temperature.

The ART chiller capacity rating standards allow a 5% tolerance in manufacturers'


capacity ratings. To avoid a capacity shortfall, designers may include a requirement
for no negative capacity tolerance in chiller specifications for cool storage applica-
tions. Such a requirement should also include provisions for factory testing and
certification of chiller capacity.

Some designers may elect to apply a safety factor of 5 to 10% to the rated chiller
capacities. This can be accomplished, for example, by specifying a chiller capable
of cooling 105% of the design flow rate to the design temperature.

Chillers are discussed in detail in Chapter 35 and 38 of the 1992 ASHRAE


HandbookSystems and Equipment and in Chapter 42 of the 1994 ASHRAE
Handbook--Refrigeration.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-13

Condensers
Condenserscan be water-cooled, air-cooled, or evaporatively cooled. Water-cooled
condensers are generally supplied with cooling water from a cooling tower. Air-
cooled condensers reject heat by blowing ambient air over a coil through which hot
refrigerant gas is circulated. Evaporative condensers also blow air over a refrigerant
coil,but water sprayed over the coil evaporates and increases the rate of heat transfer
from the refrigerant.

The capacity of an air-cooledcondenser is limited by the dry-bulb temperature of the


ambient air. Cooling towers and evaporative condensersare limited by the wet-bulb
temperature and can achieve lower condensing temperatures. The evaporative
condenser achieves the lowest condensing temperatures since heat is transferred
directly from the refrigerant to the evaporating water. For a water-cooled condenser
with acooling tower, the approach of the condensing temperature to theambient wet-
bulb temperature is increased by the addition of a refrigerant-to-cooling water heat
transfer step.

Maintenance is simpler for air-cooled condensers than for the other two types, since
no water circuits are involved, Maintenancecosts for water-cooled condensers with
cooling towers are highest. The cost of cleaning condenser tubes is added to the
cooling tower maintenance requirements, which are comparable to those for evapo-
rative condensers. Also, in evaporativecondensers,the refrigerant coils are prone to
scaling, and proper water treatment is essential.

The selection of condensers for cool storage systems is based on considerations


similar to those for nonstorage systems. One difference is that storage systems
operate during a greater number of nighttime hours, when lower ambient tempera-
tures allow reduced condensing temperatures. Since dry-bulb temperatures gener-
ally show greater nighttimereductions than wet-bulb temperatures,the advantageof
water-cooled and evaporative condensers over air-cooled condensers may be re-
duced.

Chapters 36 and 37 of the 1992 ASHRAE Handbook4quiprnent present detailed


discussions of condensers and cooling towers.

Refrigerants
Refrigerant considerationsfor cool storage systems are essentially the same as those
for nonstorage systems. Positive displacement chillers for ice making applications
usually require high-pressure refrigerants, such as R-22 or R-717 (ammonia).
Centrifugal chillers generally useR-134aorR-123, although R-22 is now offered by
some manufacturers in larger chiller sizes.
2-14 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

A partial storage system usually has a smaller chiller, running on less refrigerant,
than a nonstorage system. In many cases, a required capacity increase in an existing
system can be achievedby adding cool storage, with no addition of refrigerant-using
equipment and no increase in the volume of refrigerant in the system.

Cool storage should be evaluated if a chiller modification or replacement is being


driven by the need to upgrade refrigerants. Storage can easily make up for the lost
capacity caused by some replacement refrigerants, and storage-related changes can
be made during the same down time that refrigerant-related changes are made.

Chiller Control
Chiller control for cool storage systems differs from control for nonstorage systems
because there is likely to be more than one normal operating strategy. Particularly
with ice and eutectic salt storage systems, the chiller leaving temperature during
charging will be lower than during direct cooling or chiller-assisted discharging. A
chiller selected for such a system must be capable of operating at different leaving
temperature setpoints in response to an external control signal.

Under some cool storage operating strategies, chiller output is varied while supple-
menting storage discharge to minimize total facility demand or to optimize the use
of storage. In other cases, chiller capacity during charging is varied to minimize off-
peak demand or to maximize part-load efficiency. For such applications,continuous
capacity control is generally preferable to staged or stepped capacity control.

2.3.2 Storage Tanks


A storage tank for a cool storage application must have adequate structural strength
to withstand the hydrostatic force of the water, icefwater mixture, or other medium
contained in it. It must be watertight and not develop any measurable leakage over
time; it must also be corrosion resistant. Aboveground tanks located outdoors must
be weather resistant, to prevent water or water vapor from penetrating to the external
insulation.

Buried tanks must withstand the weight of asoil covering as well as the load imposed
by parking lots, tennis courts, helipads, or other additional uses planned for above
the tank. Partially or totally buried tanks should also be designed to withstand soil
loadings on the tank walls, as well as hydrostatic pressure from groundwater, that
may occur if water in the tank is removed.

Storage tanks for cool storage are generally rectangular or cylindrical. For chilled
water storage and ice harvesting systems, tank geometry influences the amount of
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-15

usable cooling that can be recovered from the tank. The effects of tank geometry in
these systems are discussed in Chapters 4 and 5.

Themal conduction losses from storagetanks typically amount to 1to 5% of storage


capacity per day. Losses depend on the surface area of the tank, the heat transfer
coefficient of the tank walls, and the temperature and conductivity of the medium
surrounding the tank. Conduction losses for a given tank may be predicted by:

where

Q = conduction loss Btulh 0


A = tank surface area, ft2 (m2)
U = tank heat transfer coefficient, ~tu/(OF*h*ft~)
W/(m2*K)I
tout = temperature surrounding tank, OF (OC)
t, = temperature of storage medium, OF (OC)

For underground tanks, the heat transfer properties of the soil must be estimated.
Table 7, Chapter 22, of the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals lists soil
(0.58 to 1.9 W/m-K) for various
conductivities ranging from 4 to 13 Btu-in/h*ftZ-OF
soil types.

Tanks located outdoors should have a vapor barrier and a weatherproof covering
over external insulation. For tanks exposed to sunlight, radiation heat gains may be
significant. A light-colored or reflective covering is recommended to minimize heat
gain from solar radiation.

Tanks for cool thermal storage are generally constructed of steel, concrete, fiber-
glass, or plastic. Regardlessof the material, the tank should be designed and installed
to have zero leakage. If a leak is detected during acceptance testing, the tank
contractor should be required to repair the leak at no additional cost to the owner.

Steel Tanks
Steel tanks for cool storage are available in a number of configurations. Large tanks
of several hundred thousand to several million gallons' capacity are field-erectedof
welded plate steel. Smaller tanks of 300 to 3,000 ft3 (9 to 90 m3) are constructed of
galvanized sheet steel with reinforcing framework. Cylindrical pressurized tanks are
generally applied in sizes between 400 and 7,500 ft3 (11 and 210 m3).

Large field-erected steel tanks are typically supplied with internal and external
corrosion protection, external insulation, and weather-protective roof or cover. The
tanks are cylindrical in shape and are installed aboveground on a concrete founda-
2-16 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

tion. The American Water Works Association Standards D100-84 (AWWA 1984)
and D102-78 (AWWA 1978) address tanks and their corrosion protection.

Uninsulated steel tanks subject to weather require external painting at 15- to 20-year
intervals to prevent corrosion. Insulated tanks do not require repainting but do
require that the integrity of the vapor barrier covering be maintained to prevent
condensation on the exterior surface. Some form of corrosion control, either an
epoxy coating or tank water treatment, must be used to protect the tank interior.

Smaller manufactured galvanized steel tanks are typically constructed with insula-
tion and exterior panels surrounding the tank itself. The tanks are generally rectan-
gular in shape and are installed indoors or outdoors at grade. Tanks should be
constructed of galvanized steel or provided with some other corrosion-protective
coating.

Cylindrical pressurized tanks can be installed aboveground or underground. Under-


ground installations must be provided with positive cathodic protection to prevent
corrosion.

Concrete Tanks
Concrete tanks can be precast or cast-in-place. Precast tanks must also be pre-
stressed. Cast-in-place tanks may be prestressed or reinforced concrete should be
used. Precast tanks are generally most economical in sizes of one-million gallons
(3,800 m3) or more. Cast-in-place tanks can often be integrated with building
foundations, thus reducing their cost. Chow (1987) discusses the design and
selection criteria pertinent to concrete tanks.

Large precast concrete tanks are cylindrical in shape and may have either clear-span
spherical dome roofs or column-supported flat slab roofs. Smaller tanks can be
rectangular or cylindrical. A cylindrical tank is structurally more efficient because
the wall acts as a membrane structure, which is subjected to less bending moment
than a straight-sidedwall. A cylindrical tankalso has a lower surface-to-volume ratio
than a rectangular tank (Chow 1987).

Large precast concrete tanks are generally built in accordance with AWWA Stan-
dards D100-84 and D l 10-86,Type I11 (AWWA 1986) which prescribes design and
construction procedures. These standards allow minimal leakage for some storage
applications; however, zero leakage must be specified for cool storage applications.
Fiorino (1991) describes a 2.7-million gal (10,000 m3) precast, prestressed concrete
tank with an enclaved steel liner which has experiencedzero leakage. A large number
of concrete tanks for cool storage, including water, ice, and eutectic storage
applications, have zero leakage. These include water, ice, and eutectic storage
applications.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-17

Prestressing improves the watertightness of concrete by putting it in a constant state


of compression throughout. For complete watertightness, however, the relative
movement of the various structural elements due to prestressing and other forces
acting on the tank must be provided for. It is also necessary to maintain good quality
control throughout construction (Chow 1987).

Precast, prestressed concrete tanks can typically withstand thermal shocks of 30°F
(17°C) or more. Cast-in-placeconcrete is more susceptibleto cracking and leakage
caused by thermal shock, and caution should be exercised when initially starting a
system using such a storage tank. When starting a system for the first time, the tank
temperature should be slowly pulled down to design conditions over a period of
several days to minimize or prevent tensile cracking due to contraction of the
concrete.

Cast-in-place concrete tanks should be designed by a structural engineer who


specializes in water tank design. Design, as well as materials and construction,
should conform to the American Concrete Institute Standards 3 18-83 (ACI 1986)
and 350R-83 (ACI 1983).

Some reinforced cast-in-place (non-prestressed) concrete storage tanks installed in


the past have developed leaks. The leaks have generally been sealed satisfactorily,
but at some expense. Leaks have been fixed with pressure grouting, sealants, or
liners. For large tanks, it may be advisable to include one or more partitions. This
feature can prevent the need to completely drain the tank in case of leaks or other
required maintenance.

Sealant coatings provide extra security against leaks but add expense. For chilled
water and ice harvester tanks, which can be emptied relatively easily, it is practical
to rely on care in tank design and installation to prevent leaks and to install a liner
or other repair if leaks develop. For tanks containing encapsulated eutectic salts or
ice, which cannot be easily emptied, a liner may be more advisable with the initial
installation.

Plastic Tanks
Plastic tanks for cool thermal storage are typically delivered as prefabricated,
modular units. These polyethylene tanks provide the structural strength and water-
tightness required for cool storage.

Tanks may also be constructed of fiberglass. Plastic tanks for outdoor installation
require UV-stabilized plastic or opaque covering to protect against degradation by
the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Proposed applications for plastic tanks should
be evaluated in terms of past experience and factory warranty, as well as for the
2-18 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

required structural strength, watertightness, corrosion resistance, weather resis-


tance, and other appropriate criteria.

2.3.3 Controls and Instrumentation


Just as for nonstorage systems, control systems for cool thermal storage vary in
complexity. Some additional hardware and software is usually required, because the
inventory of stored cooling must be managed by the control systems. Inventory
levels represent an additional system quantity to be monitored and managed by the
control system.

Methods to directly measure the inventory of stored cooling differ according to the
storage technology and are discussed in Chapters 4 through 9 for each storage
approach. The storage inventory can also be calculated by continuously monitoring
the amount of cooling delivered to or discharged from storage.

Sufficient instrumentationshould be provided to allow storage charge and discharge


rates to be monitored. At a minimum, this requires measurement of water tempera-
tures entering and leaving the storage tank and the flow rate through the tank. To
reduce errors due to differences in sensor calibration, a differential temperature
measurement across the tank as well as separate measurements for entering and
leaving fluid temperatures are recommended.

Some type of alarm function that signals any abnormal termination of storage
charging should be provided. Ideally, such an alarm will include dial-up capability
to notify appropriate personnel when cooling is not being stored as required.

A complex control system is not necessarily required for a successful cool storage
operation. At a minimum, the control system must be able to select charging,
discharging, and direct cooling modes according to time of day and load conditions.

Most control systems include extensive calculation capabilities and monitoring


functions. Additional calculation capabilities allow system energy use and operating
costs to be reduced by optimizing the proportion of stored cooling and direct cooling
used to meet the load. Monitoring and trend-logging capabilities are useful for
developing a long-term picture of system operation, which can be used to refine and
improve control strategies. Trend logging is also valuable in commissioning and in
troubleshooting a system.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-19

2.4 OPERATING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES


The following areas are important in selecting operating and control strategies for
cool thermal storage systems:

Scheduling of chiller operation


Full storage
Partial storage, load leveling
Partial storage, demand limiting
Baseloading of chillers
Sequencing of chillers
Identifying the demand-shift period

Charging cycles
Daily
Weekly
Other

Optimized operation
Chiller priority
Storagepriority
Charging rate control
Load pmbction

2.4.1 Scheduling of Chiller Operation


Cool storage operating strategies are often classified as either full storage or partial
storage. Partial storage systems can be sized for load-leveling or demand-limiting
operation. These terms refer to the amount of on-peak cooling load that is shifted to
off peak. Figure 2-1 illuskites the three basic operating strategies. Additional
variations on these strategies are possible by baseloading or other sequencing of
multiple chillers.
2-20 Design Gulde for Cool Thermal Storage

I m i k OE -
Full Storage
I

Time OEDay

Partial Storage-Load Leveling

e Time Of Day

Partial Storage-Demand Limiting

Cooling Load
(met by chillu)

Time Of Day

Fig. 2-1 Basic Thermal Storage Operating Strategies


Fundamental Design Considerations 2-21

A full storage, or load shifting, strategy transfers the entire on-peak cooling load to
off-peak periods. A system designed for full storage typically operates at full
capacity during all non-peak hours on the design day. The refrigeration equipment
does not run during on-peak hours, and all cooling loads are met from storage. Such
a system requires relatively large refrigeration and storage capacities. Full storage
operation is most attractivewhere on-peak demand charges are high or where the on-
peak period is relatively short. Control of this type of system is relatively simple.

A partial storage system meets a portion of the on-peak cooling load from storage,
with the remainder of the load met by operation of the chilling equipment. Partial
storage operating strategies can be further subdivided into load-leveling and de-
mand-limiting operation.

A load-leveling system typically operates with the refrigeration equipment running


at full capacity for 24 h on the design day. When the load is less than the chiller
output, the excess cooling is stored; when the load exceeds the chiller capacity, the
additionalrequirement is discharged from storage. Sizing for this operating strategy
minimizes the required refrigeration capacity and storage capacity. Load-leveling
operation is particularly attractive for applications where the peak cooling load is
much higher than the average load.

In a demand-limitingpartial storage system, the refrigeration equipment operates at


a reduced capacity or demand level during the on-peak period. In some cases, the
refrigeration equipment may be controlled to keep the facility demand at the billing
meter below a given level. Such systems require installation of monitoring devices.
Typically, an electricaldemand meter is used for this purpose. Many utility demand
meters have an auxiliary pulse signal that can be used by building control systems.

The demand limiting approach represents a middle ground between load shiftingand
load leveling. Demand savings as well as equipment costs are higher than those for
a load-leveling system, and lower than those for a load-shifting system. Additional
variations on full and partial storage strategies are possible by scheduling the
operation of multiple chillers in a cool storage system.

Baseloading of one or more chillerscan often improve the economicsof cool storage,
particularly in applications with relatively flat load profiles and those using ice
technologies for storage. Typically, an efficient chiller is used to meet the constant
component of a facility's load. A downsized storage chiller is then used to level or
shift the remaining load. Figure 2-2 illustrates the use of baseload chillers.
2-22 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

I
Cwling load -
k' Storaae chiller

Storage chiller meets load

PARTIAL STORAGE

Storage chiller
meets load
7
load
7 Storage chiller
capacity

FULL STORAGE

Fig. 2-2 Baseloading Operation with Cool Storage


Fundamental Design Considerations 2-23

Sequencing of chillers can also be used advantageously in design and operation of


a cool storage system. In some partial storage systems, separate chillers are used for
charging storage and for meeting the load directly. In many cases, it is advantageous
to have a separate chiller available to meet overnight loads while a storage chiller is
charging storage. The use of multiple chillers generally increases the flexibility of
the system in meeting the various load conditions occurring in a particular applica-
tion.

Much of the work on cool storage, including this guide, refers to the period during
which a thermal storage system must reduce electric demand as the on-peak period.
However, this period is not always synonymous with the on-peak hours as defined
by the electric utility. In many cases, the appropriate demand-shift window may
actually be shorter than the utility on-peak period. In addition, the peak electric
demand from cooling may not occur simultaneously with the peak facility demand.

The billing demand profile at the facility meter should be evaluated to determine the
appropriate time period during which cooling system demand should be reduced.
Sohn and Tomlinson (1989) describe the sizing of a cool storage system with
selection of the demand-shiftwindow based on the facility demand profile. Tamblyn
(1990) describes the savings available by controlling cool storage system operation
based on facility demand.

Figure 2-3 shows an instance where stored cooling is used to reduce cooling system
demand over a period shorter than the utility on-peak period. In this example, the
storage system is controlled to limit the facility demand below a predetermined level.
2-24 Design Guide for Cool Thennal Storage

Demand shifted to off-peak period

Facilitv electric
demand (kw)
-\
Facility electric
demand limit -
1

Reduction in cooling
- demand through use
of storage
I \
Time of day Facility
peak demand
+period----D
b-Utility on-peak period--q

Fig. 2-3 Demand Limiting Operational Strategy

2.4.2 Charging Cycles

Cool thermal storage systems are most often sized for a daily charging cycle,
generating enough cooling in a 24-h period to meet all the loads in that period.
However, longer charging cycles are used in many applications. A weekly charging
cycle would be advantageous where the peak cooling load does not repeat each day
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-25

of the week and there are many hours at low loads. A church is an excellent example
of an application with a high one-day peak load and low loads for the remainder of
the week. A convention center or sports arena also has high peak loads that do not
repeat every day. Even in offices, the number of off-peak, low-load weekend hours
available to charge storage can make a weekly storage cycle attractive.

Weekly storage systems serving these facilities can be sized with much smaller
refrigeration equipment than nonstorage or daily storage systems, resulting in
greatly reduced first costs. In facilities with infrequent peak cooling loads, storage
cycles longer than weekly may be appropriate. Figure 2-4 illustratesa typical cooling
load, chiller capacity, and stored cooling inventory for a weekly storage cycle.

------ Storage inventory (TH)


Cooling load (TI

\
I

I "
f \

.'
I

\ I \
\
\

acity I I
I
*

Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

Fig. 2 4 Weekly Storage Cycle

A weekly storage system sized exactly to the load of the design week has minimal
excess capacity over the entire week. To allow for unusually high loads or for
equipment malfunctions, some designers size weekly systems with an allowance of
12 to 24 h when the system is not committed to charging storage. This period is
intended to allow the system to catch up in the event of unusual conditions.
2-26 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Long-term storage cycles are best applied with technologies for which storage
capacity is relatively inexpensive relative to chilling capacity. Weekly and other
long-term storage cycles have primarily been used with ice harvesting systems.

Seasonal cool storage,by which cooling generated during winter periods is stored for
use during the cooling season, has not proven to be commercially viable on a wide
basis. Proposed seasonal storage approaches include storing chilled water in lakes,
ponds, or aquifers and freezing alarge mass of saturated soil by means of a secondary
coolant circulated through buried pipes. Francis (1985) and Midkiff et al. (1991)
discuss seasonal storage considerations.

2.4.3 Optimized Operation


Several strategies are available to optimize the operation of cool storage systems
during periods when loads fall below design levels. Optimized control strategiesare
selected to minimize the cost of purchased energy and are highly dependent on the
load profile and utility rate schedule, as well as on the storage technology and system
configuration chosen for a given application.

The optimizing control strategies of chiller priority, storage priority, and variations
thereof apply to partial storage systems. Some full storage systems can be optimized
by regulating the level of charge based on a prediction of the load for the following
day. Some partial storage systems can be operated in the full storage strategy during
the cooler months of the year.

A chiller priority operating strategy uses the chiller to directly meet as much of the
load as possible. Storage is used to supplement chiller operation only when the load
exceeds the chiller capacity. This approach is most often used in applications where
the cost of stored cooling energy is higher than the cost of direct cooling, and where
utility cost savings are gained largely through reductions in on-peak demand.

Chiller priority control is generally simple to implement. Typically, the chiller is


piped upstream of storage. When the load exceeds the chiller capacity, the discharge
temperature rises. A temperature sensor located downstream of storage controls the
appropriate valves or pumps to divert some of the flow through the storage tank,
discharging some of the storage capacity and maintaining the system discharge
temperature at the setpoint.

Chillerpriority may bejustified in cases where chiller cooling is more expensive than
stored cooling, if the simplicity of the control strategy is considered more valuable
than the additional energy cost.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-27

A storage priority strategy uses stored cooling to meet as much of the load as
possible, with direct cooling supplied by chillers only when the daily load exceeds
the total stored cooling capacity. This approach is typically used where the cost of
stored cooling energy is lower than the cost of direct cooling.

Storage priority operation generally requires more complex control sequences than
chiller priority. While the objective is to maximize the use of stored cooling, it is
important to have enough stored cooling capacity remaining to supplement the
chiller in meeting high late-afternoon loads.

In general, storage priority operation requires calculating the minimum chiller


contribution that will ensure sufficient storage capacity later in the day. Typically
performed hourly, this calculation uses a measurement of the amount of cooling
remaining in storage and some information about the daily cooling load profile. This
information may come from a load prediction algorithm, discussed later. It may also
be based on the current load and the number of hours remaining in the on-peak period.

Grumman and Butkus (1989) describe a storage priority control sequence that
compares the average remaining discharge rate (ton-hoursin storage divided by the
remaining on-peak hours) with a predetermined trigger value. The system is operated
in a chiller priority strategy until the averagedischarge rate reaches a value based on
the specificload characteristics of the application. When the trigger value is reached,
operation of the chillers is locked out, and the entire load is met from storage for the
remainder of the on-peak period.

A simplified storage priority control strategy has the storage discharging at a


constant rate each hour. With this approach, the chiller operates at part load during
every hour in discharging mode, except the peak hour on the design day. This
strategy requires some oversizing of storage compared to a true load-leveling
approach.

Full storage systems are optimized differently. By design, a full storage system has
excess storage capacity on every day but the design day. With some storage
technologies, it is advantageousto charge a full storage system only with the amount
of cooling required to meet the on-peak load of the next day. In other cases, it is
beneficial to fully charge the tank each day, providing reserve cooling capacity on
all but the design day. The selection of an optimum full storage operating strategy
depends on tank thermal losses, off-peak demand and energy charges, and the
charging characteristics of the specific storage technology.

The chargingrate of a cool storage system can be controlled to optimize performance


and minimize cost. It may be advantageousto charge storageat the minimum rate that
will provide the required amount of stored cooling at the end of the chargecycle. This
2-28 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

is particularly true if an off-peak demand charge exists, or if charging efficiency


increases at lower charging rates. In other cases, optimum performance may result
from operating chilling equipment at maximum capacity until the required amount
of cooling is stored.

Control algorithms that can predict cooling load and electric demand are powerful
tools in optimizing cool storage system operation. Load can be predicted at various
levels. A simple predictive control could use the daily forecasted high outside
ambient temperature, or the temperature at a given hour, to determine the control
strategy for the day.

For example, a given storage priority system may operate without any on-peak
chiller operation if the outside temperature is below 65°F (18°C) at 8:00 A.M., but it
may operate the chiller at up to 50%capacity if the 8:00 A.M. temperature is between
70 and 75°F (21 and 24°C). Other predictive control methods may use the load of the
current hour to estimate the load profile for the rest of the day. These control
strategies require fairly detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the load.
Specific control parameters must be determined for each individual application.

Mathur (1987) and Spethmann (1989, 1993) describe sophisticated control algo-
rithms that predict the load profile of the next day based on outside temperatures and
historical profile shape factors. The algorithmscontrol chiller operation to minimize
overall electric costs.

Electric utilities are currently developing direct load control and real-time electric
pricing as options for load management. In future, these utility strategies will have
an important effect on cool storage system design and control and may increase the
advantages of cool storage systems over nonstorage systems.

Direct load control has been used in the past with residential water heaters and with
residential and small commercial air-conditioning units. In return for a favorable
electric rate, customers allow utilities to install remote switches that will shut off
selected electric appliances during periods of high system demand. Cool storage can
be used under such an arrangement to provide uninterrupted cooling even when
chilling equipment is taken off-line.

Real-time electric pricing involves setting electric rates according to the cost of
providing service at any given time, depending on the total demand on the system.
Most proposed real-time pricing schemes involve communicating upcoming price
changes to customers by telephone lines or other data links. An optimally controlled
cool storage system would select a charging or discharging mode and manage the
proportion of cooling provided from storage and from direct cooling based on current
and upcoming electric rates.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-29

2.5 INTERFACE WITH BUILDING SYSTEMS


The primary interface between a cool storage plant and its building cooling system
is the chilled water distribution system. Chilled water supply and return tempera-
tures, flow rates, and pumping must be coordinated between the cool storage plant
and the building or facility distribution network. In some applications, reducing
supply air temperatures will provide significant benefits. The glycol or other
secondary coolants used in some cool storage systems require special consideration
as does the possible use of heat recovery or of a water-sideeconomizercycle. In some
cases, a thermal storage tank can do double duty as a f i e protection tank.

2.5.1 Chilled Water Temperatures


The temperature of chilled water delivered to the building is the primary parameter
to determine in a cool storage system design. Table 2-3 shows typical ranges of
discharge temperature available from various storage media. In some storage
configurations, the storage discharge temperatures shown can be further reduced by
installing a chiller downstream of storage.

Table 2-3 Typical Discharge Temperatures from Cool Storage Media

Storage Medium Typical Discharge Temperature Rangea

Ice
Chilled Water
Eutectic Saltb

Notes:
a The range given is the typical minimum temperature available, with appropriate sizing
of storage capacity. Higher temperatures than those listed can also be obtained from
each medium.
The range given is for the most commonly available eutectic salt formulation. Other
formulations are available with typical discharge ranges of 41 to 44OF (5 to 7OC), 28 to
31°F (-2 to -l°C), and 12 to 15OF (-1 1 to -9OC).

In new construction, the low storage discharge temperatures available from ice
storage systems can provide several advantages to the building owner. Low dis-
charge temperatures may also be advantageous in some retrofit situations. In other
cases, limitations of existing systems may favor higher discharge temperatures.

In somebuildings with distribution systems designed for42 to46OF(6 to 8OC) chilled


water, the advantages of reducing water and air supply temperatures may not be
obtainable without substantial modifications. For example, control valves and
cooling coils may not be sized to provide adequate performance with lower flowsof
2-30 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

colder water and may requiremodification or replacement. If the expenseof required


modifications is prohibitive, the discharge temperature advantages of ice storage
over other storage media do not apply.

The temperature of return water from the load is also an important building interface
parameter. Generally, it is recommended to maintain return temperatures as high as
possible, to maximize storagedischargecapacity and system efficiency.The specific
effects of return water temperature on system performance for the various storage
technologies are discussed in Chapters 4 through 9.

Ice storage systems typically operate with distribution water temperature differen-
tials of 20 to 24OF (11 to 13OC),compared to typical nonstorage system differentials
of 10to 16OF(6 to9OC). Chilled water storagesystemsalso operate with differentials
of 20°F (11°C) or higher. This increased range allows a reduction in water flow of
40 to 60%,with corresponding reductions in pipe size, pump size, pump power, and
pumping energy. A large temperature differenceis accomplished by variable volume
pumping with properly selected two-way control valves on the coils, and by
appropriate coil selection.

Control valves should be selectedwith equal percentage characteristics which, when


combined with coil heat transfer characteristics, provide a nearly linear change in
heat transfer with each increment of valve stem travel. Control valve characteristics
are discussed in Chapter 43 of the 1992 ASHRAE HandbookSystems and Equip-
ment. It is also important that control valves are selected with a rated pressure
differential higher than the maximum operating differential experienced by the
valve. Tackett (1987) describes one cool storage system where control valves were
subjected to differential pressures above their ratings. The valves were unable to
close against the high pressure, resulting in excessive flow and reduced return water
temperatures.

Existing systems with three-way valve control at the cooling coils would require
conversion to two-way valve control. For some three-way valves smaller than 1-1/
4 in. (32 mm) nominal diameter, the actuator and the valve design may permit
conversion to two-way control simply by capping the bypass port. To determine
suitability of particular valves for conversion, valve manufacturers should be
consulted.

The low flow rates resulting from increased temperature differentials make coil
selection particularly important. Recent research indicates that the cooling coil
model used by manufacturers to rate cooling coils may overestimate coil perfor-
mance at low tube velocities (Mirth et al. 1993). This model is used to develop ARI-
certified coil ratings with tube velocities above 1 ft/s (0.3 m/s). However, lower
velocities are not uncommon with the high-temperatureranges often used with cool
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-31

storage systems. When cooling coils must be selected for these conditions, consider
alternativecircuitingto increasethe water flow rate, to specify turbulatorsto increase
water-side heat transfer coefficients, or to allow a safety factor in the specification
of coil performance. One method for providing reserve coil capacity is to specify
cooling coils capable of providing the required cooling capacity with entering water
temperatures 2OF (l°C) higher than the design supply temperature.

Mackie and Reeves (1988) state the following about coil selection and control for
chilled water storage, much of which also applies toother storagetechnologies using
high chilled water temperature ranges:

"The reduction in water flow through the coil, combined with the increase
in coil surface, tends to emphasize the problem of maintaining proper air-
side performance. The flow through the control valve is reduced, and the
increased coil surface increases the capacity response of the coil to a change
in control valve position.

There are a wide variety of air-side coil leaving requirements.However, the


majority of (traditional) designs have air-side temperatures leaving the coil
15to 20°F below space temperature of 74OF,resulting in air leaving the coil
at 54 to 59OF. With typical dehumidification requirements, the traditional
10to 14OFwater-sidetemperature differentials,entering water temperature
of 42 to 43"F, and coil face air velocities of 450 to 550 fpm, economic coil
selections tend to result in tube water velocities of 2.5 to 3.5 fps at design.

Enlarging the water-side temperature differential with traditional coil


circuiting results in 'economic' coil selections with tube water velocities in
the order of 1 fps. When the control valve reduces flow for reduced loads,
the water velocity can drop as low as 0.2 to 0.3 fps, which is laminar water-
flow velocity range for normal coil tube sizes. Reaching laminar flow
causes a major change in coil performance, leading to unstable air-side
control and reductions in the water-side temperature differential.

Two other factors which can contribute to maintaining the water-side


temperature rise of the coil are the performance of the variable-flow chilled
water system and the use of variable air volume systems. As the water flow
to individuals coils is reduced, pressure control systems need to maintain
the overall water pressuredifferentialacross the coil and valve combination.
Significantpressure variationslead to control instability that can reduce the
water-side temperature difference as the air volume is reduced. In variable
air volume systems, the coil, in effect, becomes oversized and the reduced
air face velocity changes its performance characteristics, leading to
significant change in the water-side temperature difference. When using
2-32 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

higher temperature drop coils it is imperative that the supplierbe aware of


the intendeduse, since coilsat the raggededgeof their performancemay not
be suitable for thermal storage.

Coil manufacturers offer coils with extended water circuiting that are
capable of the higher water-side temperature differentials. In addition,
selection procedures enable review of selected coil water-side temperature
performance at a variety of flow conditions.

In storagedesign, the control valves for the coils shouldbe selected fortight
shut-off in addition to the usual performance requirements. The contractor
must be advised as to the much more critical water balance requirements,
since both supply air temperature and retum water temperature must be
maintained."

2.5.2 Cold Air Distribution


The low discharge temperatures available from ice storage systems allow the use of
increased water temperature ranges and reduced supply air temperatures, which
provide significant benefits to building owners and occupants.

Storage discharge temperatures of 34 to 38OF (1 to 3OC) allow supply air to be


generated at temperatures as low as 42°F (6"C), compared to the typical conven-
tional 55°F (13OC)supply air. This approach is referred to as cold air distribution or
low-temperature air distribution. With colder supply air, fans and ducts can be
downsized, resulting in substantial reductions in air distribution system costs. Fan
energy consumption can be reduced by as much as 40%. The lower humidity
resulting from lower supply air temperatures results in improved perception of air
quality and freshness, as well as increased comfort at higher dry-bulb temperatures.
The smaller ducts require less clearance between ceilings and structural members.
In some high-rise buildings, the reduction in floor-to-floor height allows architects
to design additional floors into a building without increasing building height. This
creates a net savings in first cost per square foot of floor space.

Cold air distribution can also be beneficial in some retrofit applications. Where
cooling loads have exceeded the capacity of the existing distribution systems,
conversion to cold air distribution allows existing piping and ductwork to supply the
increased loads. Where high indoor humidity levels contribute to perceptions of
thermal discomfort or poor indoor air quality, a reduction in supply air temperature
and the resulting reduction in humidity can improve satisfaction with indoor
conditions.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-33

A detailed discussion of the advantages of and design for cold air distribution is not
included in this guide. A bibliography on the subject is given in Chapter 2.

2.5.3 Pumping Considerations


While many cool storage technologies use nonpressurized storage tanks that are
open to atmospheric pressure, some technologies use closed, pressurized tanks or
coils.

Pumping considerations with a closed system are relatively straightforward. The


required flow through the tank is determined, and pressure drop is calculated based
on manufacturer's data. The static pressure in the tank is calculated based on the
height of the chilled water distribution system.

With an open tank, static pressure control of some kind is required to maintain the
desired static pressure in the building system and, at the same time, to prevent
overflowing of the open tank.

In most cases, the storage tank(s) will be located at ground level or below, at the base
of the chilled water distribution system. In some cases, storage tanks may be located
on the roof or upper stories of a building. In a central district cooling system, a storage
tank may be located at a point higher than some or all of the distribution system.

When the level of water in the tank is at or above the high point of the distribution
system, no further pressure control may be required. Control of static pressure can
be accomplished with a heat exchanger, or with pressure sustaining valves and
pumps.

The use of a heat exchanger provides fail-safe isolation of static pressure, without
reliance on the proper operation of a pressure-sustaining valve. In addition, the
distribution system remains closed, reducing water treatment costs. Especially with
storage technologies where tank water is highly aerated, heat exchangers are often
recommended to protect distribution systems from corrosion.

However, a heat exchanger increases the available storage dischargetemperature to


the distribution system, and presents an increased capital cost. The use of a heat
exchanger may also require additional pumps to be purchased and pump energy to
be increased. For chilled water storage, the reduction in storage temperature
differential will result in increased storage tank size.

With direct pumping from open storage, a pressure-sustaining valve is installed in


the return line near the tank to maintain system pressure while permitting water to
flow into the open tank. A pressure-sustaining valve is a self-contained, pilot-
2-34 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

operated regulating valve that modulates to maintain the desired upstream static
pressure by its throttling action. The control setpoint is typically selected to provide
a minimum static pressure of 5 psig (35 Wa) or more at the highest point in the
distribution system under all load conditions.

An automatic, positive shutoff valve should be installed in series with the pressure-
sustaining valve to provide isolation when the system is not operating. Two valves
of differing capacity, controlled in sequence, provide the extended flow range
needed in some applications. Two valves may need to be installed in series if the
static pressure is very high. This arrangement also provides more effective pressure
control over a wider range of flow rates.

In high-rise applications, some of the pumping energy expended to overcome the


static pressure can be recovered using hydraulic turbines rather than wasting it all
through pressure-sustaining valves.

Mackie and Richards (1992) and Chapter 39 of the 1991 ASHRAE Handbook-
Applications discuss the selection and application of pressure-sustaining valves in
direct pumping from open storage. Mackie and Reeves (1988) present an extensive
discussion of pumping considerationsfor open storage tanks and provide an example
calculation comparing direct pumping with the use of a heat exchanger. Tackett
(1988) discusses tradeoffs between direct pumping and heat exchangers, as well as
the evaluation, selection, and control of energy recovery hydraulic turbines.

Positive suction head required at the pump should also be considered for open tanks
installed at or below grade. Suction header design and pump selection and placement
should ensure that the required net positive suction head is available. A common
approach is to provide a pump pit at or below the tank bottom, making the static head
of the tank available at the pump suction. Mackie and Reeves (1988) discuss
provision of adequate suction head when pumping from open tanks.

Pressure drop through the storage tank can be significant for some types of storage,
and must be considered in system design. Pressure drop data are typically available
from storage equipment manufacturers.

2.5.4 Glycol Heat Transfer Fluids


Many ice storage technologies use a secondary coolant to transfer heat between the
chiller and storage tanks. Ethylene glycol is most commonly applied, although other
coolants may be used. A solution of 25% by weight ethylene glycol in water is
commonly used in ice storage applications, with some systems using higher concen-
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-35

trations. The discussion in this section is based on the use of ethylene glycol, but the
same considerations would apply to other secondary coolants.

Gatley (1992) provides a detailed discussion of specific application considerations


for cool storage systems using ethylene glycol including the effects of the ethylene
glycol solution on system flow rates, pressure drops, pump performance, and heat
transfer, as well as additional information. Chapter 18 of the 1993 ASHRAE
Handbook4undamentals discusses properties of ethylene glycol and other heat
bansfer solutions. Chapter 12 of the 1992 ASHRAE HandbookSystems and
Equipment discusses the effects of glycol solutions on heat transfer, pump perfor-
mance, and piping pressure drops. Nussbaum (1990) provides additional informa-
tion on the application of glycol solutions.

Ethylene glycol solutions have a higher density, higher viscosity, lower specific
heat, and lower thermal conductivity than pure water. These differences in physical
properties result in increased flow requirements, reduced fluid side heat transfer
coefficients, and increased pressure drops, compared to pure water. Where glycol is
to be used in an existing system designed for water, these disadvantages can
generally be overcome by reducing the supply temperature by about 2OF (l°C).

Performance ratings of all system components including pumps, heat exchangers,


cooling coils, chillers, etc. should be obtained from the respective manufacturersfor
the intended concentration. Designers, installers, or operators should not change the
concentrationfrom the original design level without a thorough analysis of the effect
of the change on system performance.

When ethylene glycol is used in a cooling plant, the advisability of separating the
glycol primary loop from the building distribution system with a heat exchanger
should be evaluated. The heat transfer and pumping performance penalties and the
cost of the glycol solution should be weighed against the heat exchanger cost,
additional pumping energy, and increase in the minimum supply temperature
available to the distribution system.

While each application is unique, heat exchangers are typically used in systems with
peak cooling loads above 500 tons (1800 kW). Where peak cooling loads are less
than 200 tons (700 kW), it is generally economical to use glycol in the building
distribution system. For peakcooling loads between 200 and 500 tons (700 and 1800
kW), the decision whether or not to use a heat exchanger will be determined by the
specific conditions at the site.

Only industrial-grade inhibited glycol formulated specifically for HVAC applica-


tions shouldbe used where glycol is required in cool storagesystems. These mixtures
2-36 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

include corrosion inhibitors,reserve alkalinity,and antifoam additives. Uninhibited


glycols are more than twice as corrosive as tap water with most metals commonly
used in HVAC piping systems. Automotive antifreezes can cause fouling and pump
seal failures (Nussbaum 1990) and must never be used in HVAC applications.

The volumetric expansion of glycol over the expected range of temperatures should
be evaluated and expansion tanks sized accordingly. In northern climates, where
storage tanks are located outdoors, sections of the system may be exposed to
temperatures below 20°F (-7OC). In such cases, the natural burst protection of the
heat transfer solution should beevaluated. Expansion tank sizing should be based on
the greater of expansion due to temperature changes and either expansion due to
phase change. Denkmann (1985) discusses calculation of the expansion volume
required to accommodate the increased fluid volume as the fluid crystallizes.

Glycol heat transfer fluid should be analyzed by alaboratory several times during the
first year of operation and annually thereafter. According to the laboratory's and the
manufacturer's recommendations, the fluid should be treated for glycol concentra-
tion and proper levels of corrosion inhibitors and reserve alkalinity.

2.5.5 Heat Recovery

In many applications, heat recovery can be applied more economically in combina-


tion with cool storage than with a nonstorage system. Many large office buildings
have significant interior heat gains, requiring daytime cooling even in cold winter
weather. Heating is often required during nighttime and unoccupied periods.

A cool storage system with heat recovery can supply recovered heat when it is
needed, while generating cooling for later use. Normal cooling system operation
transfers heat from daytime interior gains to the cool storage tank, rather than
rejecting it to the outdoors by an air-side economizer cycle. This heat is then
recovered by operation of the storage chillers and used to meet the nighttime heating
loads of the building.

Heat can be recovered from chillers using a double-bundlecondenser, which has one
circuit connected to the open cooling tower system and one circuit part of the closed
hot water piping system. Alternatively, hot condenser water can heat building
heating water in a plate frame heat exchanger,or it can be supplied directly to the hot
water distribution system.

Operating costs for heat recovery systems include pump energy and the efficiency
penalty incurred by operating chillers at an elevated condenser water temperature.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-37

Particularly where heat recovery is replacing electric resistance heat, large cost
savings are possible.

Hopkins and Schettler (1990) and Tackett (1989) describe thermal storage systems
that integrate heat recovery. Tackett (1987) describes a chilledwater storage system
in which two of four tanks are used for heat storage during the heating season. Leight
and Elleson (1993) describe the performance of a cool stofage and heat recovery
system that circulates warm condenser water through an auxiliary preheat coil in the
air handling unit of each floor. The same coils use cooling tower water for free
cooling in a water side economizer cycle when outdoor conditions are favorable.

2.5.6 Water-Side Economizer


In some cases, cool storage systems can employ water side economizer cycles to
better advantage than do nonstorage systems.

Where a cool storage system recovers condenser heat to meet building heating loads,
the same piping system can be used to circulate cooling tower water to provide free
cooling. Leight and Elleson (1993) describe the performance of such a system. This
combination heat recovery and free cooling system was made possible because of the
use of cool storage. Nighttime operation of the storage chiller allows recovery of
heat. Daytime periods when all cooling is provided from storageallow lower cooling
tower water temperatures and increased savings from free cooling.

Cooling towers can also be used to generate water cold enough to charge storage.
Particularly in areas such as the southwestern United States, there are many hours
during the year when nighttime wet-bulb temperatures are low, while daytime dry-
bulb temperatures rise high enough to cause significant cooling loads. With storage
technologies that store cooling at relatively high temperatures, such as chilled water
storage and 47°F (8.3OC) eutectic salts, the free cooling available at night can be
stored for later use when cooling loads rise.

Elleson et al. (1993) describe the performance of a eutectic salt system in Arizona
designed to store free cooling. In this particular system, nighttime coaling loads were
high enough to demand nearly all of the free cooling, and very little was stored.
However, with a better match between the cooling tower capacity and the load
profile, this approach can provide large energy and cost savings over a nonstorage
system.
2-38 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

2.5.7 Dual-Use Cool Storage and Fire Protection


In applicationswhere water storageis required for fire protection, the same tanks can
often be used to meet cooling and fire protection needs. This approach is most often
used with chilled water storage, but Slabodkin (1992) describes one application
where an ice storagetank was considered for such a dual use. The design, installation,
and testing of fire protection tanks is governed by ANSI/NFPA Standard 22,
Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection (NFPA 1987). Additional
discussion of the use of chilled water storage tanks for fire protection is provided in
Section 4.7.3.

2.5.8 Total Building Design for Thermal Storage

A thermal storage cooling plant can provide significant benefits even when it is
simply added to an existing building or design in place of a nonstorage chiller.
However, the many potential benefits of cool storage are best realized when the total
building design is planned with storagein mind. Mechanical systems can be planned
with variable volume, high-temperature-differentialsecondary distribution, cold air
distribution, heat recovery, and water-side economizer. Dual-use water tanks can
meet both cooling and fire protection needs. The building structure can be designed
with an integrated storage tank and with allowances for reduced duct space require-
ments. Even in retrofit projects, redesign of existing distribution systems can
improve cool storage system performance and reduce demand and energy consump-
tion.

2.6 SIZING OF COOLING PLANT AND STORAGE


A correctly sized cool thermal storage system must meet the cooling load during
every hour of the design day. Sizing the chiller and storage capacities requires a
detailed analysis of the combined performance of chiller and storage for each hour
of the design cooling cycle. Quick sizing formulas are available for estimating
required chiller and storage capacities. While these formulas are useful for initial
evaluation of cool storage systems and for preliminary selection of system compo-
nents, they must not be usedforfinal system sizing. Only an accurate evaluation of
the performance of chiller and storage at the appropriate conditions for each hour of
the design cooling cycle will result in a properly sized system.

The basic steps in sizing a cool storage system are as follows:

1. Determine the building load profile


2. Select the design day system operating strategy
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-39

3. Calculate the initial chiller size and initial storage capacity


4. Select the appropriate storage technology
5. Refine and finalize the chiller and storage equipment selection

Depending on specific conditions present in each application, these steps may occur
in a slightly different order, and some steps may be repeated in an iterative process.
Each of the steps is discussed below. Additional discussion of sizing is provided in
Chapter 10.

