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2E1366 Project Course in Signal Processing and Digital Communication

CDMA
PROJECT PLAN
GROUP RED

Björn Beckius
Jonas Granlund
Krister Estmer
Sofia Ladjemi
Stefan Einerman
Ulf Bragnell
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DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
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CDMA PROJECT PLAN CONTENTS

1. BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................3

2. OBJECTIVE.............................................................................................................................3

3. ORGANISATION.....................................................................................................................3

3.1. REMARKS TO THE ORGANISATION CHART........................................................................................4


3.2. SUB PROJECTS..............................................................................................................................4
3.3. EQUIPMENT..................................................................................................................................6

4. PROJECT MODEL..................................................................................................................6

4.1. MEETINGS....................................................................................................................................6
4.2. MILESTONES.................................................................................................................................6
4.3. TIME PLAN...................................................................................................................................8
4.4. RESOURCE ALLOCATION................................................................................................................8

5. SYSTEM OVERVIEW.............................................................................................................8

5.1. THEORETICAL VIEW.......................................................................................................................9


5.2. THE FINAL IMPLEMENTATION .......................................................................................................10
5.3. PERFORMANCE GOALS..................................................................................................................10

6. RISKS......................................................................................................................................11

6.1. PRECAUTIONS..............................................................................................................................12

7. DOCUMENTATION..............................................................................................................12

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1. BACKGROUND

A CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) based communication system allows


the users to share an available frequency spectrum. The users are allocated
different codes that are recognizable for the preferred receivers. This solution
has several advantages, among other it gives increased robustness to
interference. The CDMA project will investigate the benefits and losses of
using CDMA communication system on an acoustic channel between two
computers. The focus of the project will be to study how a higher data rate
will affect the robustness to interference. During the project course 1999 a
project named Interference Rejection in an Acoustic Communication System,
developed a communication system on an acoustic channel. Year 2000 a
project named Acoustic Communication system with two-branch diversity
took place. These two projects have influenced the objectives of the CDMA
project and they are the most important frames of reference.

2. OBJECTIVE

The goal of this project is to implement a real-time digital acoustic


communication system using CDMA. The system should work reliably in a
multi-path environment. The system should allow different coding gain to
illustrate the trade-off between data rate and robustness to narrow band
signal interference. The transmitted data will be pictures and text.

The results from the two earlier projects are described further under System
Overview (5.3). The result that the CDMA project should achieve is lower
error probability with the same bit data rate as earlier results.

The project will be finished 2000-05-31 with demonstration and oral


presentation. In addition, the final report and documentation will be available
at this time. The group is determined to follow the time plan of the project.

3 . O R G A N I S AT I O N

The group organization is following the chart on the next page.

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Figure 1: The Organisation chart of the CDMA group

3.1. REMARKS TO THE ORGANISATION CHART

The chart describes the resource allocation. During the first phase of the
project the Matlab prototype is developed. To avoid unexpected problems
with the system implementation in the PC and DSP, the DSP implementation
group is working parallel with the Algorithm Development group. The DSP/PC
team uses the time to learn how to handle the DSP from a Matlab and Visual
C++ interface. When the Matlab based prototype is ready for real time
implementation, the prototype-developing group becomes DSP & PC
resources. This means that they will be available for programming, testing
and optimizing parts of the final implementation. If they are not needed, they
will continue developing and improving the system.

The poster and presentation is not defined as a sub project. It is defined as an


activity and responsibility area. Responsible for the poster will be Krister
Estmer. Responsible for the presentation will be Ulf Bragnell.
3.2.SUB PROJECTS

The project is divided into sub projects. The sub project managers are
responsible for the project progress in the specific area. They are the ones
that identify needed activities in the area and create cross over activities with
other sub projects. Finally, the sub project managers are responsible for the
documentation of the area, which includes delegating different writing tasks
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to other sub project members. The project progress is reported every week
on the weekly meeting. The sub project manager is responsible for the
milestone document that concerns their project.

Project Management, responsible Sofia Ladjemi


The project manager is responsible for the project progress, and that the
project proceeds according to the time schedule. The project manager is also
responsible for the fulfillment of the product specification.

The web is under the responsibility of the project manager. It is a part of the
documentation.
Ulf Bragnell is the stand in for the project manager in case of illness.

