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# MACT-317

Chapter 8
Practice Problems 12

## Assigned problems from the sixth edition

Page 368 Problems 8.4, 8.5
Page 384 Problems 8.36
Pages 391 and 392 Problems 8.42 to 8.48
Pages 398 and 399 Problems 8.61, 8.62, 8.63
Pages 404 to 406 Problems 8.68, 8.69, 8.71, 8.72

## Assigned problems from the seventh edition

Pages 394 and 395 Problems 8.8, 8.9
Page 409 Problems 8.40
Pages 417 and 418 Problems 8.58, 8.61, 8.62
Page 424 Problems 8.73, 8.74, 8.75
Pages 430 to 432 Problems 8.80, 8.81, 8.83, 8.84

In the solutions below, the first number refers to edition 6 and the second
refers to edition 7

Solutions
8.4 (8.8)
Since Y1 , Y2 and Y3 is a random sample from an exponential distribution with
parameter  then we know that E  Y1   E  Y2   E  Y3    and
V  Y1   V  Y2   V  Y3    2

 
E ˆ1  E  Y 1  

 

E  2  E
 Y1  Y 2  1 1
   E (Y 1)  E (Y 2)       
 2  2 2

 

E  3  E
 Y 1  2Y 2  1
3
1
   E (Y 1)  2 E (Y 2)  (  2 )  
  3 3

  1  1
E ˆ5  E Y   E   Yi    E  Yi      3  
3 3 3
1 1
 3 i 1  3 i 1 3 i 1 3

## Therefore all four estimators are unbiased.

 
V θˆ1  V  Y1   θ 2

1
 Y1  Y 2  1
V (ˆ2 )  V    V Y 1  Y 2
 2  4

## And because Y1 and Y2 are independent this is equal to

V (Y 1)  V (Y 2)  1 ( 2   2)  
2
1
4 4 2

   Y  2Y2  1
V ˆ3  V  1
3  9
  V  Y1  2Y2     4  
1 2
9
2 5 2
9

   Y  Y2  Y3  1
V ˆ5  V  1
3
  (3 2
) 
2
  9 3

## Therefore ˆ5  Y has the smallest variance.

8.5 (8.9)
It is clear from the form of the probability density function that it is an exponential
density with parameter   1
Therefore E  Y1   E  Y2   ......  E  Yn     1
1 n  1 n n  1
 E Y   E   Yi    E  Yi      1 
1 n
  1
 n i 1  n i 1 n i 1 n
 E  Y  1  E Y   1    1  1  

## Therefore ˆ  Y  1 is an unbiased estimator for  .

8.36 (8.40)
Y  Y 
a) Z   Y  ~ N (0, 1) ( Only one observation)
 1
P  1.96  Z  1.96   0.95

## A 95% confidence interval for  is given by Y  1.96

b) P  Z  1.645  0.95
P Y    1.645  0.95

P   Y  1.645  0.95

## A 95% upper confidence limit for  is given by Y  1.645

c) P Z  1.645  0.95

2
P Y    1.645  0.95

P   Y  1.645  0.95

## 8.42 (This problem is not in the seventh edition)

268
a) pˆ   0.536
500
 An Approximate 98% C.I. for p is given by:

pq 0.536(0.464)
pˆ  Z 0.01  0.536  2.33
n 500
= 0.536  0.52 = (0.484, 0.588)
b) Since the interval includes p = 0.51, we can conclude that there is no significant
difference in the graduation rates before and after proposition 48.

## 8.43 (This problem is not in the seventh edition)

1912
pˆ   0.805 ,   0.01
2374
Z   Z 0.005  2.58
2

pˆ q 0.805  0.195
 pˆ  Z   0.805  2.58
2
n 2374

## = 0.805  0.021 = (0.784, 0.826)

 At the 99% confidence level, the proportion of adults registered to vote in the
Continental United States is between 0.784 and 0.826.

8.44 (8.58)
n  500 y  5.4 s  3.1
Note that  (the population standard deviation) is unknown, but because
the sample size is large  can be replaced (with no serious loss in accuracy)
by the sample standard deviation S
A 95% C.I. for  is given by:
 s   3.1 
Y  Z 0.025    5.4  1.96 
 n  500 
= 5.4  0.27  (5.13, 5.67)

3
8.45 (This problem is not in the seventh edition)
2
a) n = 224, pˆ  ,   0.1, Z 0.05  1.645
3

pˆ q
A 90% C.I. for p is given by: pˆ  Z 
2 n

2 1
= 2  1.645 3 3
3 224
= 0.667  0.052 = (0.615, 0.719)

b) Since the lower limit of the interval is greater than 0.5, we can conclude that
most of the children would like to experience space travel.