2.6.1 Determine the Building Load Profile


Obtaining an accurate building load profile and total cooling requirement is the first
and most important step in the sizing procedure. The design load profile must include
all building and system heat gains, including pump heat gains and thermal gains to
the storage tank. Determination of cooling loads is discussed in Section 2.1.

2.6.2 Select the Design Day System Operating Strategy


The system operating strategy defines how much of the on-peak cooling load will be
shifted to off-peak periods by the storage system. Full storage and partial storage
strategies, and the determination of the appropriate period from which to shift the
load, are discussed in Section2.4.

2.6.3 Calculate the Initial Chiller Size and Initial Storage Capacity
To start the sizing procedure, quick estimates of chiller size and storage capacity can
be approximated using relatively simple equations. These estimates are calculated
based on total system load ton-hours, number of hours in the charging and discharg-
ing modes, and chiller performance ratios for charging and discharging conditions.
In combination with the storage volume for aparticulartechnology, the quick storage
size calculation provides an estimate of the space required for storage.

The quick chiller size and storage size estimates are useful for comparing operating
strategies or storage technologies in initial feasibility analyses. However, the initial
sizing estimates should never be used as the basis of final design, unless they have
been confirmed by the detailed analysis and system simulation described later. Quick
chiller size and quick storage size estimates are discussed in more detail in Section
10.3.
2-40 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

2.6.4 Select the Appropriate Storage Technology

Each of the cool storage technologies has unique performance and operational
characteristicsthat affect its suitabilityfor aparticular application. While the general
procedure for sizing is similar for all the technologies, each is treated differently in
the sizing phase because of differences in these performance characteristics. A
comparative overview of the approaches to cool storage is given in Chapter 3.

A designer wishing to perform a detailed comparative analysis of several technolo-


gies must repeat the following steps of the procedurefor each technology considered.
In some cases, cool storage technologies of the same type offered by different
manufacturers may be different enough to also warrant separate analysis.

2.6.5 Refine and Finalize the Chiller and Storage Equipment Selection
When the designer has determined that a certain storage technology is most
appropriate, the unique sizing considerations of that technology are factored into
system performance calculations.

Typically, manufacturers of cool storage devices provide charge and discharge


characteristics of their products, with the assumption that chiller performance is
adequate.Likewise, chiller and ice making equipment manufacturers supply perfor-
mance data for their products, independent of the performance of external storage
components attached to them. The designer is responsible for correctly sizing the
components of the complete chiller/storage system to meet the design load profile.

The input and output characteristics of the chiller affect the input and output
characteristicsof storage, and vice versa. Chiller performanceis affectedby load and
ambient conditions and entering and leaving temperatures. Storage performance,
particularly with latent storage media, also depends on inlet and outlet temperatures,
as well as dischargerate, and the stateof charge of the storage tank. Storage geometry
may also play an important role. Therefore, accurate system sizing can only be
achieved by comprehensively examining the combined performance of chiller and
storage in response to ambient conditions and load.

Once a preliminary equipment selection has been made, it is necessary to simulate


system performance on an hourly basis over the entire design load cycle. This is an
iterative process, wherein new values for storage performance may demand new
values for chiller performance and vice versa. Even small changes in performance
requirements of any component can change the equipment selection. Adjustments
are made until the best possible match of chiller and storage size is identified, which
will meet the load every hour.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-41

The hour-by-hour simulation can be performed manually using manufacturers'


catalog data. Specialized computer software or commercial spreadsheet programs
can also be used. It is important that any simulation routine consider the hourly
chillerperformanceas a function of changing ambientconditions,load, and inlet and
outlet conditions. The storage simulation must consider load, inlet and outlet
conditions, and any other pertinent characteristics for a particular storage technol-
ogy, In many cases, separatecomputer programs will be used for chiller and storage
performance, with the results from one program used as input for the next iteration
in the other program.

If this hour-by-hour simulation is not performed accurately, the installed storage


system will probably not perform as intended. If equipment is oversized, the owner
will have higher first costs and operating costs. If equipment is undersized, the load
will not be met for all or part of the design cooling load cycle.

Even if total nominal capacity appears to be adequate, acool storage system will not
operate properly if the charging and discharging performance of the chiller and
storage are not matched to each other and to the design load. Chapter 10 describes
the refining and final sizing procedure in greater detail. Information on the specific
charge and discharge characteristicsof each cool storage technology is provided in
Chapters 4 through 9.

2.7 ECONOMIC EVALUATION

A full economic evaluation of a cool thermal storage system requires analysis and
comparison of equipment costs and operating costs. The analysis often involves
comparison of several options, usually including a nonstorage system and, possibly,
various storage strategies or technologies. In most cases, the applicable utility rate
structure has a major effect on the selection of operating strategy and system size as
well as on operating costs. Utility rate structures, equipment costs, and system
efficiency and operating costs are discussed next. The analysis of annual demand,
energy consumption, and operating costs is discussed in Chapter 10.

2.7.1 Utility Rate Structures

Electric utility rate structures generally determine thermal storage operating cost
savings as well as the optimum system size and operating strategy. Elements of
utility rate structures include demand charge, on- and off-peak schedule, on- and off-
peak energy charge differential, and direct incentives. In addition, some utilities
offer special thermal storage rate schedules. Information on utility rates for a
particular application should be obtained from a local utility representative.
2-42 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Demand Charge
The electric demand charge is assessed by the utility based on the highest rate of
power (kilowatts)drawn by a facility in a given month. High utility demand charges
increase the operating cost savings of a cool storage system. Demand charges above
$10/kW per month make storage particularly attractive. Where demand charges are
below $5/kW per month, cool storage should be justified by other benefits.

The presence of a "ratcheted" demand charge in a utility rate structure further


enhancescool storageoperatingcost savings,with the demandcharge for the current
month based on the higher of two possibilities, either the peak demand for the presen t
month or a percentage of the highest demand incurred during any of the previous 12
months. The ratchet is typically between 50 and 100%,depending on the utility. For
example, a facility that incurs a high demand during August pays a demand charge
based on that demand level for the next 12 months, even when the actual demand is
much lower. With this kind of rate structure, a cool storage system that reduces the
maximum demand in the peak month can reap savings for the entire following year.

Utility ratchets may justify the purchase of standby equipment, especially for
components having the shortest mean time before failure. If a pump or other
component fails and forces chillers to run during the on-peak period, the system may
set a demand level for that month that will raise the utility bill for the following 12
months.

On- and Off-Peak Schedule


Utilities often construct their rates around on- and off-peak schedules, which reflect
the variation in the cost of generating and distributing electricity with time of day.
On-peak demand and energy charges are relatively high, reflecting the cost of
running less efficient generating capacity to meet high daytime power demands. Off-
peak charges are relatively low to encourage customers to shift their usage to these
periods.

For a cool storage system designed primarily to reduce on-peak demand, such as a
full storage system, the length and timing of the on-peak period directly affect the
required chiller and storage capacities. When the on-peak period is 10 h or longer,
the total on-peak load is high, and there are relatively few off-peak hours available
to recharge storage. This situation requires a large storage capacity and a large
storage chiller. With a short on-peak period of 6 h or less, the total on-peak load is
relatively small, while many off-peak hours are available to recharge storage. Here,
a relatively small chiller and storage capacity can shift the entire on-peak load to off
peak.

For a partial storage load-leveling system, the length of on- and off-peakperiods is
not as critical to system sizing, since the objective is to minimize the sizes of the
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-43

chiller and storage and to match the total capacity to the total load. A partial storage
demand-limiting system can be sized to provide the optimum combination of on-
peak demand reduction and equipment size for a given utility rate and load profile.

Energy Charge Differential


For many electric utilities,the cost of electrical energy consumed during the on-peak
period is higher than that consumed during the off-peak period. This increases
operating cost savings for cool storage systems, since on-peak loads are met by off-
peakchilleroperation.Thedifferential between on- andoff-peakenergychargesalso
affects the selection of control sbategy when loads are at lower than design levels.
The effect of energy charges on the selection of chiller priority or storage priority
control is discussed in Section 2.4.

Direct Incentives
Some utilities offer direct incentive payments to customers who install cool storage
systems. The payments are typically in the range of $100 to $300 per kilowatt of peak
demand reduction compared to a nonstorage system.For some utilities,payments are
basedon tons of on-peak load shifted to off-peak periods. These payments reduce the
cool storage system first cost, improving the economic comparison with nonstorage
systems.

Thermal Storage Rate Schedules


Some utilities offer optional rate schedules designed to encourage the use of cool
thermal storage. In some cases, it is possible and advantageousto have two separate
electric meters for one facility. The cool storage system is metered and billed at the
special cool storage rate, which typically features a high on-peak demand charge, a
low or no off-peak demand charge, and a high differential between on- and off-peak
energy charges. The rest of the facility, including chilled water pumps used in the
distribution system, is metered at the standard rate, which generally has less
difference between on- and off-peak charges.

2.7.2 Equipment Costs


The largest equipment costs are for chilling equipment and storage capacity. In
addition, pumps, piping, heat exchangers,and other interface equipment must often
be provided.

In most evaluationsof thermal storage, one or more storage alternatives is compared


with a nonstorage option. In general, the cost of storage and additional interface
equipment is partially offset by savings resulting from a downsized cooling plant.
There is often a cost premium for thermal storage, which must be paid back by
2-44 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

operating cost savings. However, in many cases, the first cost and operating cost of
a thermal storage system can be less than that for a nonstorage system.

Some applications where cool thermal storage can result in decreased equipment
costs include:

Expansion of an existing plant, where a storage tank to use unused existing


capacity costs less than a new chiller.
Churches, sports arenas, convention centers, and other applications where the
average load is much less than the peak load.
Applications in areas where chilling equipment must be imported and is thus
very expensive.
Buildings where cold air distribution can be applied to reduce costs of fans,
ductwork, and building structure.

Mackie and Reeves (1988) discuss further opportunities for low capital cost with
cool storage.

Coolingplant costs given on the basis of nominal capacity are similar for storageand
nonstorage systems. Ice making capacity for ice storage chillers is generally 60 to
70%of the nominal capacity. Costs for ice harvesting equipmentare not comparable
with packaged water chillers and are discussed separately in Chapter 5.

Equipment costs are highly dependent on local conditions and the current economic
climate, and it is difficult to provide accurate general guidelines. Bare equipment
costs for chillers are typically $200 to $300 per ton ($57 to $85 per kW) for
centrifugal chillers, and $400 to $500 per ton ($114 to $142 per kW)for screw and
reciprocating chillers. Estimates of installed cooling plant costs vary from $500 to
over $1000 per nominal ton ($142 to $284 per kW), depending on which equipment
costs are included. Such estimates are most useful for comparing several options in
initial feasibilitystudies.For more accuratecost estimates,consult local vendorsand
contractors.

Costs for the interfacebetween chiller and storage also vary considerably, depending
on the length of piping runs, the type of pumping arrangement, the use of heat
exchangers, and other factors. Costs for storage vary depending on the specific
technology considered (see Chapters 3 through 9).

2.7.3 Efficiency and Operating Costs


Operating costs for a cool thermal storage system depend on the applicable utility
rate schedule and on the efficiency of the system in generating, storing, and
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-45

distributing cooling. General efficiency considerationsare discussed in this section;


specific discussions of efficiency are also provided in Chapters 4 through 9.

Cool storage system operating costs are generally lower than those of nonstorage
systems. On-peak demand charges are reduced, and energy consumption is shifted
from expensive on-peak periods to less expensive off-peak times.

Cool storage systems are commonly thought to use more energy than nonstorage
systems, even though operating costs are lower. Field monitoring of several systems
has shown relatively poor energy performance (Merten et al. 1989, Sohn 1991).The
conclusionsof poor performance in these studies are based on comparisons of chiller
energy consumption.

However, other studies illustrate cool storage systems that use equivalent or less
energy than nonstorage alternatives.Fiorino (1993)describesa chilled water storage
retrofit that reduced energy consumption by 12% compared to its nonstorage
predecessor. Energy savings resulted from improved chiller operating efficiency,
reduced distribution energy, and improved control of cooling and dehumidifying
processes.

Leight and Elleson (1993) describe an ice storage system that used less overall
energy than a modeled nonstorage alternative,even though chiller energy consump-
tion increased. Energy savings resulted from downsized pumps and cooling tower,
and the use of a waterside economizer cycle. In addition, heating energy consump-
tion was reduced by the use of heat recovery, and supply fan energy use was lowered
by reducing the design supply air temperature.

Many cool storage systems have been designed with demand reduction as the
primary objective and most have successfully met this goal. As commercial cool
storage technology matures, designersare faced with the additional goal of reducing
energy consumption. The examples cited earlier show that this goal can be achieved
by taking advantageof the full potential offered by thermal storage technology and
by treating thermal storage as one element of a comprehensive approach to energy
conservation in building mechanical systems.

For systems that generate cooling at depressed temperatures,reduced chiller suction


temperatures have an efficiency penalty. This penalty is most significant with ice
storage systems, but it may also be a factor in chilled water and eutectic salt storage
systems. On the other hand, storage chillers can benefit from improved efficiency
due to lower condensing temperatures available during nighttime operation.

In systems using water-cooled chillers, it is important to control cooling towers to


provide the lowest possible condenser water temperature above the chiller
manufacturer's recommended minimum.
2-46 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Systems using air-cooledchillersbenefit from arelatively large increase in nighttime


efficiency, because the swing in the dry-bulb temperature over a day is considerably
greater than the variation in wet-bulb temperature.

In many cases, the energy consumption of chiller auxiliaries can be lower in storage
systems than in nonstorage systems. Primary chilled water pumps, condenser water
pumps, and to some extent, cooling towers, typically operate at a fixed capacity,
independent of chiller load. Auxiliary energy consumption per ton-hour of cooling
load can often be minimized by operating chillers at maximum capacity whenever
they run.

Storagelossesin well-designedandoperated systems are typically 1to 5%of storage


capacity per day and have a small impact on overall efficiency. Specific discussions
of losses for each storage technology are given in Chapter 3.

Cool storage systems offer the opportunity of significant reductions in distribution


energy. Chilled water temperature differentials of 20°F (ll°C) are common, and
differentialsas high as 30°F (17°C) have been used. With variable volume distribu-
tion pumping, distribution energy can be 50% or less of that for typical nonstorage
systems. Cool storage systems using cold air distribution also offer the possibility of
reductions in fan energy.

2.8 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

2.8.1 System Optimization

Operators can increase the benefits of thermal storage by continuing to improve and
optimize system operation. Cool storage systems offer increased flexibility in
meeting cooling loads by decoupling generation of cooling from the instantaneous
loads. During the majority of the year when cooling loads are below design levels,
operators have the option of meeting loads from chiller operation or from storage. As
operators gain experience with system response to actual loads, they can refine
design operating strategies and control setpoints to minimize operating cost.

2.8.2 Equipment Maintenance


Maintenance of cool thermal storage systems is similar to the maintenance of
nonstorage systems. For a given application, a storage cooling plant will usually be
smaller than a nonstorage plant, resulting in decreased maintenance costs where
costs depend on equipment size. Examples include costs related to recycling or
replacing refrigerant or to cooling tower annual cleaning and water treatment.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-47

In some cases, cool storage allows cooling loads to be met while some equipment is
taken out of service for maintenance, particularly where the required maintenance
can be performed in a relatively short time, or where storage can supplement the
capacity of the equipment remaining on line.

Information on equipment maintenance is provided in the following chapters in the


ASHRAE Handbook series:

1994 Refrigeration
Liquid Chillers, Chapter 42

1992 Systems and Equipment


Compressors, Chapter 35
Condensers, Chapter 36
Cooling Towers, Chapter 37
Centrifugal Pumps, Chapter 39

1991 Applications
Operation and Maintenance Management, Chapter 35
Automatic Control, Chapter 41

Equipment manufacturers are also an important source for maintenancerecommen-


dations.

Maintenance requirements for storage tanks vary with the type of storage
technology. Specific requirements for each technology are discussed in
Chapters 4 through 9.

2.8.3 Water Treatment


Water treatment for cool storage systems is fundamentally no different than water
treatment for nonstorage systems, except that generally a greater volume of water
must be treated.

Chapter 43 of the 1991 ASHRAE Handbook-Applications covers water treatment


in detail. Ahlgren (1987) discusses water treatment specifically for cool thermal
storage systems, as well as a chapter on sources of further information and reports
on water treatment experience of a number of thermal storage systems. Chemical
service companies are also a good source of information on water treatment.
2-48 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Starting with a clean system, whether in a cool storage or a nonstorage application,


is the surest way to avoid future problems. Among the recommendations to ensure
clean, trouble-free water in a cool storage system are:

A recommended procedure to achieve and maintain a clean system.


Chemical treatment to avoid corrosion, biofouling, scaling, and deposits in a
cool thermal storage system.
Special considerations for dual cool and warm thermal storage systems.
Special considerations for systems using glycol or other secondary coolants.

System Cleaning
Starting with a clean system cannot be stated strongly enough-a clean system at
startup minimizes problems throughout the life of the system.

Water containing any contaminants,detergent or disinfectant must be drained to an


appropriate site. Check with local authorities before draining the system.

Ahlgren (1987) lists the following major steps in preoperational cleaning:

Remove all extraneous loose debris, construction material, trash, and dirt from
tanks,piping, filters, etc. Removal of as much dry material as possible prevents
transfer to hard-to-reach portions of the system.
Flush water fill line separately to drain. If a new water line has been installed,
be sure that rust and debris from it is not washed into the thermal storage system.
Fill system with soft, clean, fresh water. Open all system valves and lines to get
thorough, high-velocity recirculation.
Add prescribed cleaning chemicals to circulating water. Most cleaners are a
blend of alkaline detergents, wetting agents, and dispersants. Be sure cleaning
chemical is dissolved and distributed thoroughly so that cleaner does not settle
out in one part of the system.
Circulate cleaning solution for manufacturer's recommended time, frequently
8 to 24 h. Check during recirculation for any plugging of filters, strainers, etc.
While water is being recirculatedat high rate, open drain valve at lowest points
in system and drain cleaning solution as rapidly as possible. Draining while
under recirculation will prevent settling of solids in remote portions of system.
Open and inspect system for thoroughness of cleaning. Refill with water and
start rinse recirculation. If significant amounts of contaminating materials are
still present, repeat cleaning and draining procedure.
When cleaning has been thoroughly accomplished, refill system with fresh
water for recirculation rinse. Drain rinse water and add fresh makeup until all
signs of cleaning chemicals have been removed.
System is now in clean, unprotected state. Fill with makeup water and proceed
with passivating steps to develop protective films on all metallic surfaces.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-49

Water should be treated as soon as possible after cleaning the system. The cleaning
procedure removes any protective films from equipment surfaces, leaving them
susceptible to corrosion. Especially when there is an extended time period between
cleaning and actual system startup, corrosion and biofouling can become significant
problems if water treatment is not treated promptly.

Chemical Treatment
Corrosion, biofouling, scaling, and deposits can be controlled by beginning with a
clean system and adding appropriate chemicals to the water in the system. The
system may need little or no chemical additions if properly cleaned at the outset and
if other conditions, such as water quality, are good.

Corrosion, whether generalized over large surfaces or occurring as pitting or


perforation of metal in a small area, is expensive and difficult to repair. Chemical
treatment is used to reduce the possibility of corrosion. Some chemicals reduce the
acidity of the water or its oxygen content, while others create a protective film over
surfaces that may be vulnerable to corrosion.

Biofouling can be a problem even at the temperatures normally prevalent in a cool


storage system. Disinfecting the system during preoperational cleaning is the single
most effective method of avoiding the growth of biological contaminants. After
startup, it may be necessary to maintain a low level of biological control chemicals
in the water. Some systems, properly cleaned at the outset, do not use any chemical
to control biological growth.

Scaling and deposits are a problem best avoided, as they can greatly reduce system
efficiency. To avoid scaling, flush the system with soft water before startup. At this
point, soft water will remove most or all of the materials that could promote scaling.

To avoid deposits, filter the water before it enters the system and/or add chemicals
that inhibit the ability of suspended matter to attach to any part of the system.

Dual Cool and Hot Thermal Storage Systems


Using thermal storage for the dual purpose of heating and cooling presents unique
problems in controlling the quality of the water in the system. When changing over
from cool to heat storage, the change in system temperatures may necessitate a
change in the water treatment program. Generally, the chemicals used to control
biofouling are needed in greater quantities in warm water storage. Ahlgren (1987)
addresses this issue in detail.

Glycol Solutions
Water treatment considerations for cool storage systems using glycol or other
secondary coolants are different than for systems using water. This discussion is
2-50 Design Gulde for Cool Thermal Storage

based on ethylene glycol coolant, but the same considerations would apply to other
secondary coolants.

Only inhibited glycol from a major manufacturer should be used in cool storage
applications requiring glycol. Use of another glycol formulation not intended for
HVAC applications is not recommended. Inhibited glycol is provided with corrosion
inhibitorsand antifoamadditives; glycol without these additivesbecomes extremely
corrosive on mixing with air.

Test the glycol solution for glycol concentrationand levels of corrosion inhibitorand
other additives four times the first year and once a year thereafter. Add glycol,
inhibitor, and additives as required, according to the glycol manufacturer's recom-
mendations.

2.9 COMMISSIONING
Commissioningis a process whereby the subsystems and components of an HVAC
system are integrated into a whole system that functions according to the design
intent. Commissioning is sometimes thought to involve only startup and perfor-
mance testing; however, the complete commissioning process, as outlined in
ASHRAE Guideline 1-1989 (ASHRAE 1989) is part of the entire project. Commis-
sioning begins in the predesign phase and lasts through training of the building
operators and the first year of operation of the building.

ASHRAE Guideline 1-1989describes the commissioningprocess in detail. Here an


outline of the commissioning process, addresses commissioning as it applies
specifically to cool thermal storage systems, is given. Guven and Flynn (1992) and
Guven and Spaeth (1993) also discuss commissioning of cool storage systems.

2.9.1 Need for Commissioning

Cool thermal storage systems have a particular need for commissioning. Storage
systems, particularly partial storage systems, have much less reserve-integrated
cooling capacity than do nonstorage systems. A nonstorage system has excess
capacity in every hour that is not a design hour. Storage systems derive their benefits
from the use of an additional system element, stored cooling, to achieve a closer
match of total integrated capacity to total integrated load. These benefits are
achieved at the price of (1) some additional complexity to control the inventory of
stored cooling and (2) a reduced safety factor. Therefore,there is a need for increased
care in design, installation, and operation, ensured by the commissioning process.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-51

Thermalstorageisa new technology for most of the HVAC industry. Most designers,
contractors, and operatorsdo not have the extensive knowledge and experience with
cool storage that they have with nonstorage cooling technology. Without this
experience, more potential problems will remain undetected throughout the design
and installation process, to the detriment of the efficiency and effectiveness of
system operation. The commissioning process is intended to minimize these prob-
lems. Commissioning also provides documentation of actual system capacities,
which allows control strategies to be optimized to take full advantage of system
capabilities.

2.9.2 Commissioning Process

The commissioning process consists of the following phases:

Redesign
Design
Construction
Startup
Operator training
Performance testing
System operation and optimization

In the predesign phase, the framework is developed to guide the commissioning


process through the remaining phases. Here, the functional needs of the HVAC
system are defined, design concepts are developed, and commissioning require-
ments and responsibilities are established.

In this phase, the person, company, or agency that will plan and carry out the
commissioning process is selected. This commissioning authority may be the
designer, contractor, owner, or a consultant specifically retained for this purpose.
The commissioning authority must have the knowledge, experience, and tempera-
ment to work with the other members of the commissioning team and to effectively
oversee the entue process.

The commissioning team includes all or some of the following members: owner,
designer, contractors (general, mechanical, controls, test and balance), system
operators, equipment manufacturers, commissioning consultant, and thermal stor-
age consultant.

In the design phase, detailed requirements for HVAC commissioning are developed
for inclusion in design documents. These include documentation of design criteria
2-52 Design Guide for Cool Themal Storage

and assumptions, a description of the system and its intended operation and
performance, and a commissioning plan.

The commissioning plan is included as part of the project specifications. It governs


the implementationof the commissioning process during the remaining phases of the
project and defines the roles and responsibilities of the parties to the process. In
addition, it outlines the testing, acceptance, and verification procedures to be
performed.

A third-party review of the cool storage system design is strongly recommended,


especially for designers with limited cool storage design experience. Generally, the
benefits of identifying system improvements and avoiding possible design errors far
outweigh the cost of retaining consultants to perform a design review.

The construction phase involves ongoing coordination of trades and inspection of


work in progress to minimize rework at later stages by ensuring proper installation
and identifying potential problems as early as possible.

Startup phase activities are typically those usually specified for HVAC projects,
including startup of pumps, fans, chillers, and other equipment, cleaning and
pressure testing of piping systems, leak testing of ductwork, etc.

Training of operators is essential for cool storage systems, Most operators are not
familiar with the general concepts or the details of storage system operation. If not
properly trained, they may operate the systems based on misconceptions of the
design intent, which generally results in poor performance. Training should include
fundamentals of cool storage, details of the particular storage technology for the
specific application, and a complete review of the design intent for the particular
installation.

Involving operators in the performance testing phase of commissioning is highly


recommended as a part of training. Participating in testing allows operators to
become familiar with thermal storage concepts, as well as the design intent and
specific operating characteristics of their system.

Performance testing is that phase of the process most often associated with commis-
sioning. It involves testing each system or subsystem under actual or simulated
operating conditions, to verify that it performs according to the design intent.
Performance testing for cool thermal storage systems is described in greater detail
in the following section.

During the system operation and optimization phase, operators gain experience with
the system and adapt its operation to achieve optimum performance. In addition, any
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-53

changes in the system must be recorded in as-built documents. Changes in the use
and function of facilities must be monitored and documented, and appropriate
adjustments made in system operation. For example, changes in utility rate sched-
ules, occupancy schedules, or loads may require modifications in cool storage
system operating strategies.

2.9.3 Performance Testing


Commissioning of the entire HVAC system involves performance testing of all
subsystems and components including pumps, fans, terminal units, and controls.
Thisdiscussion is limited to performance testing of the thermal storage cooling plant.

The followingperformance tests should be carried out on every cool thermal storage
installation:

Total storage capacity


Discharge rate and discharge temperatures
Charging capacity
Scheduling and control sequences
Evaluation of peak demand and energy efficiency

In some cases, depending on the storage technology and details of the specific
application, two or more of these parameters may be evaluated as part of the same
test. In other cases, each of these tests must be performed separately. Other tests may
alsobe warranted for some applications.Details on performancetesting for each cool
thermal storage technology are provided in Sections 4 through 9.

Cool storage performance testing generally must be carried out with the system
subjected to a design load profile. The performance of a cool storage system at a
given time depends on the load, the temperature and flow rate entering the storage
tank, and the state of charge of the tank. For the purposes of performance testing, a
design operatingprofile shouldbe compiled, to include the following informationfor
each hour of the design cooling cycle:

Total system cooling load


Chiller cooling output
Chiller entering chilled water temperature
Chiller leaving chilled water temperature
Chiller chilled water flow
Chiller primary energy input
Cooling charged to or discharged from storage
Storage chilled water flow
2-54 Design Gulde for Cool Thermal Storage

Storage entering chilled water temperature


Storage leaving chilled water temperature

The design operatingprofile is normally compiled at the time detailed system sizing
is performed. In some cases, it may become evident prior to or during the course of
commissioning that the original design profile must be revised. A new profile
including the information just listed should then be developed based on the best load
information available.

If it is not feasible to test the system at design or near-design loads, a false load may
be used to simulate the design load profile. For partial storage systems, the chiller
capacity and storage capacity can be tested separately, with partial system loads
providing a design load to either the chiller or the storage.When a secondary coolant
other than water is used as a heat transfer fluid, performance testing should include
measurement of the density and specific heat of the coolant.

Total storage capacity is evaluated by fully charging the storage tank, then monitor-
ing the discharge output until no usable cooling remains in the tank. For storage
technologies that are sensitive to discharge rate, the storage tank must be subjected
to its design discharge profile to accurately evaluate the usable design day capacity.

Discharge rate and discharge temperature tests verify that the load can be met at the
required discharge temperature for each hour of the design profile. For most load
profiles, this check is especially important for the last few hours of the discharge
cycle. The discharge rate and discharge temperature are normally evaluated during
the course of the storage capacity test.

The charging capacity test evaluates the ability of the system to fully charge storage
within the allotted time period. This test is begun in the fully discharged condition,
with no usable cooling remaining in storage. If such a test results in some cooling
remaining in storage, it may also be run following the completion of adischargetest
against the design load profile. This option may be a more realistic test of system
performance under actual operating conditions.

If the design load profile includes loads occurring during the charge cycle, these
loads should be provided during the test of charging capacity. The charging test
should be run with the chiller operating at the design charging temperature. Repeat
tests can be used to establish the appropriate charging setpoint to most efficiently
charge storage within the allotted time.

Performance testing of scheduling and control sequences verifies that the system
switches to the correct operating mode at the appropriate time. These tests typically
involveclose observation of system operation over several charge-dischargecycles.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-55

Automatic operation of all valves, resetting of setpoints, and starting and stopping
of equipment should be verified for each time that the system cooling mode changes.
Correct proportioning of chiller and storage output at part load conditions should be
verified. Storage inventory measurement devices should be calibrated, particularly
at the fully charged and fully discharged conditions.

Predictive control and load estimation algorithms should also be tested during
commissioning and parameter values set or refined as needed.

Peak demand and energy efficiency demands are important for evaluating the
performance of a cool storage system. These tests can be used to assess the validity
of operating cost projections made during the economic evaluation phase of design.
In some cases, utility incentive payments depend on the results of these tests.

In most cases, maximum demand during the utility or facility on-peak period is of
greatest interest, although the maximum 24-h demand may also be important. The
total system demand is established primarily by the chiller, with significant contri-
butions from pumps and cooling towers.

For chillers using natural gas as the primary energy source, instantaneous demand
may be relatively unimportant. For chillers powered by steam or waste heat, the
demand for primary energy will affect scheduling of generation equipment as well
as other loads in the facility.

Eleciric demand is often available as a readout from packaged chiller control panels.
Portable power-monitoring instrumentation may also be used to measure demand.

Instruments that measure power factor and true power provide the most accurate
measurements. While less accurate, calculations of demand based on measured
current and voltage and estimated power factor may be suitable in some cases.

Demand measurements for electric utility purposes are generally based on the
averagepowerover a 15-minperiod. Constant volume pumps and cooling tower fans
need not be monitored continuously, since the demand for these devices will be the
same whenever they are operating.

Performanceevaluation tests for commissioning, generally performed over a period


of days or weeks, can be used to assess equipment and system efficiency over a
limited range of operating conditions and provide some data for estimating long-
term efficiency. Continuous monitoring, or several sets of short-term tests per-
formed over the full range of operating conditions are recommended if accurate
measurement of energy efficiency is desired.
2-56 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

By monitoring energy input versus cooling generated, the efficiency of chillers or


refrigeration systems can be evaluated and compared to design data. Measurement
of energy input versus cooling delivered to the load provides an assessment of overall
system efficiency and of storage losses. These measurements are useful to determine
whether equipment is operating properly. Unexpectedly low efficiency may signal
equipment problems or improper installation or operation of the system.

The monitoring and trend-logging functions of the installation's control system can
often be used to collect data for performance testing. Commissioning test and
monitoring requirements should be considered in the development of control system
specifications. Control systems should be capable of recording averages of moni-
tored quantities over specified intervals.

Trend logs taken over periods of one week or longer can provide valuable informa-
tion on system operation. Reviewing such logs prior to performance testing can help
identify specific areas for attention during testing.

All monitoring instrumentation should be calibrated prior to performance testing,


since accurate measurement of temperature differentials across chillers and storage
tanks is most important. An error of OS°F (0.3"C) in each of two sensors can amount
to a 20% error in a 5°F (3°C) differential measurement.

REFERENCES

Ahlgren, R.M. 1987. Water treatment technologies for thermal storage systems,
EPRI EM-5545, December. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute.
ACI. 1983. Concrete sanitary engineering structures, ACI 350R-83. Detroit, MI:
American Concrete Institute.
ACI. 1986. Building code requirements for reinforced concrete, ACI 318-83,
Revised 1986. Detroit, MI: American Concrete Institute.
ASHRAE. 1989. ASHRAE Guideline 1-1989,Guideline for commissioning HVAC
systems.
ASHRAE. 1991. 1991 ASHRAE Handbook-HVAC Applications.
ASHRAE. 1992. 1992 ASHRAE Handbook-NVAC Systems and Equipment.
ASHRAE. 1993. 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.
ASHRAE. 1994. 1994 ASHRAE Handbook-Refrigeration (in press).
AWWA. 1978. AWWA Standard for painting steel water-storage tanks, ANSI/
AWWA D102-78. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.
AWWA. 1984. AWWA Standard for welded steel tanks for water storage, ANSI/
AWWA D100-84. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-57

AWWA. 1986. AWWA Standard for wire-wound circular prestressed-concrete


water tanks, ANSI/AWWA Dl 10-86. Denver, CO: American Water Works
Association.
Chow, P.Y. 1987. Design of low-cost, leak-proof concrete starage tanks. EPRI
Seminar Proceedings: Commercial Cool Storage, State of the Art, EM-5454-
SR, Section 5, October. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute.
Cordaillat, B. and R.T. Tamblyn. 1988. French office tower pioneers with thermal
storage. ASHRAE Transactions94(l): 1861-65. Reprinted in ASHRAE Tech-
nical Data Bulletin, Cool Storage Applications 5(3):6142.
Denkmann, J.L. 1985. Performance analysis of a brine-based ice storage system.
ASHRAE Transactions91(1B):876-91.Reprinted in ASHRAETechnical Data
Bulletin, Thermal Storage (January):67-82.
Elleson, J.S., S.S. Dingle, and S.P. Leight. 1993. Field evaluation of a eutectic salt
thermal storage system. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute.
Fields, W.G. andD.E. Knebel. 1991. Cost effective thermal energy storage.Heating1
PipinglAir Conditioning (July):59-72.
Fiorino, D.P. 1991. Case study of a large, naturally stratified, chilled-water thermal
energy storage system. ASHRAE Transactions 97(2): 116149.
Fiorino, D.P. 1993. Energy conservation with chilled-water storage. ASHRAE
Journal 35(5):22.
Francis, CE. 1985. The production of ice with long-term storage. ASHRAE
Transactions 91(1B):993-99. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin:
Thermal Storage (January): 13945.
Gatley, D.P. and J.J. Riticher. 1985.Successful thermal storage. ASHRAE Transac-
tions 91(18):843-55. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin: Thermal
Storage (January):3749.
Gatley, D.P. 1992. Cool storage ethylene glycol design guide, EPRI TR-100945,
September. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute.
Graham, T., K. Tokunaga, and V. Goldstein. Applications of crystal ice generation
in district heating and cooling. Sunwell Engineering Company Limited.
Grumman,D.L. and A.S. Butkus. 1989. Ice storageapplicationtoan Illinois hospital.
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(3):27-33.
Guttman, N.B.and M.S. Plantico. 1988. Cold weather and heating system design.
ASHRAE Journal (September):38-44.
Guven, H. and J. Flynn. 1992. Commissioning TES systems. HeatinglPipinglAir
Conditioning (January):82-84.
Guven, H . and S. Spaeth. 1993. TES commissioning guidelines. Berkeley, CA:
California Institute of Energy Efficiency.
2-58 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Harmon, JJ. and H.C. Yu. 1991. Centrifugal chillers and glycol ice thermal storage
units. ASHRAE Journal (December):25-31.
Heavener, C.M. 1986. An ice slurry system for low temperature thermal energy
storage. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
Hopkins, K.J. and J.W. Schettler. 1990. Thermal storage enhances heat recovery.
HeatinglPipinglAir Conditioning (March):45-50.
Leight, S.P. and J.S. Elleson. 1993.Case study of an ice storage system with cold air
distribution and heat recovery. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Insti-
tute. (Final report in press)??
Mackie, E.I. and G. Reeves. 1988. Stratified chilled-water storage design guide,
EPRI EM-4852s. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute.
Mackie,E.I. andW.V. Richards. 1992. Design of off-peakcoolingsystems. ASHRAE
Professional Development Seminar.
Mathur, A. 1987. Optimal controller for cool storage systems operation. EPRI
Seminar Proceedings: Commercial Cool Storage, State of the Art, EM-5454-
SR, October.
Merten, G.P., SL. Shum, R.H. Sterrett, and W.C. Racine. 1989. Operation and
performance of commercial cool storage systems, Volume 1: 1987 Cooling
season, and Volume 2: 1988 Cooling season and project summary. EPRI CU-
6561, Vols. 1 and 2, September.
Midkiff, K.C., Y.K. Song, and C.E. Brett. 1991. Thermal performance and chal-
lenges for a seasonal chill energy storagebased air-conditioningsystem, ASME
9 1-HT-29, July.
Mirth, DR., S. Ramadhyani, and D.C. Hittle. 1993. Thermal performance of chilled
water cooling coils operating at low water velocities. ASHRAE Transactions
99(1):43-53.
NFPA. 1987. Water tanks for private fire protection, ANSI/NFPA 22, June. Quincy,
MA: National Fire Protection Association.
Nussbaum, O.J. 1990. Using glycol in a closed circuit system. HeatinglPipinglAir
Conditioning (January):75-85.
Slabodkin,A.L. 1992.Integrating an off-peakcooling system with a fire suppression
system in an existing high-rise office building. ASHRAE Transactions
%(I): 1133-39-
Sohn, C.W. and J.J. Tomlinson. 1989. Diurnal ice storage cooling systems in Army
facilities. ASHRAE Transactions 95(1): 1079-85.
Sohn, C.W. 1991. Field performance of an ice harvester storage cooling system.
ASHRAE Transactions 97(2): 1187-93.
Spethmann, D.H. 1989. Optimal control for cool storage. ASHRAE Transactions
95(1):1189-93. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(4):57-61.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-59

Spethmann, D.H. 1993. Application considerations in optimal control of cool


storage. ASHRAE Transactions 99(1).
Sukhwal,R.N.,D. La, andV. Goldstein. 1987.Crystal ice thermal storage system for
air conditioning.Papers presented at 10thWorld Energy Engineering Congress,
September.
Sukhwal, R.N.,D. La, and V. Goldstein. Sunwell's binotherm system-An im-
proved ice thermal storage for air conditioning. Sunwell Engineering Company
Limited.
Tackett, R.K. 1987. Results from operation of a large membrane stratified cool
storage system with heat recovery. ASHRAE Transactions 93(1):728-39.
Tackett, R.K. 1988. The use of direct pumping and hydraulic turbines in thermal
storage systems. ASHRAE Transactions 94(1):1989-2007. Reprinted in
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(4):103-111.
Tackett, R.K. 1989. Case study: office building uses ice storage, heat recovery, and
cold air distribution. ASHRAE Transactions 95(1):1113-21. Reprinted in
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(3):1-9.
Tamblyn,R.T. 1990.Optimizing storage savings. HeatinglPipinglAirConditioning
(August):4346.
Wilkins, C.K.,R. Kosonen,and T. Laine, 1991. An analysisof office equipment load
factors. ASHRAE Journal (September):3&44.
Winters, P.J. and R J . Kooy. 1991. Direct freeze ice slurry district cooling system
evaluation. Proceedings of the International District Heating and Cooling
Association 82nd Annual Conference, June.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Fundamental Design Considerations

Ahlgren, R.M.1989. Overview of water treatment practices in thermal storage


systems. ASHRAE Transactions 95(2):963-68.
Anderson, E.D., N.W. Hanson, and D.M.Schultz. 1987. Concrete storage tank
construction techniques and quality control. EPRI SeminarProceedings: Com-
mercial Cool Storage, State of the Art, EM-5454-SR. Palo Alto, CA: Electric
Power Research Institute, October.
Brady,T.W. 1985.Design considerationsfor first cost control of ice storagesystems.
12th Energy Technology Conference (August):414-20.
Braun, J.E. 1992. A comparison of chiller-priority, storage-priority, and optimal
control of an ice-storage system. ASHRAE Transactions 98(1):893-902.
2-60 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

EPRI. Cool storage supervisory controller. EPRI Fact Sheet. Palo Alto, CA: Electric
Power Research Institute (CU 2021).
GPU Service Corporation. 1985. Commercial cool storage design guide, EPRI EM-
398 1, May.
Geistert, D.L. and C.R. Kohlenberger. 1987. An investigation into low temperature
thermal energy storage technologies. EPRI Seminar Proceedings: Commercial
Cool Storage, State of the Art, EM-5454-SR. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power
Research Institute, October.
Lindsay, B.B. 1989.Ice storagecan benefit gas engine chiller systems. GasResearch
Institute Digest 12(2):35-36.
McMenamin, J.S. 1987. Analysis tools for TES evaluation and marketing. EPRI
Seminar Proceedings: Commercial Cool Storage, State of the Art, EM-5454-
SR. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute, October.
Michols, K.A. 1985. Design guide for reinforced concrete chilled water and ice
storage tanks. Turbo Refrigerating Co.
Rockenfeller, U. and J.F. Martin. 1986. Dual temperature thermal storage with
complex compounds. Conference Proceedings.
Shavit, G. and H. Goodman. 1985. Operation and control of energy storage systems.
ASHRAE Transactions 91(1B):24-31. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data
Bulletin: Thermal Storage (January): 18-25.
Sohn, C.W. and G.L. Cler. 1990. Assessment of market potential in storage cooling
systems for army facilities. ASHRAE Transactions 96(1): 1080-86.
Stamm, R.H. 1985. Experience with an icemaking heat pump. ASHRAE Transac-
tions 91(1B):865-75.Reptinted in ASHRAETechnical DataBulletin: Thermal
Storage (January):57-66.
Tamblyn, R.T. 1985. Control concepts for thermal storage. ASHRAE Transactions
91(1B):5-11. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin: Thermal Storage
(January): 1-6. Also reprinted in ASHRAE Journal 27(5):31-34.
Tamblyn, R.T. 1986. The case for cool storage. EPRI Proceedings: International
Load Management Conference, Section 19, June.
USAF. 1978. Engineering Weather Data, AFM 88-29. Washington, D.C.: Depart-
ments of the Air Force, the Army, and the Navy.
Utesch, A.L. 1989. Variable speed CW booster pumping. HeatinglPipinglAir
Conditioning (May):49-58.
Utesch, A.L. Control of stratified chilled water thermal storage systems. Cybernetic
Systems Management Corporation.
Wong, K.-F.V. and FJ. Ferrano. 1990. Availability-based computer management of
a cold thermal storage system. ASHRAE Transactions 96(1): 1524-29.
Yu, H.C. and C.E. Claus. 1991. Thermal storage system cools office building.
ASHRAE Journal (March): 15-17.
Fundamental Design Considerations 2-61

Cold Air Distribution

Ahlgren, R.M. 1987. Water treatment technologies for thermal storage systems,
EPRI EM-5545. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute, December.
Bhansali, A. and D.C. Hittle. 1990. Estimated energy consumption and operating
cost for ice storage systems with cold air distribution. ASHRAE Transactions
96(1):4 18-27.
Dorgan, C.E. and J.S. Elleson. 1987. Field evaluation of cold air distribution
systems, EPRI EM-5447. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute,
October.
Dorgan, C.E. 1989. Cold air distribution makes cool storage the best choice.
ASHRAE Journal (May):2&26.
Dorgan, C.E. and J.S. Elleson. 1987.Low temperature air distribution: Economics,
field evaluation, design. EPRI SeminarProceedings: Commercial Cool Storage,
State of the Art,EM-5454-SR.Palo Alto,CA: ElectricPower Research Institute,
October.
Dorgan, C.E. and J.S. Elleson. 1988a.Cold air distribution. ASHRAE Transactions
94(1):2008-2025. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(4):85-93.
Dorgan, C.E. and J.S. Elleson. 1988b. Cold air distribution design guide, EM-5730.
Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute, March.
Dorgan, C.E. and J.S. Elleson. 1989.Design of cold air distribution systems with ice
storage. ASHRAE Transactions95(1): 1317-22. Reprinted in ASHRAE Tech-
nical Data Bulletin 5(4):23-28.
Elleson, J.S. 1993. Energy use of fan-powered mixing boxes with cold air distribu-
tion. ASHRAE Transactions 99(1).
Fields, W.G.1989. Operation and cost advantagesof a liquid overfeed low tempera-
ture air distribution system. ASHRAE Transactions 95(1):1300-1307.
Fields, W.G.andD.E. Knebel. 1991.Cost effective thermal energy storage. Heating1
PipinglAir Conditioning (July):59-72.
Harmon, J.J. and H.C. Yu. 1989. Design considerations for low-temperature air
distribution systems. ASHRAE Transactions 95(1):1295-99.
Hittle, D.C. and A. Bhansali. 1990. Expected energy use of ice storage and cold air
distribution systems in large commercial buildings, EPRI, February.
Landry, C. and C.D. Noble. 1991.Making ice thermal storage first-cost competitive.
ASHRAE Journal (May): 19-22.
Pearson, F.J. 1989. Chilled air approaches the office building market. ASHRAE
Journal (May):28-30.
2-62 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage
Chapter 3 COMPARISON OF STORAGE
TECHNOLOGIES
This chapter gives an overview of six cool storage technologies and compares the
primary attributes to be considered when selecting a cool storage system for a
specific application. Table 3-1 summarizes the primary features of the six cool
storage technologies.