Theory sub project manager Stefan Einerman


Includes the literature study, theoretical approaches and to create a
theoretical solution.

Matlab sub project prototype implementation, manager Björn Beckius


Includes the system implementation, testing, development and analyzing, in
the Matlab environment. The Matlab prototype and the DSP implementation
have to be equal. This is a cross over activity with the DSP project.

DSP sub project implementation, manager Ulf Bragnell


Includes the algorithm implementation, testing, optimizing and analyzing, in
the DSP environment.

PC sub project implementation, manager Krister Estmer


Includes the GUI implementation testing, optimizing and analyzing, the PC
environment. A big problem in the project is to get a good and effective
solution for the communication between the GUI in the PC and the DSP cards.
This includes memory storage and buffering aspects. The problem is a cross
over activity with the DSP implementation.

Final Report sub project manager, Jonas Granlund


Includes delegation of writing tasks, planning the final report structure and
collecting materiel from the project members during the project. Jonas
Granlund is also the reviewer of the weekly reports.

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3.3.EQUIPMENT

 Three PC Dell OptiPlex GX1 PENTIUM III 500 KATMAI

 Two Texas Instrument C6701 EVM DSP boards

 Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0

 Two Microphones

 Two Loudspeakers

4. PROJECT MODEL

The project model is influenced by the spiral model and extreme


programming. This means the group is working iterative and object oriented,
as far as possible. The looping is about developing the system by adding
functionality to a fundamental system and build up the whole system little by
little. When reaching a state of a bigger part, the problem is divided in what
could be called different objects. These objects are solved sequentially, and
then integrated to the origin part. Implementation and testing is done
continuously. After integration, integration tests are made. By using this
strategy, errors are detected and identified early. The project members get
knowledge of the complex tasks early and can prioritize the difficult areas. A
disadvantage with the model is that the parts, which will be hard to work, are
obvious early, and the project goals may seam to be impossible to achieve.

4.1.MEETINGS

The weekly meetings are held 1300-1500 each Monday in the S3 library.
Other meetings concerning activities that don’t include the whole group are
held and organized by the sub project managers, when necessary.
4.2.MILESTONES

The milestones are defined as dates when a stage of the project is


determined to be ready and fulfilled. A stage includes a stage document.

Table 1: Milestones and documents

Milestone Date Document


Project plan 010330 Project Plan
Theory 010406 Theoretical solution with

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reference list
Constructing algorithm 010406 Implementation description
and analysis
DSP, C++ functionality 010507 Functionality description
implementation
Optimizing & Testing 010521 Result report
Final implementation 010521 DSP & Visual C++
implementation
Poster & Report 010528 Final project report- poster
Presentation 010531 www publishing of
documentation

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4.3.TIME PLAN

Figure 2: Time plan

4.4.RESOURCE ALLOCATION

The project members have intended to give the project about 40 hours a
week. Some members even more if needed. The project members are
following other courses, which results in course activities for 45 – 50 hours a
week per student. This does not affect the project members will to give time
to the project. Therefore, the resources are 320 hours per student. Before
Easter, the project members will receive tasks to complete during the
holidays. The project members will be relatively free to choose how much
time they want to spend on the project in Easter.

5 . S Y S T E M OV E R V I E W

The implementation of the digital CDMA communications system will use a


transmitting loudspeaker connected to the DSP card on one PC and a
receiving microphone (or possibly two) connected to the DSP card on a
second PC. The system should transfer text and pictures.

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5.1.THEORETICAL VIEW

Theoretically, the project aims to implement a system based on the block


scheme below:
DATA
IN

DATA
OUT

Figure 3: A block scheme for a CDMA system

Pseudo Random Generator

The transmitter adds a PN sequence to the signal before transmission. The


signal will be BPSK.

Channel

The channel must be estimated. The estimation is a part of the algorithm


development.

Receiver

The receiver is a complicated part of the system. The areas that has to be
handled or investigated for the receiver are the following:

 Synchronization, how to do it and how often.


 Equalization, how does it affect the receiver
 Diversity is it going to be implemented?
 The system should work in the presence of narrow band signals (sinus
tones).

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5.2.THE FINAL IMPLEMENTATION

The final system should work in real time. A user should be able to choose
what data he wants to send to the receiving computer. In addition, a number
of different coding rates should be available.
The user interface will show the important system parameters. There may be
a frequency offset between transmitter and receiver, which has to be
handled. The PC interface will be written in visual C++. To make the PC talk
with the DSP in an effective manner is one of the challenges of the project.