## 8.46 (This problem is not in the seventh edition)

y  4.2, n = 75>25 (large sample), s = 1.5  =0.05 Z 0.025 = 1.96
 A 95% C.I. for the Average Biomass for North America’s northern
forests is given by:
 S   1.5 
Y  Z     4.2  1.96   4.2  0.34 = (3.86, 4.54)
2  n  75 

8.47 (8.61)
A 95 % C.I. for the difference in means is given by:

S12 S 22
Y  Y   Z 
1 2 
2
n1 n2

(24.3) 2 (17.6) 2
(167.1  140.9)  1.96 
30 30
26.2  10.74 = (15.46, 36.94)

8.48 (8.62)
An Approximate 99% C.I. for the difference in mean molt time for
“normal” versus “split” males is given by:

S12 S 22
Y  Y   Z 
1 2 
2
n1 n2

4
(7.1) 2 (8.1) 2
( 24.8  21.3)  2.575 
34 41
3.5  (4.52) = (-1.02, 8.02)
 At the 99% confidence level, the difference in mean molt time for normal and
split males is in the range (- 1.2, 8.03). Notice that since the zero is included in the
interval, there seems to be no significant difference in mean molt time.
If both limits of the interval were positive this would have suggested that 1   2  0
that is 1   2 . If both limits of the interval were negative this would have suggested
that 1   2  0 that is 1   2 .

8.61 (8.73)

pˆ  2
3
P p
ˆ  p  0.02   0.99

P (-0.02 < p  p < 0.02) = 0.99
 
 
 0.02 ˆ  p
p 0.02
P     0.99
 ( 2 3)(1 3) pˆq
ˆ ( 2 3)(1 3) 
 n 
 n n 

0.02
  2.575
 2 31 3
n
2.575 2
 n
0.02
( )( 1 )  60.7
3 3  n = 3684.5 ≈ 3685

8.62 (8.74)

P Y    0.1  0.95 
P   0.1  Y    0.1  0.95

 
  0.1 Y   0.1 
P     0.95
   
 n n n

 
  0.1 0.1 
P Z   0.95
 0.5 0.5 
 n n

0.1
  1.96
0.5
n

5
0.5(1.96)
 n  = 9.8
0.1
 n = 96.04 ≈ 97
The water specimens should be selected randomly (from different locations) and not
from the same rainfall in order to have a random sample in which all observations are
independent.

8.63 (8.75)
 
P Y1  Y2    1   2   0.1  0.9
P   0.1  (Y1  Y2 )  (  1  2 )  0.1  0.9
 
 
  0 .1 (Y  Y2 )  ( 1   2 ) 0 .1 
P  1    0 .9
 0.25 0.25  2
 2
0.25 0.25 
  1
 2 
n1 n2 n1 n2 n1 n2 
 
n1  n 2  n
 
 
  0.1 0.1 
P Z   0 .9
 0 .5 0 .5 
 
 n n 
0.1
  1.645
0 .5
n

1.645 0.5
 n   11 .63 n = 135.3 ≈ 136
0 .1

8.68 (8.80)
Note that you are dealing with a small sample n = 21
The 95% C.I. based on n – 1 = 20 degrees of freedom is given by:

Y  t 0.025  S 

 n
 7.4  26.6  3.37
26.6  2.086  
 21  (23.23, 29.97)

8.69 (8.81)
y
i
i  608, y
i
2
i  37, 538 , n  10

 yi 608
y    60.8
n 10

6
1  608 2 
  
 y  n ( yi)
2
2 37538
i
 10 
S2    63.5111
n 1 9
The 95% C.I. based on n – 1 = 9 degrees of freedom is given by:
 S 
Y  t 0.025  
 n
63.511
60.8  2.262
10
60.8  5.701

(55.099, 66.501)

8.71 (8.83)
a) The 95% C.I. for 1   2 is given by:

X 1  X 2   t  Sp 1

1
2 n1 n2

##  n1 1 S12   n 2 1 S 22 9  3.92  9  3.98

2 2
S 2
p   = 15.6034
n1  n 2  2 18

 1 1 
The 95% C.I. is given by: 14.5  11 .1  2.101 15.6034   
 10 10 
 3.4  3.7    0.3 , 7.1

## b) A 90% C.I. for 1   2 is given by:

X 1  X 2   t 0.05 Sp
1
n1

1
n2

 1 1 
12.2  11 .5  1.734 18.3413   
 10 10 
0.7  3.32    2.62 , 4.02 

c) Since zero is included in both intervals, we can conclude that there is no significant
difference between the means of runners and cyclists at the 90 and 95 confidence
levels.

8.72 (8.84)

7
y 
y i

37.81
 3.781
n 10
1
 y i2 
2
( yi)
s2  n  0.0327
n 1
The 95% C.I. based on n – 1 = 9 d.f. is given by:

Y  t 0.025  S 

 n
0.0327
3.781  2.262
10
3.781  0.129  (3.652 , 3.91)