3.1 CHILLER TYPE


The type of refrigerationplant used with a storage system is important, particularly
in retrofitapplications where existing chillersmay be used. The type of refrigeration
plant also affects operating and maintenance personnel whose preferences and
expertise may be a factor in selecting a storage technology.

Chilled water and eutectic salt storage systemsuse standard water chillers operating
at conventional HVAC system temperatures. These storage technologies are gener-
ally applied in systemswith relatively large cooling loads, where centrifugal chillers
are most often used.

Internal melt ice-on-pipe, encapsulated ice, and some external melt ice-on-coil
systems use standard packaged chillers selected to chill secondary coolants to ice
making temperatures. Chillers using reciprocating, screw, or scroll compressors are
typically used for these technologies. Centrifugal compressors may also be used,
provided they are properly selected for the intended range of evaporator tempera-
tures. Harmon and Yu (1991) discuss the selection of centrifugal chillers for ice
making at 24 to 26OF (4to-3OC). External melt systems may also be installed with
built-up refrigeration plants, with refrigerant as thecharging fluid, and the ice builder
pipes serving as the evaporator for the system. Ice harvesting systems use packaged
or built-up refrigeration systems, with especially designed evaporator sections for
building and harvesting ice.
3-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 3-1 Primary Features of Cool Storage Systems

Chilled Water Ice Harvester


Chiller type Standard water Prepackaged or built-up
ice making equipment

Chiller cost8 $200 to $300/ton, $1,100 to $1,500 per


or use existing ice making ton
($57 to S85kW) ($3 13 to $427/kW)

Tank volume

Storage installed costb $30 to $100 per ton-hr $20 to $30 per ton-hr
($8.50 to $28/kWh) ($5.70 to $8.50Wh)

Charging temperature 39 to 42OF


(4 to 6°C)
Chiller charging efficiency 0.60 to 0.70 kW/ton 0.95 to 1.3 kW/ton
(2.1 to 2.5 COP) (3.3 to 4.6 COP)

Discharge temperatureC 1 to 4OF (0.5 to 2OK)


abave charging
temperature

Discharge fluid Water Water

Tank interface Open tank Open tank

Strengths Use existing chillers; High instantaneous


fue protection duty discharge rates

Comments Storage capacity increases Requires clearance above


with temperature tank for ice maker
difference

Notes:
a Costs are for chiller or refrigeration plant only, and do not include installation. All
costs, except ice harvesters, are per nominal ton. Derating for actual operating
conditions may be required.
Costs are for storage only, and include tank, internal diffusers, headers, and heat
transfer surface.
Comparison of Storage Technologies 3-3

External Melt Ice Internal Melt Ice Encapsulated Ice Eutectic Salt

Low-temperature Low-temperature Low-temperature Standard water


coolant or built-up secondary coolant secondary coolant
refrigeration plant

$200 to $500/ton $200 to $300/ton,


($57 to $142/kW) or use existing
($57 to $85/kW)

$50 to $70 per ton-hr $50 to $70 per ton-hr $50 to $70 per ton-hr $100 to $150
($14 to $20/kWh) ($14 to $2O/kWh) ($14 to $20/kWh) per ton-hr
($28 to $43/kWh)

0.85 to 1.4 kW/ton 0.85 to 1.2 kW/ton 0.85 to 1.2 kW/ton 0.60 to 0.70 kW/ton
(3.0 to 4.9 COP) (3.0 to 4.9 COP) (3.0 to 4.9 COP) (2.1 to 2.5 COP)

Water Secondary coolant Secondary coolant Water

Open tank Closed system Open or closed system Open tank

High instantaneous Modular tanks Tank shape flexible Use existing


discharge rates good for small chillers
or large installations

Separate charge
and discharge circuits.
Charge with coolant
or liquid refrigerant

Typical minimum temperatures, with appropriate sizing of storage capacity. Higher


temperatures can be obtained from each medium. See text for discussion of
dependence of discharge temperature on discharge rate.
3-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

3.2 STORAGE VOLUME


The required tank volume for a given storage capacity is especially important where
storage space is limited. Storage volume for chilled water storage varies from about
11 to 21 ft3 per ton-hour (0.048 to 0.091 m3/kWh) for temperature ranges of 20 to
10°F (11 to 6°C). If a chilled water temperature range of 30°F (17°C) can be
maintained, the required storage volume is reduced to about 7 ft3per ton-hour (0.056
m3/kWh).Eutectic salt systemsrequireabout6 ft3per ton-hour (0.048 m3/kWh).The
ice storage systems occupy 2.4 to 3.3 ft3 per ton-hour (0.019 to 0.027 m3/kWh),
depending on the specific ice storage technology.

3.3 STORAGE COST

Costs for chilled water tanks are based on tank volume; thus, the cost per unit of
energy depends on the chilled water temperature range. The storage cost figures
given in Table 3-1 are general guidelines for use in initial economic evaluations of
storage systems. These guidelines include the cost of storage tanks and any required
internal diffusers, headers, or heat transfer surface. Costs vary depending on the size
of the project and site-specific considerations,as well as on the geographic area and
local economic conditions. Accurate cost estimates for a specific application can be
obtained from contractors or vendors.

The cost of chillers or refrigeration equipment must be considered along with thecost
of storage capacity. Chilled water and eutectic salt storage are compatible with
typical conventionalHVAC temperatures and can often be added to existing systems
without adding new chillers. For ice harvesting systems,the low storage cost is offset
by a relatively high cost for the ice making equipment.

3.4 CHARGING EFFICIENCY


Charging efficiency depends on charging temperature and the type of chiller used.
Chilled water and eutectic salt systems, which generally use centrifugal chillers
operating between 39 and 42OF (4 and 6 9 3 , have the highest charging efficiencies.
The ice systems typically charge at 20 to 26OF (-7 to -3OC), and chiller efficiency
is lower. For a given technology, air-cooled chillers are less efficient than water-
cooled chillers.
Comparison of Storage Technologies 3-5

3.5 DISCHARGE TEMPERATURES


Chilled water storage systems provide discharge temperatures 1 to 4OF (1 to 2OC)
above the charging temperature through most of the discharge cycle. The actual
temperature rise in a given application depends on the specific diffuser design and
on system operation.Many systems operate with a maximum 2OF (1°C) temperature
rise above the average inlet temperature. It may be appropriate to assume a higher
temperaturerise where specificdata on a particular diffuser design are not available.

Ice systems provide discharge temperatures between 34 and 38°F (1and 3OC). These
temperaturesallow the use of extended chilled water temperature ranges and reduced
supply air temperatures, resulting in decreased equipment cost and operating costs
for water and air distribution systems.

Eutectic salt storage has relatively high discharge temperatures of 48 to 50°F (9 to


10°C). These temperatures are applicable with partial storage systems, where
supplementalcooling is provided during discharge. If lower supply temperatures are
required, full storage operation is impractical.

The available discharge temperatures for all storage technologies rise as storage is
discharged. Storage tanks must be sized to provide the required storage cooling
capacity at or below the maximum usable chilled fluid supply temperature.

With some storage technologies, the increase in discharge temperature through the
discharge cycle is more pronounced than for others, and the available discharge
temperature tends to increase with the rate of cooling discharge.

Chilled water storage systems can deliver cooling at up to the maximum design
discharge rate with no effect on the discharge temperature.

Ice harvester and external melt ice storage systems can also be discharged at very
high rates with very little effect on discharge temperature. However, the available
temperatureincreases during the last 10to 20% of the discharge cycle, especially at
high discharge rates.

The available dischargetemperatures for internal melt and encapsulated ice systems
depend mainly on discharge rate. Storage capacity must be correctly sized to ensure
that the required dischargerate will be availableat the required temperature for every
hour of the design load profile.
3-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

3.6 DISCHARGE FLUID


Chilled water, eutectic salt, and ice harvester systems use water as the heat bcansfer
fluid to charge and discharge storage. Internal melt and encapsulated ice systems use
secondary coolants such as glycol or other antifreeze solutions. In external melt
systems, water is the discharge fluid. Charging is performed in a separate circuit,
with refrigerant or a secondary coolant as the charging fluid.

3.7 TANK INTERFACE

Internal melt ice storage is installed in closed, pressurized systems. Encapsulated ice
systems can be closed or use open, unpressurized tanks. The other technologies use
open tanks.

3.8 OTHER CON9 DERATIONS

Chilled water and eutectic salt storage operate at typical conventional HVAC
temperatures and can use exist in retrofit applications. Chilled water storage tanks
can also serve as frre protection tanks in some cases.

Modular internal melt ice storage tanks are well suited for applications with
relatively low loads and are also applicable with higher loads.

Ice harvester and external melt ice systems are capable of high instantaneous
discharge rate, and maintain constant low discharge temperatures through most of
the discharge cycle.

REFERENCES

Harmon, JJ. and H.C. Yu. 1991. Centrifugal chillers and glycol ice thermal storage
units. ASHRAE Journal (December):25-3 1.
Chapter 4 CHILLED WATER STORAGE

4.1 PRIMARY FEATURES


Chilled water thermal storage:

Uses standard chillers operating at high rates of efficiency. No need for special
equipment.
Is ideal for increasing capacity of existing conventional systems and for aiding
the transition to reduced capacity non-CFC refrigeration.
Becomes increasingly economical with larger tank sizes. Competitive first cost
at approximately 2,000 ton-hours or 200,000 gal (7000 kwh, 760 m3). Systems
with multimillion gallon tanks commonly have lower capital costs than equiva-
lent nonstorage chiller plants.
Can serve double duty by providing a water reservoir for fire protection.
Is proven and reliable, with a good track record.
Can be configured to store both warm and chilled water.

Chilled water storage using stratified tanks with properly designed diffusers is a
simple, low-maintenance cooling option. Tanks for chilled water storage are often
very large and may be difficult to site due to space limitations and aesthetic
considerations. Tanks may be installed partially or completely below grade, but this
increases the fist cost.

4.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Chilledwater storage systemsuse the sensibleheat capacity of water to store cooling.


Water is cooledby a chiller and stored in a tankfor later use in meeting cooling needs.
The amount of stored cooling energy depends on the temperature differencebetween
the chilled water stored in the tank and the warm return water from the load. A well-
designed chilled water storage system maximizes stored cooling capacity by main-
taining a high chilled water temperature differential. This differential is maximized
by maximizing the return water temperature, minimizing the storage temperature,
and preventing the warm return water from mixing with the stored chilled water.
4-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Chilled water storage systems are typically charged with water at temperatures
between 39 and 44OF (4 and 7OC). This temperature range is compatible with most
nonstorage cooling systems and allows the use of conventional chillers, including
absorption chillers operating at conventional temperatures.

Storage volume for chilled water storage systems with temperature differentials of
10 to 20°F (6 to 11°C) is generally between 11and 21 ft3per ton-hour (5.9 and 11.3
kwh/m3). If a temperature differential of 30°F (17°C) can be maintained, the
required storage volume is reduced to about 7 ft3per ton-tour (17.7 kwh/m3). This
space requirement is three to seven times that of ice storage systems and two to three
times that of eutectic salt phase-change systems. However, because chilled water
storage tanks are relatively tall, plan area requirements are often comparable with
other storage technologies. When space is available, chilled water storage can be an
economical way of storing large amounts of cooling capacity.

Chilled water storage is most economical for applications with cooling loads
requiring storage of more than 2,000 ton-hours (7000 kwh) or about 200,000 gal
(760 m3). The larger the tank, the lower the surface-to-volumeratio, and the lower
the cost per ton-hour of stored cooling. Many large chilled water storage systems
store over 1-million gal of water; some store over 5-million gal (40,000 m3).

A chilled water system with multiple tanks or compartments can simultaneously


store warm and chilled water. For example, one tank can store recovered heat to
supplement the heating needs of a building during winter days, while another tank
can store chilled water to meet simultaneouscooling needs in the core of the building
(Tackett 1987).

Chilled water storage is based on maintaining a state of thermal separation between


cwl charged water and warm return water. Storage systems achieve this separation
by one of the following methods:

Stratification
Multiple tank
Membrane or diaphragm
Labyrinth and baffle

Stratified chilled water storage is generally acknowledged as the simplest, most


efficient, and most cost-effective method of chilled water storage. This method is
emphasized in this guide. Other systems have been used, however, and some may be
appropriate in some applications.
Chllled Water Storage 4-3

4.2.1 Stratification
Stratifiedchilled water storage tanks rely on the tendency of water to form horizontal
layers or temperature zones based on its density. The density of water is directly
related to its temperature. As water gets colder, it becomes more dense, until it
reaches 39.2"F(4"C).As water is cooledbelow this point, itbecomesless dense, until
it freezes. Cold water near to 39.2OF (4OC) and up to 42OF (6OC) will collect and
stabilize in the lowest regions of the tank, while warmer water, 50 to 65OF (10 to
lg°C), will collect in the upper regions of the tank. Well-designed stratified chilled
water storagetanks can deliver 85 to 95%of the stored energy as useful cooling. This
performance is equal to or better than the other approaches to chilled water storage
(Tran et al. 1989).

The term "stratification" has been used in some contexts to denote all techniques for
maintaining separation between warmer and cooler water in storage. In this guide,
stratification is used to refer to what is sometimescalled "natural stratification," i.e.,
the separation of warm and cool water based on density only.

Properly designed stratified storage tanks achieve the necessary separation between
cold and warm water by creating and maintaining a thermocline or transition layer
between the warm upper zone and the cool lower zone. A stable, sharply defined
thermocline prevents cold water below from mixing with the warm water above.

During the charging cycle, cold water from the chilling equipment enters the tank
through diffusers at the bottom, and warm water exits the tank at the top. As the
volume of chilled water increasesand warm water is displaced, the thermocline rises.
The total volume of water in the tank remains the same. The flow of water is reversed
during discharging. The system draws chilled supply water from the low portion of
the tank and sends warm return water into the top of the tank.

A diffuser distributew the flow into and out of the tank. With a properly designed
diffuser, water gently flows into and out of the tank, minimizing turbulence and
leaving the thermocline undisturbed. Figure 4-1 is a schematic diagram of a basic
stratified chilled water storage system.
4-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Variable
Air temp. regulating
volume
valve (modulating)
distribution

'
IVent
Warm v v v v v v v v v

STORAGE

/\ A /\ A f\ fiA A nC001

Pressure sustaining
and check valve Chiller primary
Pump
CHILLER

Note: Tank water level is above chiller and distribution


pumps and below highest system piping.

Fig. 4-1 Basic Stratified Chilled Water Configuration

The storage capacity of a stratified chilled water tank, like that of other chilled water
storage methods, increases with the temperature difference between the stored
chilled water and the warm water returning from the load. In addition, a larger
temperature differential increasesthe density differencebetween the warm and cold
water, which facilitates stratification. A large temperature differential also reduces
the flow rate through a chilled water tank,further enhancing stratification.

Expansion or degradation of the thermocline results from the conduction of heat


through the thermocline, through the walls of the tank and along the walls of the tank.
As the thermocline degrades, the volume of usable chilled water is reduced. If a
charged storage tank is left idle, the thermocline will eventually degrade to such an
extent that aIl water in the tank reaches an unusable temperature, necessitating
recharging the tank with chilled water. This period can be as short as a few days or
Chilled Water Storage 4-5

as long as a week or more, depending on the size of the tank, the insulation value, and
other factors.

In a good design, thermocline thickness ranges from about 1 to 3 ft (0.3 to 1.0 m),
depending on diffuserdesign and the age of the thermocline. Figure 4-2 illustrates
a typical temperature profile versus height for a stratified tank. The figure shows that
a distance of approximately 3 ft (1 m) separates cold water at 40°F (4OC) and warm
water at 58OF (14°C).

0 (0)

-5 (-1.5) -

-10 (-3)-

-1 5 (-4.5)
-

- 2 0 (-6) - - - - - ' - - - - ' - - " ' " - - ' ~ ~ . - ' . ~ - ~ ' m - - - ' - - m L

35 (2) 45 ( 7 ) 55 ( 1 3) 65 (1 8)
Temperature, OF (OC)

Fig. 4-2 Typical Stratification Temperature Profile

Figure 4-3 illustrates a sequence of actual temperature profiles taken during a


recharging cycle. This figure shows that the thermocline separating42°F (6°C) water
from 59°F (15OC) water is less than 3 ft and moves through the tank in a stable
condition.
46 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Temperature, "F ("C)

Fig. 4-3 Stratified Tank Temperature Profiles during Recharging

A well-designed stratified storage tank that is charged daily will provide chilled
water to the load at a gradually rising temperatureduring discharge and warm water
to the chiller at a gradually falling temperature during charging. This critical design
characteristic is discussed further in Section 4.9.

In a stratified chilled water storage system, separation of warm and cold water is
accomplished by careful diffuser design (Section 4.4). Since they do not require the
physical barrier of a membrane system or the relatively complex piping and valving
Chllled Water Storage 4-7

of a multiple tank system, stratified systems are lower in capital cost and simpler to
operate and maintain than other types of chilled water storage. Thermal losses are
reduced due to the relatively low surface-to-volume ratio of a single tank. Finally,
operating costs are equal to or lower than those of other chilled water storage
systems, since optimum separation of warm and cold water is maintained.

4.2.2 Multiple Tank


Multiple tank or empty tank systems separate warm and cold water by storing each
in separate tanks. The nearly complete separation enables stored water to be
delivered to the load at a stable, uniform temperature. With multiple tanks, one or
more of the tanks can be taken out of service for maintenanceormay hold warm water
for heating.

An empty tank system consists of two or more tanks, one of which is always empty
at the start of a charging cycle. During charging, warm water from one tank is cooled
and pumped into the empty tank. During discharging, stored chilled water is
withdrawn to meet thecooling load, and warm return water is pumped into the empty
tank.Because of the necessary empty tank, the total tank volume exceeds the usable
chilled water storage volume.

Empty tank systemsrequire relatively complexpiping and controls to direct the flow
to the appropriate tanks. Selection of pumps is made more complex with this
approach, because the pumps must workagainst a continually varying dynamic head.

Multiple tank systemsrequire complicatedpiping and controls,increasing first costs


and maintenance costs. Also, a thermal loss due to heat transfer occurs when chilled
water is introduced into a tank that recently held warm water.

4.2.3 Membrane or Diaphragm

This scheme uses a flexible membrane or rigid, movable diaphragm mounted inside
the storage tank to maintain the separationbetween cold water and warm water. The
membrane system is designed to eliminate mixing of cool and warm water without
the need for diffusers. Thermal conduction across the membrane results in some
degradation in stored cooling capacity.

Tran et al. (1989) found that stratified and membrane systems provided essentially
equivalent thermal separation performance. The first cost of the membrane and of
possiblerepairs to tears in the membrane eliminate any cost advantageof membranes
over well-designed diffusers used in stratified chilled water storage.
4-8 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

4.2.4 Labyrinth and Baffle


Labyrinth and baffle systems involve separation of the storage volume into multiple
compartments separated by partial walls or baffles. Figure 4-4 shows the water path
in a labyrinth tank. Labyrinth and baffle systems rely on the concept of plug flow to
maintain separationbetween warm and cold water. Ideally, a small volume or "plug"
of mixed water forms between the warm and cool zones in the tank. During the
charging cycle, this plug pushes warm water out of the tank, leaving behind a full
charge of cold water. Similarly, during discharge, the plug separates warm return
water from the cold stored water.

SCHEMATIC OF WATER PATH

t PLAN

SECTION

Fig. 4-4 Labyrinth Tank Flow Pattern


Chilled Water Storage 4-9

In practice, however, labyrinth and baffle designs suffer from significant mixing of
warm and cold water due to turbulence, density currents, velocity currents, thermal
conduction, and water-wall interaction. When the flow rate is low enough to avoid
turbulence in each cell, pockets of dead water form along the flow path, reducing
effective storage capacity.

One implementation of the labyrinth approach is the series tank design, which
consists of a number of tanks connected in series. Chilled water is pumped into the
first tank through an inlet port at the base of the tank. Overflow from the first tank
is piped to the base of the second tank and so on. Eventually, all the tanks become
charged with cold water. During extraction, the flow is reversed. Chilled water is
drawn from the base of the first tank and warm return water enters the top of the tank
at the end of the series.

The fundamental weakness of the labyrinth design is that in both charge and
discharge mode, the water alternates between a top and bottom entry. Mixing occurs
due to buoyancy effects, because at every other cell, the water enters at the wrong
end.

4.3 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS


Chilled water storage systems use conventional chilling equipment to provide
conventionalchilled water supply temperatures to the building system. Chilled water
storage is most practical in applications with relatively high loads, which typically
use centrifugalchillers. However, there is no inherent reason other than size favoring
one type of refrigeration equipment over another.

In applications where temperature differentials exceed about lS°F (1O0C),centrifu-


gal chillers should be arranged in series, with the evaporator outlet of the high
temperature chiller connected to the evaporator inlet of the low-temperaturechiller.
The high-temperature chiller may cool the water from 60 to 50°F (16 to 10°C), for
example, while the low-temperature chiller may further cool the water from 50 to
40°F (10 to 4OC). The higher evaporator temperature allows the first chiller to
operate most efficiently. Addition of bypasses allows a single chiller to operate
without circulating water through the idle machine.

Absorption chillers are most compatible with chilled water storage systemsin which
water is supplied to the tanks at or above 42OF (6"C), or where the absorption units
are used for precooling. The efficiency of absorption chillers drops significantly at
discharge temperatures below about 42OF (6OC).
4-10 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Chilled water storage can often be added to an existing cooling plant simply by
adding a storage tank and associated piping, In most cases, existing chillers are
compatible with chilled water storage with no modification.

Adding chilled water storage to a conventional system can also ease the transition to
non-CFC refrigerants. Chilled water storage enables a building owner to add
capacity now, at relatively low expense, in anticipation of a future loss of capacity
associated with the performance of the new refrigerants.

4.4 STORAGE TANKS


Considerationsfor the design of chilled water storage tanks include shape, location,
construction factors, and diffuser design. Specific considerations for each of these
topics as they relate to chilled water storage are discussed here. A general discussion
of tanks for cool storage is provided in Section 2.3.2.

Some design-buildcontractorssupply chilled water storage tanks on a turnkey basis,


taking complete responsibility for tank design and installation. This includes
foundation, tank construction, coatings, insulation, internal piping, and diffusers.
Tanks acquired this way should include performance specifications covering strati-
fication and heat gains.

4.4.1 Tank Shape

The favored tank shape for stratified chilled water storage is a flat-bottomedvertical
cylinder. A cylindrical tank has a lower surface-to-volumeratio than a rectangular
tank of the same volume. A tank with a low surface-to-volume ratio has a lower
degree of thermal loss and a lower construction cost per ton-hour of stored cooling.

Increasing the height-to-diameter ratio of a cylindrical tank reduces the proportion


of the tank volume occupied by the thermocline, which has a thickness essentially
independent of tank dimensions. Doing so, however, can increase the tank cost. The
tank diameter is also determined, to some extent, by the required flow rate and
dimensions of the diffuser. Increasing the height-to-diameterratio restricts diffuser
length and makes diffuser design more challenging; it may also increase diffuser
cost. The ideal height-to-diameterratio should be determined for each installation
based on an analysis of site conditions, tank costs, and required flow rates.

Concrete tanks are typically constructed with height-to-diameter ratios of 0.25 to


0.50. A height to diameter ratio between 0.25 and 0.33 generally offers the best
compromise between a lowcost shallow reservoir and a tall vessel that provides the
Chilled Water Storage 4-1 1

best stratification. These tanks are generally a minimum of 24 ft (7 m) high to give


reasonable volume utilization; there are many successful installations with heights
of about 15 ft (5 m). While concrete tanks are generally more economical at heights
below about 45 ft (14 m), taller tanks can be built.

Aboveground steel tanks are typically constructed with height-to-diameterratios of


0.5 to 1.2, with typical heights of 40 to 48 ft (12 to 15 m). Some tanks have been
constructed with heights of 70 ft (21 m) or more.

Local soil conditionsaffect excavation and foundation costs and must be considered
in selecting the most economical tank shape.

Squareand rectangulartanks lend themselvesto integrationwith building structures.


These tanks are less ideal in terms of heat gain, but this disadvantage may be offset
by reduced construction costs if the tank is made part of the building structure.

Other tank shapes can be used with stratified thermal storage. Spherical tanks
provide the lowest surface-to-volume ratio but do not stratify well. The diffuser
design criteriadiscussedhere are for tankswith flat floors and straight vertical walls.
Other tank shapesmay be used, but special treatment is required to avoid mixing due
to vertical motion that can be induced if inlet fluid strikes sloping or curved tank wall
or floor surfaces. Scale model testing can be helpful in cases where a proposed Eank
shape has not been previously used or studied. Mackie and Reeves (1988) discuss the
use of scale modeling.

Wildin and Truman (1985) describe scale modeling performed in their work that
determined the role of the gravity current in thermocline formation. Hussain and
Peters (1992) describe a rectangular fire pond with slanted sidewalls that was
successfully retrofitted for use as a stratified chilled water storage tank.Extensive
scale model testing was done during the design phase to confm that the tank shape
would provide acceptable stratification performance.

Horizontal cylindrical tanks are not recommended for stratified chilled water
storage. Though no published data are available, the variation in plan area of the
thermoclineas itrisesand falls is thought to cause mixing (Mackie and Reeves 1988).

4.4.2 Storage Tank Construction


General storage tank considerations are discussed in Section 2.3.2. This section
addresses specific considerations for chilled water storage tanks. Chilled water
storage tanks can be constructedfrom a variety of materials, the most common being
412 Design Guide for Cool Thennal Storage

welded steel, precast prestressed concrete,and cast-in-placeconcrete. Each of these


types is built on-site.

Steel tanks do not retain significantamounts of heat in the walls, which are relatively
thin. However, steel walls conduct heat across the thermocline, resulting in some
degradation of storage efficiency. Such degradation can be relatively high in small
tanks of less than 50,000 gal (190 m3).

The walls of concrete tanks have a higher insulation value than steel tanks and can
be located partially or fully underground. Burial of concrete tanks in well-drained
soil reduces their external heat gain. However, the relatively massive walls of
concrete tanks retain heat, which can contribute to degradation of the thermocline.

The relative thermal characteristics of steel and concrete tanks affecting stratifica-
tion have not been quantified for chilled water storage. It is likely that a large, well-
insulated steel tank and a concrete tank of the same size will each maintain
stratification in roughly the same manner. Cost, leakage, possible underground
service, and site-specific factors should all be evaluated when selecting the tank
material.

The selection of a tank material depends largely on site-specific factors. In new


construction, the tank is often designed as part of the building or attendant structures,
such as a sub-basement or parking garage. Concrete tanks are usually better suited
for integration into building structuresor forbelow-ground applications. Stee1tanks
are often used in above-ground applications because of their lower initial cost. In
both cases,a qualified geotechnical engineer should be consulted to ascertain that an
adequate foundation exists or is specified.

AWWA Standards D100-84 and D110-86 (AWWA 1984,1986)govern design and


construction of large steel and precast, prestressed concrete tanks, respectively. By
specifying adherence to these standards,designerscan obtain competitivepricing on
large chilled water storage tanks.

4.4.3 Diffuser Design


Diffusers are needed in stratified chilled water storage tanks to introduce water
gently into the tank in a gravity current, allowing the formation and maintenance of
a thermocline. The gravity current during charging is the layer of cool, dense water
entering the tank near the bottom and traveling horizontally across the tank floordue
to density difference rather than inertia. A similar gravity current of slow-moving,
buoyant, warm return water is produced by the upper diffuser during discharge. The
upper diffuser is mounted the same distance beneath the surface of the water as the
Chilled Water Storage 4-13

lower diffuser is above the tank floor and is identical to the lower diffuser in shape.

The diffusers in a stratified chilled water storage system must form, or reform, a
thermoclinewith minimal mixing between warm andcold water, and then ensure that
the thermocline is not impaired by subsequent mixing. The thermocline is formed by
designing diffusers with the appropriate Froude number and by properly sizing
diffuser openings. Degradation of the thermocline is minimized by designing for an
appropriate inlet Reynolds number and by proper operation of the system.

The Froude number is the dimensionlessratio of the inertia force to the buoyancy
force acting on a fluid. In their work that established the importance of the inlet
Froude number in thermocline formation, Yoo et al. (1986) verified that with a
Froude number of 1or less, the buoyancy force in the inlet flow is greater than the
inertial force, and a gravity current is formed. A gravity current will form at Froude
numbers above 1, but above a Froude number of about 2, the effects of mixing
become apparent, and small increases in the Froude number result in significant
increases in mixing.

The Froude number is:

Fr,. = A
[&( P i ' P O ) /Po]

where

q = volume flow rate per unit diffuser length


g = acceleration of gravity
hi = minimum inlet opening height (defined below)
pi = density of inlet water
p, = density of ambient water

and

where

Q = maximum flow rate


L = effective diffuser length. For a diffuser that discharges water in two
directions 180" apart, the effective diffuser length will be twice the
actual physical length of the diffuser.
4-14 Design Gulde for Cool Thermal Storage

The quantities should be expressed in terms of consistent units that result in a


dimensionless Froude number.

For a given flow rate and diffuser length, the Froude number criterion is used to
determinethe required inlet height. The inlet height is definedas the vertical distance
occupied by the incoming flow or density current as it leaves the diffuser. For a
diffuser close to the bottom of a tank,this height is the distance from the tank floor
to the top of the diffuser inlet opening. The inlet height should be selected to yield
a Froude number of 1. The Froude number must be less than 2.

Mixing above and below the thermocline, and the resulting degradation of the
thermocline, are affected by the inlet flow rate per unit length of diffuser, expressed
in terms of an inlet Reynolds number (Wildin and Truman 1989). The Reynolds
number in a flowing fluid is the dimensionless ratio of inertial to viscous forces. The
inlet Reynolds number is calculated by:

Re, = q-h,

where

q = flow rate per foot of diffuser length, ft2/s (m2/s)


v = kinematic viscosity of inlet water (at 39OF v = 1.686 x lwSft2/s)(see
Appendix C, Table C-3, for other values)

For a given flow rate, the desired Reynolds number can be achieved by adjusting the
total effective length of the diffuser.

Mixing can be minimized and storage capacity maximized by designing diffusers for
lower Reynolds numbers. The lower limit below which decreasing the Reynolds
number yields little further reduction in mixing depends on the shape of the tank.For
very short tanks or tanks with sloping sidewalls, the lower limit of about 200 is
recommended. For tanks greater than about 15 ft (5 m) deep, data are insufficient to
provide rigid guidelines,but limits of 400 to 850 have been suggested. For tall tanks,
40 ft (12 m) deep or more, there is evidence that diffusers with inlet Reynolds
numbers of 2,000 or more may provide acceptable stratification. For design pw-
poses, a maximum of 2,000 for the Reynolds number should be used. In general, an
upper limit of 850 is recommended, unless data are available for a specific tank to
support proper stratification at higher Reynolds numbers.

The openings in diffuser branches should be sized and spaced to provide a nearly
uniform flow rate per unit length,and to promote merging of the flow from individual
openings within a very short distance of the openings.
Chilled Water Storage 4-15

A uniform discharge velocity along the length of the diffuser is essential to creating
the gravity current. Nonuniform flow through the diffuser openings can cause
horizontal swirling in the storage tank. A high-velocity stream from one diffuser
opening can interrupt and degrade the thermocline. Uniform discharge velocity is
achieved when the static pressure throughout the interior of the diffuser piping is
uniform. While absoluteuniformity is difficultto achieve, it can be approximatedby
making the total opening area in any diffuser branch no greater than half the cross-
sectional area of the branch pipe (Hudson et al., 1979, McNown 1980).

Distribution piping within the storage tank should be designed to be symmetrical


relative to the vertical axis of the tank and to the horizontal center plane. This ensures
equal pressure at any two correspondingpoints in the diffuser piping under all load
conditions. It also results in a self-balancing, which is important since it is imprac-
tical to enter a full tank to adjust the diffusers for uniform flow. Fiorino (1991)
discusses the design of a self-balancing, double-octagon diffuser.

Distribution piping should also be designed to reduce flow velocity to less than 1ft/
s (0.3 m/s) before the water reaches the diffuser openings. This reduces dynamic
pressure and momentum at the diffuser openings and helps to maintain the necessary
uniformity of static pressure inside the diffuser piping.

Diffuser openings should be oriented to direct the entering fluid toward the adjacent
floor or upper surface so that it encounters this boundary at a low speed and spreads
horizontally to merge with the fluid leaving adjacent openings. It is important that
no upward momentum be imparted to fluid entering at the lower diffusers or
downward momentum at the upper diffusers.

Mixing at the openings can be minimized by making the center-to-centerdistance


between openings less than about twice the opening height and by limiting the exit
velocity through the openings. The maximum exit velocity should be in the range of
1 to 2 ft/s (0.3 to 0.6 4 s ) .

Diffusers should be self-balancing. When the tank is full, it is impractical to enter it


to adjust the diffusers for uniform flow. Fiorino (1991) discusses thedesign of a self-
balancing, double-octagon diffuser.

Detailed discussions of diffuser design for stratified chilled water storage are
provided in Mackie and Reeves (1988) and Wildin (1990,1991). Wildin (1990) and
Fiorino (1991) provide examples of the diffuser design procedure.
4-16 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

4.4.4 Diffuser Shape


Several diffuser shapes have been tested and found to provide good stratification
performance: octagonal, continuous horizontal slot, radial disk, and H-style diffus-
ers. Other shapes of diffusers that meet the diffuser design criteria previously
outlined could conceivably be devised.

Octagonal and radial disk diffusers are geometrically best suited for cylindrical
tanks, whereas horizontal slot and H-style diffusers are geometrically best suited for
square or rectangular tanks. Octagonal headers, in either single, double, or multiple
configurationsconstitute one approach. Octagonal diffusers have been successful in
both controlled studies (Wildin and Truman 1989) and several field applications in
multimillion-gallontanks. Fiorino (1991) provides an example of a double-octagon
diffuser system in a 2.7-million gal (10,200 m3) tank.

Octagonal diffusersare formed by eight straight sections of pipe connected with 45'
elbows. A seriesof equally sized, shaped,and spaced lateral slot openingsare cut into
the top of the straight sections of pipe comprising the upper (warmwater) diffuser
or the bottom of the pipe comprising the lower (cold water) diffuser. Figure 4-5
illustrates an octagon diffuser.

Diffuser pipe cross section


with 90° to 1 20° lateral slot

C
Density current
-
P

Tank floor

Fig. 4-5 Octagon Diffuser


Chilled Water Storage 4-17

The use of arc-shaped slots centered on the diffuser vertical center plane of the pipe
assures equal subdivision of flow in both the radial inward and outward directions
as it exits the diffuser pipe, doubling the effective length of the diffuser and reducing
its Reynolds and Froude numbers by 50%.

Circular holes drilled in the bottom of the lower diffuserpipe or the top of the upper
diffuser pipe can also introduce the fluid with minimal mixing. In this case, for the
lower diffuser, hiis the distance between the bottom of the pipe and the tank floor.

Joyce and Bahnfleth (1992) discuss a 4-million gal (15 000 m3) tank with an
octagonal diffuser. In this case, the diffuser is a dual-pipe design, with an inner
carrier pipe and a longitudinally slotted outer pipe. The dual-pipe approach allows
independent controlof flow uniformity along the length of the diffuser and inlet fluid
velocity. However, single-pipe diffusers designed according to the guidelines
outlined in Section 4.4.3 can provide good stratification performance with lower
material and labor costs.

Continuous horizontal slot diffusers are typically mounted along the center plane of
square or rectangular tanks. In large tanks, a single linear diffuser may not have
sufficient length to satisfy the Reynolds number criterion. In such cases, an
arrangement of H-shaped diffusers may be required to provide the necessary length
of the diffuser. Figure 4-6 illustrates an H-style diffuser arrangement.

Fig. 4-6 H-Style Diffuser


4-18 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

A radial disk diffuser consists of two closely spaced disks, mounted parallel to the
tank floor. The incoming water flows between the disks and enters the tank
horizontally. Radial diffusers have been used successfully in many recent stratified
chilled water installations. Wildin (1990) presents an example design for a radial
disk diffuser.

Because the water leaves the radial disk in an outward direction only, the Reynolds
number of a radial disk diffuser is higher than that of an octagonal diffuser of the
same circumference. The Reynolds number can be reduced by increasing the
circumference of the diffuser. However, the areaof aradial disk diffuser should not
exceed 50%of the plan area of the tank. The opening height should not exceed 5 to
10%of the overall depth of water in the tank, with a maximum of 5% preferred.

4.4.5 Location of Tank


Tanks for chilled water storage are larger than the tanks required for other cool
storage technologies. Therefore, tank location and appearance are of concern. If
space for a large storage tank is limited, the tank can be located underground. The
area above the tank can be used for any light-duty purpose such as parking, tennis
courts, or landscaping.

If the visual impact of a large aboveground tank is a problem, the tank may be located
next to a building, parking deck, or other structure. It can also be camouflagedby the
creative use of landscaping, lighting, surface texture, andforcolor. Even large-scale
graphics have been applied to tanks.

For new construction, costs can be reduced by integratingthe tank into the structure
of the building. Tanks integrated with the structure are usually less expensive than
tanks constructed separately.

Locating the storage tank close to chillers and pumps minimizes the thermal losses
and costs of transfer piping, However, if necessary, tanks can be located several
hundred feet or more from associated mechanical equipment. For large chilled water
distribution systems, storage can often be located at a convenient location along the
main supply and return headers, which may also increase the peak distribution
system capacity.

From a hydraulic standpoint, the water level in the tank should exceed by at least 25
ft (8 m) the elevation of the highest piping inside the building it serves in order to
avoid transfer pumps and to simplify pressure sustainment. If this condition cannot
be met, transfer pumps are best located adjacent to the tank and below its water level
to assure a flooded suction and positive suction head. Transfer pumps should not be
Chilled Water Storage 4-19

located on the tank roof due to loss of prime, negative suction head and potential
vibration transmission to the tank.

4.5 CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION


Standard temperature sensors, pressure sensors, and flow meters are used in chilled
water storage control systems. A vertical array of temperaturesensors, or individual
shell-mounted sensors, is used in stratified storage tanks to monitor the levels of
warm and cold water for the purpose of determining current storage inventory and
thermocline thickness. A single column of sensors is adequate, since the water
distributes itself in horizontal layers across the entire tank.

Sensors spaced more closely together provide more accurate monitoring of storage
status. With a spacing of 6 to 8 in. (150 to 200 mm), several sensors will be located
in the thermocline itself. A 20-sensor array may be sufficient, since it provides
storage inventory monitoring to an accuracy of within 5%, regardless of the total
depth of the water.

A water level sensor is required to monitor system volume and to signal when
makeup water is needed.

Nonpressurized tanks that are not isolated by heat exchangers require pressure-
sustaining valves on the tank inlet and outlet to separate the static head of the tank
from the remainder of the chilled water distribution system. The use of these valves
is discussed in Sections 2.5 and 4.7.

Multiple tank systems require relatively complex valving and controls to manage
water flow to and from the appropriatetanks and to maintain separationof warm and
cold water.

4.6 OPERATING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES


Chilled water storage functions well with any of the operating strategies discussed
in Section 2.4-full storage, partial storage load leveling, or partial storage demand
limiting.

With chilled water storage, the cost of stored cooling is often lower than the cost of
direct cooling because of utility rates and differences in chiller operation. In such
cases, a storage priority control scheme is used to optimize part-load operation.
4-20 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

The storage priority approach requires some type of load estimation or prediction.
The object is to meet as much of the building load as possible using stored cooling,
supplementing with chiller cooling only when necessary. The task of the control
system is to predict in advance the total amount of stored cooling needed to meet the
load so that chillers can be started early enough in the day to prevent storage from
being exhausted too soon. Even during part-load conditions, the building load late
in the day can exceed the capacity of chillers sized for partial storage operation.

Another optimizing strategy for part-load operation is to reduce the rate of charging
and to use the maximum available charge time. This can save money in situations
where an off-peak demand charge applies.

In areas with no off-peak demand charges, chillers may operate best at maximum
capacity as much as possible to reduce the relative amount of energy consumed by
auxiliary equipment. Condenser water pumps, primary pumps, and to some extent,
cooling towers, operate at constant capacity independent of load. Running chillers
at maximum capacity minimizes the operating hours required to meet a given total
integrated cooling load. This, in turn,minimizes the energy consumption of auxiliary
equipment.

Standby losses in chilled water storage tanks can be significant in small tanks. Over
time, the necessary separation between warm and cold water is reduced by conduc-
tion across the thermocline, conduction through the tank walls, and mixing. These
effects undermine the usable cooling capacity of the tank. Therefore, the residence
time of chilled water in the tank should not be unnecessarily extended, particularly
in small tanks.

Make-upwater should be introduced through the upper diffuser or in some other way
as not to interfere with the thermocline.
It is also important that the system be operated so that the inlet fluid temperature does
not fluctuate. In particular, the inlet temperature should not increase at the lower
diffuser during charging, or decrease at the upper diffusers during discharging.

4.7 INTERFACE WITH BUILDING SYSTEMS

The temperature of return water should be maintained as high as possible, because


the capacity of chilled water storage depends on the temperature differencebetween
the cool and warm water occupying the storage tank.

Since chilled water storage tanks are almost always unpressurized and vented to the
atmosphere, the building interface must also account for any pressure differential
Chilled Water Storage 4-21

resulting from differences in height between the tank and the building system. A
minimum sustaining pressure setpoint of 5 psig (35 P a ) is recommended for the
water in the uppermost piping in the building under all load conditions.

In some cases, the water in the storage tank may also be used for fire protection.

4.7.1 Temperature Differential


Maximizing the temperature differential between chilled water supply and return
water maximizes the storage capacity of a given volume of water. Since the cost of
storageis based on tank volume, the cost per ton-hour will decreasewith an increased
temperature differential. In addition, a high temperature differential improves the
establishment and maintenance of the thermocline and reduces flow rates and
transfer pump energy consumption.

A high temperature differential is accomplished by using variable volume pumping


with two-way valves on the coils and by appropriate coil selection. The use of
variable volume pumping also helps ensure a constant return temperature to the
storage tank, which is important to maximize the capacity of the tank. During part-
load operation, the desired return temperature can be maintained by blending return
water with supply water, thus increasing the supply temperature at the coils.

The low flow rates resulting from increased temperature differentialsmake coil and
control valve selection particularly important. A discussion of coil selection and
control for high water temperature differentials is given in Section 2.5.1.

Tackett (1987) describes one chilled water storage system that experienced a
reduction in the design temperature differentialbecause of improperly selected coils
and an excessive pressure differential across the control valves.

4.7.2 Distribution Pressure Control


Some form of pressure control is required where the storage tank is vented to the
atmosphere and the chilled water distribution system operates at a higher pressure
than the hydrostatic head in the tank. Pressure can be controlled with presswe-
sustaining valves and pumps, with a heat exchanger, or by adjusting the base
elevation and height of water in the tank. Section 2.5.3 discusses static pressure
controlwith open tanks. Tackett (1988)discusses the use of energy recovery turbines
to reduce pumping energy consumption. Mackie and Reeves (1988) discuss pump-
ing for open chilled water storage tanks and present an example calculation
comparing direct pumping with the use of a heat exchanger.
4-22 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Figures 4- 1,4-7, and 4-8 illustrate three approaches to configuring the chilled water
storage system and its interface with the building system.
Air temlmrature

Direction control

w . .
Distributionpump(8)

Fig. 4-7 Pressure Control for Stratified Chilled Water Storage

LOAD Air temp regulating


Secondary valve (modulating)
distribution pump
(variable volume)

' 1 EXCHANGER
HEAT )
Primary Temperature regulating
valve (modulating)
(variable volume)

~ r e s & r esustaining
and check valves

4 CHILLER /+A+-$
Chiller primary pump

Fig. 4-8 Chilled Water Storage with Heat Exchanger


Chilled Water Storage 4-23

The use of heat exchangers with chilled water storage has the disadvantage that they
reduce the temperature differential available for storage, increasing the size and cost
of the tank. With a heat exchanger differential of 2°F (l°C), the temperature of the
chilled water is increased by 2 O F (l°C) each time that cooling is transferred across
the heat exchanger. With the arrangementof Figure4-8,the heat exchanger increases
the supply temperature to the load and reduces the return temperature to the storage
tank during discharging. If a heat exchanger is used to isolate the storage tank from
the cooling plant, the temperature of the chilled water will increase both when it is
put into the tank and when it is discharged. Also, the pump energy expended to pump
water through both sides of the heat exchangersrepresents an increased parasitic load
on the system.

Because most tanks used for chilled water storage are so large, the height of water
in the tank may exceed the height of the building piping enough to provide the static
pressure required in the building system.

4.7.3 Fire Protection


Storage tanks for chilled water may also serveas areservoir for fie-protection water,
thus providing the owner with a savings in capital costs and possibly in insurance
premiums.

Contractors have successfully converted existing fire-protection reservoirs into


stratifiedthermal storage reservoirs (Hussain and Peters 1992). In other cases, newly
installed thermal storage tanks increase existing fire-protectioncapability and lower
insurance costs (Holness 1992). The tanks serve the cooling needs of the building
while remaining continuously available for fire protection. Such tanks are designed,
tested, and installed in accordance with ANSI/NFPA Standard 22 (NFPA 1987).
Dual-service thermal storage and fire protection tanks have also been designed and
installed to meet the requirements of Factory Mutual (Andrepont 1992). Meckler
(1992) presents a discussion of code considerationsfor dual-use water storagetanks.