Figure 4: Final System implementation. The PN sequences will be generated by


the DSP

5.3.PERFORMANCE GOALS

As mentioned, the CDMA project uses two earlier projects as a reference


frame. The goal that CDMA project has is to achieve at least the same results
as the earlier projects.

The results of the two-branch diversity project are summarized below:

Acoustic Communication system with two branch diversity


After having optimized the system parameters to achieve as high data rate R
as possible and still maintain as low bit error probability Pe as possible, the
following results were obtained for communication with a spacing of 3 meters

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between the speaker and the microphones:

 Without diversity and data rate R = 2000 bits/second: Pe = 5%


 With two-branch diversity and data rate R = 2000 bits/second: Pe = 1%

As seen in the results the two-branch diversity helped a lot. The goal is to
achieve the same data rate with a lower bit error probability without
diversity. Diversity is implemented if there is time for it.

Interference Rejection in an Acoustic Communication System


The goal of the project was to achieve a data rate of 100 Bit/s and a
maximum bit error rate of 1%
The project ended up in different kind of receivers with different abilities. The
bit error rate for the real time system was dependent of strength of the
interference tone:

Table 2: Results for the project Interference Rejection in an acoustic


communication system

Strength of interference compared Two microphones One microphones


to wanted signal
25% 4.0% 4.25%
50% 3.75% 9.25%
75% 4.75% 10.75%
100% 6.0% 12.5%

The intention of the CDMA project is to achieve a lover bit error rate for a
higher data rate than this project.
6. RISKS

The CDMA group has made a risk analysis where 18 different potential
problems were analyzed. The main risks and measures are listed in the table
below:

Table 3: Risks and Measures

Risk Measure
Matlab prototype gets late because it is Check the development path against the project assistant
to complex continuously, at least once a week
Debugging takes more time then Debug often, test one function at a time, and compare it
expected (DSP) with the Matlab model.
The theoretical knowledge is not enough Study more, the answer to why DSP & Visual c++ education
to understand why a model doesn’t work was given weeks in the start of the project
Theoretical blind alley, taking a Read, plan and check the development path against the
theoretical path impossible to implement project assistant continuously
The Matlab model is not possible to Collaboration, Algorithm developers and DSP Implementing
implement in the DSP a transmitter early to know differences

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Errors in final implementation Planning the implementation strategy and testing functions
before making the objects
Unexpected illness, in a critical moment Dual responsibilities for different activities. Good
for a critical member documentation and well commented code
Relation problems Straightness. The group members decided to tell what they
think if there is something disturbing them. The risk was
ranked as low.

The complete report can be found at


http://www.s3.kth.se/signal/local/www/edu/projekt/students/01/red/

6.1.PRECAUTIONS

The weekly meetings give an overview of the progress. If there are any
problems, that need more, or change of, resources, it is handled on the
weekly meetings. As mentioned before the project members have intended
to give the project extra time if needed. The organization of the project is
built on risk preventing aspects.

7 . D O C UM E N TAT I O N

The documentation of the project will be stored at a computer named


CDMA01. The folder for the project is named red01. The folder is backup
copied to a UNIX account every Friday afternoon.

Each project member has a folder in the folder red01. There are two group
folders, one for all reports and the other for source code. These two folders
are write protected and will be the library for ready developed code.

The project manager is responsible for placing all report documents on the
web. The documents are to be named as their title:
Table 4: Documents and file names

Document Name
Project Plan ProjectPlan.pdf
Theoretical solution with reference Theoretical.pdf
list
Implementation description and Implementation.pdf
analysis
Functionality description Functionalitydescription.pdf
Result report Resultreport.pdf
DSP & Visual C++ implementation DSP&Visual.pdf
Final project report- poster Finalreport.pdf
Progress Report ProgressReportx.pdf

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References

[1] S. Alleved et.al., ”Acoustic Communication system with two branch


diversity”, Projektrapporter, Signaler, Sensorer & System, Stockholm, 2000

[2] L. Hedlund et.al., ” Interference Rejection in an acoustic communication system”,


Projektrapporter, Signaler, Sensorer & System, Stockholm, 1999

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