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1.

Solution Fresh and seawater flowing in parallel horizontal pipelines are connected to each other by a
double U-tube manometer. The pressure difference between the two pipelines is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 All the liquids are incompressible. 2
The effect of air column on pressure is negligible.
Properties The densities of seawater and mercury
Air
are given to be sea = 1035 kg/m3 and Hg = 13,600 hsea
kg/m3. We take the density of water to be w =1000
kg/m3. hair
Sea
Analysis Starting with the pressure in the fresh Fresh water
water pipe (point 1) and moving along the tube by water
adding (as we go down) or subtracting (as we go up)
the gh terms until we reach the sea water pipe (point hw
2), and setting the result equal to P2 gives hHg
Mercury
P1   w ghw   Hg ghHg   air ghair   sea ghsea  P2

Rearranging and neglecting the effect of air column on


pressure,
P1  P2    w ghw   Hg ghHg   sea ghsea  g (  Hg hHg   w hw   sea hsea )
Substituting,

P1  P2  (9.81 m/s 2 )[(13600 kg/m 3 )( 0.1 m)


 1 kN 
 (1000 kg/m 3 )( 0.6 m)  (1035 kg/m 3 )( 0.4 m)]  
 1000 kg  m/s 2 
 
 3.39 kN/m 2  3.39 kPa
Therefore, the pressure in the fresh water pipe is 3.39 kPa higher than the pressure in the sea water pipe.
Discussion A 0.70-m high air column with a density of 1.2 kg/m3 corresponds to a pressure difference of
0.008 kPa. Therefore, its effect on the pressure difference between the two pipes is negligible.

2.
Solution The static and stagnation pressures in a horizontal pipe are measured. The velocity at the center
of the pipe is to be determined.
Assumptions The flow is steady, incompressible, and irrotational with negligible frictional effects in the short
distance between the two pressure measurement locations (so that the Bernoulli equation is applicable).
Analysis We take points 1 and 2 along the centerline of the pipe, with point 1 directly under the
piezometer and point 2 at the entrance of the Pitot-static probe (the stagnation point).
This is a steady flow with straight and parallel streamlines,
and thus the static pressure at any point is equal to the
hydrostatic pressure at that point. Noting that point 2 is a 35 cm
stagnation point and thus V2 = 0 and z1 = z2, the application of 20 cm
the Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 gives
Water 1 V
P1 V12 P2 V22 V12 P2  P1 2
  z1    z2  
g 2 g g 2 g 2g g
Substituting the P1 and P2 expressions give
V12 P2  P1 g (hpitot  R )  g (hpiezo  R ) g (hpitot  hpiezo )
    hpitot  hpiezo
2g g g g
Solving for V1 and substituting,
V1  2 g (hpitot  hpiezo )  2(9.81 m/s 2 )[( 0.35  0.20 ) m]  1.72 m/s

Discussion Note that to determine the flow velocity, all we need is to measure the height of the excess fluid
column in the Pitot-static probe.