4.8 SIZING

The tank volume required to store a given cooling capacity in a chilled water storage
system depends on the temperature difference between the supply and return water
and on the storage effectiveness of the tank in discharging stored cooling at a usable
temperature. That effectivenessis expressed as the figure of merit (FOM) of the tank.
The required tank volume can be minimized by maximizing the water temperature
differential and by maximizing storage effectiveness with careful diffuser design.
424 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

4.8.1 Figure of Merit

Storage eflciency is the ratio of the amount of energy removed from storage to the
amount of energy put into storage during one chargeldischarge cycle. Storage
efficiency is a measure of the loss of energy to the surroundings, such as conduction
through tank walls. However, the storage efficiency for chilled water tanks does not
take into account any reduction in usable energy caused by mixing or thermal
conduction across the thennocline.

The storage tank FOM is a better measure of cooling available from a tank than the
storage efficiency. The FOM is the ratio of the amount of cooling removed from
storage to the amount of cooling theoretically available from fully charged storage.
The FOM takes into account the actual loss of usable stored cooling capacity due to
thermal conduction and mixing in the tank.Figure 4-9 illustrates the FOM concept.
Area A represents the total cooling removed from the tank during the discharge
cycle. Area A plus Area B represent the total cooling theoretically available, based
on the inlet temperature during charging and thereturn temperature during discharg-
ing. The FOM is the ratio of these areas.

I \ Charge inlet I
50
Percent of total volume

Fig. 4-9 Figure of Merit


Chilled Water Storage 4-25

FOM = AreaA
&eaA + Area B )

Tran et al. (1989) provide a detailed explanationof the derivation and calculation of
FOM.
Stratified chilled water storage tanks with well-designed diffusers perform at FOM
levels of 90% or better, so that if a chiller introduced 100 ton-hours of cooling into
a tank, the system could withdraw up to 90 ton-hours of cooling before the tank
discharge temperature would rise above the maximum usable temperature.

The most reliable estimate of FOM for a tank under design may be obtained from
field data on tanks with similar geometry or from scale model testing. In the absence
of such data, a factor of 85 to 90% is recommended for sizing calculations, for a
diffuser designed according to the guidelines presented in Section 4.4.3. A lower
factor should be used with small tanks or when the designer believes that the diffuser
design may not be optimal.

4.8.2 Size Calculations


The required tank volume can be calculated from the following (see Appendix A for
SI unit conversions):

Volume Cgallond =
ton-hr x Btu/ton-hr
AOF x 8.36 Btu/gab°F x Tank Figure of Merit
Volume [m3] =
(5)
k w h x 3600 kJ/kWh
AK x 998 kg/ms x 4.2 lrJ/Ckg.Kl x Tank Figure of Merit

The tank volume will be somewhat greater since some clearance between the water
level and top of the tank will be required. In seismically active areas, an additional
allowance may be required to accommodate the "sloshing wave" which can occur
during seismic events.

4.9 CHARGUDISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS


Chilled water storage tanks should generally be charged at the coldest possible
temperature above 39°F (4°C). Water is at its maximum density at 39.Z"' (4OC), and
water introduced into a stratified tank below this temperature floats upward, causing
4-26 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

unwanted mixing. Lowering the charge temperature to a point approaching 39°F


(4°C) can increase the storage capacity for a given tank when the change results in
a greater water temperature differential.

Water shouldbe sent to the tankat aconstanttemperature to avoid short-term density


differences that cause buoyancy currents at the diffuser. This is true both for chilled
water during charging and for return water during discharging.

Stored water typically gains 1to 2OF (0.5 to 1°C) in storage due to conduction heat
gains and unavoidable mixing. Ideally, water will be discharged from the tank at a
constant temperature. In practice, the discharge temperature gradually rises through
the discharge period, increasing more rapidly at the end of the discharge period as
the thermocline begins to be drawn into the lower diffuser. The degreeof temperature
rise during discharge depends on the quality of stratification within the tank, which
is a direct result of diffuser design and heat transfer within the tank and through the
tank walls.

Figure 4- 10 shows a representative discharge temperature characteristic. While this


curve cannot be considered universally representative, it does indicate the general
pattern of temperature rise through the discharge cycle. In the absence of specific
data on a particular design, the characteristic shown in Figure 4-10 represents a
conservative approach to evaluating discharge temperatures. Note that as the final
10%of tank volume is discharged, there is a steep increase in temperature as water
from the thermocline is drawn out of the tank.The hypothetical system shown here,
which has an upper supply temperature limit of 45OF (7OC). is able to use 90% of the
water in the tank for building cooling.

I I
.
I 1 I

Incoming temperature during charging


I I I
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Percent of tank volume

Fig. 4-10 ChargeIDischarge Temperature at Lower Diffuser


Chilled Water Storage 4-27

For a given installation, the actual temperature rise above the average inlet tempera-
ture and the percentage of storage volume available as usable cooling depends on
diffuser design and system operation. Many systems can withdraw up to 90% of the
storage volume at a maximum of 2OF (l°C) above the average inlet temperature. To
achieve this performance, diffusers must be designed to minimize the thickness of
the thermocline, and the system must be operated to remove all or most of the
thermocline from the tank during each charging cycle. A well-designed diffuser
maintains a stable thermocline and minimizes the loss of usable cooling by mixing
warm and cool water.

During the charging phase, the temperature curve for the warm water exiting the
upper diffuser follows a reversed curve as shown in Figure 4-11. The temperature
gradually descends until the thermocline approaches the diffuser. As the water from
the thermocline is drawn out, the temperature falls more rapidly. The reduced chiller
inlet temperature at the end of the charging cycle results in partial loading of chillers
and should be accounted for in developing the design operating profile.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 00 00 100 11
Percent of tank volume

Fig. 4-11 ChargeIDischarge Temperature at Upper Diffuser

Thermal convection and mixing are the primary causes of losses in a stratifiedchilled
water storage tank. Thermal conduction occurs across the thermocline, along the
walls of the tank, and through the walls of the tank. Heat transfer by thermal
conduction across the thermocline and along the walls of the tank reduces the usable
cooling energy in the tank.Heat transferred through the tank walls is energy lost from
the entire system and can be minimized by insulating steel tanks or by burying
concrete tanks to the top of their walls.

Conduction along tank walls depends on the tank material. Steel tank walls conduct
heat from the warm to the cool side of the tank more quickly than does concrete.
4-28 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

However, concrete walls store heat and exchange it with the tank water as the
thermocline moves up and down.

Some heat gain may occur through exposure of tank roofs to intense sunlight. This
can be reduced by insulating the top of the tank and applying a reflective white outer
coating to the insulation.

Thermal lossesdue to the addition of pumping energy can be significant,particularly


when static lift is involved. The added heat from pumping friction should be
calculated for both the charge and discharge cycles. Chiller and storage capacity
should be adjusted accordingly.

4.10 FIRST COST

The first cost in a chilled water cool thermal storage system includes the cost of the
tank, excavation if the tank is placed underground outside of the building; a chiller
if a new one is needed; and pumps, diffusers, initial water treatment, and control and
instrumentation to run and monitor the system. On large systems, the cost of
connecting piping may also be significant. Depending on the design, there may also
be costs associated with heat exchangers or energy recovery turbines. Retrofit
applicationsmay also have costs associated with measures necessary to assure a high
return temperature, e.g., two-way control valves, variable volume pumping, etc.

4.10.1 Tanks

The cost of the storage tank is the most variable of any of the costs in a stratified cool
storage system. The cost of the tank depends on:

Material
Shape
Size
Local conditions affecting ease of construction
Insulation
Foundation

Figure 4-12 indicates ranges of costs for surface-mounted steel and concrete tanks
as a function of tank size. For subsurface concrete tanks, excavation and backfill
costs must be added. Costs vary by region and local vendors should be consulted for
quotes on specific projects.
Chilled Water Storage 4-29

Tank size, millions of gallons (m3)

Fig.4-12 Costs for Chilled Water Storage Tanks

4.10.2 Chillers
Refrigeration plants for chilled water storage systems are essentially the same type
as those for nonstorage applications, and costs per ton are comparable. Standard
sources of cost data, such as vendors,contractors, or past experience, should be used.
If the storage chiller is to supply water at 39 to 40°F (4 to 5OC), the cost per actual
ton may be slightly higher than for a non-storage chiller designed for 42 to 45OF (6
to 7 O C ) supply temperatures.

In new construction, a chiller for chilled water storagewill generally be smaller and
less expensive than one for a nonstorage system. When converting or expanding an
existing system for storage, existing chillers can often be used, and additional
cooling capacity can be obtained simply by installing a storage tank and interface.
In such cases, the first cost of the chilled water storage system may be less than that
of a nonstorage system.
4-30 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

4.10.3 Tank Interface

The tank interface includes pumps, wiring, insulated piping, valves, strainers,
automatic control, and instrumentation. Costs are variable, depending on site-
specific factors. Mackie and Reeves (1988) give interface costs ranging from $70 to
$470 per ton ($20 to $134 per kwh) depending on chiller size (using 1985 dollars).

4.1 1 EFFICIENCY AND OPERATING COST

Chilled waterstorage systemshave thesmallest efficiency penalty of the cool storage


technologies. They operate at relatively high chiller temperatures, and cooling is
delivered to the load at a temperature approximately 1 to 4°F (0.5 to 2°C) higher than
the charging temperature.

Compared to nonstorage systems, additional pumping energy is required to transfer


chilled water to and from storage. However, the energy consumption of auxiliary
equipment can be minimized if chillers are operated at maximum capacity at all
times. As discussed in Section 4.6, this approach can result in lower energy
consumption for auxiliary equipment per unit of cooling energy delivered than in
nonstorage applications. In addition, if the chilled water temperature differential of
the system is maximized, distribution pumping energy is further reduced.

Some chilled water storage systems have been documented to show an actual
reduction in seasonal energy consumption compared to nonstorage operation at the
same facility due to more efficient nighttime chiller operation and the improved use
of auxiliary equipment.

Fiorino (1993) provides an example of a retrofit chilled water storage system at a


large electronics manufacturing facility in Texas that shifts 100%of its peak cooling
electrical demand off peak. This system has reduced the annual cooling electricity
usage of the facility by 27.6% relative to its nonstorage cooling predecessor, and has
eliminated their annual heating natural gas usage by using wintertime condenser
waste heat recovery.

Chilled water storage systems can incur higher costs of operation and energy usage
due to the presence of transfer pumps, blend pumps, pressure sustaining valves,
external storage heat gains, and internal storage heat transfer. Except for external
storage heat gains, all these factors can be minimized by maintaining a high
temperaturedifferential. Transfer pump energy can be minimized by setting the tank
water level at the appropriate height above the system level. External storage heat
gains can be minimized by tank burial and/or insulation. When these energy
Chilled Water Storage 4-31

increases are minimized by careful design, they can often be offsetby the efficiency
improvements available with chilled water storage.

Compare a nonstorage chiller with a standard 42°F (5.6"C) evaporator leaving


temperature and a standard 54°F (12.2"C) evaporator entering temperature to a
storagechiller with areduced 40°F (4.4OC) leaving temperature and an elevated 58°F
(14.4"C) entering temperature. At these conditions, the storage chiller actually has
an advantage because of its higher mean evaporator temperature. In addition, the
storage chiller enjoys a lower mean condenser temperature because of increased
nighttime operation. With the reduction in overall compressor "lift," the storage
chiller operates more efficiently than the non-storage chiller.

4.12 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

The operation of a chilled water storage system can be improved and refined as
operators gain experience with the system. Section 2.8.1 discusses optimization of
storage systems in general. Specific considerations for optimizing a chilled water
storage system include maximizing the system temperature differential and making
the best use of storage in nonpeak seasons. Increasing the differential through
improved control of cooling coil valves and distribution pumping increases the
available storage capacity. In nonpeak seasons, charging temperatures can be
increased to maximize chiller efficiency, and the length of charging and discharging
periods can be adjusted, For storage priority systems in particular, optimization of
storage capacity depends on fully discharging storage during each cycle.

Fiorino (1991) discusses optimization of a particular chilled water storage system.


During commissioning,modifications in the distribution system at this site allowed
the system return water temperature to be raised by 1S°F (0.8"C) with no adverse
consequences. Annual energy consumption at this site is reduced by raising the
storage charging temperature and lengthening the dischargeperiod during nonpeak
cooling months.

Water treatment considerations for chilled water storage include the following
(Mackie and Reeves 1988):

Low circulation rates through stratified tanks make after-the-fact cleaning and
flushing difficult.
The materials used in tank construction or tank surface finishing need to be
included in the corrosion review.
The volume of water in the system is many times greater than that of a
nonstorage system.
4-32 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Although chilled water tanks have a large volume of water open to atmospheric
pressure, the water contains little oxygen. The volume of air in contact with the water
surface is small, there is little if any air exchange to the tank, and the water surface
is deliberately kept very still. These factors minimize the uptake of oxygen by the
water, causing littleincrease in corrosion potential compared to anonstorage system.
Therefore,water treatment requirementsare similar to those for a nonstorage system
in the same application, except for the volume of water to be treated.

Maintenance of a chilled water thermal energy system is similar to maintaining a


nonstorage system, except for the larger water volume. Section 2.8.2 provides a
discussion of initial cleaning of the system and water treatment to avoid corrosion
and fouling. References on equipment maintenance are provided in Section 2.3.

4.13 COMMISSIONING
Commissioningis an ongoing process starting in the predesign phase and continuing
through the first year of system operation. The overall commissioning process is
discussed in Section 2.9. Here, the performance evaluation phase of the commission-
ing process for chilled water storage systems is covered.

The following quantities are important to test during performance evaluation:

Total storage capacity


Discharge rate and discharge temperatures
Charging capacity
Scheduling and control sequences
Peak demand and energy efficiency

To test the total storage capacity of achilled water storage system, begin with a fully
charged tank. With the tank subjected to a design load profile, monitor the cooling
discharged until the storage outlet temperature rises above the maximum usable
temperature. If it is not feasible to provide the design load profile, the total storage
capacity can be tested over more than one day. Because of differences in storage
losses admixing, such a test will not precisely reflect the amount of storagecapacity
available to meet the design load profile, especially for small tanks; for tanks where
the ground temperature around the tank has not reached a state of quasiequilibrium,
conduction losses over an extended discharge period may be significant. However,
this test may provide a reasonable estimate.

During the course of storage capacity testing, verify the ability of the system to
dischargecooling at the design rate with the required dischargetemperature for each
Chilled Water Storage 4-33

hour of the design profile. Monitor the discharge temperature profile to confirm that
the tank and diffusers perform as designed.

Charging capacity is tested by monitoring the cooling delivered to the storage tank
during a complete charge cycle, starting from the fully discharged condition. The
chiller should be able to fully chargethe tank in the time available,while meeting any
loads that occur during the charging period.

Data collected during the charge and discharge capacity tests can be used to
determine the figure of merit (FOM)of the tank.

Scheduling and control sequence testing verifies that all pumps, valves, and other
components operate as specified, in the correct sequences and at the correct times.
Measurement of peak demand and energy efficiency is discussed in Section 2.9.3.

Calibration of storage inventory temperature sensors should be performed during


commissioning testing. Consistency of sensor readings can be checked by compar-
ing the sensor outputs at a time that the entire tank is known to be at a uniform
temperature. Absolute accuracy of each sensor can be tested by lowering a reference
probe into the tank to the appropriate depths.

REFERENCES

AWWA. 1984. Standard for welded steel tanks for water storage, ANSVAWWA
D100-84. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.
AWWA. 1986. Standard for wire-wound circular prestressed-concrete water tanks,
ANSIJAWWA D l 10-86. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.
Andrepont,J.S. 1992.Central chilled water plant expansionsand the CFC refrigerant
issue--Case studiesof chilled water storage. Proceedings of the Association of
Higher Education Facilities Officers, 79th Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN,
July.
Fiorino, D.P. 1991. Case study of a large, naturally slratified,chilled-water thermal
energy storage system. ASHRAE Transactions 97(2):1161-69.
Holness, G.V.R.1992.Case study of combined chilled-waterthermal energy storage
and fire protection storage. ASHRAE Transacfions !%(I):1119-22.
Hudson, H.E.,R.B.Uhleer, and R.W. Bailey. 1979. Dividing flow manifolds with
square-edgedlaterals. Journal of Environmental Engineering Division, ASCE,
Vol. EE4 (August):745-55.
4-34 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Hussain, M.A. and D.C.J. Peters. 1992.Retrofit integration of fire protection storage
as chilled-water storageiA case study. ASHRAE Transactions 98(1): 1123-
32.
Joyce, W.S. and W.P. Bahnfleth. 1992.Cornell thermal storage project saves money
and electricity. District Heating and Cooling (2):22-29.
Mackie, E.I. and G. Reeves. 1988. Stratified chilled-water storage design guide,
EPRI EM-4852s, May.
McNown, J.S. 1980. Discussion of paper by Hudson, Uhleer, and Bailey. Journal of
the Environmental Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. EE4 (August):864-66.
Meckler, M. 1992. Design of integrated fire sprinkler piping and thermal storage
systems: Benefits and challenges. ASHRAE Transactions 98(1):1140-48.
NFPA. 1987. Water tanks for private fire protection, ANSI/NF'PA Vol. 22, June.
Quincy, MD: National Fire Protection Association.
Tackett, R.K. 1987. Results from operation of a large membrane stratified cool
storage system with heat recovery. ASHRAE Transactions 93(1):728-39.
Tackett, R.K. 1988. The use of direct pumping and hydraulic turbines in thermal
storage systems. ASHRAE Transactions 94(1):1989-2007. Reprinted in
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(4): 103-1 11.
Tran, N., J.F. Kreider, and P. Brothers. 1989. Field measurement of chilled water
storage thermal performance. ASHRAE Transactions 95(1):1106-12.
Wildin, M.W. and CR. Truman. 1985.Evaluation of stratified chilled-waterstorage
techniques, EPRI EM-4352, December.
Wildin, M.W. and C.R.Truman. 1989. Performanceof stratified vertical cylindrical
thermal storage tanks, Part I: scale model tank. ASHRAE Transactions
95(1):1086-95. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(3):63-72.
Wildin,M.W. 1990.Diffuserdesign for naturally stratified thermal storage. ASHRAE
Transactions96(1):1094-1102.
Wildin, M.W. 1991. Flow near the inlet and design parameters for stratified chilled
water storage, ASME 91-HT-27, July.
Yoo, J., M.W. Wildin, and CR. Truman. 1986. Initial formation of a thermocline in
stratified thermal storage tanks. ASHRAE Transactions 92(2): 28&92.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Al-Madie, A.M.R. 1987. Stratification behaviour in a chilled water storage tank.


International Journal of Refrigeration 10(6):364-66.
Andrepont, J.S. 1990. Thermal energy storage continues to gain momentum.
Commercial/Industrial Energy Expo 90, November.
Chilled Water Storage 4-35

Andrepont, J.S. 1992. Chilled water storage case studies: Central plant capacity
expansions with O&M and capital cost savings. The International District
Heating and Cooling Association (IDHCA) Fifth Annual CollegeAJniversity
Conference, February.
Bjorklund. A.E. 1987. Heat recovery and thermal storage at a state office building.
ASHRAE Transactions 93(2):832-49.
CBI. 1989. Transient temperature profiles of North Mesquite High School. Oak
Brook, IL: Chicago Bridge and Iron Co.
Cordaillat, B. and R.T. Tamblyn. 1988. French office tower pioneers with thermal
storage. ASHRAE Transactions 94(l): 1861-65. Reprinted in ASHRAE Tech-
nical Data Bulletin, Cool Storage Applications 5(3):61-62.
Cottone, A.M. 1990. Featured performer: Thermal storage. HeatinglPipinglAir
Conditioning (August):5 1-55.
Fiorino, D.P. 1990. Thermal energy storage retrofit project at a large manufacturing
facility. In Energy & Environmental Strategiesfor the 1990's, Ch. 82,485-509.
Fiorino, D.P. 1992. Thermal energy storage program for the 1990's. Energy
Engineering 89(4):23-33.
Fiorino, D.P. 1993. Energy conservation with thermally stratified chilled water
storage. ASHRAE Journal 35(5):22.
Gray, B. F., C.A. Johnson, G.J. Schoenau, et al. 1988. Energy consumption and
economic evaluation of thermal storage and recovery systems for a large
commercial building. ASHRAE Transactions 94(1):412-24.
Hensel, E.C., N.L. Robinson, J. Buntain, et al. 1991. Chilled-waterthermal storage
system performance monitoring. ASHRAE Transactions97(2): 1151-60.
Hiller, C.C. andD. Limaye. 1986.Chilled water storage system design and operating
recommendations.EPRI Proceedings: International Load Management Confer-
ence, Section 44, June.
Hiller, C.C. 1987. Stratified chilled water storage techniques. EPRI Seminar Pro-
ceedings: Commercial Cool Storage, State of the Art, EM-5454-SR, October.
Hopkins, KJ. and J.W. Schettler. 1990. Thermal storage enhances heat recovery.
HeatinglPipinglAir Conditioning (March):45-50.
Schepers, 0. 1992. University hits a home run with underground thermal storage.
Consulting-SpecifyingEngineer (November):34-37.
Tamblyn, R.T. 1985. College Park thermal storage experience. ASHRAE Transac-
tions 9l(lB):947-55. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin: Thermal
Storage (January):95-103.
Tamblyn, R.T. 1987. Chilled water storage goes to college. EPRI Seminar Proceed-
ings: Commercial Cool Storage, State of the Art, EM-5454-SR, October.
4-36 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Wildin, M.W. and C.R. Truman. 1985. A summary of experience with stratified
chilled water tanks. ASHRAE Transactions 91(1B):956-76. Reprinted in
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin: Thermal Storage (January):104-123.
Wildin, M.W., E.I. Mackie, and W.E. Harrison. 1990. Thermal storage forum:
Stratifiedthermal storage:Anewlold technology. ASHRAEJournal (April):29-
39.
Chapter 5 ICE HARVESTING SYSTEMS
5.1 PRIMARY FEATURES
Ice harvester thermal storage systems:

Normally consist of a factory-assembled ice making plant mounted on top of a


site-built storage tank which contains a mixture of ice and chilled water.
Provide nearly instantaneous response to short-term cooling needs such as in
batch processing of food products.
Change mode automatically from ice generation to chilled water generation in
accordance with load conditions.
Produce high continuous discharge rates.
Require sufficient overhead clearance to mount the evaporator package above
the storage tank.

GENERAL DESCRlPllON
The ice harvesting refrigeration plant generates and releases sheets or tubes of ice
with a speciallydesigned evaporatorsection.Water is pumped out of the storage tank
at low pressure and is distributed over the evaporator surfaces, where it is chilled or
frozen (see Figure 5- 1).The ice harvestingplant is technically called an ice harvester
chiller, or ice harvester, since it operatesas both an ice maker and as a water chiller.

In the ice making mode, a portion of the water flowing over the evaporator plates or
tubes solidifies, forming a layer of ice that is periodically harvested or dropped into
the storage tank below. In the water-chilling mode, warm return water flows over the
same evaporator surfaces, is cooled, and falls into the tank as chilled water.

The selection of ice making or chiller mode is made automatically, depending on the
temperature of the water as it enters the evaporator. If the water is at or near the
freezing point, ice making mode is selected, and a defrost cycle is activated at
intervals to release the ice from the evaporator.

In chiller mode, the defrost cycle is deactivated.The cooling capacity and efficiency
increase with the temperature of the water entering the evaporator.
5-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Building load

Fig. 5-1

During the discharge cycle, ice water is taken from the bottom of the tank and
circulated to the building load. The discharge temperature remains relatively
constant throughout the discharge cycle, rising only as the last ice has melted.

5.3 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS


The refrigeration plant for an ice harvesting system is usually factory assembledand
delivered as a package. Complete compressor, condenser, evaporator packages are
available in sizes from about 10 tons to about 150 tons (35 to 530 kW) nominal ice
making capacity. Compressor-evaporator packages, with water cooled condensers
or for field connection to a remote condenser are available up to about 360 tons (1300
kW)ice making capacity. Split systems and evaporator-only packages are also
available. Packages typically include all required valves, accumulators, refrigera-
tion controls, and associated piping. An arrangement of automatically controlled
solenoid valves manages the flow of cold liquid refrigerant and hot refrigerant gas.
Evaporators are available in flat-plate, tube, or double-wall tube configurations.

Ice harvesters typically produce evaporator temperatures in the range of 15 to 26OF


(-9 to -3OC) when in ice making mode and 34OF (1°C) and higher when in chilling
mode, depending on the return water temperature. Reciprocating and screw com-
pressors using the refrigerant R-22 are most common for these systems because of
the relatively wide range of evaporator temperatures. However, several built-up
systems of 400 tons (1400 kW) ice making capacity or greater are used with multiple
Ice Harvesting Systems 5-3

evaporator modules and ammonia refrigerant. The use of ammonia is well-suited to


such applications, especially where operating staff have the necessary refrigeration
expertise, and can result in reductions in first cost.

Direct expansion systems allow limited capacity modulation because of the diffi-
culty in providing adequate oil retum at part load. Some systems include two
compressors with independent refrigerant circuits, which allows operation at 50%
capacity. Because a constant pressure drop is needed across thermal expansion
valves, some direct expansion systems do not allow operation at reduced head
pressures, limiting their ability to take advantage of low nighttime condensing
temperatures.

Liquid overfeed systems offer good part-load performance and can take advantage
of low head pressures. However, the liquid overfeed design is more expensive,
particularly for ice making capacities below approximately 100 tons (350 kW).

Flooded systems also offer good part-load performanceand can operate at low head
pressures. Flooded systems require proper design and maintenance to avoid oil-
logging. First cost is between that of direct expansion and liquid overfeed systems.

Ice building and defrosting in the ice making mode is controlled by timers supplied
with the ice harvester package. The machine builds ice for a predetermined amount
of time, typically 10 to 30 min. During the defrost cycle, hot refrigerant gas is
released into the evaporator for 20 to 60 s to release the ice. Refrigeration systems
must be designed to accommodate the pressure fluctuations due to variations in
condensing conditions during defrosting.

Timing of the ice build and defrost cycles is important to ice harvester performance.
An overly long build cycle may produce layers of ice too thick to be released during
the defrost cycle. An overly long defrostcyclereduces efficiencybecause the defrost
heat represents an increased load on the equipment. Knebel(1990) discusses the
determination of optimum ice build and defrost times for ice harvesters.

5.4 STORAGE TANKS

5.4.1 Location and Construction

General storage tank considerations are discussed in Section 2.3.2. This section
addresses specific concerns for ice storage tanks. Tanks may be placed indoors or
out, above or below grade. Enough headroom is needed so that the evaporator
package or the complete ice harvester chiller package can be mounted on top of the
tank. Ice can also be augered or conveyed from an ice harvester to a remote tank for
5-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

storage. However, this approach adds expense and operating complexity to the
systems, as well as possible safety concerns.

External tank insulation is recommended. Internal insulation should not be used as


it is susceptible to damage from the ice as it falls and shifts position within the tank.

Tanks are most often site-built of concrete in arectangular shape. However, modular
concrete, steel, or fiberglass tanks can be used if they are built to support the weight
of the evaporator package or the refrigeration plant. Michols (1985) provides
guidance on the design of concrete storage tanks for ice harvesters.

5.4.2 Tank Geometry

Tank geometry can affect the storage capacity of ice harvesting systems. Depending
on tank shape, the natural angle of repose of the ice as it fills the tank will leave some
void spaces that contain no ice. The presence of these voids reduces the tank storage
capacity by reducing the amount of ice that can be stored in the tank. The smaller the
area of the ice harvester evaporator opening relative to the plan area of the tank, the
greater the tendency for the ice to produce larger void volumes in the tank.

Ice harvesting systems with a large storage capacity in relation to their ice making
capacity, such as weekly load-leveling systems, have the smallest ratio of ice
opening area to tank plan area. These systems also have the greatest void volumes.
To minimize unused tank volume, the tank should be as tall as practical, minimizing
the plan area for a given volume. If possible, dividing evaporator modules among two
or more ice openings will distribute the ice more evenly through the entire tank. A
single ice opening should be located as near to the center of the tank as possible.

The initial fill level of water in the tank also affects the formation of void volumes.
With the correct water level, the weight of the ice pile above the water level will push
ice into the lower corners of the tank. With excess water in the tank, the ice pile will
form voids in the lower tank comers.

The shape of the ice fragments determines the angle of repose that the ice pile will
assume, which affects the amount of void volume in the tank. Flatter ice shapes tend
to form shallowerangles of repose, leaving less void volume. Angles of repose range
from less than 20 to 40° or more for the various ice harvesting systems. The angle
of repose must be considered when designing a storage tank. A tank sized for a
particular ice harvesting system must be resized if different equipment with a
different angle of repose is later substituted. Mechanical means, such as rotating
water nozzles shooting high velocity jets of water, or augers, have been used to level
ice piles and fill void volumes. Figure 5-2 illustrates factors influencing the
formation of void volumes in ice harvester tanks.
Ice Harvesting Systems 5-5

C. ImrePting helgM reducesvoids given D. lntial water level too high. Ice floats leaving voids at bonorn.
same lee opening and volume as B.

D. SMlow angle of rep- reducesvoid volume. E. Sleep angle of r e p a increases void volume.

Note: Tlus (Igure for illustrativepupsss Onb. Voids will always be present.

Fig. 5-2 Factors Affecting Formation of Void Volumes in Ice Harvester


Tanks
5-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Ice harvester manufacturers can provide guidance on tank design. At least one
manufacturer offers a computer program to estimate the usable storage capacity of
a tank of given dimensions.

5.4.3 Piping
Design of discharge headers and, in some cases, inlet headers, affects the perfor-
mance of an ice harvester tank. Properly designed headers prevent short-circuiting
of return water through the ice, which can result in increased discharge temperatures
and unusable storage capacity.

Discharge headers must draw water evenly from all points in the tank bottom. Header
piping should be installed on the tank bottom, against the outer wall. This location
provides the most protection from the forces exerted by the weight of the ice in the
tank, and by falling and shifting ice.

If the discharge header riser is located within the tank,it should be shielded to prevent
ice from freezing around it. A mass of ice fused around the riser pipe can exert a
destructive bending moment as ice in the center of the tank melts out. A riser located
in the comer of the tank can be protected by a steel plate mounted at 45O across the
comer and f h l y anchored in both walls.

In some applications,a spray header is used to distribute incoming warm return water
over a wide area of the tank to prevent short-circuiting. Inlet headers should be
considered in systems where the ice opening area is small relative to the tank plan
area, especially if warm building return water enters the tank directly without
precooling. Return water is diverted to a spray header rather than running it over the
idle evaporator surfaces and through the ice opening.

Systems designed for partial storage may also use a spray header to distribute a
portion of return water directly into the tank rather than directing all the water over
the evaporator plates and through a small ice opening.

5.5 CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION


The refrigeration plant operates in either ice making mode or chilling mode. The
sequencing of build and thaw cycles within the ice making mode and the steady
cooling of system return water during chilling mode are generally governed by
controls supplied with the ice harvester package by the manufacturer.
Ice Hanresting Systems 5-7

Internal timers and solenoid valves direct liquid refrigerant and hot gas in turn to the
appropriate evaporator sections to build and harvest ice. Ice building is generally
terminated by an external signal from the control system at the end of the charging
period or when an ice level sensor indicates that the tank is full.

Ice level sensorsdetect when the pile of ice approachesthe bottom of the evaporator.
One sensor type is asmall spinningpaddlewheel, which signals the endof ice making
when the ice level is high enough to stop its motion.

Ice harvesters generally switch from ice making mode to chiller mode, locking out
the defrost cycle, when the temperature of the water onto the evaporator is high
enough to ensure that no ice will form. This temperature depends on the specific ice
harvester design and is typically about 36°F (2°C).

5.6 OPERATING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES


Ice harvester systems can be operated in any of the three basic strategies discussed
in Section2.4--full storage, partial storage load leveling, or partial storage demand
limiting.

Ice harvesting systems are favored for storageoptions with small chiller capacity and
large storage capacity, because the cost per ton-hour of storage tanks is low and the
cost of refrigeration equipment is high. Weekly storage cycles, illustrated in Figure
2-4, are especially well-suited to ice harvesters.

Base loading of nonstorage chillers is also an effective approach to ice harvester


system design. A high-efficiency chiller is used to meet a constant base load, and
storedcoolingfrom the ice harvester reducespeak demand. Figure 2-2 illustrates the
baseloading approach.

To optimize part-load operation, determine whether chiller priority or storage


priority control will be more cost effective, by comparing the cost per ton-hour of
stored cooling with the cost per ton-hour of direct coolingin chiller mode. Chiller and
storage priority are discussed in detail in Section 2.4.

Ice harvesters function well with a chiller priority control scheme, where stored
cooling is used only when the load exceeds chiller capacity. The refrigerationplant
operates at full capacity. When the load falls below the chiller capacity, the surplus
output is stored in the tank.When the load rises above the chiller capacity, the excess
load is met from stored cooling.
18 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

The storage priority approach attempts to meet as much of the building load as
possible using stored cooling, supplementing with chiller cooling only when neces-
sary. This approach requires that the control system estimate or predict the cooling
load for each day, so that enough chiller mode cooling can be provided to prevent
storage from being exhausted too soon.

Charging operation during nonpealc periods can ,be optimized by running the
refrigeration plant at the minimum capacity that will store the required amount of
cooling in the available time. For example, providing a partial charge by running at
50% capacity for 10 hours will generally use less energy than charging at full
capacity for 5 h. Consult ice harvester manufacturers and be careful in specifying
equipment for such operation to ensure that the necessary part-load capabilities are
provided. Knebel(1991) discusses charging rate control for ice harvesters.

5.7 INTERFACE WITH BUILDING SYSTEMS


Ice harvesting systems use open, nonpressurized tanks and are subject to the
interfaceconsiderations discussed for open tanks in Section 2.5. Water treatment and
corrosion protection are of concern, since water in the tank is highly aerated due to
repeated recirculation over the evaporator.

A heat exchanger is recommended to isolate the storage tank from the building
distribution system. This arrangement simplifies water treatment considerations, as
the building distribution system becomes a conventional closed system.

Corrosion-resistant piping material, such as PVC, should be installed between the


heat exchanger outlet and the ice harvester inlet.

Ice harvester systems can use separate pumps (to recirculate water to the evaporator
and to pump chilled water to the load), or a single pump. Figure 5-3 illustrates three
possible pumping configurations.
Ice Harvesting Systems 5-9

Ice Constant
Hanrester flow
Chlller

Storege Tank
To load
b

A. Single constant Row pump wUh heat exchanger

Storage Tank

To bad

Fig. 5-3 Three Ice Harvester Pumping Configurations


5-10 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

The evaporator flow rate should be maintained constant or nearly constant. In


general, the supply water temperatureto the load shouldbe controlledby varying the
flow through thedistribution side of the heat exchanger, either with avariable-speed
pump or by bypassing some flow around the heat exchanger. For the arrangement in
Figure 5-3C, avariable-speed pump on the storage side of the heat exchanger is used
to control the supply temperature.

Ice water recirculation pumps must be sized to account for the variation in static
suction pressure as ice builds and the tank water level drops.

The 34 to 36OF (1 to 2'C) discharge temperatures available from ice harvesting


systems allow the use of chilled water temperatureranges of 24OF (13OC) or higher,
resulting in significant reductions in the cost of pumps, piping, and pump energy
compared to typical nonstorage systems. These discharge temperatures are also
well-suited to the use of cold air distribution.

5.8 SIZING
Sizing of an ice harvester system requires selection of the appropriate ice making
capacity and tankdimensions fora given application. Initial ice making capacity and
storage capacity can be estimated using the quick sizing procedure presented in
Section 10.3.Final size requirements should be determined by a detailed simulation
of hourly performance during the design storage cycle, as discussed in Sections 2.6
and 10.6.

For buildings in which HVAC systems are shut down during unoccupied periods,
cooling loads on Mondays are often greater than for other days due to heat that
accumulates over the weekends. The additional cooling needed for Monday morning
pulldown can be provided by sizing the storage tank according to the load profile for
Monday. Ice harvester capacity can be sized according to the slightly lower Tuesday
through Friday load profiles. Over the weekend, the ice harvester chiller has
additionaltime to fill the oversized tank with enough ice to meet the load on Monday
while remaining appropriately sized for the days that follow.

The capacity of ice harvesting equipment depends largely on the return water
temperature entering the evaporator. Figure 5-4 shows a typical relationship of
capacity and entering water temperature. The detailed sizing simulation should take
into account the variation in entering water temperature with building load and the
resulting capacity variation. Calculation of the entering water temperature requires
information on the pumping arrangement and flow rates for recirculated water to the
evaporator and chilled water to the load.
Ice Harvesting Systems 5-11

/ lcemaking

Entering water temperature, O F (O C)

Fig. 5-4 Typical Ice Harvester Capacity versus Entering Water


Temperature

Ice harvester capacity also varies with condensing temperature, which is related to
ambient temperatures. This variation should also be taken into account in the sizing
simulation. Several ice harvester manufacturers, as well as at least one software
vendor, offer computer programs that perform the detailed sizing simulation for ice
harvesting systems. Computer analysis results should be carefully reviewed to
ensure that they accurately represent the intended system operation.

When selecting condenser or cooling tower capacity, consider the heat rejection at
the maximum expected equipment cooling capacity. Since ice harvester capacity
increases dramatically with evaporator entering temperature, condensing capacity
may fall short if higher than expected return water temperatures are experienced.

For example, a full storage system, in which the ice harvester chiller operates only
to charge storage, may be expected to experience a maximum entering temperature
of 32°F (0°C). However, any loads occurring during charging periods increase the
return temperature, the equipment capacity, and the heat rejection. Unanticipated
future load increases or changes in utility rate schedules may require operating the
system in a partial storage strategy, again resulting in increased capacity and heat
rejection.
5-12 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

As with other types of refrigeration equipment, ice harvester performance can be


severely compromised if condenser capacity is inadequate. Some ice harvesting
systems have limited part-load capabilities, and a high head-pressure condition may
limit operation to 50% capacity or even prevent it completely.

When the required storage capacity has been determined, tank dimensions must be
selected. Experiencehas shown thata storage volumeof 3.3 ft3per ton-hour (0.03m3/
kwh) is a good rule for sizing ice harvester tanks. When the ice opening area is large
relative to the plan area of the tanks, storage densities as low as 3.0 ft3per ton-hour
(0.025 m3/kWh)may be achieved. Tank design criteria are discussed in Section5.4.

5.9 CHARGEIDISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS

Unlike the other ice storage technologies,the charging performance of ice harvester
systems remains the same throughout the charge cycle, independent of the amount
of ice in the storage tank. High rates of discharge from an ice harvester storage tank
are possible because of the large surface area of fragmented ice. Discharge tempera-
ture from a properly designed storage tank can remain at about 34 to 36OF (1 to 2OC)
until 80 to 90% of the ice is depleted. At that point, the contact area between ice and
water in the tank is reducedenough that the temperaturerises.At very high flow rates,
or when tank design is not optimal, the discharge temperature begins to rise earlier
in the discharge cycle. Figure 5-5 shows a typical range of discharge temperatures
over the discharge cycle.

0 20 40 60 80 1 00
Percent of ice melted

Fig. 5-5 Typical Ice Harvester Storage Discharge Temperature Range


Ice Harvesting Systems 5-13

Under someconditions,the ice in the tank fuses together into aporous block, holding
its shapeand leaving a hole below the ice opening. When this occurs, the surfacearea
of icelwater contact is reduced, and return water tends to short-circuit to the
discharge header. This is more likely to occur when ice remains in the tank for a long
time, such as in weekly or other extendedcycle systems. These systemsare also more
likely to have a small ice opening area in relation to the tank plan area. Full storage
systems, in which warm return water is introduced directly to the tank without
precooling by the chiller, may also be more susceptible to short-circuiting. Inlet
spray headers can be used to prevent short circuiting, as discussed in Section 5.4.3.

Ice harvesting systems require particular attention to tank design to ensure that the
desired discharge characteristics are achieved. Tank design considerations are
discussed in Section 5.4.

5.10 FlRST COST


Ice harvesting equipment is relatively expensive, while storage capacity is inexpen-
sive.Therefore, lowest first costs can beachieved by using large storage capacity and
minimizing chiller capacity. Ice harvesting systems are, however, well-suited to
providing excess storage capacity for a safety factor or for future needs. In fact, ice
harvesting systems can deliver low chilled water supply temperatures, which
significantly lowers water and air distribution equipment costs.

Approximate ice harvester costs overa range of equipment sizes are shown in Figure
5-6. These costs include evaporator package; refrigeration plant; and air-cooled,
water-cooled, or evaporative condenser. Note that these costs are given in terms of
ice making capacity, while chiller costs for other technologies are often given in
terms of nominal chilling capacity.
5-14 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

500 (140)i
200 400 600 800 1000
I
124
(700) (1400) (2100) (2800) (3500) (4200)
lcemaking capacity, tons (kW)

Fig. 5-6 Ice Harvester Cost Range

Costs for concrete storage tanks for ice harvesting systems are depend on site-
specific factors such as soil conditions and local labor rates. A rule of thumb for tank
costs is $20 to $25 per ton-hour ($6to $7 per kwh). A slightly more accurate estimate
may be developed based on a guideline of $7 to $8 per ft2($75 to $86 per rn2)of tank
surface. For detailed estimates, consult local contractors with experience in building
concrete tanks.

5.11 EFFICIENCY AND OPERATING COST


Unlike some other ice technologies, the efficiency of an ice harvester refrigeration
plant is not affected by the degree of charge in the storage tank. Ice is built on the
evaporator surfaces to a maximum thickness of approximately 0.25 in. (6 mm),
resulting in a relatively high and nearly constant suction temperature. However,
losses associated with the defrost cycle tend to offset some of the efficiency benefits
of the low ice thickness.

Rated compressor efficiency for ice making is typically in the range of 0.95 to 1.3
kW/ton (3.7 to 2.7 COP), with evaporatively cooled models most efficient and air-
cooled models least efficient. Efficiency increases with return water temperature,
with power consumption of 0.7 kW/ton (5 COP) or lower at 48OF (9°C) entering
water. Figure 5-7 illustratesthe variation in efficiency with entering water tempera-
ture.
Ice Hawesting Systems

1.2 (2.9)

-
2
!z
1 .I (3.2) -

1 .O(3.5)-
\ Icemaking

-$
.-
e
0.9 (3.9) -

5r
U)
U
0
L
m
0.8 (4.4) -
g
a

0.7 (5.0)
32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Entering water temperature, "f (%) -

Fig. 5-7 Typical Ice Harvester Efficiency versus Entering Water


Temperature

Ice making efficiencies are directly related to the ice-build and defrost times built
into the equipment. Knebel(l990) discusses maximizing efficiency by controlling
ice-build and defrost times based on ambient conditions.

Ice making efficiency can be increased during nonpeak load periods by controlling
the charging capacity to the minimum level needed to provide the desired amount of
stored cooling.

5.12 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


Operation of an ice harvester storage system can be refined over time to maximize
its efficiency. Section 2.8.1 discusses optimizing a storage system in general terms.

Regular maintenance measures for ice harvesters include checking strainers in


refrigerant piping and checking water distribution pans for fouling or clogging.
516 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Water treatment considerations are discussed in Section 2.8.3. Because of the highly
aerated water in an ice harvesting system, water treatment for corrosion protection
should receive special attention.

The refrigeration technology used with ice harvesting systems has been commonly
used in industrial applications. However, many HVAC operating personnel and
servicecontractorswho are used to packaged water chiller systems may be unwilling
or unable to adjust to the maintenance requirements of ice harvesters. Maintenance
personnel responsible for ice harvesting systems should have a good understanding
of the refrigeration equipment employed or should receive appropriate training.

5.13 COMMISSIONING

Commissioningis an ongoing process starting in the predesign phase and continuing


through the fmt year of system operation. The overall commissioning process is
discussed in Section 2.9. This section describes the performance evaluation phase of
the commissioning process for ice harvesting cool storage systems.

The following quantities are tested during the performance evaluation:

Total storage capacity


Discharge rate and discharge temperatures
Charging capacity
Scheduling and control sequences
Peak demand and energy efficiency

Total storage tank capacity is measured by fully charging the tank and discharging
it against aload with no other cooling supplied.Measure the usable cooling delivered
up to the point that the discharge temperaturefrom the tank rises above the maximum
usable chilled water supply temperature. Discharging the tank at the rate specified
in the design operating profile provides the most accurate evaluation of actual tank
capacity under design conditions. However, if this is not practical, other discharge
rates will provide acceptable estimates. For most tank configurations, the total
storage capacity is relatively insensitive to discharge rate.

The discharge rate and discharge temperature tests verify that the load can be met at
the required discharge temperaturefor each hour of the design profile. The discharge
rate and discharge temperature profile are generally verified during the test of
storage tank capacity.
Ice Harvesting Systems 5-17

The test of charging capacity verifiesthat the storage tank can be charged in the time
allotted. Long cycle storage systems require two or more days to evaluate the
charging capacity.

The instantaneous chilling or ice making capacity of an ice harvester is difficult to


measure directly. In a water-cooled system, cooling capacity can be measured
indirectly by subtracting the electrical power input from the heat rejected. The
cooling output over a period of time can be measured by starting and ending with the
tank at an identical state of charge, and monitoring the cooling delivered from the
tank. To simulatechiller performance under design conditions, provide return water
to the chiller at the temperatures and flow rates specified in the design operating
profile.

Tests of scheduling and control sequences verify that the system operates according
to the design intent. Over the course of several charge-discharge cycles, verify the
proper starting and stopping of pumps and the operation of controlled devices. In
addition, verify that the ice harvester switches from ice making to chiller mode at the
correct return water temperature. Confm that timers are set correctly to provide the
appropriate ice build and defrost times and verify that ice level sensors are set at the
correct levels and that they operate correctly.

Measurement of peak demand and energy efficiency is discussed in Section 2.9.3.


Instantaneousice harvester efficiency is difficult to measure because of the inability
to measure instantaneous chilling or ice making capacity. Average efficiency over
a period of time can be measured by measuring total energy input and cooling
delivered over a number of complete cycles, with the tank at the same state of charge
at the beginning and end of the test.

REFERENCES

Knebel, DE. 1990. Optimal control of ice harvesting thermal energy storage
systems. AICE Proceedings, 209-214.
Knebel, D.E. 1991. Optimal design and control of ice harvesting thermal energy
storage systems, ASME 91-HT-28, July.
Michols, K.A. 1985. Design guide for reinforced concrete chilled water and ice
storage tanks. Turbo Refrigerating Co., May.
5-18 Deslgn Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dorgan, C.E. 1985. Ice-maker heat pumps operation and design. ASHRAE Trans-
actions 91(1B):856-64. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin: Ther-
mal Storage (January):5&56.
Fields, W.G.and D.E. Knebel. 1991. Cost effective thermal energy storage. Heat-
inglPipinglAir Conditioning (July):59-72.
Henry Vogt Machine Co. Vogt product information manual.
Knebel, D.E. 1986. A showcase on cost savings. ASHRAE Journal (May):28-3 1.
Knebel, D.E. 1988. Economics of harvesting thermal storage system: A case study
of a merchandise distribution center. ASHRAE Transactions 94(1):1894-
1904. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(3):35-39.
Knebel, D.E. and S. Houston. 1989. Thermal storage retrofit. ASHRAE Journal
(May):3442.
Landry, C.M. and C.D. Noble. 1991. Making ice thermal storage first-cost competi-
tive. ASHRAE Journal (May):19-22.
Morris and Associates, Inc. Moms product information manual.
Paul Mueller Co. Mueller product information manual.
Sohn, C.W. 1991b. Field performance of an ice harvester storage cooling system.
ASHRAE Transactions 97(2): 1187-93.
Stovall, T.K. 1991b. Turbo Refrigerating Company ice storage test report, ORNLI
'I'M-1 1657, June. Oak Ridge, TN:Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Stovall, T.K. and JJ. Tomlinson. 1991. Laboratory performance of a dynamic ice
storage system. ASHRAE Transactions 97(2): 1179-86.
Turbo Refrigeration Co. Turbo product information manual.
Vogt. 1988.Award winning thermal storagesystem fact sheet KirkProduceCompany,
Orange County, Placentia, California. Vogt Fact Sheet, June. Louisville, KY.
Chapter 6 EXTERNAL MELT ICE-ON-COIL
STORAGE SYSTEMS

6.1 PRIMARY FEATURES


External melt ice-on-coil systems:

Require approximately 2.8 ft3 of storage tank volume per ton-hour of stored
cooling (23 LIkWh).
Supply chilled water from an open ice-builder tank to the load.
Use liquid refrigerant or a secondary coolant as the charging fluid.
Provide discharge temperatures of 34 to 36OF (1 to 2°C) through most of the
discharge cycle.
Are subject to an efficiency penalty if all ice is not melted during each discharge
cycle.

An external melt ice-on-coil storage system, sometimes referred to as an ice builder,


builds and stores ice on the exterior surfaces of a heat exchange coil submerged in
a nonpressurized water tank. The coil is made of steel tubing or Schedule40 welded
pipe. Figure 6-1 illustrates an ice-builder tank and internal piping.
6-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Fig. 6-1 External Melt Storage Tank and Internal Piping

To charge the storage system, liquid refrigerant or a secondary coolant, such as a


glycol solution, is circulated inside the heat exchange tubes, causing ice to form on
the outside of the tubes. To discharge stored cooling, the ice on the tubes is melted
by warm return water which circulates through the tank. The resulting chilled water
is used to meet the building load. Air is bubbled through the water during the
beginning of the charging cycle and during discharging, to equalize the water
temperature and promote even building and melting of the ice. Figure 6-2 illustrates
the external melt charging and discharging process.

CHARGING DISCHARGING
Cold refrigerant or glycol Warm return water
flows in pipe, builds layer flows through tank,
of ice melting ice

I Water

Fig. 6-2 Charge and Discharge of External Melt Ice Storage


External Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 6-3

Ice is normally built to a thickness of 1.5 to 2.5 in. (40 to 65 mm) on the pipes,
depending on the application. The greater thickness requires lower charging tem-
peratures and is generally applied where an existing refrigeration is operating at 10
to 15OF (-12 to -9OC). Thinner ice is built in applications where higher charging
temperatures and greater efficiency are desired.

If an external melt ice tank is overcharged, ice may freeze solid between adjacent
tubes. While some bridging may not have serious consequences, extensive bridging
can impede water flow and ice melting, resulting in increased discharge tempera-
tures.

6.3 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS


An external melt ice storage system building 1.5-in. (40 mm) thick ice requires a
chiller capable of generating charging temperatures of 20 to 26'F (-7 to -3°C). For
systemsbuilding ice to 2.5 inches (65 mm) thick, charging temperatures of 10to 15°F
(-12 to -9OC) are required.

External melt systems can be divided into those that use refrigerant directly to build
ice, with the ice-builder pipes acting as the evaporator, and those that build ice
indirectlyusing a secondary coolant cooled by achiller. The direct refrigerant system
was used in early external melt systems, and is still widely applied in industrial
applications such as dairies and food processing plants. Secondary coolant systems
are most commonly used for HVAC applications, because the refrigeration plant is
simpler to design, install, and maintain, and because the volume of refrigerant used
is much less.

A direct refrigerant system is more efficient than a secondary coolant system,


because there is one less step of heat transfer between the evaporating refrigerantand
the ice building surface. However, designing, installing, and maintaining such a
system requires refrigeration expertise not commonly available in the commercial
HVAC industry. This approach is well-suited to applications where the necessary
expertise is available, such as existing refrigeration plants.

The direct refrigerant system uses a large amount of refrigerant, which adds cost and
raises environmental concerns. However, where an ice builder is being added to an
existing plant, this is typically not a major issue. The use of ammonia refrigerant is
well-suited to direct refrigerant external melt systems; it reduces or eliminates cost
and environmental concerns.
6-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Details of refrigeration system design are not covered in this guide. Mackie and
Richards (1992) give some recommendations for design of direct refrigerant ice
builders.

Figure 6-3 is a schematic diagram of a & i t refrigerant ice-builder system. This


system includes a heat exchanger to isolate the open storage tank from the building
distribution system and a chiller barrel to supplement stored cooling during dis-
charge periods.

Oil separator /\ /\ /\ /\

Evaporative condenser
Reciprocating
compressors
Refrigerant
PlPW
Chi!led water
I
I I
1 132t Design
PlPW

temperatures, O F
Low pressure receiver (0) ("C)

,r Refrigerant pumps

I - Ice tank
Water chiller
LN

1
Ice
water
< 3 Pump

Ice water heat exchanger

Chilled water pump


(6)

Fig. 6-3 Direct Refrigerant External Melt Ice-on-Coil Configuration


External Melt Ice-on-Coll Systems 6-5

Secondary coolant-based systems use standard water chillers selected for charging
temperatures of 18 to 26OF (-8 to-3OC). Systemswith charging temperatures below
18°F (-8OC) generally require specially engineered chillers. Chillers that must also
provide direct cooling typically operate at 36 to 42OF (2 to 6*C), depending on the
specific application. Positive displacement compressors, such as reciprocating or
rotary screw types, are typically used because of the low charging temperatures and
the relatively wide range of operating temperatures.

Centrifugal compressors may be used provided they are properly selected for the
intended range of evaporator temperatures. Harmon and Yu (1991) discuss the
selection of centrifugal chillers for ice making at 24 to 26OF (-4 to -3OC).

Figure 6-4 illustrates one configuration for secondary coolant-based external melt
ice storage. In this system, the storage tank is directly connected to the building
distribution system, with pressure control provided by a pressure-sustaining valve.
A heat exchanger allows the storage chiller to provide direct cooling to supplement
storage during discharge. Supplemental cooling could also be provided by a second
chiller in the chilled water loop.

Load

Pressure
sustaining
valve

\r
iL 2-position

- Ice Tank

Direct cooling
heat exchanger

Fig. 6 4 Secondary Coolant External Melt Ice-on-Coil Configuration


6-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

6.4 STORAGE TANKS

General storage tank considerations are discussed in Section 2.3.2. This section
addresses specific considerations for external melt ice-on-coil storage systems.

Tanks for external melt thermal energy storage systems are generally constructed of
steel or concrete. Steel tanks are typically supplied by the manufacturer of the heat
exchange coils and are made of galvanized steel and insulated. Manufacturers build
their tanks in rectangular shape of various dimensions according to the storage
capacity desired.

Pay special attention to corrosion protection of steel tanks, since the water in the
tanks is highly aerated. A thorough galvanizing or other coating process and
attention to quality control in the tank construction process are important.

Site-built concrete tanks, in which the prefabricated heat exchange coils are in-
stalled, can also be used. Concrete tanks can be buried or at grade.

Tanks should have easy access. To provide access, allow a lane of 3 ft (1 m) around
the tank. Multiple tanks require additional space for external piping. Buried tanks
should include hatchways for visual and physical access.

Multiple tanks in an external melt system are typically connected in parallel. A series
arrangement is sometimes used in systems requiring high discharge rates, where a
longer residence time of water in the storage tank is desired. However, flow between
tanks is driven only by a difference in water levels. A connection with a large cross-
sectional area is necessary to minimize the pressure drop and the water level
difference between tanks. Series connection of more than two tanks is generally not
recommended.

In large tanks with multiple ice-builder coil modules, baffles may be installed to
induce a serpentine flow of chilled water over the coils. This arrangement produces
a discharge characteristic similar to a series connection of several smaller tanks.

6.5 CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION

External melt ice storage systems require instrumentation to monitor the ice
inventory and to signal the end of ice making. Ice thickness sensors are used to
determine when the desired amount of ice has been built. These instruments typically
sense the difference in conductivity between liquid water and ice.
External Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 6-7

Storage inventory can be monitored by the increase in tank water level as the water
freezes and expands. The water level is typically measured in an external water
column using a differential pressure sensor; it can also easily be monitored visually
with a sight glass.

The tank water level is affected by operation of chilled water distribution pumps.
There is also a water level differencebetween the tankinlet and outlet,corresponding
to the tank pressure drop when there is flow through the tank. This change in water
level depends on the flow rate and the specific tank configuration.

Tank water level is also affected by operation of air agitation pumps. The increase
in water level with air pumpopetation generally results in an inventory measurement
error of about 2 to 3%. Inventory readings should be calibrated with air pumps
operating to avoid overestimating stored cooling inventory.

In the case of primary inventory measurements failing, a low suction temperature


shutoff on the compressor should be adjusted to prevent building ice to the point of
bridging across the tubes.

6.6 OPERATING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES


External melt systems are suited to any of the three basic operating strategies
discussed in Chapter 2-full storage,partial storage load leveling, and partial storage
demand limiting. Partial storage systems can provide direct cooling to supplement
stored ice with an auxiliary chiller, heat exchanger, or chiller barrel. Direct cooling
can also be supplied at reduced efficiency by cooling through the ice tank using the
charging chiller or compressor.

Control strategies for external melt systems should be able to melt as much ice as
possible each day and prevent the formation of ice bridges between tubes.

Ice built on bare pipes at the beginning of the charge cycle is built at the highest
suction temperaturesat the best efficiency and at the lowest cost. In contrast, the last
ice built on the pipes is formed at the lowest suction temperatures, at the lowest
efficiency, and at the highest cost. To maximize efficiency and minimize energy
consumption and cost, all ice should be melted each day so that the charge cycle for
the next day begins with bare pipes. If only part of the storage capacity is used, the
charge cycle should be limited so that only the required amount of cooling is stored.

Ice bridging across pipes is also prevented by discharging all ice each day. While
bridging is typically caused by overcharging the tank,it may occur if the ice melts
unevenly, so that some tubes are bare while ice remains on others. Over the course
6-8 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

of several chargeldischarge cycles, the ice thickness may build up in some areas to
the point that ice on adjacent tubes meets and fuses, Some facilities incorporate a
control sequence to provide a complete discharge of all ice at least one day a week,
such as on a Saturday.

Storage priority control is generally recommended for external melt systems. Such
strategies typically require some method of estimating or predicting the load for the
upcoming day to provide the appropriateamount of cooling from the supplementary
chiller. Grumman and Butkus (1989) describe one such control strategy.

In some cases, chiller priority control may be appropriate. With some utility rates,
the cost of off-peak electricity may be low enough that the efficiency penalty for not
melting all ice each day is outweighedby the simpler control. If off-peak energy costs
are relatively high, a chiller priority sequence with load prediction can minimize
costs by limiting the daily charge to that part of the load for the next day that cannot
be met by the chiller.

Full storage systems should be controlled to build only as much ice as is needed
during the next day. When a full charge is not needed, charging efficiency can be
increased by running compressors at partial capacity at a higher charging tempera-
ture over the entire charging period.

In normal charging operations, chillers or compressors should be controlled to


remain fully loaded during the entirechargecycle. Partial loading can reduce system
efficiency and may result in incomplete charging of storage. As return temperatures
to the chiller drop during charging, chiller loading will also drop if the chiller outlet
temperature is held constant. The chiller leaving temperature setpoint should be at
or below the minimum required charging temperature. With this approach, the
chiller will be fully loaded throughout the charging cycle. The same considerations
apply to the suction temperature setpoint in direct refrigerant systems.

6.7 INTERFACE WITH BUILDING SYSTEMS

External melt ice-on-coil systems use open, nonpressurized tanks and are subject to
the interface considerations discussed for open tanks in Section 2.5.3. Water
treatment and corrosion protection may be of increased concern, since water in the
tank is highly aerated.

A heat exchanger should be used to isolate the storage tank from the building
distribution system. This arrangement simplifies water treatment, as the building
distribution system becomes a conventional closed system.
External Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 6-9

Corrosion-resistant piping material, such as PVC, should be installed between the


heat exchanger outlet and the tank inlet.

The 34 to 36OF (1 to 2OC) discharge temperatures available from external melt


systems allow the use of chilled water temperature ranges of 24°F (13OC) or higher,
which significantly reduces the cost of pumps, piping, and pump energy compared
to typical nonstorage systems. These discharge temperatures are also well-suited to
the use of cold air distribution.

6.8 CHARGEIDISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS

Charging temperatures for an external melt system depend on the charging rate and
the amount of ice on the pipes at a given time. A shorter charging cycle, which
requires higher charging rates, dictateslower charging temperatures to freeze a given
quantity of ice. Thechargingtemperature decreases through thecharging cycleas the
thickness of ice through which heat must be transferred increases.

Stovall(1991) describes extensive charging performance tests of direct refrigerant


and secondary coolant external melt systems. For the direct refrigerant system,
suction temperaturesvaried from approximately 28°F (-2°C) to approximately 23°F
(-5°C) over the course of a 13-h charging period. For a 7-h charging period, the
suction temperature varied from 25 to 15°F (-4 to -9OC).

For the secondary coolant system, the results were similar. Charging temperatures
varied from 29 to 25°F (-1.5 to -4°C) for a 14-hcharging period, and from 25 to 16OF
(4to -g°C) for an 8-h charge time. While these temperatures are nearly the same
as those for the direct refrigerant system, note that the chiller should run at a suction
temperature 3 to 5OF (1.5 to 3OC) lower than the coolant temperature. Figure 6-5
shows a typical range of charging temperatures, based on the results of these tests.
6-10 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent of ice charged

Fig. 6-5 External Melt Charging Temperature Range

Stovall (1991) also tested external melt discharge characteristics at various dis-
charge rates and inlet temperatures. The results,summarizedin Figure 6-6, show that
discharge temperatures remained below 35OF (l.S°C) until 80%or more of the ice
in the tank melted.

30 (-I)++
0 25 50 75 100
percent of ice melted

Fig. 6-6 External Melt Discharge Temperature Range


External Melt ke-on-Coil Systems 6-11

In discharge tests beginning with overcharged tanks with some bridging between
tubes, discharge temperatures were found to be 2 to 3OF (1 to lS°C) higher than
normal during the last half of the discharge period. In ksts of discharging with no
tank aeration, discharge temperatures increased by 4 to 5OF (2 to 3OC).

Initial estimates of required chiller and storee capacitiescan be developed using the
quick sizing procedurepresented in Section 10.3. Final size requirements should be
determined by a detailed simulation of hourly performance during the design storage
cycle, as discussed in Sections 2.6 and 10.6.

The instantaneous heat gain of aeration pumps is relatively small, but the total heat
gain over the entirecharge/dischargecyclecan be significant. For system sizing, this
heat should be treated as a tank loss, and the total storage capacity should be
increased accordingly.

An initial storage equipment selection can be made based on manufacturer's


performance tables after determining the available charging time and the required
storage capacity.

Sizing of refrigeration components for a direct refrigerant system requires consid-


ering the performance of compressors, condensers, chiller barrels, and the storage
tank at each hour's expected load and ambient conditions. Silver et al. (1989)
describe a computer model developed to simulate the performance and interaction
of components in direct refrigerant external melt systems.

Selection of a chiller for a secondary coolant system requires the average entering
and leaving temperatures for a given storage unit to be determined based on the
required charging rate.

Storage manufacturers assist in the selection process, by providing computer


simulationsof storage performance for given load profiles and chiller temperatures.
To some extent, the desired storage performance can be achieved in a given size tank
by adjusting the number, length, and configuration of pipes.

Final component selection is an iterative process involving evaluation of compressor


or chiller capacity at various charging temperatures and of storage capacity and
required charging rates and charging temperatures for possible storage tank selec-
tions.
6-12 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Installed costs of external melt storage capacity, including storage tanks and ice-
builder coils, are typically in the range of $50 to $70 per ton-hour ($14 to $20 per
kwh). For more accurateestimates fora specific application,obtain cost quotes from
suppliers.

Chiller cost estimates are discussed in Section 2.7.2. Since ice making capacity for
a given chiller is typically 60 to 70%of nominal capacity, rules of thumb for chiller
costs should be adjusted accordingly.

External melt ice storage systems are capable of delivering low chilled water supply
temperatures, allowing significant savings in water and air distribution equipment
costs.

6.11 EFFICIENCY AND OPERATING COST


Instantaneous chiller efficiency during ice making varies according to the amount of
ice that has been built on the pipes, as well as on the ambient conditionsand the type
of chiller or compressor installed.

Average efficiency during ice making can be expected to be between 0.9 and 1.4 kW
per ton (3.9 and 2.5 COP). The charging efficiency will be higher with a refrigerant
system than with a secondary coolant system because of the more direct heat transfer.

Seasonal efficiency depends on the control strategies used. As discussed in Section


6.6, charging on bare pipes is most efficient, and efficiency decreases with the
thickness of the ice layer. The choice of control strategy directly affects overall
energy consumption.

6.12 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

Operation of an external melt ice storage system can be refined and optimized over
time. Section2.8.1 provides a general discussion of optimizing storage system
operation.For an external melt system,controlstrategiescan be devised to maximize
efficiencyby melting all ice beforebeginning charging whenever possible. Charging
at the maximum temperature practical also improves efficiency.

Maintenance of chilling equipment in a secondary coolant external melt system is


similar to that for nonstorage systems. Maintenance considerations for glycol
coolants are discussed in Section2.8.3.
External Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 6-13

Maintenance of refrigeration equipment in a refrigerant-based external melt system


requires expertise that is not typical for commercial applications, although it is
common in industrial operations. On-site personnel or service contractors respon-
sible for this equipment should have a good understanding of the refrigeration
equipment or receive appropriate training.

Maintenance requirements of the storage tanks themselves are minimal. Makeup


water should be added to keep the tank water at the required level. When makeup
water is added, tank inventory sensors based on water level should be recalibrated.
Stovall(1991)notes that water level is affected by the operation of aeration pumps.
Inventory sensors should be calibrated with aeration pumps operating.

Water treatment considerations are discussed in Section 2.8.3. Because of the highly
aerated water in an extemal melt system, water should be treated for corrosion
protection.

6.13 COMMISSIONING
Commissioningis an ongoing process starting in the predesign phase and continuing
through the first year of system operation. The overall commissioning process is
discussed in Section 2.9. The performance evaluation phase of the commissioning
process for external melt ice storage systems is described here.

The following quantities are tested during the performance evaluation:

Total storage capacity


Discharge rate and discharge temperatures
Charging capacity
Scheduling and control sequences
Peak demand and energy efficiency

For secondary coolant external melt systems, performance testing should include
measurement of the density and specific heat of the coolant so that heat transfer rates
from coolant temperatures and flows may be accurately calculated.

Total storage tank capacity is measured by fully charging the tank and discharging
it against aload with no other cooling supplied. Measure the usable cooling delivered
up to the point that the discharge temperature from the tank rises above the maximum
usable chilled water supply temperature.

The total usable storage capacity of an external melt system is relatively independent
of the rate at which cooling is discharged. Discharging the tank at the rate specified
6-14 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

in the &sign operating profile provides the most accurate evaluation of actual tank
capacity under design conditions. However, if this is not practical, other discharge
rates will provide acceptable estimates.

The discharge rate and discharge temperature tests verify that the load can be met at
the required dischargetemperature for each hour of the design profile. The discharge
rate and the discharge temperature profile are generally verified during the test of
storage tank capacity.

Testing the charging capacity of the system verifies that the storage tanks can be
charged in the required time period. Operate the chiller at the design charging
setpoint and monitor the cooling stored in the tanks. If the design operating profile
calls for the chiller to meet a load while charging storage, this load must be included
in the test.

The charging time in an external melt system depends on the charging temperature.
By repeating thecharging test several times, the highest temperature setting that will
fully charge storage in the time available can be identified.

The instantaneous ice making capacity of a refrigerant-based external melt system


is difficult to measure directly. In a water-cooled system, cooling capacity can be
measured indirectly by subtracting the electrical power input from the heat rejected.
The cooling output over time can be measured by starting and ending with the tank
at an identical state of charge, and monitoring the cooling delivered from the tank.

Scheduling and control sequence tests confirm that the system is operating as
intended. During testing, verify that the system switches modes at the appropriate
times, with pumps starting or stopping and valves operating in the correct sequences.
Also, confm that the air agitation pump turns on and off at the appropriate times.
Verify and calibratechiller setpointsfor charging and direct cooling modes. Confirm
that the mixedchilled water supply temperature to the load is controlledat the correct
setpoint. Calibrate the inventory sensor by noting the output signal at the fully
charged and fully discharged conditions.

Measurement of peak demand and energy efficiency is discussed in Section 2.9.3.


Instantaneous efficiency of a refrigerant-based external melt system is difficult to
measure because of the inability to measure instantaneous ice making capacity.
Average efficiency over a period of time can be found by measuring total energy
input and cooling delivered over a number of complete cycles, with the tank at the
same state of charge at the beginning and end of the test.
External Melt Iceon-Coil Systems 6-15

REFERENCES

Grumman,D.L. and A.S. Butkus. 1989.Ice storage application toan Illinois hospital.
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(3):27-33.
Harmon, J J. and H.C. Yu. 1991. Centrifugal chillers and glycol ice thermal storage
units. ASHRAE Journal (December):25-3 1.
Mackie,E.I. and W.V. Richards, 1992.Designof off-peakcoolingsystems. ASHRAE
Professional Development Seminar.
Silver, S.C., J.W. Jones, J.L. Peterson, andB.D. Hunn. 1989. CBS/ICE: A computer
program for simulation of ice storage systems. ASHRAE Transactions
95(1): 1206-13. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin, 5(4):35-42.
Stovall, T.K. 1991. Baltimore Aircoil Company (BAC) ice storage test report,
ORNL/IM-11342, March. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baltimore Aircoil Co. Baltimore Aircoil product information manual.


Brady, T.W. 1986. Thermal storage for the Merchandise Mart. ASHRAE Journal
(November): 18-2 1.
Donovan, JF. The ice builder. An off-peak approach. Chester-Jensen Co., Inc.
Foster, L.J. 1985. A review of the design and system performance. ASHRAE
Transactions9 1(1B):892403.Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin:
Thermal Storage (January):83-94.
Grumman, D.L. and AS. Butkus. 1988. The ice storage option. ASHRAE Journal
(May):2&27.
McCullough, J.M. 1988.Ice thermal storage: System selection and design. Consult-
inglspecifying Engineer, January.
McNeil, W.P. and J.D. Mathey. 1985. Review of an operating ice storage system
performance. ASHRAE Transactions9 1(1B): 977-92. Reprinted in ASHRAE
Technical Data Bulletin: Thermal Storage (January):124-38.
McNeil, W.P. 1986.Operatingexperiencewith an ice storage system,A case history.
EPRI Proceedings: International Load Management Conference, Section 20,
June.
Pearson, FJ. 1988. Cool storage system design. ASHRAE Journal (July):20-24.
6-16 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Reardon, J.G. and K.M. Penuel. 1985. An ice-making showcase. ASHRAE Journal
(May):24-29.
Sohn,C.W. 1991. Thermalperformanceofan ice storagecooling system. ASME91-
HT-26,July.
Yu, H., S. Wu, and C, Fan. 1989. Computer simulation for ice making process of
direct expansion ice storage system for air-conditioning. 9th Annual Interna-
tional Congress on Energy and Environment, 119.
Chapter 7 INTERNAL MELT ICE-ON-COIL
STORAGE SYSTEMS

7.1 PRIMARY FEATURES

Internal melt ice-on-coil systems:

Use a secondary coolant, typically ethylene glycol, as both the charging and
discharging fluid in a closed loop system.
Provide sustained discharge temperatures of 36 to 38OF (2 to 3OC), which are
dependent on discharge rate and the amount of ice remaining.
Require chillers capable of producing charging temperatures of 22 to 26°F (4
to -3OC).
Are available with modular tanks.

7.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Internal melt ice-on-coilstorage systems use a secondary coolant as the chargingand


discharging heat transfer fluid, circulating it through tubes or coils submerged in
water-filled tanks. To build ice, a chiller cools the coolant to 22 to 26OF (-6 to -3OC),
and ice forms on the outside of the tubes. To discharge storage, warm coolant flows
through the tubes, melting the ice from the inside out and reducing the coolant
temperature for use in meeting the cooling load.

Figure 7-1illustrates acomplete internal melt storage tank, and Figure 7-2 illustrates
the charging and discharging process in an internal melt system. Internal melt ice
systems are typically configured with the storage tanks in series with the chiller, in
either chiller upstream or chiller downstream arrangements.

In the chillerupstream configurationusing apartial storage operating strategy,warm


return fluid from the building load is precooled by the chiller before entering the
storage tanks. This arrangement provides more efficientchiller operation because of
7-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Fig. 7-1 Modular Internal Melt Ice Storage Tank

Charging Discharging

Fig. 7-2 Charge and Discharge of Internal Melt Ice Storage


Internal Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 7-3

the higher operating temperatures. However, the usable portion of the total nominal
storage capacity is reduced because of the lower storage discharge temperature.
Discharge temperature characteristics are discussed in Section7.9.

In a chiller downstream configuration, warm return water first flows through the
storagetanks, where it is cooled before entering the chiller.This arrangementresults
in a higher usable storage capacity, as well as an assured constant discharge
temperature. However, chillers operate at lower discharge temperatures and less
efficiently than in the chiller upstream arrangement. Figure 7-3 presents schematic
diagrams of typical chiller upstream and chiller downstream configurations.

Chiller

-lt
@ Load

A CHILLER UPSTREAM

Load

B. CHILLER DOWNSTREAM

Fig. 7 3 Typical Internal Melt Storage Configuration


7-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Modular internal melt tanks are generally connected in parallel in a reverse return
arrangement to ensure equal flow through all tanks.

7.3 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS


Internal melt thermal energy storage systems use standard chillers selected to
provide coolant temperatures of 22 to 26OF (-6 to -3OC). Chillers that must also
provide direct cooling will typically operate at 36 to 42OF (2 to 6OC), depending on
the specific application.Positive displacementcompressors, such as reciprocating or
rotary screw types, are often used because of low charging temperatures and the
relatively wide range of operating temperatures.

Centrifugal compressors may be used provided they are properly selected for the
intended range of evaporator temperatures. Harmon and Yu (1991) discuss the
selection of centrifugal chillers for ice making at 24 to 26OF (-4 to - 3 O C ) .

7.4 STORAGE TANKS

General storage tank considerations are discussed in Section 2.3.2. This section
addresses specific concerns for internal melt ice-on-coil storage systems.

Storage tanks for internal melt systems are available in several configurations.
Modular tanks with 100 to 200 ton-hours (350 to 700 kwh) nominal capacity are
manufactured in cylindrical plastic or rectangular steel configurations, with plastic
heat exchange tubing. Rectangular steel tanks are available with galvanized steel
heat exchange coils. Prefabricated steel pipe heat exchangers are also available for
installation in site-built tanks, which are generally concrete.

Tanks can be located indoors or outdoors. Concrete tanks may be buried or located
on-grade. Cylindrical tank modules can be stacked on a supporting framework.
Modular tank manufacturers recommend an overhead clearance of 3 ft (1 m) to
facilitate inspection and repair.

Modular internal melt tanks are designed to freeze all the water between the heat
exchange tubes. If the tanks are overcharged, the water forced up into the expansion
volume of the tanks during freezing will also be frozen. Since there is little or no heat
transfersurface in this area, it is difficult to melt ice once it forms here. The formation
of such an ice cap reduces the storage capacity of the tank by reducing the volume
of water available to cover the heat exchange tubes.
Internal Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 7-5

One manufacturer has addressed this potential problem by installing a perforated,


insulated partition between the active portion of the tank and the expansion volume.
Water is free to flow intoandoutof theexpansion volume,but the insulation prevents
it from freezing.

7.5 CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION


Chiller controls are typically supplied by chiller manufacturers. Internal melt ice
storage tanks are usually supplied with inventory monitoring instrumentation. Tank
inventory is typically measured based on the change in water level in the tanks as ice
forms. The water level is measured with a static pressure transducer, which senses
the height of a column of water.

Internal melt systems normally use a bypass around the storage tanks to control the
leaving water temperature. A three-way mixing valve, or two linked two-way valves,
modulates to control the proportion of chilled fluid flow bypassing storage, based on
the desired leaving temperature. As the temperature available from storage in-
creases, an increasing proportion of the flow is diverted through the storage tanks,
maintaining the desired mixed leaving temperature.

Charging of internal melt storage tanks is generally terminated when the coolant
temperature leaving storage drops to about 2OF (1°C) below the design leaving
temperature. This method provides a more reliable means of determining a full
charge than do inventory sensors. A timeclock control is often used to lock out ice
making at the end of the scheduled charging period. However, this is primarily a
safety feature. In a properly sized system under normal operation, charging will be
completed before being terminated by a timeclock.

7.6 OPERATING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES

Internal melt systems are compatible with each of the three basic operating strategies
discussed in Section 2.4--full storage,partial storageload leveling, or partial storage
demand limiting.

Internal melt systems with chiller upstream arrangements are well-suited to chiller
priority control. When the load is less than the chiller capacity, the storage tanks are
bypassed completely. As the load rises above the chiller capacity and the chiller
leaving temperature increases above the supply temperature setpoint, the control
system diverts part of the chilled fluid flow through storage to achieve the desiced
supply temperature. This control strategy is simple to implement and minimizes the
risk of storage being depleted prematurely.
7-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Chiller priority control can also be applied when the chiller is installed downstream
of storage. The storage bypass is controlled to maintain the temperature leaving
storage at the maximum chiller return temperature. All the flow bypasses the storage
tanks until the load exceeds the chiller capacity. At this point, the appropriate
proportion of flow is diverted through the storage tanks.

Storagepriority control sequencesare generally more complex to implement. A load


estimation or prediction algorithm is generally required to forecast how much chiller
cooling will be required each day. Chiller capacity is then limited, typically by
increasing the leaving temperature setpoint, to allow most or all of the load to be met
from storage.

In general, chillers should be controlled during charging to remain fully loaded


during the entire charge cycle. Partial loading can reduce system efficiencyand may
result in incomplete charging of storage. As return temperatures to the chiller drop
during charging, chiller loading will also drop if the chiller outlet temperatureis held
constant. The chiller leaving temperature setpoint should be set at or below the
minimum requiredcharging temperature. With thisapproach, the chiller will be fully
loaded throughout the charge cycle.

7.7 INTERFACE WITH BUILDING SYSTEMS


An internal melt ice storage system is closed and pressurized. The storage loop can
be directly connected to the building distribution loop or separated by a heat
exchanger.

Direct-connected systems operate with the storage loop secondary coolant in the
entire building system. For some buildings, the winter freeze protection provided by
the coolant may be advantageous. The expense of providing a large volume of
coolant is also a consideration. In addition, cooling coil capacity will be reduced
compared to performance with water. Design considerations for glycol secondary
coolants are discussed in Section 2.8.3 and in Gatley (1992) and Nussbaurn (1990).

If a heat exchanger is used to separate the storage loop from the chilled water
distribution loop, the distribution side must be protected from freezing during
charging, when the coolant temperature may be as low as 22°F (-6'C). Typically, a
charging bypass is provided around the heat exchanger. Flow should be diverted
through the bypass using two linked two-way valves rather than a three-way valve,
since the three-way valve is more likely to allow some leakage to the heat exchanger.
It is also advisable to provide heat exchanger freeze protection, such as starting
secondary pumps if the primary side temperature falls below 36°F (2OC).
Internal Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 7-7

The low discharge temperatures available from intemal melt systems allow the use
of chilled water temperatureranges of U°F (13OC) or higher, resulting in significant
reductions in the cost of pumps, piping, and pump energy compared to typical
nonstorage systems. These discharge temperatures are also well-suited to the use of
cold air distribution.

Internal melt systems are well-suited to retrofit applications,where aging packaged


rooftop DX air-conditioning units require replacement. The existing compressors
and condensers are abandoned in place, and DX cooling coils are fitted with new
headers to allow use with secondary coolant. Existing air handler fans are generally
usable as is. A new air-cooled chiller and modular ice storage tanks with associated
piping are installed. This conversion is practical only if the existing coil and drain
pan are in good condition. MacCracken (1987), Denkmann (1990), Keeler (1990),
and Pandya (1990) discuss this thermal storage option.

7.8 SIZING
Sizing an internal melt ice storage system requires selecting the appropriate ice
making capacity and storage capacity for a given application. Initial chiller and
storage capacities can be estimated using the quick sizing procedure presented in
Section 10.3.1. Final size requirements should be determined by a detailed simula-
tion of hourly performance during the design storage cycle, as discussed in Sections
2.6 and 10.6.

An initial storage equipment selection can be made based on manufacturer's


performance tables after determining the available charging time and the required
storage capacity.

Chiller selection requires determinationof the minimum required coolant tempera-


ture for a given storage capacity based on the required charging rate.

Storage capacity must be selected to ensure that the required discharge capacity is
availableat the required temperaturefor each hour of the design load profile. Storage
manufacturers help in the selection process and may provide computer simulations
of storage performance for given load profiles and chiller temperatures.

Final component selection is an iterative process involving the evaluation of chiller


capacity at various charging temperatures. Storage performance for the possible
storage tank selections should be evaluated for each hour in terms of discharge
performance and required charging rates and charging temperatures.
7-8 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

7.9 CHARGEIDISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS

Charging temperatures for an internal melt system depend on the charging rate and
the state of charge of the storage tanks at a given time. A shorter charging cycle
requires lower charging temperatures to freeze a given quantity of ice. The charging
temperature decreases through the charging cycle as the thickness of ice through
which heat must be transferred increases. Manufacturers provide data on the
minimum charging temperature required for various charging rates.

Stovall (1991) describes extensive tests of the charging performance of one


manufacturer's internal melt storage tank. Charging temperatures typically dropped
off by 2 to 3OF (1 to 2OC) from the beginning to the end of the chargingcycle. Average
charging temperatures ranged from approximately 23°F (15°C) to approximately
27OF (-3"C), depending on the charging rate. Figure 7-4 shows a typical range of
charging temperatures, for charging periods of 8 to 16 h and with flow rates
corresponding to chiller temperature ranges of about 4 to 7OF (2 to 4OC).

I I I I I

20 40 60 80 100
Percent of ice charged

Fig. 7-4 Typical Internal Met Charging Temperature Range

Stovall(1991)observedapronounceddip in charging temperatures at the beginning


of chargingdue to supercoolingof liquid waterpriorto the initiation of ice formation.
When crystallization begins and the excess sensible cooling provided by the tank is
released, the charging temperature rebounds to its normal level.
Internal Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 7-9

This supercooling occurs only when there is no ice in the tank at the beginning of
charging. If any ice remains unmelted from the previous cycle, as is usually the case,
freezing of additional water proceeds without supercooling.

Internal melt ice storage tanks have a steadily falling discharge rate if a constant
discharge temperature is maintained, or a steadily rising temperature if a constant
dischargerate is maintained. This characteristic results from the insulating effect of
water around the tubes as the ice is melted.

~bvall(l99l) alsotested internal melt dischargecharacteristicsat various discharge


rates and inlet temperatures. The results show outlet temperatures rising steadily
through the discharge period, with the temperature profile depending on the inlet
temperature and the rate of discharge. Figure 7-5 shows a typical range of discharge
temperatures for constant discharge rates over periods of 6 to 8 h with an inlet
temperature of 50°F (lO°C).

30 (-111 I I I I
25 50 75 100
Percent of ice melted

Fig. 7-5 Typical Internal Melt Discharge Temperature Range

In practice, cool storage tanks will rarely be discharged at aconstantrate. The actual
dischargetemperature profile experienced in a given application dependson the load
profile. The load during the last several hours of the dischargecycle is generally most
7-10 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

important in determining the maximum discharge temperature. Storage capacity


must be selected so that the required discharge temperature and discharge rate can
be achieved each hour. Performance data supplied by manufacturers of internal melt
ice storage tanks can be used to determine available discharge temperature for a
given discharge rate and state of charge.

In general, the usable portion of the nominal storage capacity is greater with lower
dischargerates and higher dischargetemperatures. High dischargerates and constant
low discharge temperatures can be achieved by providing additional storage capac-
ity.

Steel heat exchange coils for internal melt applications are available with a finned
tube section near the outlet of the coil. This option provides a lower, more constant
discharge temperature characteristic because of the improved heat transfer between
the secondary coolant and the 32°F (0°C) water in the tank.

Jekel et al. (1993) discuss the development of a computer model of charging and
discharging performance of intemal melt ice storage tanks.

7.10 FIRST COST


Installed costs of internal melt storage tanks, including tanks and internal heat
transfer surface, are typically in the range of $50 to $70 per ton-hour ($14 to $20 per
kwh). This guideline is useful for initial economic evaluations. Obtain cost quotes
from vendors if an accurate estimate for a specific application is needed.

Chiller cost estimates are discussed in Section 2.7.2. Ice making capacity for a given
chiller is typically 60 to 70%of nominal capacity, so rules of thumb for chiller costs
should be adjusted accordingly.

Internal melt ice storage systems are capable of delivering low chilled water supply
temperatures, allowing significant savings in water and air distribution equipment
costs.

7.11 EFFICIENCY AND OPERATING COST

Chiller efficiencyfor charging internal melt ice systems typically in the range of 0.85
to 1.2 kW/ton (4.1 to 2.9 COP).The efficiency varies depending on the charging
temperaturerequired for aspecific application as well as the type of chiller installed.
Internal Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 7-11

Chiller efficiency during charging is affected by the piping configuration if night-


time loads are met by the charging chiller. The load should be downstream of the
storage tanks. If chilled coolant is used to meet the load before it flows to the storage
tanks, the fluid temperature will increase, and the chiller must operate at a lower
temperature and lower efficiency to provide the required charging temperature to
storage.

Efficiency during the direct cooling mode dependson the chillerentering and leaving
temperatures, which vary widely for various design alternatives. A chiller upstream
arrangement will have higher chiller efficiency but a lower usable percentage of the
nominal storage capacity. Chiller downstream arrangements maximize the usable
portion of storage capacity, but chiller efficiency is reduced because of the lower
operating temperature.

Direct cooling efficiency for a downstream chiller is equivalent to that for a


nonstorage system with the same supply temperature. An upstream chiller operates
at higher temperatures and increased efficiency compared to a nonstorage system.

Leight and Elleson (1993) describe an internal melt ice storage system with a
reciprocating and a centrifugal chiller installed downstream of storage. The average
overall efficiencyforthis system, forcharging and direct cooling, was 0.9 1kWh/ton-
hour (3.9 COP). The centrifugal chiller operated at an average charging efficiency
of 0.92 kWh/ton-hour (3.8 COP), and the reciprocating chiller charged at an average
efficiency of 1.0 kWh/ton-hour (3.5 COP). The centrifugal chiller provided direct
cooling at 32 to 3S°F (0to 2*C), with an average efficiency of 0.78 kWh/ton-hour
(4.5 COP).

Sohn et al. (1990) describe an internal melt ice system with a reciprocating chiller,
which operated at average efficiencies of 1.19 kW/ton (2.96 COP) for charging and
0.96 kW/ton (3.7 COP)for direct cooling.

7.12 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

Operation of an internal melt ice storage system can be refined and optimized over
time. Section 2.8.1 provides a general discussion of optimizing storage system
operation. For an internal melt system, efficiencycan be improved by determining
the maximum practical charging temperature.

Maintenance of chilling equipment in an internal melt system is similar to that for


nonstorage systems. Maintenance considerations for glycol coolants are discussed
in Section 2.8.3.
7-12 Design Guide for Cool Thennai Storage

Maintenance requirements of the storage tanks themselves are minimal. The water
level in the tanks should be checked at least annually, and makeup water should be
added if necessary. Tank inventory sensors should be calibrated at regular intervals,
particularly at the fully charged and fully discharged conditions.

7.13 COMMISSIONING
Commissioning is an ongoing process starting in the predesign phase and continuing
through the first year of system operation. The overall commissioning process is
discussed in Section2.9. The performance evaluation phase of the commissioning
process for internal melt ice storage systems is described here.

Test for the following during the performance evaluation phase of commissioning:

Total storage capacity


Discharge rate and discharge temperatures
Charging capacity
Scheduling and control sequences
Peak demand and energy efficiency

To allow accurate calculation of heat transfer rates from coolant temperatures and
flows, performance testing should include measurement of the density and specific
heat of secondary coolants.

The total usable storage capacity of an internal melt system depends on the rate at
which cooling is discharged. Therefore,to evaluate the design storage capacity, it is
essential to test the system against the design load profile. For partial storage
systems, if it is not feasibleto provide the design loadon the entire system,the storage
can be tested separately from the chiller. The design inlet temperatures and flow
rates, as specified in the design operating profile, must be supplied to the storage
tanks.

The test of total storage capacity begins with the tanks fully charged. As the tanks
are discharged against the design load profile, monitor and record the amount of
cooling supplied before the discharge temperature rises above the maximum usable
temperature.

The discharge rate and discharge temperature tests verify that cooling is supplied
each hour at the specified discharge temperatures and flow rates. These checks are
particularly important during the last few hours of the discharge cycle. The discharge
rate and the discharge temperature profile are generally verified during the test of
storage tank capacity.
Internal Melt Ice-on-Coil Systems 7-13

Testing the charging capacity of the system verifies that the storage tanks can be
charged in the required time period. Operate the chiller at the design charging
setpoint and monitor the cooling stored in the tanks. If the design operating profile
calls for the chiller to meet a load while charging storage, this load must be included
in the test.

The charging time in an internal melt system depends on the charging temperature.
Over the course of several charging cycles, the optimum charging temperature
setpoint can be identified. The optimum charging setpoint is the temperature setting
that will fully charge storage in the time available, while minimizing chiller and
auxiliary energy consumption.

Scheduling and control sequence tests confm that the system operates as intended.
Verify that the system switches modes at the appropriate times, with pumps starting
or stopping and valves operating in the correct sequences. Verify and calibratechiller
setpoints for charging and direct cooling modes. Confirm that the temperatureof the
fluid leaving storage is controlled at the correct setpoint.

Measurement of peak demand and energy efficiency is discussed in Section 2.9.3.

REFERENCES

Denkmann, J.L. 1990. Cool storage retrofit of rooftop units and direct expansion
systems. ASHRAE Transactions 96(1):1067-79.
Gatley, DP. 1992. Cool storage ethylene glycol design guide. EPRI TR-100945,
September.
Harmon, JJ. and H.C. Yu. 1991. Centrifugal chillers and glycol ice thermal storage
units. ASHRAE Journal (December):25-31.
Jekel, T.B., J.W. Mitchell, and S.A. Klein. 1993. Modeling of ice-storage tanks.
ASHRAE Transactions 99(1),
Keeler, R.M. 1990. Scrap DX for CW with ice storage. HeatinglPipinglAir Condi-
tioning (August):5942.
Leight, S.P.and J.S. Elleson. 1993. Case study of an ice storage system with cold air
distribution and heat recovery, Draft report. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power
Research Institute.
MacCracken, C.D. 1987.Rooftops: The big challenge for COPAC (commercial off-
peak air conditioning).EPRI Seminar Proceedings: Commercial Cool Storage,
State of the Art, EM-5454-SR, October.
Nussbaum, O.J. 1990. Using glycol in a closed circuit system. HeatinglPipinglAir
Conditioning (January):75-85.
7-14 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Pandya, D.A. 1990. Retrofit unitary cool storage system. HeafinglPipinglAir Con-
ditioning (July):35-37.
Sohn, C.W., G.L. Cler, and R.J. Kedl. 1990. Performance of an ice-in-tank diurnal
ice storage cooling system at Fort Stewart, GA. USA CERL Technical Report
E-90110, June.
Stovall, T.K. 1991. CALMAC ice storage test report, ORNL/I'M-11582, August.
Oak Ridge, TN:Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CALMAC Manufacturing Corp. CALMAC product information manual.


Denkmann, J.L. 1985. Performance analysis of a brine-based ice storage system.
ASHRAE Transactions9 1(1B):876-91.Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data
Bulletin, Thermal Storage (January):67-82.
FAFCO Inc. FAFCO product information manual.
Herro, MJ.and R. Roach. 1986. Thermal storage with EMS control-An in-house
application. Papers presented at 9th World Energy Engineering Congress,
October.
Lawson, S.H. 1988. Computer facility keeps cool with ice storage. HeatinglPipingl
Air Conditioning, August.
MacCracken, C.D. 1984. Design considerations for modular glycol ice storage
systems. ASHRAE Transactions 90(1B):374-84.
MacCracken, C.D. 1985. Control of brine-type ice storage systems. ASHRAE
Transactions 91(1B):3243. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin:
Thermal Storage (January):26-36.
Pandya, D.A. 1991. Central cool storage receives 'A' at school. HeatinglPipinglAir
Conditioning (March):42-45.
Procell, C.J. 1987. Designing a new system. ASHRAE Journal (September):18-22.
Sohn, C.W. and J.J. Tomlinson. 1988. Design and construction of an ice-in-tank
diurnal ice storage for the PX building at Fort Stewart, GA. Construction
Engineering Research Lab, CERL-TR-E-88/07 Final Report, July.
Sohn, C.W. and JJ. Tomlinson. 1989. Diurnal ice storage cooling systems in Army
facilities. ASHRAE Transactions 95(1):1079-85.
Tackett,R.K. 1989. Case study: Office building uses ice storage, heat recovery, and
cold air distribution. ASHRAE Transactions 95(1):1113-21. Reprinted in
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(3):1-9.
Weil, M.S. 1988. Bellevue Place: A designbuild project by Holaday-Parks. Con-
tracting Business, July.
Chapter 8 ENCAPSULATED ICE

8.1 PRIMARY FEATURES


Encapsulated ice systems:

Use a secondary coolant, typically ethylene glycol, as a bath for plastic water
containers.
Require approximately2.4 to 2.8 ft3of tank volume per ton-hour (0.019 to 0.023
m3/kWh)of available stored cooling.
Can be applied with both large and small loads.
Require chillers capable of producing charging temperatures of 22 to 26OF (-6
to -3°C).

8.2 GENERAL DESCRlPTlON


As shown in Figure 8-1, an encapsulated ice thermal storage system consists of
plastic containers of water immersed in a secondary coolant, such as ethylene glycol.
Freezing and thawing takes place in the water held inside the containers.

Fig. 8-1 Encapsulated Ice Containers


8-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

To charge storage, coolant at 22 to 26OF (-6 to - 3 O C ) is circulated through the tank.


The water inside the containers gives up its latent heat and freezes. To discharge
storage, warm coolant carrying heat from the load is circulated through the tank,
melting the encapsulated ice and lowering the coolant temperature. The chilled
coolant is then used to meet the load either directly or through a heat exchanger.
Figure 8-2 illustrates the formation of ice in sphericalcontainersduring chargingand
discharging.

CHARGING DISCHARGING

Fig. 8-2 Charge and Discharge of Encapsulated Ice Storage

Encapsulated ice containers are currently available in two designs in the United
States: rectangular containers in 4.5-gal and 1-1-gal (17.0 L and 4.2 L) sizes, and
dimpled spheres about 4 in. (100 mm) in diameter. In Europe, 3.75-in. (95 mm) and
3-in. (75 mm) diameterrigidspheres are also used. The containers are made of high-
density polyethylene and are designed to accommodate the expansion and resulting
pressure of the freezing ice. Spherical containers are factory-filled with deionized
water and nucleating agent. Rectangular containers are generally filled on site with
deionized water.

Encapsulated ice storage can use open, nonpressurized tanks, or pressurized tanks.
Open tank systems generally require a restraining grate or barrier to keep the frozen
containers submerged.

Sphericalcontainersare simply funnelled into a storage tank during installation. Due


to their symmetrical shape, they settle into a packing arrangement that allows free
circulation of the heat transfer fluid around each container. The rectangular contain-
ers are manually stacked inside the tank. Molded feet on each container provide
clearance for fluid circulation. These containers need to be stacked inside the tank
in such a way that expansion and contraction movements and the force of circulating
Encapsulated Ice 8-3

fluid does not open unwanted passages for fluid flow, which can lead to short-
circuiting and degradation in performance.

Encapsulated ice systems are typically configured with the storage tanks in series
with the chiller, in either chiller upstream or chiller downstream arrangements.
Arrangements with the tanks in parallel with the chiller during discharge are also
possible.

In the chiller upstream configurationusing apartid storage operating strategy, warm


return fluid from the building load is precooled by the chiller before entering the
storage tank. This arrangement provides more efficient chiller operation because of
the higher operating temperatures. However, the usable portion of the total nominal
storage capacity will be reduced because of the lower storage discharge temperature.
Discharge temperature characteristics are discussed in Section 8.9.

In a chiller downstream configuration, warm return water first flows through the
storage tanks,where it is cooled before entering the chiller. This arrangementresults
in a higher usable storage capacity, as well as an assured constant discharge
temperature. However, chillers operate at lower discharge temperatures and less
efficiently than in the chiller upstream arrangement. Figures 8-3 and 8-4 are
schematic diagrams of typical chiller upstream and chiller downstream configura-
tions.

Fig. 8-3 Typical Encapsulated Ice Configuration, Chiller Upstream


8-4 Design Gulde for Cool Thermal Storage

c CHILLER

1
A

\1
STORAQE TANK

Fig.8 4 Typical Encapsulated Ice Configuration, Chiller Downstream

8.3 REFRIGERATION SYSTEM


Encapsulated ice thermal energy storage systems use standard chillers selected to
provide coolant temperatures of 22 to 26OF (-6 to -3OC). Chillers that also provide
direct cooling typically operate at 36 to 42OF (2 to 6OC),depending on the specific
application. Positive displacement compressors, such as reciprocating or rotary
screw types, are often used because of the low charging temperatures and the
relatively wide m g e of operating temperatures.

Centrifugal compressors may be used provided they are properly selected for the
intended range of evaporator temperatures. Harmon and Yu (1991) discuss the
selection of centrifugal chillers for ice making at 24 to 26°F (-4 to -3°C).
Encapsulated k e 85

8.4 STORAGE TANKS

General storage tank considerations are discussed in Section 2.3.2. This section
covers specific concerns for encapsulated ice systems.

Tanks are generally constructed of steel or concrete and may be located indoors or
outdoors. Steel tanks may be either open to the atmosphere or closed and pressurized.
Concrete tanks may be located underground. The inside surface of the tank must be
smooth to prevent abrasion of the containers as they move about during the charge
and discharge cycles.

Tank insulation should be installed on the exterior of the tank only. Internal
insulation is susceptible to damage from the movement of containers and the
resulting exposure to tank fluid.

Urethane coatingsshould be used to combat corrosion in steel tanks. Manhole access


is necessary for loading containers into the tank and for maintenance access.

With the rectangular containers,a horizontal baffle is sometimes installed in the tank
at mid-level to direct the heat transfer solution in a two-pass flow pattern. This
approach is intended to provide a longer flow path for the coolant for a longer
residence time in the tank and for improved heat transfer. The design flow through
a baffled tank should not be exceeded. An excessive pressure drop between the tank
inlet and outlet may rupture the baffle, degrading the heat transfer characteristics of
the installation.

Systems with spherical containers use inlet and outlet manifolds to distribute the
fluid flow evenly throughout the tank.The design of these manifolds vary according
to the style container selected and the shape and size of the tank. Container
manufacturers provide assistance with manifold design.

Rectangularencapsulatedice containersare normally used in pressurized, horizontal


cylindrical steel tanks which can be buried. The heat transfer fluid travels in a
horizontal direction as it passes through the stacked containers. Sphericalcontainers
may be used in tanks of nearly any shape, either pressurized or open to atmospheric
pressure.

Condensation on support saddles for cylindrical steel tanks has been significant in
some installations. Saddles should be thermally isolated from tanks by nonconduct-
ing inserts, or they should be provided with insulation and vapor barriers.
8-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

8.5 CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION

Inventory monitoring insbumentation is typically supplied by manufacturers of


encapsulated ice storage containers. Tank inventory is measured based on the
displacement of water in the tanks as ice forms.

In open tanks, the change in water level is measured with a static pressure transducer
that senses the height of a column of water, or with another type of level sensor. In
pressurized tanks, the expansion of the freezing containers forces fluid from the tank
into a separate inventory tank, which may also functionas the system expansion tank.
A level sensor in the inventory tank provides a signal that is calibrated to indicate the
stored cooling inventory. As cooling is discharged and the volume of storage
containers decreases, a pump acting in response to the reduced tank pressure pumps
fluid from the inventory tank back into the storage tank.

Inventory measurement is more difficult and less reliable with rigid, non-dimpled
spherical containers, which expand very little as the encapsulated ice freezes.
Storage inventory can be monitored based on integrated flow and temperature
measurements.

Chiller controls are normally supplied by chiller manufacturers.

Encapsulated ice systems typically use a bypass around the storage tank to conbrol
the leaving water temperature. A three-way mixing valve, or two linked two-way
valves, modulate to control the proportion of chilled fluid flow bypassing storage,
based on the desired leaving temperature. As the temperatureavailable from storage
increases, an increasing proportion of the flow is diverted through the storage tank,
maintaining the desired mixed leaving temperature.

Charging of encapsulated ice storage tanks is generally terminated when the coolant
temperature leaving storage drops to about 2OF (1 K) below the design leaving
temperature. This method provides a more reliable means of determining a full
charge than inventory sensors. A timeclock control is often used to lock out ice
making at the end of the scheduled charging period. However, this is primarily a
safety feature. In a properly sized system under normal operation, charging will be
completed before being terminated by a timeclock.

8.6 OPERATING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES

Encapsulated ice systems are suitable for any of the three operating strategies
discussed in Section 2.4--full storage,partial storage load leveling, or partial storage
demand limiting.
Encapsulated Ice 8-7

Encapsulated ice systems with chiller upstream arrangements are well-suited to


chiller priority control. When the load is less than the chiller capacity, the storage
tanks are bypassed completely. As the load rises above the chiller capacity and the
chiller leaving temperature increases above the supply temperature setpoint, the
control system diverts part of the chilled fluid flow through storage to achieve the
desired supply temperature. This control strategy is simple to implement, and
minimizes the risk of storage being depleted prematurely.

Chiller priority control can also be applied when the chiller is installed downstream
of storage. The storage bypass is controlled to maintain the temperature leaving
storage at the maximum chillerreturn temperature. All the flow bypasses the storage
tanks until the load exceeds the chiller capacity. At this point, the appropriate
proportion of flow is diverted through the storage tanks.

Storagepriority control sequences are generally more complex to implement. A load


estimation or prediction algorithm is generally required to forecast how much chiller
cooling will be required each day. Chiller capacity is then limited, typically by
increasing the leaving temperature setpoint, to allow most or all of the load to be met
from storage.

In general, chillers should be controlled during charging to remain fully loaded


during the entirecharge cycle. Partial loading can reduce system efficiency and may
result in incomplete charging of storage. As return temperatures to the chiller drop
during charging,chiller loading will also drop if the chiller outlet temperature is held
constant. The chiller leaving temperature setpoint should be set at or below the
minimum required charging temperature. With this approach, the chiller will be fully
loaded throughout the charge cycle.

8.7 INTERFACE WITH BUILDING SYSTEMS


Encapsulated ice storage systems may use closed, pressurized tanks or open,
unpressurized tanks.The storage loop may be directly connected to the building
distribution loop or separated by a heat exchanger.

Encapsulated ice systems using open tanksare subject to the interface considerations
discussed in Section 2.5 for open tanks. Closed tanks do not require special pressure
control or water treatment considerations.

Direct-connected systems operate with the storage loop secondary coolant in the
entire building system. For some buildings, the winter freeze protection provided by
the coolant may be advantageous. The expense of providing a large volume of
coolant is also a consideration. In addition, cooling coil capacity will be reduced
8-8 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

compared to performance with water. Design considerations for glycol secondary


coolants are discussed in Section 2.8.3 and in Gatley (1992) and Nussbaum (1990).

If the inventory tank is used as a system expansion tank, ensure that control valves
do not isolate the expansion tank during any mode of operation.

If a heat exchanger is used to separate the storage loop from the chilled water
distribution loop, the distribution side must be protected from freezing during
charging, when the coolant temperature may be as low as 22°F (4°C). Typically, a
charging bypass is provided around the heat exchanger. Flow should be diverted
through the bypass using two linked two-way valves rather than a three-way valve,
since the three-way valve is more likely to allow some leakage to the heat exchanger.
It is also advisable to provide heat exchanger freeze protection, such as starting
secondary pumps if the primary side temperature falls below 36OF (2OC).

The low discharge temperatures available from encapsulated ice systems allow the
use of chilled water temperature ranges of 24°F (13 K) or higher, resulting in
significant reductions in the cost of pumps, piping, and pump energy compared to
typical nonstorage systems. These discharge temperaturesare also well-suited to the
use of cold air distribution.

Encapsulated ice systems are well-suited to retrofit applications where aging


packaged rooftop DX air conditioning units require replacement. The existing
compressors and condensers are abandoned in place, and DX cooling coils are fitted
with new headers to allow use with secondary coolant. Existing air handler fans are
generally usable as is. A new air-cooled chiller and ice storage tank with associated
piping are installed. This conversion is generally practical only if the existing coil
and drain pan are in good condition. MacCracken (1987), Denkmann (1990), Keeler
(1990). and Pandya (1990) discuss this thermal storage option.

Sizing an encapsulated ice storage system requires selecting the appropriate ice
making capacity and storage capacity for a given application.

Initial chiller and storage capacities can be estimated using the quick sizing
procedure presented in Section 10.3. Final size requirements should be determined
by a detailed simulation of hourly performance during the design storage cycle, as
discussed in Sections 2.6 and 10.6.

An initial estimate of the required tank size for pressurized tanks can be made based
on an approximate storage volume of 2.4 ft3per ton-hour (0.019 m3/kWh).For open
Encapsulated Ice 8-9

tanks, initial sizing should be based on approximately 2.7 ft3 per ton-hour
(0.022 m3/kWh). This estimate includes an allowance for storage containers,
required expansion volume, and tank headers.

Chiller selection requires determining the minimum required coolant temperature


for a given storage capacity based on the required charging rate.

Storage capacity must be selected to ensure that the required discharge capacity will
be available at the required temperature for each hour of the design load profile.
Storage manufacturers assist in the selection process by providing computer simu-
lations of storage performance for given load profiles and chiller temperatures.

Final component selection is an iterative process involving the evaluation of chiller


capacity at various charging temperatures. Storageperformancefor possible storage
tank selections should be evaluated for each hour in terms of discharge performance
and required charging rates and charging temperatures.

8.9 CHARGEIDISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS


Charging temperatures for an encapsulated ice system depend on the charging rate
and the state of charge of the storage tanks at a given time. A shorter charging cycle,
which requires higher charging rates, dictates lower charging temperatures to freeze
a given quantity of ice. The charging temperature decreases through the charging
cycle as the thickness of ice through which heat must be transferred increases.
Manufacturers provide data on the minimum charging temperature required for
various charging rates.
Arnold (l99la) found that encapsulated ice containersare subject to supercooling or
cooling of the liquid water below its freezing point before the initiation of ice
formation. Supercooling,which occurs only in fully discharged containers in which
no residual ice remains, results in decreased heat transfer rates at the beginning of
charging.

Supercooling can be reduced significantly by the addition of nucleating agents.


Arnold (199 lb) also found that one proprietary nucleating agent reduced supercool-
ing by 5 to 6OF (about 3 K). Manufacturers claim that proprietary nucleating agents
limit supercooling to between 27 and 29°F (-3 and -2°C).

Figure 8-5 shows a typical range of charging temperatures for encapsulated ice
storage. The figure is based on charging periods of 8 to 16 h, with flow rates
corresponding to chiller temperature ranges of about 4 to 7OF (2 to 4 K).
8-10 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Percent of ice charged

Fig. 8-5 Typical Charging Temperature Range, Encapsulated Ice

Encapsulated ice storage tanks have a steadily falling discharge rate if a constant
discharge temperature is mJntained or a steadily rising temperature if a constant
discharge rate is maintained. This characteristic results from the decreasing area of
ice in contact with the container walls as the ice melts. Figure 8-6 shows a typical
range of discharge temperatures for constant discharge rates over periods of 6 to 8
h with an inlet temperature of 50°F (10°C).

In practice, cool storage tanks are rarely discharged at a constant nte. The actual
discharge temperature profile in a given application depends on the load profile.
During the last several hours of the discharge cycle, the load is generally most
important in determining the maximum discharge temperature. Storage capacity
must be selected so that the required discharge temperature and discharge rate can
Encapsulated Ice 8-11

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
-
Percent of ice melted

Fig. 8-6 Typical Discharging Temperature Range, Encapsulated Ice

be achieved in each hour. Performance curves supplied by manufacturers of


encapsulated ice containers can be used to determine the available discharge
temperature for a given discharge rate and state of charge.

In general, the usable portion of the nominal storage capacity is greater with lower
dischargerates and higher dischargetemperatures. High dischargerates and constant
low discharge temperatures can be achieved by adding storage capacity.

Arnold (1990) provides an extensive discussion of the development of a computer


model of an encapsulated ice storage system. Arnold (1991a) discusses laboratory
testing and the determination of heat transfer characteristics of encapsulated ice
containers.
8-12 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

8.10 FIRST COST


Encapsulated ice storage systems can deliver low chilled water supply temperatures,
allowing significant savings in water and air distribution equipment costs.

Installed costs for encapsulated ice storage capacity, including the tank, ice contain-
ers, and inventory measurement, are typically in the range of $50 to $70 per ton-hour
($14 to $20 per kwh). This guideline is useful for initial economic evaluations.
Obtain cost quotes from vendors for an accurate estimate for a specific application.

Chiller cost estimates are discussed in Section 2.7.2. Ice making capacity for a given
chiller is typically 60 to 70% of nominal capacity, so rules of thumb for chiller costs
should be adjusted accordingly.

8.11 EFFICIENCY AND OPERATING COST

Chiller efficiency for charging encapsulated ice systems is typically in the range of
0.85 to 1.2 kW/ton (4.1 to 2.9 COP). The efficiency varies depending on the charging
temperature required for a specific application as well as on the type of chiller
installed.

Chiller efficiency during charging is affected by the piping configuration if night-


time loads are met by thecharging chiller. The load should be upstream of the storage
tank. If chilled coolant is used to meet the load before it flows to the storage tank, the
fluid temperature will increase, and the chiller must operate at a lower temperature
and lower efficiency to provide the required charging temperature to storage.

Efficiency during direct cooling mode depends on the chiller entering and leaving
temperatures which vary widely for various design alternatives. A chiller upstream
arrangement has higher chiller efficiency but a lower usable percentage of the
nominal storage capacity. Chiller downstream arrangements maximize the usable
portion of storage capacity, but chiller efficiency is reduced because of the lower
operating temperature.

Direct cooling efficiency for a downstream chiller is equivalent to that for a


nonstorage system with the same supply temperature. An upstream chiller operates
at higher temperatures and increased efficiency compared to a nonstorage system.
Encapsulated Ice 8-1 3

8.12 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


Operation of an encapsulated ice storilge system can be refined as operating personnel
gain experience with the system. Section 2.8.1 provides a general discussion of optimiz-
ing storagesystem operation. For an encapsulatedice system, efficiency can be improved
by determining the maximum practical charging temperature.

Maintenance of chilling equipment in an encapsulated ice system is similar to that


for nonstorage systems. Maintenance considerations for glycol coolants are dis-
cussed in Section2.8.3.

Maintenancerequirements of the storage tanks themselves are minimal. For systems


with open tanks, makeup fluid should be added as necessary to maintain the
appropriate tank level. Tank inventory sensors should be calibrated at regular
intervals, particularly at the fully charged and fully discharged conditions. Once a
year, inspect the ice containersfor evidence of wear. Smooth tank walls at the outset
minimize the likelihood of abrasion of containers.

8.13 COMMISSIONING
Commissioningis an ongoing process starting in the predesign phase and continuing
through the first year of system operation. The overall commissioning process is
discussed in Section 2.9. This section describes the performance evaluation phase of
the commissioning process for encapsulated ice thermal storage systems.

Test for the following during the performance evaluation phase of commissioning:

Total storage capacity


Discharge rate and discharge temperatures
Charging capacity
Scheduling and control sequences
Peak demand and energy efficiency

To allow accurate calculation of heat transfer rates from coolant temperatures and
flows, performance testing should include measuring the density and specific heat
of secondary coolants.
8-14 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

The usable storage capacity of an encapsulated ice system depends on the rate at
which cooling is discharged. Therefore, to evaluate the design storage capacity, it is
essential to test the system against the design load profile. For partial storage
systems,if it is not feasible to provide the design loadon the entire system,the storage
can be tested separately from the chiller. The design inlet temperatures and flow
rates, as specified in the design operating profile, must be supplied to the storage
tanks.
To test the total storage capacity, start with the storage tank fully charged. Then,
while discharging the tank against the design load profile, monitor the cooling
supplied. Verify that coaling is supplied each hour at the specified discharge
temperatures and flow rates. The peak hour discharge rate is especially important,
particularly if it must be supplied late in the discharge cycle.

The test of total storage capacity begins with the tanks fully charged. As the tanks are
discharged against the design load prof~le,monitor and record the amount of cooling
suppliedbefore the dischargetemperaturerises above the maximum usable temperature.

The discharge rate and discharge temperature tests verify that cooling is supplied
each hour at the specified discharge temperatures and flow rates. These checks are
particularly important during the last few hours of the dischargecycle. The discharge
rate and the discharge temperature profile are generally verified during the test of
storage tank capacity.

The test of charging capacity verifies that the storage tank can be charged in the time
available. Operate the chiller at the design charging setpoint and monitor the cooling
delivered to the tanks. If the design load profile calls for the chiller to meet a load
while charging storage, this load must be included in the test.

The charging time in an encapsulated ice system depends on the charging tempera-
ture. Over the course of several charging cycles, the optimum charging temperature
setpoint can be identified. The optimum charging setpoint is the highest temperature
setting that will fully charge storage in the time available.

Scheduling and control sequence testing confirms that the system switches modes at
the correct times and that pumps, valves, and other controlled devices operate in the
correct sequences. Verify and calibrate chiller setpoints for charging and direct
cooling modes. During testing, confm that the mixed fluid supply temperature to
the load is controlled at the correct setpoint. Also, calibrate the inventory sensor by
noting the output signal at the fully charged and fully discharged conditions.

Measurement of peak demand and energy efficiency is discussed in Section 2.9.3.


Encapsulated Ice 815

REFERENCES

Arnold, D. 1990.Dynamic simulationof encapsulatedice stores,Part 1-The model.


ASHRAFi Transactions %(I): 1103-1 110.
Arnold, D. 1991a. Laboratory performance of an encapsulated-icestore. ASHRAE
Transactions97(2): 1170-78.
Arnold, D. 199lb. Heat transfer characteristics of ice capsules for encapsulated cool
storage systems. ASA4EIJSME Thermal Engineering Proceedings 3:335-41.
Denkmann, J.L. 1990. Cool storage retrofit of rooftop units and direct expansion
systems. ASHRAE Transactions 96(1): 1067-79.
Gatley, DP. 1992. Cool storage ethylene glycol design guide, EPRI TR-100945,
September.
Harmon, JJ. and H.C. Yu. 1991. Centrifugal chillers and glycol ice thermal storage
units. ASHRAE Journal @ecember):25-3 1.
Keeler, R.M. 1990. Scrap DX for CW with ice storage. HeatinglPipinglAir Condi-
tioning (August):5942.
MacCracken, C.D.1987. Rooftops: The big challenge for COPAC (commercial off-
peak air conditioning). EPRI Seminar Proceedings: Commercial Cool Storage,
State of the Art, EM-5454-SR,October.
Nussbaum, O.J.1990. Using glycol in a closed circuit system. HeatinglPipinglAir
Conditioning (January):75-85.
Pandya, D.A. 1990. Retrofit unitary cool storage system. HeatinglPipinglAir Con-
ditioning (July):35-37.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cryogel. Cryogel Technical Manual. Technical Manual.


Cryogel. Ice balls: Inventive storage system. Cryogel brochure.
Laybourn, D.R. 1988. Thermal energy storage with encapsulated ice. ASHRAE
Transactions 94(1):1971-88. Reprinted in ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin
5(4):95-102.
Laybourn, D.R. 1990.Encapsulated ice thermal energy storage. AICE Proceedings,
2 15-20.
Reaction Thermal SystemsInc. Encapsulatedice storage: The new standard for cool
storage.
Reaction Thermal Systems Inc. Sizing and selection guide.
York International. 1991. IceBalls thermal storage systems, Form 175.03-EGl.
York, PA: York International.
8-16 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage
Chapter 9 EUTECTIC SALT PHASE-CHANGE
MATERIALS

9.1 PRIMARY FEATURES

Eutectic salt phase-change material systems:

Use conventional chilling equipment at standard temperatures, which makes


this medium attractive for retrofits.
Have high storage discharge temperatures.
Require approximately 6.0 ft3of storage volume per ton-hour (0.048 m3/kwh).
Do not expand, contract, float, or shift when changing phase.

9.2 GENERAL DESCRlPTlON

A eutectic salt is a chemical mixture which changes phase from liquid to solid at a
specific temperature. Just as water stores a large amount of cooling at 32'F (0°C) as
it changes from a liquid to solid ice, eutectic salts store cooling at their phase-change
temperatures.

Eutectic salt phase-change materials have been used for various heat storage
applications since the 1800s,but only recently have they been used as a cool storage
medium. The most common formulation for cool storage applications is a mixture
of inorganic salts, water, and nucleating and stabilizing agents, which melts and
freezes at 47'T (8.3"C). This material is encapsulated in rectangular plastic contain-
ers, which are stacked within a storage tank.Figure 9-1 shows a stack of containers.
Water serves as the heat transfer fluid; it circulates through the storage tank among
the eutectic salt containers, carrying heat to or from the storage medium.
9-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Fig. 9-1 Stacked Eutectic Salt Storage Containers

The 47°F (8.3"C)eutectic salt can be charged with typical conventionalchilled water
temperatures of40 to 42OF (4 to 6OC). This allows the addition of storage to existing
systems with no modifications to existing chillers and few or no changes to existing
distribution systems.

Typical discharge temperatures of 48 to W°F (9to 10°C) are relatively high for most
HVAC systems. This limitsthe use of full storage operating strategies to applications
with low dehumidification requirements.

Eutectic salt systems can be arranged in chiller upstream or chiller downstream


configurations. The chiller upstream arrangement can be used with full storage
operating strategies or where no further cooling of the storage discharge is required.
The chiller downstream configurationallows the water leaving storage to be cooled
by the chiller to the required supply temperature. A storage pump is typically
installed in series with and downstream of the storage tank to pump water through
the tank for charging and discharging. Figures 9-2 and 9-3 illustrate typical chiller
upstream and chiller downstream configurations.
Eutectlc Salt Phase-Change Materials 9-3

I Load

Chiller Primary chilled


water pump

1L

Storage Tank
Pressure
sustaining
Storage tank
valve
booster pump

Fig. 9-2 Eutedic Salt Configuration, Chiller Upstream

Temperature

Fig. 9-3 Eutedic Salt Configuration, Chiller Downstream


9-4 Design Gulde for Cool Thermal Storage

A eutectic salt formulation that freezes and melts at 41°F (5°C) is currently being
developed. Its 42 to44OF (6 to 7OC) dischargetemperature wouldbe compatiblewith
conventional distribution and air-handling systems. While some conventional cool-
ing equipment can produce the 36OF (2OC) temperatures that would be required to
freeze this eutectic salt, a low-temperature chiller using glycol or ether secondary
coolant may be needed.

Eutectic salt mixtures are also available for lowering the storage temperatures of ice
systems. Additives are available that produce freezing temperatures of 28 and 12°F
(-2 and -1 1°C) in ice storage tanks.

9.3 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS


Eutectic salt storage systems use conventional chilling equipment to provide chilled
water at 40 to 42OF (4 to 6OC) to charge the storage tanks. Eutectic salt storage is
generally used in applications having relatively high loads, which typically use
centrifugal chillers. However,there is no inherent reason other than size favoring one
type of refrigeration equipment over another. Reciprocating or screw chillers can
also be used.

Absorption chillers could be used to charge eutectic salt systems. However, the
efficiencyof absorption chillers falls off significantly at leaving water temperatures
below approximately 42OF (6°C).

Eutectic saltstoragecanoften be added to an existing coolingplant, simply by adding


a storage tank and associated piping. In most cases, existing chillers require no
modification. Adding eutectic salt storage to a conventionalsystem can also ease the
transition to non-CFC refrigerants. Eutectic salt storage enables a building owner to
add capacity now, at relatively low expense, in anticipation of a loss of capacity
associated with the performance of the new refrigerants in the future.

Because of their favorable charging temperature, phase-change materials are com-


patible with currently available refrigerants as well as any future replacements.

9.4 STORAGE TANKS

9.4.1 Tanks

General storage tank considerations are discussed in Section 2.3.2. This section
addresses specific concerns for eutectic salt phase-change systems. Typically, the
tank is constructed of concrete and is rectangular in shape, 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m)
Eutectic Salt Phase-Change Materials 9-5

deep, with apolyurethane liner. The specifications for eutectic salt thermal storage
tanks are often provided by the manufacturer of the storage medium.

Tanks may be constructed either above or below ground and should include access
to test water quality. They are often located under parking lots, patios, or access
roads. Tanks are sized on the basis of a storage volume of 6.0 ft3per ton-hour (20.7
kWh/m3), which includes internal volume for entrance and exit headers. Each tank
is different in terms of exact dimensions, loading requirements, water table and soil
conditions and, therefore, should be designed by a structural engineer familiar with
water tank design.

Gunite, i.e., pneumatically applied concrete, has been used for many eutectic salt
storage tanks. Other methods and materials, such as cast-in-place concrete, have also
been used satisfactorily.

Antileak h e r s are recommended, because inspecting and servicing the tank is


extremely difficult after the eutectic salt containers are installed. A 0.125-in. (3-
mm), multiple-layerpolyurethaneliner is a good, tough, elastic waterproof coating.
The flexibility of the liner accommodatessmall shrinkage and settlementcracks that
may appear during the life of the tank.

Eutectic salt storage systems are often installed with uninsulated tanks. Most
installations have been in dry soils, which tend to insulate the tank. Installations in
wetter soils may require insulation, or losses may be higher.

Entrance and exit headers are located at oppositeends of the tank so that water makes
one horizontal pass through the tank at a rate of 1 to 2 ft/min (5 to 10 mm/s). The
headers are typically fabricatedof perforated PVC pipe and are designed to distribute
the flow of water across the entire cross section of the tank. The diameter of the pipe
and the perforation pattern depend on the water flow rate and the width of the tank.
Consult the storage medium manufacturer for specific recommendations on header
design.

9.4.2 Containers
The 47°F (8.3"C) phase-change material is hermetically sealed in interlocking
rectangular polyethylene containers, which are positively located with respect to
each other, inhibiting any tendency to shift and maintaining the desired fluid flow
paths around the containers. The material does not float because it is 1.5 times the
density of water; neither does it expand on freezing, so that there is no stress on the
containers. Because of the high density, the interlocking containers, and the lack of
9-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

expansion and contraction, the eutectic salt units do not move or shift in the tank
during freezing and thawing.

9.5 CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION

Discharge temperaturecontrol for eutectic salt storage systemsis typically achieved


by modulating the proportion of chilled water flow bypassing the tank. The storage
pump may be variable volume, or a throttling valve on the pump discharge may
control the flow through the tank.

Pressure-sustaining valves are used for static pressure control (see Section 9.7).

Storage inventorycannot be measured directly, since the phase-change material does


not change volume as it freezes. Storageinventory can be monitored by continuously
calculating the amount of cooling delivered to or from the tank. This calculation
requires a flowmeter in the storage loop, as well as measurement of entering and
leaving temperatures.

9.6 OPERATING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES


Phase-change storage systems function in any of the three operating strategies
discussed in Section 2.4-full storage,partial storage load leveling, or partial storage
demand limiting. However,the full storage strategy has an important limitation. Full
storage applications must be able to use the relatively high 48 to 50°F (9 to 10°C)
chilled water temperature produced by the eutectic salt storage medium.

These discharge temperatures may also limit some partial storage applications. The
proportion of the load that can be met from storage depends on the relative
temperature differences across the load and across the storage tank. For example, in
an existing chiller plant operating with 42OF (6°C) supply water and 52°F (11°C)
return water, the storage will never be able ta meet more than (52 - 47)/(52 - 42) =
50%of the load. At low loads, when it may be desirable to meet more of the load from
storage, the return temperature and the proportion from storage will decrease. It may
be necessary to operate mechanical refrigeration during all months of the year, even
when the storage capacity would otherwise be sufficient to meet the entire on-peak
load with no chiller operation.

In many buildings, nonpeak loads can be met with higher temperature supply water
even though the distribution system may have been designed for 42°F (6°C) water
at design conditions. However, if chilled water below 48 to 50°F (9 to 10°C) is
Eutectic Salt Phasechange Materials 9-7

required for dehumidification or other needs, mechanical refrigeration must be


operated to cool the storage discharge to the required temperature.

Those applicationsthat use the higher temperature during design conditions have the
full range of operating strategies, optimizing control strategies, and piping configu-
rations available to them.

For applications requiring lower supply temperatures, chillers are placed down-
stream of storage so that they can cool the storage discharge to the required
temperature. Full storage operation is not possible with this arrangementbecause the
chiller must always supplement storage during discharge.

Chiller priority or storage priority control schemes can be used to control storage
system operation at less than peak loads. A chiller priority strategy would typically
be implemented by controlling the mixed temperature leaving storage at the
maximum chiller entering temperature. When the load exceeds the chiller capacity,
and the return temperature rises above this mixed temperature setpoint, some of the
return flow is diverted through the storage tank and is precooled.

Storage priority requires a method of predicting the total load for the day, so chillers
can be operated at a sufficient capacity to prevent storage from being exhausted too
soon. Particularly at the end of the charging cycle, the temperature rise through
storage may be 5°F (3 K) or less. Chillers should be controlled to remain as fully
loaded as possible during the entire charge cycle. Partial loading can reduce system
efficiency and may result in storage not being completely charged at the end of the
availablecharging time. As return temperatures to the chiller drop during charging,
chiller loading will also drop if the chiller outlet temperature is held constant.

With some configurations, it is possible to use the water leaving storage to meet
nighttime loads, increasing the load on the chiller. Multiple chiller installations
should allow chillers to be taken off line as the charging load drops, with the entire
charging flow directed through the remaining chillers. With such an approach, flow
through each chiller should not be allowed to exceed the manufacturer's recom-
mended maximum.

9.7 INTERFACE WITH BUILDING SYSTEMS


Eutectic salt storage systems use open, unpressurized tanks. Isolating the tank with
a heat exchanger is not practical because of the high storage discharge temperature.
If the water level in the tank is not high enough to provide adequate static pressure
to the building distribu tion system, static pressure may be maintained through the use
of apressure-sustaining valve located immediately upstream of the tank and a check
9-8 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

valve on the downstream side of the tank. These valves prevent water from flowing
uncontrollably into the tank.

In applicationsof two storiesor more, an automatedshutoff valve should be installed


upstream of the tank as well. A combination pressure-sustaining and automatic
shutoff valve may also be usedin place of two separatevalves. An automatic shutoff
valve sequencedtoclosejust prior to the stopping of the storagepump prevents water
from draining from the storage loop piping, which can result in water hammer when
the pump is restarted. The shutoff valve also helps maintain the building static
pressure during times of system shutdown.

The storage loop pump should be accurately sized for the pressure drop of the tank
and piping circuit. Since storage flow control is often accomplished by a throttling
valve, oversized pumping capacity results in excess wasted energy. Elleson et al.
(1993) describe a eutectic salt system modified to allow previously wasted storage
pump energy to be used to distribute chilled water to the load, resulting in a
significant reduction in pump energy consumption.

A major advantageof the47OF (8.3OC) eutectic system is its ability to take advantage
of "free cooling" from cooling towers. When wet-bulb temperatures drop below 40
to 44OF (4 to 7OC), the water temperature available from cooling towers is low
enough to provide cooling with no chiller operation. With appropriate straining and
treatment, this cool water can be supplied directly to a chilled water loop. It can also
be supplied to a heat exchanger, which is then used to cool the chilled water loop.
Free cooling provided by cooling towers can be stored at night when wet-bulb
temperatures are low, to meet cooling loads later in the day.

Elleson et al. (1993) describe the performance of a eutectic salt system in Arizona
designed to store free cooling. In this particular system, nighttime cooling loads were
high enough to demand nearly all the free cooling, and very little was stored.
However, with an appropriate match between the cooling tower capacity and the load
profile, this approach can provide large energy and cost savings over a nonstorage
system.

9.8 SIZING
Sizinga eutectic salt storage system requires the appropriate ice making capacity and
storage capacity for a given application to be selected.

Initial estimates of required chiller and storagecapacitiescan be developed using the


quick sizing procedure presented in Section 10.3. Final size requirements should be
Eutectlc Salt PhassChange Materials 9-9

determinedby a detailed simulation of hourly performanceduring the design storage


cycle, as discussed in Sections 2.6 and 10.6.

Proper sizing of a eutectic salt system requiresconsiderationof the storage discharge


temperature at each hour, as well as the required storage capacity and storage
volume. The charging analysis should consider the chiller capacity at the expected
chiller entering and leaving temperatures. Charge and discharge temperature char-
acteristics are discussed in Section 9.9.

Sizing of eutectic salt storage tanks is based on a volume of 6 ft3 per ton-hour
(0.048m3/kWh)of stored cooling. The cross-sectional dimensions of the tank are
selected for a water velocity of 1 to 2 ft/min (5 to 10 mrn/s). The eutectic salt
manufacturer provides assistance with determining the required storage volume and
tank dimensions for a given application.

9.9 CHARGEIDISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS

Charging temperatures of 40 to 42OF (4 to 6°C) are generally used to charge eutectic


salt storage tanks. The water temperature leaving the tank drops from about 47°F
(8°C) at the beginning of charging to about 45°F (7OC) when charging is complete.
Figure 9-4 shows a typical storage inlet temperature profile during charging.

Percent charged

Fig. 9 4 Typical Eutectic Salt Charging Temperature Profile


9-10 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Discharge temperatures typically rise steadily through the discharge period, from
about 45°F (7OC) at the beginning of discharging to about 50°F (10°C) when the
latent capacity of the tank is exhausted. Figure 9-5 shows a typical discharge
temperature profile.

0 25 50 75 1 00
Percent discharged

Fig. 9-5 Typical Eutedic Salt Discharging Temperature Profile

9.10 FIRST COST


The eutectic salt manufacturer normally installs both the storage tank and its
contents,Turnkey costs for the completed storage tank typically fall within the range
of $100 to $150 per ton-hour ($28 to $43 per kwh), depending on size and location.

Refrigeration plants for eutectic salt storage systems are the same as those for
nonstorage applications,and costs per ton are comparable. Standard sources of cost
data, such as vendors, contractors, or past experience, should be used.

In new construction,a chiller for eutectic salt storage is generally be smaller and less
expensive than one for a nonstorage system. When converting or expanding an
existing system for storage, existing chillers can often be used, and additional
cooling capacity can be obtained simply by installing a storage tank and interface.
In such cases, the first cost of the storage system can be less than that of a nonstorage
system.
Eutectic Salt Phase-Change Materials 9-11

9.1 1 EFFICIENCY AND OPERATING COST


Eutectic salt storage systems typically operate with chiller efficiencies comparable
to those for nonstorage systems. If the nonstorage alternative would operate at a
higher leaving temperature, there may be a slight efficiency penalty associated with
charging at 40 to 42OF (4to 6°C). With systems in which storage is used to precoal
water for the chillers, the lower entering temperature may reduce efficiency slightly.
These penalties can generally be offset by the efficiency advantage of charging with
reduced nighttime condenser temperatures.

Elleson et al. (1993)provide data for a eutectic salt storage system that operated at
an overall chiller efficiencyof 0.66kwh per ton-hour (5.3 COP). Efficiency was 0.69
kWh/ton-hour (5.1 COP) while charging storage, 0.67 kWhjton-hour (5.2 COP)
while supplementing storage cooling, and 0.62 kWh/ton-hour (5.7 COP) when
cooling with no storage operation. Total energy consumption for the storage system
is calculated to be slightly less than for a nonstorage system.

Merten et al. (1989)report on two eutectic salt systems for which measured chiller
efficiency was essentially equivalent to that calculated for nonstorage systems.

9.12 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


The operation of a eutectic salt storage system can be improved and refined as
operators gain experience with the system. Section 2.8.1discusses optimization of
storage systems in general, Operation of a eutectic salt system can be optimized by
adjusting the mixed storage leaving temperature setpoint to provide the appropriate
rate of storage discharge and the optimum loading of the chiller.

Maintenance of a eutectic salt storage system is similar to that for a nonstorage


system. Section 2.8.2provides references on equipment maintenance. A discussion
of initial cleaning of the system and water treatment to avoid corrosion and fouling
is given in Section 2.8.3.

9.13 COMMISSIONING
Commissioning is an ongoing process starting in the predesign phase and continuing
through the first year of system operation. The overall commissioning process is
discussed in Section 2.9. This section describesthe performanceevaluation phase of
the commissioning process for eutectic salt thermal storage systems.
9-12 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

The following quantities are tested during the performance evaluation:

Totalstoragecapacity
Discharge rate and discharge temperatures
Charging capacity
Scheduling and control sequences
Peak demand and energy efficiency

Total storage tank capacity is measured by fully charging the tank and discharging
it against a load with no other cooling supplied. Measure the usable cooling
delivered, up to the point that the discharge temperature from the tank rises above the
maximum usable chilled water supply temperature.

Discharging the tank at the rate specified in the design load profile provides the most
accurate evaluationof actual tank capacity under design conditions. However, if this
is not practical, other discharge rates will provide acceptable estimates. For most
tank configurations, the total storage capacity is relatively insensitive to discharge
rate.

The discharge rate and discharge temperature tests verify that the load can be met at
the required dischargetemperaturefor each hour of the design profile. The discharge
rate and discharge temperature profile are generally verified during the test of
storage tank capacity.

Charging capacity is tested by monitoring the cooling delivered to the storage tank
during a complete charge cycle, starting from the fully discharged condition. The
chiller should be able to fully charge the tank in the time available, as well as meet
any loads that occur during the charging period.

Scheduling and control sequence testing verify that the storage system switches the
operating modes correctly. All pumps and valves should operate according to the
design intent. Mixing valves and the pressure-sustainingvalve should be calibrated
and their performance verified.

Measurement of peak demand and energy efficiency is discussed in Section 2.9.3.

REFERENCES

Elleson, J.S., S.S. Dingle, and S.P. Leight. 1993. Field evaluation of a eutectic salt
thermal storage system. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute.
Eutectic Salt Phase-Change Materials 9-13

Merten, G.P.,SL. Shum, R.H. Sterrett, and W.C.Racine. 1989. Operation and
performance of commercialcool storage systems, Vol. 1: 1987 Cooling season,
and Vol. 2: 1988 Cooling season and project summary. EPRI CU-6561,
September.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ames, D.A. 1986. Design and control of eutectic salt thermal storage systems.
Transphase System Inc. Brochure, August.
Ames, D.A. 1989. Thermal storage forum: The past, present and future of eutectic
salt storage systems. ASHRAE Journal (May):26-28.
Ames, D.A. 1990. Thermal storage forum: Eutectic cool storage: Current develop-
ments. ASHRAE Journal (April):46-53.
Transphase Systems Inc. 1986. Transphase thermal energy storage design guide.
Transphase Systems Inc. Transphase coolness storage systems.
9-14 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage
Chapter 10 DESIGN PROCEDURE

10.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter gives guidance in applying the design fundamentals discussed in
Chapter 2 to the storage technologies described in Chapters 4 through 9. The cool
storage design procedure includes the following general steps:

Calculating load profiles


Screening initial economics
Selecting storage type
Selecting operating strategy
Determining storage interface parameters
Sizing cooling plant and storage
Evaluating economics
Finalizing design
Commissioning

Because each application is unique, the design process will not necessarily conform
to an absolute sequenceof steps or standardprocedure. However, the stepsjust listed
generally appear in some form in every cool storage design.

The sections that follow are presented in an ideal sequence. In actual practice, the
design procedure may pass through each step in a different order. In many cases, the
intermediate design steps will be repeated for the sake of comparison or refinement.

The completecool storage design process includes developmentof specificationsfor


equipment, installation,startup, commissioning, and operation. The end point is not
reached until the owner has a system that meets or exceeds its intended design
performance. The commissioning procedure, discussed in detail in Section 2.9,
provides a framework for integrating all the phases from predesign through the first
year of operation.
10-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal StOI'age

10.2 CALCULATE LOAD PROFILES


Determine the design load profile for the application using the methods discussed in
Section2.1. The load profile must be as accurate as possible, whether it represents a
predicted load or an existing load. The validity of all subsequent calculations and
decisions, as well as the successful operation of the cool storage system, depend on
the accuracy ofthe load profile.

The selection of design weather conditionsis typically the first step in the calculation
of load profiles. The design weather profile is also important to the calculation of
load profiles, as well as equipment performance. The selection of peak design
conditions and weather profiles is discussed in Section 2.1.1, and an example is
provided here.

For new construction, load profiles must be calculated based on the best available
estimates of heat gains within the space and of schedules of occupancy, ventilation,
lighting,and equipment use. Wherecool storage is to beadded to an existing system,
measurement of existing load profiles is recommended. Examples of load profile
calculation for new and existing projects are given next.

10.2.1 Design Example: Selection of Design Weather Conditions


For this example, 1%design dry-bulb and coincident wet-bulb temperatures (from
Table 1, Chapter 24, of the 1993 ASHRAE Handbookdundamentals) are used for
peak design temperatures for the months of June through September (ASHRAE
1993). Peak temperatures for the remaining months, required for evaluating annual
performance, are selected based on the closest city listed in Table 3.4 of McQuiston
and Spitler (1992).Engineering Weather Data (USAF 1978) are used to determine
coincident wet-bulb temperatures for the nonpeak months. Table 10-1lists the peak
temperatures used to generate weather profiles for each month.
Design Procedure 10-3

Table 10-1 Design Weather Conditions

Dry Bulb Wet Bulb

Month O F O C OF O C

January 52 11.1 48 8.9


February 57 13.9 52 11.1
March 65 18.3 54 12.2
April 80 26.7 64 17.8
May 87 30.6 70 21.1
June 92 33.3 74 23.3
July 92 33.3 74 23.3
August 92 33.3 74 23.3
September 92 33.3 74 23.3
October 79 26.1 69 20.6
November 67 19.4 60 15.6
December 60 15.6 56 13.3

Daily weather profiles are constructed for each design day according to the method
presented in Chapter26 of the 1993ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.Dry-bulb
temperatures are calculated for each hour, based on the peak temperature and the
daily range to give an approximately sinusoidal variation with a maximum at 3 P.M.
and a minimum at 5 A.M. The daily range of 18°F (7.8 K) is given in Table 1,Chapter
24, of the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals for the project location. Wet-
bulb temperatures are calculated based on the assumption of a constant dew-point
temperature throughout the day. Table 10-2 illustrates the calculation of the design
day temperature profile.
10-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 10-2 Calculation of Design Day Temperature Profile

Dry Bulb Wet Bulb

Hour % of Range OF OC OF OC

Notes:
Daily range = 18OF (7.8OC); Peak dry-bulb = 92OF (33.3OC); Mean coincident wet-bulb =
74OF (23.3OC); dew point = 67OF (19.4OC) (assumed constant). Percent of range is
from Table 2, Chapter 26, of the 1993 ASNRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.

The dry-bulb temperature for a given hour is calculated by subtracting the listed percent-
age of the daily range from the peak dry-bulb temperature. The wet-bulb temperature
for each hour is determined from the dew point and the dry-bulb temperature for that
hour.

10.2.2 Design Example: Load Profile Calculation for New Construction

This example is based on the design of a cool storage system for a large convention
center. The initial design for the center was completedbasedon anonstorage cooling
Design Procedure 10-5

plant, and cool storage was being considered as an alternatebecause of the potential
savings in both first cost and operating cost.

A critical factor in the load profile calculation for this project was determining a
schedule of occupancy, lighting, and equipment gains for the design day. With this
information, calculation of cooling loads is a straightforward procedure.

The schedule of occupancy was estimated by examining actual occupancy records


from major trade shows at other large convention centers. One set of data for a
specific day, showing the number of attendees entering and leaving for each hour,
was selected as a conservative but reasonable approximation of the number of
occupants to be expected for this project. Figure 10-1 illustrates the occupancy
profile, expressed in terms of the percentage of the total daily attendance present
during each hour.

Om7 7

V
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Hour

Fig. 10-1 Occupancy Profile for Convention Center Example

Expected heat gains from lighting and equipment were analyzed for each zone and
expressed in terms of maximum watts per square foot. These figures were conserva-
tively assumed to apply for each occupied hour of the design day. Unoccupied heat
gains were analyzed and expressed as a percentage of the occupied gains for each
zone. Data for all zones were combined into an overall block load figure for occupied
and unoccupied periods.
1&6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 10-3 Input Data for Load Calculatiik-Convention Center Example

Floor area = 906,583 ft2 (84,222 m2)


Ventilation = 300.000 cfm (141.600 Us)
Zone dry bulb = 78OF (25.6OC)
Zone relative humidity = 45%

Gross Area Mass per Area


No. Dir Constr. ft2 m2 Color 1b/ft2 kg/m2

1 N F 100,522 9 338 Med 55.0 268.4


2 S F 81,866 7 605 Med 10.0 48.8
3 E F 16.142 1500 Med 10.0 48.8
4 W F 38,961 3 619 Dark 10.0 48.8
5 R 01 657.529 61 084 Med 10.0 48.8

People Schedule
(Fraction of total for each hour)
Hour Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
Design Procedure 10-7

People
Activity level = 5
Number = 25.000
Lighting and Equipment = 4.5 W/ft2 (47.0 W/m2)
Internal Loads
System gains = 11.0%
Miscellaneous sensible = 280,000 Btu/h (82.0 kW)

U- Area of Glass, U- Shading Sash Shading


Value (m2) Value Coefficient Type Device

0.310 0 ... ... ... ...


0.310 10,780 (1001) 0.540 0.280 Metal None
0.310 0 ... ... ... ...
0.310 0 ... ... ... ...
0.085 30,396 (2824) 0.330 0.160 Metal None

Lighting/Equipment Schedule
(Fraction of peak for each hour)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
10-8 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Areas and heat transmission factors of walls, roof, and glass were taken from the
architectural plans. This information was entered into a commercial cooling load
calculation program, along with the occupancy schedule and internal heat gains, to
provide a calculated cooling load for each hour of the design day. Table 10-3
summarizes the load calculation data for this example.

Heat gains occurring during unoccupied periods, when cooling distribution equip-
ment does not run, were accumulated and added to the instantaneous loads early in
the occupied period. This pulldown load was assumed to be met over several hours,
with the majority of the load met in the first hour.

Table 10-4 summarizes the design day cooling load profile calculated for a trade
show with an attendance of 25,000.

Table 10-4 Design Day Load Profile-Convention Center Example

Load Load Load


Hour Tons kW Hour Tons kW Hour Tons kW

10.2.3 Design Example: Load Profile Calculation for Existing System

This project consisted of the design of a central plant expansion for a university
chilled water system. The design load profile was developed from current load data
and estimates of future loads supplied by the owner.

To determine the current load profile, the latest available year of load data were
sorted by day according to the maximum dry-bulb temperature. Hourly loads from
three of the hottest days were averaged to provide a typical peak load profile.

Estimates of future peak load additions were provided by plant operations personnel.
Future load projections were divided into three categories-office/classroom, re-
search, and clinical.

Hourly load profiles expressed as the percentage of the peak load for each hour were
developed for each building type. In this case, the generalized profiles represented
Design Procedure 10-9

the best possible estimate of the load shapes, since no detailed information was
available on the individual building loads. At any rate, the effect of small errors in
the future load profiles on the total campus load shape would be minimal.

The existing plant capacity includes both electric centrifugal and steam absorption
chillers. The absorption chillers are baseloaded to provide a steam load for the
campus cogeneration plant. Therefore, the cool storage analysis considered only
those loads that would be met by the centrifugal chillers. The load profile for the
storage analysis was determined by subtracting the absorption chiller capacity for
each hour from the total load.

Table 10-5 summarizes the current loads, future loads, absorption capacity, and
centrifugal chiller load for a design day, andFigure 10-2 illustrates the load profiles.

Table 10-5 Load Profile Summary--Existing System Example, Tons

Future Load Additions Total


Absorp Load on
Current Office/ Future tion- Centri-
Hour Load Research Classroom Clinic Total Total Capacity fugal~
1&10 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 10-5 Load Profile Summary-Existing System Example, kW

Future Load Additions Total


Off~cel Absorp- Load on
Current Clam- Future tion Centri-
Hour Load Research room Clinic Total Total Capacity fugal~

1 41 602 12 091 647 922 13 657 55 260 19 360 35 900


2 41 602 12034 616 918 13 569 55 172 19 360 35 812
3 41 602 11 784 616 901 13 298 54901 19 360 35 541
4 41 602 11 144 616 855 12 615 54218 19 360 34 858
5 41 602 10 612 616 841 12070 53 672 19 360 34 312
6 41 602 10394 616 1098 12 105 53 708 21 120 32588
7 42 725 12 552 739 1541 14 833 57 559 21 120 36 439
8 43 852 12 686 2309 1703 16 702 60 551 21 120 39 431
9 44 601 13 055 4 065 1774 18 895 63 497 23 584 39 913
10 45 348 13 611 4 959 1848 20419 65 771 25 414 40 356
11 46 097 14 037 5 209 1914 21 162 67 260 26400 40 860
12 46 474 14 386 5431 1988 21 802 68 277 26400 41 877
13 47 597 14523 5 653 2024 22 200 69 798 26 400 43 398
14 48 723 14544 5 938 2038 22517 71 241 26400 44 841
15 49 846 14 769 6 096 2038 22 901 72751 26 400 46 351
16 51 346 15 209 6 160 2045 23 415 74 761 26400 48 361
17 52 096 15 364 6082 2016 23 464 75 560 26 400 49 160
18 51 346 15 530 5 941 1728 23 196 74 543 26400 48 143
19 49 846 15 660 5 723 1569 22 953 72 804 26 400 46 404
20 48 723 15 132 3 967 1404 20 504 69 224 24 182 45 041
21 48 347 12 365 3 002 1077 16441 64 792 21 120 43 672
22 47 224 12 175 2249 989 15 417 62 641 21 120 41 521
23 45 348 11 982 1418 918 14319 59 667 21 120 38 547
24 41 602 11 774 985 901 13 661 55 260 19 360 35 900

Fig.10-2 Current and Future Loads for Campus Example


Design Procedure 10-11

10.3 INITIAL ECONOMIC SCREENING


An initial economic screening is used to quickly determine if a more thorough
analysis of cool storage isjustified and to provide information necessary to select the
storage technology and operating strategy best suited to a given application.

This initial screening begins with the design load profile to be met by the cooling
system and the applicable utility rate schedule. The required chiller capacity and
storage capacity for various operating strategies are estimated using quick rule-of-
thumb formulas. These estimates are used to project approximate operating cost
savingscomparedto anonstoragesystem.Finally,installation costs areestimated for
alternative storage technologies, and the economics of each option are compared.

10.3.1 Quick Sizing of Chiller and Storage


Quick estimation of necessary chiller and storage capacity requires both a design
load profile for the installation and utility rate schedule information.

In some cases, an estimateof the load profile can be developed based on the projected
peak load and a typical profile shape for the type of building under consideration.
However, a more accurate load profile is mandatory for final system sizing.

The quick chiller size and quick storage size are calculated based on the requirement
that the total integrated capacity of the refrigeration plant must equal the total
integrated cooling load plus any losses. If storage losses and pump heat gains are not
considered for the purpose of initial sizing estimates, they must be included in the
final sizing analysis. That is:

Total cooling load = Total chiller capacity (1)

The total integrated chiller capacity can be approximatedby the nominal capacity by
the number of hours available. In many systems, the chiller capacity varies depend-
ing on whether it is charging storage or meeting the load directly. In systems with
demand-limiting operation, the direct cooling capacity will be limited during on-
peak periods.
The total integrated capacity is the summation of the chiller capacity in each mode,
times the number of hours in that mode.

where

Hekg = hours charging storage


C,, = capacity when charging storage
10-12 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

H ~ ~ o ,
-
-- hours direct cooling during on-peak period
capacity when direct cooling during on-peak period
C ~ ~ o n p -
HDCoffp = hours direct cooling during off-peak period
CDCoffp = capacity when direct cooling during off-peak period
The calculations for quick chiller size and quick storage size, with examples
following the general discussion, follow.

Quick Chiller Size


A general expression for the required nominal chiller capacity can be obtained by
combining and rearranging Equations(1) and (2) and by introducing chiller capacity
ratios for the various cooling modes. The chiller capacity for each mode is expressed
in terms of the decimal percentage of its nominal capacity. Nominal capacity for the
purpose of this calculation may be selected as the capacity at ARI rating conditions
of 44°F (6.7"C) chilled water and 85°F (29A°C) condenser water, or it may be taken
at some other convenient rating point.

The nominal chiller capacity is expressed as follows:

Nominal chiller siee =


Total cooling load
(3)
HchrgCRchrg+ H ~ ~ o n p C R ~ ~Ho n~ p ~+f poC R
f ~ c fof p

where

HCh, = hours charging storage


CRChrg = capacity ratio when charging storage
HDcoq = hours direct cooling during on-peak period
CRmV = capacity ratio when direct cooling during on-peak period
HDCOap = hours direct cooling during off-peak period
CR~c~ffp
= capacity ratio when direct cooling during off-peak period
If the resulting nominal chiller size is greater than the load for any hour in direct
cooling mode, the chiller size must be recalculated. In an iterative process, the ratio
of the load to the initial chiller size is substituted for the appropriate capacity ratio
in Equation (3), and a new chiller size is determined. An example of such a
calculation is given in Section 10.3.2.

For a full storage system, the on-peak chiller capacity is zero. For a load-leveling
system, the direct cooling capacity is the same during on and off peak.

For quick chiller sizing of chilled water storage systems, the chiller capacity is
generally assumed to be constant.
Design Procedure 10-13

For ice harvesters, the ice making capacity is typically considered the nominal
capacity, and the direct cooling capacity ratio is approximately 1.2 to 1.3.

For other ice storage systems, chiller ice making capacity is typically 60 to 70% of
the nominal capacity. The direct cooling capacity ratio depends on the chilled water
temperature required for direct cooling. For example, the capacity of a chiller
providing direct cooling at %OF (3OC) will be 80to 90%of the nominal ARI capacity,

Quick Storage Size


The required storage capacity is equal to the total integrated cooling load minus the
cooling ton-hours supplied directly by the chiller, and minus any load that is met
either directly or from storage while storage is being charged.

Storage capacity = Total cooling load - (TCDCo, + TCDCoflp+ T h C c h r g ) (4)

where

TC,,, = total capacity when direct cooling during on-peak


TCDCOBp = total capacity when direct cooling during off-peak
TH,,, = ton-hours direct cooling while simultaneously charging

The total direct cooling capacity is generally equal to the hours available for direct
cooling times the chillercapacity for direct cooling. However, in somecases, the load
for a given hour will be less than the direct cooling capacity. The actual load met from
direct cooling must then be used in calculating the required storage capacity.

The storage capacity calculated by Equation (4) is the nominal storagerequired. The
actual storage capacity must be determined by a detailed analysis of the charge and
discharge characteristicsof the selected storage type and their interactions with the
load and chiller performance for each hour.

10.3.2 Design Example: Initial Sizing of Chiller and Storage

The initial sizing of chiller and storage is illustrated here for the convention center
example introduced earlier. Quick size estimates are developed for the following
operating strategies:

Daily full storage


Daily partial storage, load leveling
Daily partial storage, demand limiting
Weekly partial storage, load leveling
10-14 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 10-6 summarizes the information required for the quick size estimates. This
table shows that even though the utility on-peak period lasts through 10 P.M., there
are no loads after 6 P.M. Since the facility demand for lighting and other electrical
loads also drops off at this time, chilling equipment can be operated between 6 P.M.
and 10 P.M. without increasing the peak billing demand. The effective on-peak
window for this system is, therefore, 10 A.M. to 6 P.M.

Table 10-6 Input Data for Quick Sizing Example

Utility Load
Hour Period Tons kW Cooling Mode

1 Charging
2
3
'L
4
4'
5
"
6
7
8 Met while charging
9 Discharging and direct cooling
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19 Charging
20
21
22
23
24

Notes:
On-peak ton-hr = 28,766 (101 256 kwh)
Off-peak ton-hr = 6,440 (22 669 kwh)
Total ton-hr = 35.206 (123 925 kwh)

Daily Full Storage


For the daily full storage option, all on-peak cooling will be supplied from storage.
For a storage system with acharging capacity equal to the nominal capacity, such as
a chilled water storage system, Equation (3) for the nominal chiller size becomes:
Design Procedure 10-15

Nominal chiller size = ton-h = 2,200


351206

l6 hchrg
Nominal chiller e k = 123 925 kwh = 7745 kW (3a)
l6 hchrg

This chiller capacity is less than the loads for hours 9 and 10. Loads during these
hours will be met by direct cooling from the chiller supplemented by discharge of
storage.

Equation (4) for storage capacity becomes:

Storage capacity = 35,206 ton-h


-[[2 hdc x 2,200 ton) + 845 ton-hchrg]
= 30,000 ton-h
Storage cagacitJr = 123 925 kwh
(44
-[[2 hdc ) x 7745 kw] + 2974 k W h r g

For a storage system with different capacities for charging and direct cooling, such
as a glycol-based ice storage system, the initial sizing calculation must take these
capacity differences into account. For example, if the charging capacity ratio is 0.7
and the direct cooling capacity ratio is 1.0, the nominal chiller size is calculated as
follows:
35,206 ton-h
Nominal chiller size =
(14 hChrgx0.7) + (2 hDc x 1.0)
= 2,983 tons
123 925 kwh
Nominal chiller size = (3b)
(14 hch, x 0.7) + (2 hDc x 1.0)

This nominal chiller size is greater than the load for hours 9 and 10, when the
chiller is in direct cooling mode. The chiller size calculation will need to be
adjusted. The loads in hours 9 and 10 are 2,623 and 2,973 tons (9233 and
10465 kW), or 88 and 99% of the initial chiller size estimate. These factors
are substituted in Equation (3b) as follows:
10-16 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Nominal chiller size =


35,206 ton-h
(14 hch,, x 0.7) + 0.88 + 0.99
= 3,017 tone

Nominal chiller size =


123 925 kwh
(3b)
(14 hchrlx 0.7) + 0.88 + 0.99
= 10 619 k W

The nominal chiller sizehas increased by about 30 tons (106 kW).The direct cooling
capacity ratios for hours 9 and 10are now 87 and 99% of this new capacity, a small
change from the previous values. Recalculating with these new values would result
in a negligible change in the chiller size calculation.

The required storage capacity will be:


Storage capacity = 35,206 ton-h
-[2,623 ton-h + 2,973 ton-h + 845 ton-hchrg]
= 28,800 ton-h
Storage capacity = 123 925 k w h
-[9233 kwh + 10 465 k W h + 2974 kWhCh,J
= 101 300 k w h

The direct cooling capacity is equal to the actual loads for hours 9 and 10, since these
loads are less than the actual chiller capacity.

Daily Partial Storage, Load Leveling


For adaily load-leveling system, the capacity ratios for direct cooling on and off peak
are equal. For a storage system with a charging capacity equal to the nominal
capacity, such as a chilled water storage system, Equation (3) for the nominal chiller
size becomes:

Nominal chiller size = 35,206 ton-h


(14 hchrgx 1.0) + (10 hDCx 1.0)
= 1,467 tons
Nominal chiller size = 123 925 kwh
(3~)
(14 hchrgx 1.0) + (10 hDCx 1.0)
Design Procedure 10-17

This chiller capacity is less than the load for hour 8. The load during hour 8 will be
met by direct cooling from the chiller supplemented by discharge of storage.

The required storage capacity will be:

Storage capaciQ = 35,206 ton-h


-[(lo hDCX 1,467 X 1.0) + 845 hl-hChrg]
19,700 ton-h
B
Storage capacity = 123 925 kwh
-[(lo hDCx 5164 kW x 1.0) + 2974 kwhchrg]
% 69 300 kwh

If the direct cooling capacity is equal to the nominal capacity and the charging
capacity is 70% of the nominal capacity, such as for a glycol-based ice storage
system, Equation (3) becomes:

Nominal chiller size = 35,206 ton-h


(14 hchrg
x 0.7) + (10 hDCx 1.0)
= 1,778 tons
Nominal chiller size 123 925 kwh
= (34
(14 hChrgx0.7) + (10 hDCx 1.0)
= 6259 k W

The required storage capacity will be:

Storage capaciQ = 35,206 ton-h

6,600 ton-h
%

Storage capacity = 123 925 kwh

% 58 400 kwh
1618 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

The direct cooling capacity in the previous load-leveling examples equals the
number of hours of direct cooling times the chiller capacity in direct cooling mode.

Daily Partial Storage, Demand Limiting


A demand-limiting system operates similarly to a load-leveling system, except that
the chiller capacity is limited during on-peak hours to allow additional demand
savings. Using the same chiller capacity ratios used above for the load-leveling
example, with a 50% on-peak capacity limit, the nominal chiller size is:

Nominal chiller size =


35,206 ton-h
(14 hchrgx 0.~1 (8
+ 0 . ~ 1 (2
h ~ ~ o n p + h ~ ~ o n p '-01
= 2,228 tons
Nominal chiller size =
123 925 kwh (3e)

(14 hchrp + 0.~1 (2


0 . ~ 1 (8 h ~ ~ o n p x + h ~ ~ o n p x
= 7843 k W

The required storage capacity will be:

CStore = 35,206-[(8 hDConpx 2,228 x 0.5) ]


+ (2~cojjr
x 2,228 x 1.0) + (845,h,g)
NN 21,000 ton-h

Weekly Partial Storage, Load Leveling


The design load profile for this convention center is expected to occur no more than
4 days in any 7-day period. The weekly design profile is assumed to consist:of four
consecutive peak design days. In the design week, there are 32 h of on-peak direct
cooling, 8 h of off-peak direct cooling, and the remaining 128 h are available for
charging storage. An allowanceof 12"free" hours not committed to charging storage
is provided as a safety factor, leaving 116 h for charging.
Design Procedure 10-19

This weekly cycle example is sized with an ice harvesting system. For an ice
harvester, the nominal capacity is typically given as the ice making capacity. For an
ice harvester with a chilling capacity 25% higher than its ice making capacity, the
nominal chiller size is:

Nominal chiller e k =
35,206 ton-h/day x 4 days
(116 hd,,x 1.0) + (40 hDCx 1.25)
= 848 tons
Nominal chiller aize =
123 925 kWh/day x 4 days (30
(116 hCh,,x 1.0) + (40 hDCx 1-25)
= 2985 kW

The storage size for this option is:

-[(4oDC x 848 x 1.25) + (4 x 845,bg) ]


w 95,100 ton-h
C,,, = U23 925 kWh/day x 4 days)
(40
-[(doDC X 2985 x 1-25) + (4 x 297hhrg) ]
w 334 600 kwh

The chiller sizes and storage sizes determined in the abovementioned examples are
summarized in TablelO-7.

Table 10-7 Summary of Quick Chiller and Storage Sizes

Quick Chiller Size Quick Storage Size

Operating Strategy Storage Type Tons kW Tons kW

Daily, Full storage Chilled water 2,200 7 745 30,000 105 600
Daily, Full storage Glycol ice 3,017 10 619 28,800 101 300
Daily, Load leveling Chilled water 1,467 5 164 19,700 69 300
Daily, Load leveling Glycol ice 1,778 6259 16,600 58 400
Daily, Demand limiting Glycol ice 2,228 7 843 21,000 73 900
Weekly, Load leveling Ice harvester 848 2985 95,100 334 600
10-20 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

10.3.3 Design Example: Economic Comparison


To completethe initialeconomic screening,operating costs and installation costs are
estimated for each of the sizing options under consideration. For this example, cost
estimates are generated for the cool storage options sized in the quick sizing
examples above. A completeanalysis would generally include estimates for each of
the storage types for each operating strategy.

The costs developed at this phase are often rough estimates, used to provide a quick
comparison among various technologies and sizing options. This example uses

Table 10-8 Economic Comparison Summary4onvention Center

Peak
Quick Quick Month
Chiller Storage Demand
Operating Storage Size, Size, On-Peak, Savings
Mode TYpe Tons Ton-hr kW kW
Nonstorage ... 3,900 0 2,730 ...
Daily full Chilled
storage water 2.200 30,000 0 2,730
Daily full Glycol
storage ice 3,017 28,800 0 2,730
Daily load Chilled
leveling water 1,467 19,700 1,027 1,703
Daily load Glycol
leveling ice 1,778 16,600 1,245 1,485
Daily demand Glycol
limiting ice 2,228 21,000 780 1,950
Weekly load Ice
leveling harvester 848 95,100 742 1,988

Notes:
On-peak chiller efficiency = 0.7 kW/ton

Harvester on-peak capacity = 1.25 x Nominal capacity


On-peak demand charge = $8.00/kW
Chiller cost = $600/ton

Harvester cost = $1,10O/ton


Storage cost
Chilled water = $4O/ton-hour
Glycol ice = $60/ton-hour
Harvester = $15/ton-hour
Utility subsidy = $150/0n-peak kW reduced
Design Procedure 10-21

generic cost estimating figures to develop such a rough comparison. In some cases,
more detailed cost data may be available or more accurate estimates may be
desirable.

Typically, cool storage options are evaluated in comparison to a nonstorage system,


with operating costs expressed in terms of savings relative to the base case. In most
applications, the bulk of operating cost savings accrue from reduced demand
charges. While energy cost savings can also play arole in the economicanalysis,they
are often not a large part of the total savings. For the purposes of the initial economic
screening, operating cost savings can be calculated based on estimates of demand
savings. At the same time, it should be recognized that for some applications,energy

Example (IP Units)

Annual Annual Installation Cost, Thousand Dollars


Demand Demand
Savings Savings, Chiller Storage Subsidy Total Difference
kW S Thou

Annual demand savings for full storage systems assume 3 months with peak demand savings
and 5 months with 70%of peak savings.

Annual demand savings for partial storage systems assume 8 months with 100%of peak
demand savings
10-22 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

cost savings constitute a significant portion of the total operating cost savings. In
these cases, an annual energy analysis, including comparisons of on- and off-peak
energy consumption and charges, may be necessary.

Demand savings can be estimated based on approximate chiller efficienciesand on-


peak chiller loading for each option. For this example, on-peak chiller efficiencies
are assumed to be 0.7 kW/ton (0.2 kW/kW) for all options. The on-peak demand
charge applicable to this project is $8.00/kW.

For partial storage systems, this example assumes that the demand savings for the
peak month are available for 8 months of the year. For the full storage systems, peak

Table 108 Economic Comparison Summary42onvention Center

Peak
Quick Quick Month
Chiller Storage Demand
Operating Storage Size, Size, On-Peak, Savings,
Mode Type kW kwh kW kW
Nonstorage ... 13 728
Daily full Chilled
storage water 7 744
Daily full Glywl
storage ice 10 619
Daily load Chilled
leveling water 5 164
Daily load Glycol
leveling ice 6 259
Daily demand Glywl
limiting ice 7 843
weekly load Ice
leveling harvester 2 985

Notes:
On-peak chiller efficiency = 0.2 kWkW

Harvester on-peak capacity = 1.25 x Nominal capacity


On-peak demand charge = $8.00/kW
Chiller cost = 170lkW

Harvester cost
Storage cost
Chilled water = $11.36kWh
Glycol ice = $17.05/kWh
Harvester = $4.26/kWh
Utility subsidy = $150/0n-peak kW reduced
Design Procedure 10-23

demand savingsare assumed to be equal to the peak month savingsfor 3 months, and
to 70% of the peak month savings for Smonths. These estimates vary for each
application, depending on climate and load characteristics.

Installed costs for chiller capacity are estimated at $600/ton ($170/kW). This does
not reflect the cost of the entire chiller plant but is useful in evduating the cost
impacts of downsizing chillers, cooling towers, etc.

Costs for ice harvesters vary considerably with ice making capacity. For the
relatively large system considered in this example, ice harvester costs are estimated
at $1,10O/ton ($3121kW).

Example (SI Units)

Annual Annual Installation Cost, Thousand Dollars


Demand Demand
Savings Savings Chiller Storage Subsidy Total Difference
kW % Thou

Annual demand savings for full storage systems assume 3 months with peak demand savings
and 5 months with 70%of peak savings.

Annual demand savings for partial storage systems assume 8 months with 100%of peak
demand savings
1@24 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Chilled water storage costs are based on a 16OF (9 K) temperature range, resulting
in a storage volume of 100 gal per ton-hour (108 L/kWh). With tank costs at
approximately $0.40/gal ($O.ll/L), storage costs are estimated at $40/ton-hour
($11.37/kWh).

Glycol ice storage costs are estimated at $60/ton-hour($17/kWh).For the relatively


large ice harvester tank in the weekly storage option, the storage cost is estimated to
be $15/ton-hour ($4.25/kWh).

Many electric utilities offer direct incentive payments to encourage the installation
of cool storage systems. These incentives are typically linked to the reduction in on-
peak demand provided by the storage system. In this example, the utility subsidy is
$150 per kilowatt shifted from on-peak periods.

Table 10-8summarizes the preliminary economic comparison for this example. The
table shows many of the cool storage options with lower estimated first costs than a
nonstorage system. This approximate initial analysis indicates that cool storage
definitely warrants more detailed analysis for this application and provides a basis
for ranking the alternatives.

This summary does not show possible savings in fan energy and air distribution
equipment if cold air distribution is used. It also neglects to indicate possible savings
in pump energy and in first costs of pumps and piping, if the chilled water
temperature range can be increased.

In the next step of the design procedure, the quick sizing estimates and the initial
economic analysis are combined with other site-specific considerations to select
appropriate storage types and operating strategies for further analysis.

10.4 SELECTION OF STORAGE TYPE AND OPERATING STRATEGY


The selection of storage type and operating strategy for a given cool storage
application is based on the results of the initial economic screening. Additional
factors that affect the selections include the amount of space available for storage,
the need for reserve capacity for future load increases, storage interface consider-
ations, and the preferences and level of expertise of operation and maintenance
personnel.

In some cases, the preferred option is readily apparent based on the preliminary
analysis. In many cases, however, more than one storage type or operating strategy
Design Procedure 10-25

is selected for further analysis. As the subsequent steps of the design procedure are
carried out, the options can be compared in detail and the best system selected.

For the convention center example summarized in Table 10-8, many of the cool
storage options offer first cost savings, as well as operating cost savings, compared
to a nonstorage system. For many applications, cool storage incurs additional frrst
costs, which must be evaluated in terms of operating cost savings.

In general, daily load-leveling systems have the lowest first costs and the lowest
operating cost savings. Capital costs for demand-limiting and full storage systems
are higher, since these systems are sized with larger equipment to increase operating
cost savings.In many applications,weekly storage systemshave the lowest f i t cost,
sincechiller size is minimized.For the convention center example, however, the cost
for increased storage capacity offsets the reduction in chiller size. If the weekly
system is attractive based on noneconomic considerations, better storage cost
estimates than the unit costs used for this analysis should be obtained.

Space available for storage is an importantfactorin selectionof both storage typeand


operating strategy. Where space is limited, options that require relatively large
storage volumes are less attractive. Large storage volumes are required for eutectic
salt and chilled water storage, full storage operating strategies, and weekly storage
cycles.

Reserve cooling capacity is also a consideration.Reserve cooling capacity for load-


leveling systems is inherently less than for systems operating in other strategies, as
the total cooling capacity for this option is selected to be very close to the total peak
cooling load. Weekly cycle load-leveling systems have the least reserve capacity,
since all hours of the week are needed to generate cooling for the design load. Full
storage systems generally have the most reserve capacity, as the chillersare not used
during on-peak periods. However,any storageoption can be sized with excesschiller
capacity or storage capacity to provide a reserve in case of future load increases.

The cost of reserve storage capacity may be a factor in selecting the preferred storage
technology. For technologies such as chilled water storage and ice harvesters, the
marginal cost of additional storage is relatively low. For technologies using modular
tanks, additional capacity can often be easily added in the future, when and if it is
needed.

Both the chilled water temperature range available and the possibility of reducing
water or air distribution temperatures affect the type of storage selected. The use of
pressurized or nonpressurized tanks and the heat transfer fluid used are additional
considerations. At this point in the analysis, some preliminary selections must be
made.
10-26 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Pressurized storage tanks can be readily integrated into a cooling system design.
Nonpressurized tanks may require heat exchanger isolation or pressure-sustaining
valves. Nonpressurized tanks that are not isolated by heat exchangers also require
additional water treatment. Storage systems that use glycol or other secondary
coolants circulate the storage loop coolant in the secondary distribution system, or
the storage plant needs to be isolated by heat exchangers.

Operation and maintenancealso play a part in selecting a storage. Consider the level
of expertise of the personnel responsible for the storage system. Chilled water and
eutectic salt storage systems use conventional chillers operating at conventional
temperatures and are very similar to nonstorage plants. Glycol-based ice storage
chillers are similar in many respects to nonstorage chillers but involve a different
operating fluid and lower temperaturesthan most nonstoragesystems. Ice harvesting
systems and refrigerant-based ice-on-pipe systems require refrigeration expertise
familiar to many plant operators and service contractors.

10.5 DETERMINE STORAGE PARAMETERS


AND PIPING CONFIGURATION
At this stage, the interface with the building distribution system is brought into the
storage system design process. Considerations include:

Distribution supply air temperature


Distribution supply and return fluid temperatures
Distribution fluid flow rate
Possible use of heat exchangers for system isolation

The capacity ratings of both chiller and storage must be corrected to reflect their
cooling performance in the actual temperatureconditions at which they will operate.

Determination of the supply air temperature, supply and return fluid temperatures,
and fluid flow rate is an iterative process involving the evaluation of constraints on
any one quantity and their effects on the others. Some applications have preexisting
interface requirements. If no such requirements exist, the engineer can select
optimum or preferred values for these parameters.

The desired supply air temperature is selected based on potential savings in air
distribution system costs and fan energy consumption and on space air distribution
considerations. The lower limit of this parameter depends on the available chilled
fluid temperature, with a typical approach of 6°F (3 K) or more between the chilled
fluid supply and discharge air temperatures. Dorgan and Elleson (1988) discuss the
selection of supply air temperature, and other considerations in cold air distribution
Design Procedure 10-27

system design. A list of additional references pertaining to cold air distribution is


given at the end of Chapter 2.

The chilled fluid supply temperature is determined primarily by the discharge


characteristics of the cool storage system, as discussed in Chapters 4 through 9.

The chilled fluid return temperature depends on the heat transfer characteristics of
the cooling coils. Cooling coil selection is discussed in Section 2.5.1. When cooling
coils must be selected for high fluid temperature differentials and tube velocities
below 1 ft/s (0.3 mls), it may be advisable to consider alternative circuiting to
increase the water flow rate, to specify turbulators to increase water-side heat
transfer coefficients, or to allow a safety factor in the specification of coil perfor-
mance. One method for providing reserve coil capacity is to specify cooling coils
capable of providing the required cooling capacity with entering water temperatures
2OF (1 K)higher than the design supply temperature.

The chilled fluid flow rate is determined by the peak load and the temperature rise
from supply to return water. Verify that the available cooling coils will provide the
desired performance at the given temperatures and flow rate. Temperatures, flow
rate, or coil selection may need adjusting until an acceptable combination is found.

Determine whether or not the storage cooling fluid will be used as the distribution
cooling fluid. Heat exchangers may be used to isolate storage and distribution loops
due to the use of glycol or other secondary coolants on the storage side, or because
of water treatment concerns arising from the use of open storage tanks.

While each application is unique, experience with ice storage systems using glycol
as secondary coolant has shown that heat exchangers are typically used in systems
with peak cooling loads above 500 tons (1800 kW). Where peak cooling loads are
less than 200 tons (700 kW), it is generally economical to use glycol in the building
distribution system. For peak cooling loads between 200 and 500 tons (1800 and 7OO
kW), the decision whether or not to use a heat exchanger will be determined by the
specific conditions at the site.

Heat exchangers may also be used in systems with open storage tanks to maintain
desired distribution system static pressures. Direct pumping with pressure-sustain-
ing valves and the use of energy recovery turbines should also be considered for
systems with open tanks. Comparisons of these options are given by Mackie and
Reeves (1988)-Mackie and Richards (1992), and Tackett (1988).

The decision whether to use a heat exchanger must be based on an evaluation of all
pertinent factors, including:
1&28 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Static pressure requirements


Pressure drops
Pumping energy
Water treatment
Supply fluid temperature penalty
Equipment costs
System complexity

The designer must select the configuration of chilling equipment, storage tanks,
pumps, and other components. Several of the storage technologies may be arranged
with the chiller in parallel with storageor with the chiller in series and located either
upstream or downstream of storage. Common configurations for each of the storage
technologies are illustrated in Chapters 4 through 9.

10.6 PERFORM DETAILED COOLING PLANT AND STORAGE SIZING


In this phase of the design procedure, the quick chiller and storage sizes developed
previously are refined to reflect the actual performance of the specific equipment to
be used. Chiller output, storage charge and discharge temperatures, and flow rates
through chiller and storage are reconciled with the design load profile, resulting in
an accurate selection of required equipment sizes.

As discussed in Section 2.6, the detailed sizing process requires an hour by hour
simulation of the performance of chiller and storage in response to the load profile
and ambient conditions over the entire design load cycle. By an iterativeprocedure,
a system operating profile is developed that considers load, ambient temperatures,
storage inventory, and temperatures entering and leaving storage for each hour.
Pump heat gains and storage losses must be included in this analysis. The character-
istics of the secondary distribution system,particularly the return water temperature,
are important, as are the control sequences governing chiller operation and storage.

The purpose of the design is to meet the load during each hour. The supply
temperature is selectedas a design parameter, and the return temperatureor flowrate
will vary in response to the load, as determined by the distribution system control
sequences and cooling coil performance. If the load has been overestimated or if
safety factors have been applied, the design return temperature may not be achieved
in practice. This possibility should be considered during design of a system whose
performancedepends on return temperature. If a heat exchanger is used, its response
to the hourly temperature and flow conditions should be determined. Pump heat
gains must also be added to the load.
Design Procedure 10-29

Chiller capacity depends on supplytemperature, condensing temperature,and return


temperature. Supply temperature is determined primarily by charging or direct
cooling operation. Condensing temperature depends on ambient dry-bulb tempera-
ture for air-cooled condensers and on wet-bulb temperature for water-cooled or
evaporative condensers. With water-cooled condensers, credit for increased capac-
ity at low wet-bulb temperatures should be taken only if the control sequence allows
reduced condensing temperatures. Also, ensure that the selected condenser or
cooling tower has sufficient capacity for the hourly heat rejection. Return tempera-
ture depends on charging or direct cooling operation and on the output of the
component upstream of the chiller, which may be the load or the storage tank.

Some designers elect to apply a safety factor of 5 to 10%to rated chiller capacities
to account for the 5%tolerance allowed in manufacturer's capacity ratings. This can
be accomplishedby specifying a chiller capable of cooling 105%of the design flow
m e to the design temperature.

Storageparameters includechargingcharacteristics,dischargecharacteristics,stored
cooling inventory, and thermal losses (heat gains). The charging temperature
required to completely charge storage within the available time period is specific to
the storage technology and is typically determined based on the storage tank design
or the storage manufacturer's ratings. With some ice storage technologies, the
charging temperature will vary with the storage inventory. A safety factor can be
provided by designing for a shorter charging time than is actually expected.

The available discharge temperature typically depends on the current storage


inventory and may also vary with storage inlet temperature and flow rate, depending
on the specific storage technology.

Thermal losses are generally accounted for by increasing the calculated storage
capacity. Calculation of losses is discussed in Section 2.3.2. A margin of safety can
be provided by increasing the specified storage capacity by more than the amount of
calculated losses.

The result of the detailed sizing procedure is a design operating profile that includes
the following information for each hour of the storage cycle:

Total system cooling load


Chiller output
Chiller entering chilled fluid temperature
Chiller leaving chilled fluid temperature
Chiller chilled fluid flow
Cooling charged to or discharged from storage
Storage chilled fluid flow
1 0 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Storage entering chilled fluid temperature


Storage leaving chilled fluid temperature

Three examples are presented here to illustrate the detailed sizing procedure with
various storage technologies and calculation methods.

10.6.1 Design Example: Detailed System Sizing, Internal Melt Ice Storage
Detailed system sizing is illustrated here for a middle school application with an
internal melt ice storage system. Tables 10-9 and 10-10 summarize the data for this
example.

Table 10-9 shows the cooling capacity as a function of leaving fluid temperatwe for
the air-cooled chiller selected for this design. Although the chiller leaving tempera-
ture varies somewhat during charging, the analysis was simplified by assuming a
constant charging capacity of 92 tons (324 kW).The charging capacity is given for
an ambient air temperature of 85°F (29.4"C), and the direct cooling capacities are
given for an ambient air temperature of 95°F (35°C). A more precise analysis would
consider variations in ambient temperature for each hour and their effects on
capacity.

Table 10-9 Chiller Capacity versus Leaving Fluid Temperature--School


Example

Leaving Fluid Chiller Capacity, Leaving Fluid Chiller Capacity


Temperature, O F Tons Temperature, OC kW

Notes: Capacity at 24'F (-44°C) is based on 85OF (29'C) air temperature. Other
capacities are based on 95OF (3S°C)air temperature.
Design Procedure 10-31

Table 10-10 shows the completed design operating profile, developed using the
storage tank manufacturer's computer program to calculate charge and discharge
characteristics. The data in Table 10-10 were developed in an iterative process,
beginning with nominal chiller capacities for each hour of direct cooling. The
calculated chiller leaving temperatures were used to determine a new capacity for
each hour, based on Table 10-9. This process was reheated until no further adjust-
ments were required.

The StorageLeavingTemperaturecolumn in Table 10-10shows that the temperature


availablefrom storage is below the requirement of 38.S°F (3.6OC) for every hour. In
hours 18 and 19, the load is so low that the flow through storage drops below the
calculation limits of the computer program. However, it can be inferred from the
available temperature of 35.2OF (1.8OC) in hour 17 that the discharge temperature
will be sufficient to meet the load.

The StorageInventory column shows that there may be excess storage capacity in the
system as sized. The total nominal capacity of the six nominal 162 ton-how (570
kwh) tanks is 972 ton-hours (3421 kwh). Only 828 ton-hours (2915 kwh) are put
into the tanks during the charge cycle, and 125 ton-hours (440 kwh) remain at hour
19 at the end of discharging.

To determine whether the design storage capacity could be reduced, the sizing
simulation was repeated fora system with five modular storage tanks, using the same
procedure as for Tablelo-10. The results are shown in Table 10-11. In this case, the
storage leaving temperature rises to 40.Z°F (4.6"C) in hour 14, the peak load how,
and the load is met only by increasing the storage flow above the design flow of 80
gpm (5 L/s) per tank. Similarly, the required discharge temperature cannot be
supplied in hour 15.
Table 10-10 Design Operating Profile for Internal Mett Ice System, School Example (IP Units)

Change Percent Chiller Storage Chiller Storage Tank


Chiller in Storage of Latent Leaving Leaving Entering Flow Pressure
Coollng Load, Capacity, Storage, Inventory, Capacity, Temp., Temp., Temp., per Tank, Drop,
Hour Mode Tons Tons Tons Ton-hr % OF OF OF e m osi

1 Charging
2
3 U

4
5 '4

6 '4

n
7
8 Direct Cooling
n
9
n
10
11 '4

u
12
13
14
15
-
n

16 6'

u
17
18 U

19 "
u
20
u
21
n
22
23 Charging
n
24

Notes:
Chiller Upstream Series Flow Number of tanks = 6
System supply temperature = 38.S°F Flow, gpm
System return temperature = 55.6"F Charge = 400, gpm
Design load = 268 tons Discharge = 400, gpm
Working fluid = 25%ethylene glycol
Nominal chiller size = 130 tons **Condition outside calculation limits of program.
Table 10-10 Design Operating Profile for Internal Mett Ice System, School Example (S1 Units)

Change Percent Chiller Storage Chiller Storage Tank


Chiller In Storage of Latent Leaving Leaving Entering Flow Pressure
Cooling Load, Capacity, Storage, Inventory, Capacity, Temp., Temp., Temp., per Tank, Drop,
Hour Mode kW kW kW kwh 9% "C O C OC L/s kPa

1 Charging 0 323 323 97 1 28 -3.4 -0.2 -0.2 4.2 67.5


2 '4
0 323 323 1,29538 -3.6 -0.3 4.6 4.2 67.5
3 u 0 323 323 1,619 47 -3.6 4.4 4.4 4.2 67.5
4 u 0 323 323 1,943 57 -3.8 -0.6 4.6 4.2 67.5
5 '' 0 323 323 2,266 66 -4.0 4.8 -0.8 4.2 67.5
6 U
0 323 323 2,590 76 -4.4 -1.1 -1.1 4.2 67.5
7 '4
0 323 323 2.9 14 85 -4.8 -1.6 -1.6 4.2 68.2
8 Direct Cooling 91 91 0 2.9 14 85 3.6 0.0 4.6 0.0 ...
9 " 355 355 0 2,914 85 3.6 0.0 7.2 0.0 ...
10 '4
566 436 -130 2,784 81 4.9 0.1 9.3 1.1 11.7
u
11 63 3 443 -190 2,594 76 5.5 0.2 10.0 1.5 15.9
12 '4
792 464 -327 2,266 66 6.9 0.9 11.6 2.3 25.5
" 883 471 -41 1 1,855 54 7.8 2.1 12.5 3.0 37.9
13
" 943 482 4 61 1,393 41 8.3 3.1 13.1 3.7 51.7
14
15 '4
922 478 443 950 28 8.1 3.4 12.9 4.0 57.2
4
'
16 714 454 -260 689 20 6.2 1.7 10.8 2.4 27.6
17 " 605 440 -165 524 15 5.3 1.8 9.7 2.0 21.4
18 " 47 8 422 -5 6 468 14 4.2 *+ 8.4 C* ++
19 " 450 422 -2 8 440 13 3.9 *+ 8.2 ** +*
20 L1
112 112 0 440 13 3.6 0.0 4.7 0.0 ...
21 '4
102 102 0 440 13 3.6 0.0 4.7 0.0 ... 0
22 U
95 95 0 440 13 3.6 0.0 4.6 0.0 ... ID
k
23 Charging 0 323 323 323 9 -3.3 -0.1 -0.1 4.2 66.8 (P
24 U
0 323 323 647 19 -3.4 -0.2 -0.2 4.2 66.8 3
9
Notes: $
ID
Chiller Upstream Series Flow Nominal Chiller size = 457 k W a
System return temperature = 13.1°C Flow, Us c
Design load = 943 k W Discharge = 25 L/s 3
Working fluid = 25% ethylene glycol Charge = 25 L/s
System supply temperature = 3 . 6 T $
Number of tanks = 6 **Condition outside calculation limits of program. 8
Tabk 10-11 Design Operating Profile, School Example, Reduced Storago Capacity (IP Units) 0
P
rp
Change Percent Chiller Storage Chiller Storage Tank 3
Chiller in Storage Latent Leaving Leaving Entering Flow Pressure

Hour
Cooling
Mode
Lcmd,
Tons
Capacity,
Tons
Storage,
Tons
Inventory,
Ton-hr
Capacity,
96
Temp,
OF
Temp.,
O F
Temp.,
O F
per Tank,
Q D ~
Drop,
nsi
I
n"
Charging 0
0
0
0
0
u
0
u
0
u
0
u
0
Direct cooling 26
" 10
'.
0
161
180
4
'
225
" 25 1
u
268
u
262
'a
203
a'
172
'.
a'

'
.
136
128
32
'
.
29
0
27
Charging 0
'
.
0

Notes:
Chiller Upstream Series Flow Flow, gpm
System supply temperature = 38S°F Discharge = 400
System return temperature = 55.6OF Charge = 400
Nominal chiller size = 130 tons
Number of tanks = 5 **Condition outside calculation limits of program.
Working fluid = 25% ethylene glycol
Table 10-11 Design Operating Profile, School Example, Reduced Storage Capacity (SI Units)

Change Percent Chiller Storage Chiller Storage Tank


Chiller In Storage Latent Leaving Leaving Entering Flow Pressure
Cooling Load, Capacity, Storage, Inventory, Capacity, Temp., Temp., Temp., per Tank, Drop,
Hour Mode kW kW kW kwh % OC OC "C Lls kPa

Charging
U

'4

'd

Direct cooling
Y

-
Y

s'

.'
4'

Charging
4'

Notes:
Chiller Upstream Series Flow Flow, L/s
System supply temperature = 3.PC Discharge = 25
System return temperature = 13.1°C Charge = 25
Nominal chiller size = 457 k W
Number of tanks = 5 **Condition outside calculation limits of program.
Working fluid = 25%ethylene glycol
10-36 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

This example illustratesthe importanceof verifying storageperformanceagainst the


design load profile. Even when the total storage capacity is sufficient, the discharge
rate must also be verified for each hour of the load profile.

10.6.2 Design Example: Detailed System Sizing, Ice Harvester


This example illustrates the detailed sizing procedure for an ice harvester system,
using the convention center example introduced earlier. Table 10-12presents the ice
harvester performance data used for the sizing analysis, and Table 10-13summarizes
the final analysis.

Table 10-12 Ice Harvester Performance Data for Siing Example

Entering
Step Water Temp., Nominal kW/ton kW/kW
Capacity
OF OC Ratio

Table 10-13was generated using a commercially available sizing program. Several


ice harvester manufacturers also provide similar programs to determine required
chiller and storage sizes and to calculate equipment performance. Inputs to the
program include the peak ambient dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures, the daily
dry-bulb temperature range, the hourly load profile, and the utility rate schedule.

The sizing program calculates the required chiller size and storage size for the
specified operating strategy and provides an hour-by-hour simulation of the system
based on the specified equipment performance characteristics. Return water tem-
perature to the ice harvester is calculated based on the required recirculation water
flow, the load, and the system pumping arrangement. Such an analysis could also be
performed using a spreadsheet program, or manually, by successively refining the
initial estimates of chiller and storage size.

The analysisyields arequirednominalice making capacity of 1,312tons (4 618 kW).


This result must be compared with manufacturer's equipment ratings to verify that
equipment of this capacity is available and that appropriate performance character-
Table 10-13 Design Operating Profile for ice Harvester, Convention Center Example (IP Units)

Dry Wet Entering Compressor Compressor Storage Change in Percent


Hour Bulb, Bulb, Temp., Load, Utility Capacity, Demand, Inventory, Storage, Char%%
OF O F OF tons Period tons kW ton-hr ton-hr 46
Off 1,352
Off 1,353
Off 1,353
Off 1,356
Off 1,356
Off 1,356
Off 1,354
Off 1,495
Off 1,609
Off 1,616
On 1,622
On 1,625
On 1,626
On 1,624
On 1,622
On 1,618
On 1,613
On 1,604
On 1,333
On 1,337
On 1,341
On 1,345
Off 1,348
Off 1,350
Table 10-13 Design Operating Profile for Ice Harvester Convention Center Example (SI Units)

Dry Wet Entering Compressor Compressor Storage Change in Percent


Hour Bulb,
OC
Bulb,
OC
Temp,
OC
Load,
kW
Utility
Period
Capacity,
kW
Demand,
kW
Inventory,
kwh
Storage,
kwh
Charge,
56 P
n
off
off
off
off
Off
Off
off
off
Off
Off
on
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
Off
Off
Design Procedure 10-39

istics were used in the analysis. For this example, four evaporator assemblies, each
with a nominal capacity rating of 340 tons (1200 kW), were selected for installation
with a separate built-up refrigeration plant.

The storage requirement calculatedat this point is for aminimum of 18,184available


ton-hours (64 000 kwh) required to meet the load. An allowance must be added to
this capacity to account for losses, and the tank dimensions must be selected.

A storage tank 32 ft (9.75 m) deep, 32 ft (9.75 m) wide, and 60 ft (18.29 m) long


provides a storage volume of about 61,000 ft3 (1726 m3). The four evaporator
modules were arranged along the length of the tank, so that the effectiveice opening
area covers the majority of the total plan area of the tank. With this arrangement, the
tank volume requirement was estimated to be 3.0 ft3per ton-hour (0.024 m3/kWh),
or about 55,000 ft3 (1557 m3). The selected dimensions provide a comfortable
allowance of about 11%for losses and safety factor.

10.6.3 Design Example: Detailed System Sizing, Chilled Water Storage

This example illustrates the detailed sizing procedure for a chilled water storage
system, using the campus example introduced earlier. Table 10-14 contains the
chiller performance data used for the sizing analysis, and Table 10-15 summarizes
the final analysis.

Table 10-14 Chiller Performance Data for Sizing Example

Leaving Condenser Capacity Ratio,


Water Water Temperature, % of NominaI kW/ton kW/kW
Temperature
Table 10-15 Design Operating Profile for Chilled Water Storage, Campus Example (IP Units)

Dry Wet Condenser Leaving Chiller Chiller Storage Change in Percent


Hour Bulb, Bulb, Water, Water, Load, Utility Capacity, Demand, Inventory, Storage, Charge,
OF OF OF "F tons Period tons kW ton-hr tons %

Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
off
Off
Off
Table 10-$5 Design Operating Profile for Chilled Water Storage, Campus Example (SI Units)

Dry Wet Condenser Leaving Chiller Chiller Storage Change in Percent


Hour Bulb, Bulb, Water, Water, Load, Utility Capacity, Demand, Inventory, Storage, Charge,
OC OC OC "C kW Period kW kW kwh kW %

1 25.0 22.7 27 4 35900 Off 41 507 8522 14027 5 607 58.1


2 24.3 22.5 27 4 35 812 Off 41 550 8509 19764 5 737 81.9
3 23.8 22.3 26 4 35541 Off 39 902 8128 24126 4 361 100
4 23.4 22.2 26 6 34 858 Off 34 858 7009 24126 0 100
5 23.3 22.2 26 6 34312 Off 34312 6895 24126 0 100
6 23.6 22.3 26 6 32 588 Off 32 588 6 557 24 126 0 100
7 24.2 22.4 26 6 36 439 Off 36 439 7356 24126 0 100
8 25.4 22.8 27 6 39431 Off 39 431 8 007 24 126 0 100
9 27.1 23.2 27 6 39913 Off 39 913 8173 24126 0 100
10 28.9 23.7 28 6 40356 Off 40 356 8340 24126 0 100
11 31.1 24.3 28 6 40860 Off 40 860 8528 24 126 0 100
12 33.2 24.8 29 6 41 877 Off 41 877 8820 24 126 0 100
13 34.7 25.2 29 6 43398 Off 43 398 9 199 24 126 0 100
14 35.7 25.4 29 5 44841 On 43 324 9 222 22 605 -1 520 93.7
15 36.1 25.6 29 6 46351 On 43 292 9231 19 550 -3 058 81
16 35.7 25.4 29 6 48 361 On 43 324 9 222 14509 -5 040 60.1
17 34.8 25.2 29 6 49160 On 43 387 9 202 8 726 -5772 36.2
18 33.4 24.9 29 6 48 143 On 43 493 9 170 4086 -4649 16.9 0
19 31.8 24.4 28 6 46404 On 43 619 9 130 1302 -2 787 5.4 (D
20 30.1 24.1 28 6 45041 On 43 746 9 088 7 -1295 0 2.
(P
21 28.7 23.7 28 6 43 672 On 43 669 9 013 0 -3 0 3
22
23
24
27.4
26.4
25.6
23.3
23.1
22.8
27
27
27
6
4
4
41 521
38547
35900
Off
Off
Off
41 521
41 405
41 462
8 517
8 505
8 537
0
2 858
8 419
2 858
5 561
0 0
11.8
34.9
z8
a
e
3
10-42 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 10-15 was generated using the results of a commercially available sizing
program combined with additional analysis using a spreadsheet program to provide
an hour-by-hoursimulation of system performancebased on the specified equipment
performance characteristics.

The intent of the sizing analysis is to determine the minimum storage size required
to meet the future loads on the chilled water plant, using the existing chillers. The
operating strategy is based on a load-leveling operation, but the storage size is
smaller than that for a true load-leveling system to make use of the entire available
chiller capacity. Some of the chillers are operated at 3g°F (3.g°C) to charge storage
during the charging period, while 42°F (5.6OC) operation is simulated for direct
cooling operation.

The result of this analysis is a storage requirement of 6,854 ton-hours (1,947 kwh).
The approximate size of a chilled water tank to store this amount of cooling is
calculated as follows:
Volume (gallons) =
ton-h x 12,000 Btulton-h
A'F x 8.364 Btu/gale°F x Tank Figure of Merit
Volume (m3) =
(5)
kwh x 3600 kJ/kWh
AK x 998 kg/m3 x 4.2 kJ/CkrW x Tank Figure of Merit

For a 14°F (7.8"C) available temperature difference, and an assumed FOM of 0.90,
the required storage volume is about 783,000 gal (2960 m3). A tank 60 ft (18 m) in
diameter and 40 ft (12 m) high would provide a volume of 845,000 gal (3200 m3),
about 8% more than the minimum requirement. These dimensions are tentatively
used to enter the diffuser design procedure.

Diffuser design is not included in this example. A discussion of diffuser design and
references for diffuser design examples are given in Section 4.4.3.

10.7 ECONOMIC EVALUATION

10.7.1 First Cost and Operating Cost Estimates


When system design parametersandequipment sizes have been determined, detailed
first cost and operating cost estimates can be developed. First cost estimates are
developed using the same procedures as for nonstorage systems. Cost estimates for
Deslgn Procedure 10-43

storage tanks are best obtained from manufacturers. For site-built tanks, obtain
estimates from contractors experienced in the construction of tanks for cool storage
or similar duty. Similarly,cost estimatesor bids for installation of equipment should
be solicited from contractors familiar with cool storage.

Operating cost estimates can be developed to varying levels of detail and accuracy.
In some cases, simple estimates based on peak demand savings, as discussed in
Section 10.3, may be adequate. At the other extreme, an hour-by-hour analysis
including energy consumption of chillers, pumps, and air-handler fans may be
desirable.

For most applications, most operating cost savingscome from reductions in demand
charges. Demand savings for each month of the year are calculated based on
estimates or calculationsof load variationsthroughout the year and on knowledge of
system control strategies during nonpeak months. It is generally sbaightforward to
calculateannual demand savingsby repeating the design day analysis with appropri-
ate load profiles for 12 months.

For some applications, particularly where there is a large differential between on-
and off-peak energy charges, chiller energy savings are significant. For many cool
storage designs, pumping energy savings are important. Savings in fan energy
should also be included if cold air distribution is used.

Annual energy savingscan be estimated using energy modeling programs. However,


the programs currently available were developed to model nonstorage systems and
generally do not provide accurate modeling of the performance and interaction of
chiller and storage. It is also difficult to accurately model many part-load control
sequences. In many cases, a program's inherent assumptions about the performance
and operation of a cool storage system may give rise to inaccuracies in energy
estimating that offset the benefits of performing a detailed computer simulation.

Estimates of energy savings can be developed based on the design operating profile
developed for detailed sizing. Energy savings for a single storage cycle are calcu-
lated from the applicable utility rates and from the differences in on- and off-peak
energy consumption between the storage system and the nonstorage base case. One
method of projecting these data into an annual analysis is to multiply energy savings
for the design day (or week) by the number of effective full-load days (or weeks) in
each month. Effective full-load days must be estimated based on an assessment of
the magnitude and distribution of loads throughout the year, making this method
more accurate than if a peak operating profile were developed for each month.

Energy savings can often be related to the number of ton-hours per day shifted from
on- to off-peak periods. It may be assumed that the energy savings for the peak day
1&44 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

is achieved on any day that the number of on-peak cooling load ton-hours is greater
than or equal to the storage capacity. For lower load days, the entire on-peak load
shifted, and savingsare proportional to the load. Estimates generatedby this method
will not fully account for variations in part-load efficiency of nonstorage chillers.

Annual energy savings can also be estimated by running detailed daily comparisons
of storage and nonstorage performance over a representative range of load and
ambient temperature conditions. The daily energy consumption for each condition
is multiplied by the number of days in each month at the respective temperature level,
as determined from weather data.

Design Example: First Cost Analysis


This example illustrates a first cost analysis for the convention center example
introduced earlier. This example is particularly favorable for cool storage, and it
illustrates the savings potential for downsized chillers, air distribution systems and
water distribution systems. The analysis shown here was performed to give the
owner the best possible estimateof likely system costs, to allow an informed decision
to be made on whether further design work for the cool storage system should
proceed.

The cost breakdown given here is for an internal melt ice storage system, with a
nominal chiller capacity of 2,000 tons (7000 kW). Glycol secondary coolant is used
in the distribution system, with a 20°F (ll.l°C) temperature rise. A supply air
temperatureof 45'F (7.2OC) is used in the exhibit halls, using jet diffusers. In offices
and meeting rooms, 48°F (8.g°C) air is supplied using slot diffusers selected for that
temperature.

The nonstorage alternative is based on a design concept developed before cool


storage was considered for this project. A nominal chiller capacity of 4,000 tons (14
100 kW) is required. The distribution fluid is water, with a temperature rise of 14OF
(7.8OC). Supply air to all spaces is at S ° F (12.8OC).

Table 10-16 summarizes the cost comparison between the two systems. The
comparison considers only those items that differ for the two alternatives.

Chiller costs are based on estimates provided by vendors for the respective capaci-
ties.

The allowance for glycol for the storage system includes material and labor for
mixing and filling. An allowance is also provided for additional piping details
necessitated by the use of glycol in the distribution system.
Design Procedure 10-45

Table 10-16 First Cost Analysis Summary

Cost Item Nonstorage, $ Storage, $


Chillers 1,048,800 540,000
Glycol .-. 100,000
Tanks, installed ... 1,440,000
Pumps 170,200 1 14,000
Piping 1,577,200 1,367,700
Extra glycol details 20.000
Cooling towers 139,500 70,000
Electrical ... 80,000
Air-handling units 1,036,500 782,000
Ductwork 5,209,200 4,682,900
Additional cost for diffusers ... 24,000
Controls ... 20,000
Utility incentive ... 317,550

Total 9,181,400 8,763,050

Cost Savings .,. 418.350

The cost for storage tanks is based on 19,200 ton-hours (67 584 kwh) of nominal
storage capacity and includes an allowance for extra labor costs to install tanks in a
somewhat restricted location in a parking deck.

Distribution pump sizes are reduced because of the increased chilled water tempera-
ture rise, and condenser water pumps are downsized due to the reduced chiller
capacity. Table 10-17 summarizes the changes in pump capacities. Cooling tower
capacity was cut in half for the storage system.
10-46 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 10-17 Pump Cost Comparison

IP Units

Quantity gpm Head, ft Horsepower Cost, $ Total Cost, $

Nonstorage
Chilled water 3 2,320 105 125 16,000 48.000
2 1,160 105 60 12,500 25,000
Condenser water 4 4,050 103 200 24,300 97,200

Total 170,200

Ice storage
Chilled water 3 1,667 135 100 15,000 45,000
2 833 135 50 12,000 24,000
Condenser water 3 2.400 105 100 15,000 45.000

Total 114,500

SI Units

Ouantitv L/s Pressure. kPa kW Cost. $ Total Cost. $

Nonstorage
Chilled water 3 146 314 93 16000 48000
2 73 314 45 12 500 25 000
Condenser water 4 25 6 308 149 24 300 97 200

Total 170 200

Ice storage
Chilled water 3 105 404 75 15000 45000
2 53 404 37 12 000 24 000
Condenser water 3 151 314 75 15000 45000

Total 114 500

Piping was resized for a 20°F (ll.l°C) temperature rise, resulting in a typical
reduction of one pipe size throughout the system. Table 10-18provides a breakdown
of piping system costs, as well as ductwork costs, which are reduced for the storage
system due to the lower supply air temperatures. An allowance is provided for
additional costs for more expensive diffusers to deliver 48OF (8.9OC) supply air.
Design Procedure 10-47

Table 1018 Piping and ductwork Cost Breakdown (IP Units)


Nominal Unit Nonstorage Storage
Size, Cost, Quantity, Total Cost, Quantity, Total Cost,
in. $ lineal ft $ lineal ft $

Pipe and 24
fittings 20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
5
4
3
s1.5

Pipe and 24
valve 20
covering 18
16
14
12
10
8
6
5
4
3
S1.5

Main valves

Condenser 18
water 16
piping 12

Total for
piping

Ductwork 48 dia. 48.25


42 dia. 42.00
12 dia. 16.08
Rectangular 3.98
Insulation 3.36
10-48 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 10-18 Piping and ductwork Cost Breakdown (SIUnits)

Nominal Unit Nonstorage Storage


Size, Cost, Quantity, Total Cost, Quantity, Total Cwt,
mm $ lineal m $ lineal m $

Pipe and 600


fittings 500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
125
100
80
40 and less

Pipe and 600


valve 500
covering 450
400
350
300
250
200
150
125
100
80
40 and less

Main valves

Condenser 450
water 400
piping 300

Total for
piping

Ductwork 1220 dia.


1070 dia.
305 dia.
Rectangular 3.98
Insulation 3.36
Design Procedure 10-49

Air-handling units for the nonstorage system are priced based on 55°F (12.8"C)
supply air. Air-handling units for the storage system are priced for reduced air
volumes, with cooling coilsselected to provide the reduced supply temperatureswith
glycol secondary coolant.

An allowance for additional controls costs is included to cover development of an


optimized control algorithm with load prediction.

The utility incentive is based on a payment of $150 per kilowatt of on-peak demand
reduction. The estimated demand reduction is 1280 kW for chillers, 498kW for air
distribution fans, and 339 kW for pumps, for a total reduction of 2117 kW.

The total first cost savings for thecool storage system is over $400,000. This example
illustrates the potential for significant first cost advantages for cool storage in some
applications.

Design Example: Operating Cost Analysis


This example illustrates one method of estimating annual operating costs for a cool
storagesystem,using the campusexampleintroduced earlier. Operating costs for the
chilled water storage system sized in Section 10.6.1 are compared with those for a
nonstorage system consisting of the existing chillers with an additional 2,000 tons
(7000 kW) of chiller capacity.

Table 10-19summarizesthe operation of the chilled water storage system, including


auxiliaries, on the design day. Table 10-20 summarizesthe design day operation of
the nonstorage system.
Table 10-19 Design Day Energy Consumption for Chilled Water Storage, Campus Example (IP Units)
-.
Q
Chiller Chiller Change in Chiller Chilled Total Total (D
Hour Utility
Period
Load,
tons
Capacity,
tons
Demand,
kW
Storage,
tons
Auxiliary,
kW
Water Pump,
kW
Auxiliary,
kW
System,
kW s
0
1 Off
2 Off
3 Off
4 Off
5 Off
6 Off

7 Off
8 0if
9 Off
10 Off
11 Off
12 Off

13 Off
14 On
15 On
16 On
17 On
18 On

19 On
20 On
21 On
22 Off
23 Off
24 Off
Table 10-19 Design Day Energy Consumption for Chilled Water Storage Campus Example (St Units)

Chiller Chiller Change in Chiller Chilled Total Total


Hour Utility Load, Capacity, Demand, Storage, Auxiliary, Water Pump, Auxiliary, System,
Period kW k W k W kW kW kW kW k W

1 Off
2 Off
3 Off
4 Off
5 off
6 off
7 off
8 Off
9 Off
10 Off
11 Off
12 Off

13 Off
14 On
15 On
16 On
17 On
18 On

19 On
20 On
21 On
22 Off
23 Off
24 Off
10-52 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table 10-20 Design Day Energy Consumption for Nonstorage System,


Campus Example

Utility Load, Demand, Auxiliary, Total,


Hour Period tons kW kW kW

Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off

Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off

Off
On
On
On
On
On

On
On
On
Off
Off
Off

Annual analysis is based on storage system savings for seven months of the year,
since in this system, absorption chillers handle much of the load during winter
months, and savings from storage system operation are expected to be small.

Since the storage capacity is small compared to the total load, assumethat the storage
system will be fully used every day of the analysis period. Therefore, the amount of
energy shifted to off peak will be the same for every day, and the annual energy
consumption is calculatedby multiplying the design day performance by the number
of days. Table 10-21summarizes the annual utility costs for this example.
Design Procedure 10-53

Table 10-21 Utility Cost Summary, Campus Example

Nonstoraee Storage

Demand
On-peak kW
Off-peak kW

On-peak kW savings

Monthly $ demand savings


Summer
Winter

Energy
Monthly on-peak kW
Monthly off-peak kwh

On-peak kwh savings


Off-peak k w h savings
Total kwh savings

Monthly energy $ savings

Monthly $ savings
Summer
Winter

Annual $ savings

Power Rates. $

Summer Winter

Demand
On-peak 10.79 5.43 per kW
Economy 1 .03 1.03 per kW

Energy
On-peak 0.04337 0.04337 per kwh
Off-peak 0.02202 0.02202 per kwh

Notes:
Monthly $ savings is computed as the demand savings plus 30 times the daily energy
savings.
Annual $ savings is 4 months times the summer monthly savings plus 3 months times the
winter monthly savings.
10-54 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

10.7.2 Capital Budgeting Analysis Example


Capital budgeting is one of the most important, yet least understood, aspects of
thermal energy storage. Many cool storageprojects fail to use an effective economic
evaluation technique, and, as a result, the economic worth of the project is not
presented in appropriate financial terms.

Although cool storage projects may be alternatively financed as leases, they are
primarily financed as cost reduction capital projects. As such, they must compete for
funding with other business projects requiring capital, such as equipment replace-
ments, capacity expansions, and environmental compliance measures.

Table 10-22 Cash Flow Summary, Chilled Water Storage ($ Thousands)

Capital expenditure 470 1200 ... ... ... ... ...


Book depreciationa ... 78 149 135 123 111 101
Book value ... 1592 1443 1308 1185 1074 973
Electric usage savings ... 10 22 36 36 36 37
Electric demand savings ... 58 175 175 263 263 263
Natural gas usage savings ... ... 9 31 35 37 38
Total energy savings ... 68 206 242 334 336 338
Electric utility incentive 305 306 ... ... .,. ... ...
Book income 305 376 206 242 334 336 338
Book depreciation ... 78 149 135 123 111 101
Book profit 305 298 57 107 211 225 237
Start-up expense 40 80 ... ... ... ... ...
Staff expense Unchanged from predecessor conventional cooling system
Maintenance expense Unchanged from predecessor conventional cooling system
Book income 265 218 57 107 211 225 237
Tax depreciationb ... 167 301 240 192 154 123
Tax value ... 1503 1202 962 770 616 493
Taxable income 265 129 -95 2 42 182 215
Income taxesC 95 46 -34 1 51 66 77
After-tax profit 170 172 91 106 160 159 160
Tax depreciation ... 167 301 240 192 154 123
After-tax cash flow -300 -861 392 346 352 313 283
Discount factoId 1.000 0.892 0.797 0.711 0.635 0.567 0.506
Discountedcashflow -300 -769 313 246 224 178 143
Cumulativecashflow -300 -1069 -756 -510 -286 -108 35

Notes:
a 150%declining balance
2005 declining balance
36% corporate tax rate
* 12%discount rate
Design Procedure 10-55

Capital budgeting and subsequent capital authorization is secured by superior


profitability which is measured by the internal rate-of-return (IRR) of the project.
The IRR is determined by a life-cycle cost analysis or cash flow analysis of the
proposed system and fully accounts for depreciation, taxation, the time value of
money, and other factors.

A life-cycle cost analysis is far more sophisticated than payback analysis, which
measures the liquidity of a project rather than its profitability. A life-cycle cost
analysisuses the results of the first cost and operatingcost analysesdiscussedearlier.

The lifecycle cost analysis of the example chilled water storage project is summa-
rized in Table 10-22. The IRR of this project is 27.4%. The IRR is determined as
follows.

Total

Date authorizd July 1989


Amount authorized: $1670
Date capitalized: June 1990
Net present value @ 12%:$787
Internal rate-of-return: 27.4%
10-56 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

The capital expenditure in retrofit applications is the gross project cost. 'In new
construction, the capital expenditure is the cost differentialbetween the cool storage
system and a comparable nonstorage cooling system.

The book life or useful life of a cool storage system ordinarily exceeds 10 years. To
optimize cash flow, a shorter tax or economic life is used and accelerated tax
depreciation is applied. This has the effect of deferring income taxes to the latter
years of the project, when the time value of money is much lower.

The annual savings and operating expenses for cool storage are determined relative
to those of the existing conventional cooling system in retrofit applications, or
relative to a comparable non-storage cooling system in new construction applica-
tions.

The after-tax cashflow is the sum of after-tax profit and tax depreciation. Here, the
shorter economiclife andacceleratedtax depreciationincreasecash flow in the early
years of the project, when the time value of money is much greater.

Once after-tax cash flow is discounted at the minimum acceptable rate-of-return


(MARR), the net present value (NPV) and IRR of the cool storage project can be
calculated. These values represent the profitability of the project and permit it to be
objectively ranked against other capitalprojects. Stevens (1989) and most engineer-
ing economics texts provide an in-depth treatment of this topic.

10.8 FINALIZE DESIGN

If more than one alternative has been analyzed through the detailed sizing and
economic evaluation phases, a final selection of the preferred option is made. Any
appropriate revisions in operating parameters are made, and equipment selections
are verified by a final sizing simulation.

The design operating profile should be included in the design documents. This
information helps clarify the design intent and is necessary for the performance
evaluation phase of commissioning.

The operating profile must be part of the design documents in projects where it is
necessary or desirable to allow for bids on several alternative storage technologies,
or where it is not certain that the specific storage type used as the basis of design will
be part of the successful bid package. Specifications should clearly state that the
storage system supplied must meet the design load profile; they should also indicate
how the storage system must interface with the building distribution system.
Design Procedure 10-57

Design documents must also include complete specifications for system control
sequences during both full-load and partial load conditions. For example, specify
which pumps must start or stop, which valves must open or close, and how chiller
setpointsare to be reset when the cooling strategy changes. Specify how the control
logic will initiate changes in cooling strategy. State how the final chilled water
supply temperature setpoint is to be controlled.

Under partial load conditions, will the system run with storage priority or chiller
priority control? For storage priority sequences, how will storage discharge be
controlled to maximize use of storage while ensuring that the load of each hour will
be met? How will operating schedulesbe modified with seasonal changes in utility
rate schedules?A completecool storage design considers all these questions, and the
answers should be specified in the design documents.

10.9 COMMISSIONING
Commissioning is often thought of as primarily involving system startup and
performancetesting. However, the complete commissioning process, as outlined in
ASHRAE's Guidelinefor Commissioning HVAC Systems (ASHRAE 1989)encom-
passes the entire project from the predesign phase through the system's first year of
operation. This commissioning process is described in detail in Section 2.9.

The commissioning process strives for improved communication among parties to


the design procedure, providing for clear definition of the functional needs of the
HVAC system and documentation of design criteria, assumptions, and decisions.

The designer will often have increased responsibilities related to commissioning. If


the designer is also the commissioning authority, there will be significant effort in
coordinating and overseeing the following commissioning activities.

Redesign pbase
Participate in developing commissioningplan framework and forming commis-
sioning team.

Design phase
Participate in developing commissioning plan details. Review design concepts
and details with commissioning authority. Incorporate commissioning plan in
specifications.

Construction phase
Participate in coordinating trades and reviewing work in progress, or provide
assistance to commissioning authority.
10-58 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Startup phase
Observe startup activities, review startup reports, or assist commissioning
authority.

Operator training
Develop training program, train personnel, or provide assistance to commis-
sioning authority.

Performance testing
Coordinate or observe performance testing, provide assistance to commission-
ing authority.

System operation and optimization


Review system performance during fust year of operation, make suggestions for
improving performance.

REFERENCES

ASHRAE. 1989.ASHRAE Guideline 1-1989,Guideline for commissioningHVAC


systems.
ASHRAE. 1993.1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.
Dorgan, C.E. and J.S. Elleson. 1988. Cold air distribution design guide, EM-5730,
March.
Mackie, E.I. and G. Reeves. 1988. Stratified chilled-water storage design guide,
EPRI EM4852s. May.
Mackie,E.I. and W.V.Richards. 1992.Design of off-peak cooling systems. ASHRAE
Professional Development Seminar.
McQuiston, F.C. and J.D. Spitler. 1992. Cooling and Heating Load Calculation
Manual, 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Mirth, DR., S. Ramadhyani, and D.C. Hittle. 1993.Thermal performance of chilled
water cooling coils operating at low water velocities. ASHRAE Transactions
99(1):43-53.
Stevens, G.T. 1989. The analysis of capital expenditures for manager and engineers.
Needham Heights, Location?: Ginn Press.
Tackett, R.K. 1988. The use of direct pumping and hydraulic turbines in thermal
storage systems. ASHRAE Transactions 94(1):1989-2007. Reprinted in
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin 5(4):103-111.
USAF. 1978. Engineering Weather Data, AFM 88-29. Washington, D.C.: Depart-
ments of the Air Force, the Army, and the Navy.
Appendix A UNITS AND CONVERSIONS

These conversions are for those units most commonly encountered in cool storage
design. Additional information and conversions for other units are given in the
ASHRAE publication. SI for HVAC&R (1992).

Table A-1 Conversion Constants

Dimension From Conversion To

Temperature OF (OF - 32)ll.K OC

Temperature difference A°F 11.8 A K (AT)

Rate of cooling ton x 3.517 kW


Quantity of energy ton-hr x 3.517 kwh
ton-hr x 12.66 MJ
Chiller efficiency kW/ton x 3.517 COP
kW/ton 13.517 kW/kW

Volume

Storage volume

Volume flow gPm x 0.0631 L/s

Velocity
A-2 Design Gulde for Cool Thermal Storage

Fig. A-1 Temperature Conversions


Appendix A: Units and Conversions A-3

Cubic Cubic Cubic Cubic


feet meters feet Gallons meters Gallons
100,000 Y 748,200 2,832 T 748,200
-
-

50,000 --
-

-
- 100,000
10,000 -1
- 50,000
5,000 --
-

-
10,000
1,000 -I
- 5,000
500 --
-

-
- 1,000
100 - 748.2

Fig. A-2 Volume Conversions


A-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Fig. A-3 Cooling Capacity Conversions


Appendix A: Units and Conversions A-5

kW1ton COP
-

Fig. A-4 Chiller Efficiency Conversions


A-6 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Fig. A-5 Storage Volume Conversions


Appendix B TECHNICAL BULLETINS
BY SUBJECT MAlTER

International Thermal Storage


Advisory Council

The following is asubject index of Technical Bulletinspublished by the International


Thermal Storage Advisory Council (ITSAC) through November 1992. Individual
copies or completesets can be purchased from ITSAC, 3769Eagle Street, San Diego,
CA 92103; Phone (619) 295-6267.

Code MontblYear Subject

Generics
A.OOOO Jun 1986 The Case for Thermal Storage
A.1000 Jun 1986 The Generics of Cool Storage
A.3005 Mar 1992* Manufacturers of Cool Storage Products
A.4000 Mar 1989 Cool Storage Engineers and Consultants
A.4001 Jun 1989 Cool Storage Engineers and Consultants (continued)
A.4002 Dec 1989 Cool Storage Engineers and Consultants (continued)
A.4004 Nov 1991 Conservation and Environmental Benefits of CS
A.4005 Ju1 1992* Consolidated Listing of Engineers and Consultants
Index Nov 1992* Index-Technical Bulletins through November 1992

Utility Perspectives
B .2000 Jun 1986 Electric Load Curve Impacts
B .3000 Jul 1986 Potential Impact of Cool Storage Technology
B A006 Feb 1992* Utility Inducement Programs for Cool Storage
B.5003 Sep 1992* Utility Cool Storage Contacts

Chilled Water Storage


C.1000 Oct 1986 Chilled Water Storage Systems
C.1210 Nov 1988 Stratified Chilled-Water Storage Design
C.1211 Jan 1989 Costing Chilled Water Storage Systems
C.1212 Feb 1989 Control and Operation of Water Storage
C.1300 Jan 1992 Arizona State University Chilled Water Storage
C.1801 Jun 1988 Direct Pumping and Hydraulic Turbines in TES
8-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

C.1802 Ju11988 Controlling PumpHydraulic Turbine Sets


C.1900 Jul 1990 Cooling Coil Performance and Chilled Water Range

Ice Storage
C.2000 Nov 1986 Ice Storage Systems
C.2010 Jun 1987 System Sizing and Control Strategies
C.2301 May 1987 Ammonia for Air Conditioning-A Case Study
C.2500 Feb 1987 Calculation of Electric Loads with Ice
C.2501 Sep 1987 Calculation of Elecbric Loads with Ice
C.2502 Jan 1987 Equipment Operating Efficiencies and Demand
C.2600 Mar 1987 Cool Storage Replacing Rooftop Packages
C.2610 Jul1989 Cool Storage Retrofit of Rooftop Units
C.2620 May 1990 Retrofitting Split-DX Systems to Cool Storage
C.2621 Apr 1992 Retrofitting Split-DX Systems to Cool Storage -
A Case Study/Part Two
C.2630 Jun 1990 Test Demonstration of Retrofit Rooftop Storage
C.2631 Apr 1991 Test Results of Retrofit Rooftop Cool Storage
C.2632 Oct 1992 Lennox's Cool Thermal Energy Storage System
for Unitary Air-conditioning
C.2700 Mar 1991 Ice Storage Design for Los Angeles County Jail
C.2701 May 1991 Taipei World Trade Center Office Building
C.2702 Jul 1991 Best Products Corporate Headquarters Building

Eutectic Salt Storage


C.3100 Apr 1989 History and Overview of Eutectic Salts
C.3 110 May 1989 Design, Control and Operational Strategies

Cold Air Distribution


E.lOOO Feb 1988 Field Evaluation of Cold Air Distribution
E.1001 A p 1988 Cold Air Distribution Design
E. 1002 Aug 1990 Low Temperature Air Projects in England
E.1003 Nov 1990 Expected Energy Use of Ice Storage and Cold Air
Distribution Systems in Large Commercial Buildings
E. 1004 Jan 1991 Detailed Field Evaluation of a Cold Air
Distribution System
E.1005 May 1992 Cost Impacts of Low-Temperature Air Distribution
with Ice Storage

Economics and Computer Programs


H.lOOO Oct 1987 "COOLAID" Program for TES Evaluation
H.lO1O May 1988 Economics of ice Storage--CAL State University
H.1020 Dec 1991 TES System Performance-Results of PG&E's
Monitoring Project

Advanced Research
J.0001 Sep 1986 Summary of Papers-2lst IECE Conference
J.0002 Dec 1990 Biological Ice Nucleators and Enhanced
Cold Thermal Storage

Industrial Applications
K.lOOO Mar 1987 Low Temperature Storage for Industry
K.lOO1 Aug 1987 Thermal Energy Storage for Vacuum Precoolers
Appendlx 6: Technical Bulletins by Subject Matter 8-3

K.1002 Sep 1989 Wet Air Cooling of Vegetables and Fruit with TES
K.1002 Oct 1989 Industrial Thermal Storage
K.1003 Feb 1990 Cool Storage for Industrial Applications
K.1004 Mar 1990 Cool Storage for Industrial Applications
K.1005 Aug 1991 TU Electric-Industrial Storage Case Histories
Residential Applications
L.0000 Aug 1986 Market Constraints for Residential Storage
L.1000 Dec 1987 Solving the Residential Storage Puzzle
L.1210 Dec 1988 Three-Function Thermal Storage Heat Pumps
L.1100 Nov 1989 Residential Cool Storage Equipment Status
L. 1220 Jan 1990 Electric Load Impacts of SMUD Tests on
Phenix System

Water Treatment
N.lOOO Mar 1988 Water Technology in Thermal Storage System

Environmental Considerations/Refrigerants
0.1000 Oct 1988 The Impact of CFC Refrigerant Production
0.1001 Jun 1992 1992 EPA CFCmCFC Emissions Control Mandates
0.1002 Aug 1992 Characteristics of Ammonia as Cool
Storage Refrigerant

Specific Industry Applications


P.lOOO Nov 1987 Storage Cooling for Army Installations

Note: Some titles have been shortened to save space.


8-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage
Appendix C PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER

Table G1 Properties of Water and Ice

Latent heat of fusion 143.5 Btuflb (334.4 Wkg)

Specific heat
Water at 68°F (20°C)
Water at 50°F (lO°C)
Water at 32°F (0°C)
Ice at 32'F (0°C)
Ice at -4OF (-20°C)

Thermal conductivity
Water at 6S°F (20°C)
Ice at 32OF (0°C)

Mass density
Water See Table C-3
Ice 57.5 lblft3 (920 kg/m3)

Notes: All data from 1993 ASHRAE HandbookiFundamenfals,Chapter 36, except


specific heat values marked with * from ASHRAE 1972 Handbook of Fundamentals,
Chapter 14.
C-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

Table G 2 Kinematic Viscosity of Water

Temperature Kinematic Viscosit


OC O F ft2/sec m I
IS

Derived from absolute viscosity of water as given in Handbook of Chemistry and


Physics, 59th Edition, CRC Press, Inc., 1978. In this temperature range, the kinematic
and absolute viscosity of water are nearly identical.
Appendix C: Physical Properties of Water C-3

Table C-3 Density of Water at Cool Storage Temperatures

SI Units Inch-Pound Units


Temp., OC Density, kg/m3 Temp., O F Density, 1b/ft3

Source: Smithsonian Physical Tables cited in Mackie and Reeves, (1989)


G4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage
Appendix D TERMINOLOGY

This appendix &fines terms commonly encountered in cool storage design. Addi-
tional definitions may be found in the ASHRAE Terminology of Heating, Refriger-
ating, and Refrigeration.

charging storing cooling capacity by removing heat from a cool storage device.

charging cycle the period of time during which a cool storage system goes through
a complete sequence of charging and discharging storage.

chiller priority control strategy for partial storage systems that uses the chiller to
directly meet as much of the load as possible, Storage is used to supplement
chiller operation only when the load exceeds the chiller capacity.

demand charge see electric power demand charge.

demand limiting a partial storage operating strategy that limits the capacity of the
refrigeration equipmentduring the on-peak period, The refrigerationequipment
capacity may be limited based on its cooling capacity,its electric demand, or the
facility demand.

design load profile the hour-by-hour sequence of cooling loads over a complete
charging cycle, that must be met by a cool storage system.

design operating profile hour-by-hour sequence of cooling loads, cooling equip-


ment operation, storage chargeor dischargerate, and operating temperatures for
the entire design charging cycle.

discharge capacity total amount of usable cooling discharged from storage during
a single cycle.

discharging recovering usable cooling capacity by adding heat to a cool storage


device.
D-2 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

electric power demand charge part of an electric bill based on maximum kilowatt
demand during specified demand periods.

encapsulated ice an ice storage technology that consists of plastic containers of


water, that are alternately frozen and melted by the influence of glycol or other
secondary coolant in which they are immersed.

external melt ice-on-coil ice storage technology that forms ice by refrigerant or
secondary coolant circulating within tubes or pipes, and melts ice by immersion
in circulating water.

facility demand the total electric demand for an entire building or multi-building
facility.

figure of merit ratio of the integrated discharge capacity to the hypothetical


maximum capacity for a single cycle of operation. Note: Hypothetical maxi-
mum available capacity is computed as follows-for sensible storage,multiply
the average specific heat of the storage medium by the mass of the medium in
storage and the differencebetween the averagestorage inlet temperaturesduring
charging and discharging, for a single cycle. For latent storage, multiply the
change in specific enthalpy associated with the liquid-solid phase change by the
mass of the medium in storage that changes phase, for a single cycle.

full storage (load shifting) a cool storage operating strategy that meets the entire
on-peak cooling load from storage.

ice harvester machine that manufactures ice on a cooling surface, then delivers it
to storage.

ice-on-coil (ice-on-pipe) ice storage technology that forms and stores ice on the
outside of tubes or pipes.

instantaneous storage capacity rate at which usable cooling capacity can be


discharged.

internal melt ice-on-coil ice storage technology that forms and melts ice by a
secondary coolant circulating within tubes or pipes.

latent storage capacity energy stored by the change of phase of a storage medium

load leveling apartial storage operating strategy that operates with the refrigeration
equipment running at full capacity for 24 hourson thedesign day. When theload
is less than the chiller output, the excess cooling is stored. When the load
Terminology 0-3

exceeds the chiller capacity, the additional requirement is discharged from


storage.

load profile summary of loads in a system over time.

load shifting see full storage

mid-peak period for some utilities, the time of day when utility billing rates for
electric demand, energy, or both are between those for on-peak and off-peak
periods.

nominal chiller capacity 1. chiller capacity at standard ARI rating conditions. 2.


chiller capacity at a given operating condition selected for the purpose of quick
chiller sizing calculations.

nominal storage capacity storage capacity of a cool storage device, as rated by the
storage device manufacturer. Compare discharge capacity.

off-peak period time of day during which utility billing rates for electric demand,
energy, or both are reduced.

on-peak period time of day during which acool storage system must reduce electric
power demand. This period may or may not be coincident with the utility on-
peak period, which is the time of day during which billing rates for electric
demand, energy, or both are increased.

partial storage a cool storage operating strategy that meets a portion of the on-peak
cooling load from storage, with the remainder of the load met by operation of the
chilling equipment. Partial storage operating strategies can be further subdi-
vided into load leveling and demand limiting operation.

peak cooling load the highest instantaneous load that must be met by the cooling
plant.

phase change material substancethat undergoes a change of state while absorbing


or rejecting thermal energy at constant temperature.

ratchet a utility billing mechanism by which the demand charge for the current
month is based on the higher of two possibilities: either the peak demand for the
present month or a percentage of the highest demand incurred during any of the
previous 12 months.

sensible storage capacity energy stored by the change of temperature of a storage


medium
D-4 Design Guide for Cool Thermal Storage

storage medium substance in which cooling capacity is stored

storage priority control strategy for partial storage systems that uses stored cooling
to meet as much of the load as possible. Direct cooling is supplied by chillers
only if the daily load exceeds the total stored cooling capacity.

storage thermal efficiency ratio of the integrated discharge capacity to the total
cooling added to storage for a single cycle.

stratified chilled water storage a cool storage technology that achieves and
maintains separation between warm and cool water by density differencesalone,
and not by mechanical separators.

thermal storage device container plus all the contents of the container used for
storing thermal energy. The transfer fluid and accessories, such as heat
exchangers, agitators, circulating pumps, flow-switching devices, valves and
baffles that are integral with the thermal storage container are considered part
of the storage device.

thermocline alayer of fluid in which the temperatureand density gradient is greater


than, and which separates, the cooler fluid below it and the warmer fluid above
it.

total cooling load the integrated load that must be met by the cooling plant over a
given period of time.

usable cooling cooling capacity supplied at or below the maximum usable cooling
supply temperature.