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I would like to whole hearty thank and express my sincere gratitude to

Mr. Manish Jain Head of the Department GIMS for suggesting me this
problem and for giving an insight in delaing with the subject

.I am highly obliged to Mr. Himanshu Katare and All Faculty member,

for guiding me in various aspects of this project like conducting field
work and designing questionnaire and suggesting me the Project Work
and helping me in finalising the Report. I express my gratitude to all the
customers who very kindly discussed various aspects of this study and
provided useful suggestions for discussing various problems.

Lastly, I Must express my gratitude to all the elders of the family

and citizen of the city who blessed me in course of discussion. I also
extend my sincere thanks to my family and my friends for their
encouragement and support.

Surendra Pratap Lodhi


This to certify that Mr. Surendra Pratap Lodhi Student of B.B.A. (Hons)
IIIRD SEM , GIMS Has diligently worked on the Project Report of the Consumer
Buying Behaviour of “Tide Detergent”. He has done this Work under My Guidance
and Supervision. This project work is original and not submitted earlier for the
award of any degree or associate ship of any other University.

During this study he made meticulous efforts for its completion. I wish him
all the best in this sincere endeavors for a bright and successful future.

MR. MANISH JAIN Mr. Himanshu Katare

Head of the Department Supervisor

External Examiner

Name :

Sign :

I hereby declare that the project work entitled “TIDE DETERGENT ”


is a record of an original work done by me under the guidance of MR. HIMANSHU

KATARE Lecturer & Faculty Member at the GYANVEER INSTITUTE

MANAGEMENT AND SCIENCE SAGAR I also ensure that this work done by me is

purely original and is my own creativity.


Place : Enrollment no.: I-072222


I. Certificate

2. Declaration

3. Preface

4. Acknowledgement












1. Development
o After World War I, the shortage of vegetable and animal fat, an
ingredient in soap, prompted Procter & Gamble to begin development of a man-
made detergent. Procter and Gamble invented Tide in 1943.
o Procter & Gamble first marketed Tide detergent to the public in
1946, which coincided with the introduction of the top-loading automatic washer.
The two items eased the chore of laundry. Boxes of Tide were placed in the
machines, as a marketing tool.
o Tide contains two synthetic detergent surfactants: hydrophilic
surfactants, which break down tension of the water surface, and hydrophobic
surfactants, which loosen and remove oils. Tide products may also contain a
fluorescent whitening agent, enzymes and fragrances.
Detergent Forms
o Tide in powder form comes in box sizes ranging from 15 to 80 loads.
The liquid Tide is available in a variety of sizes as well. Tide detergent products
are many, including one for cold water and one with bleach.
o Tide was nationally recognized in 2006, when the American
Chemical Society proclaimed the development of Tide a "National Historic
Chemical Landmark."

Product Overview (TIDE)

Procter and Gamble’s Tide is among the most popular and widely
patronized detergents in the world. P&G takes pride in pronouncing that the
product is its flagship brand (Decker, 1998). Since its launching in 1946 in U.S,
the world’s first synthetic detergent established its market supremacy. With its
wide array of products offered such as Tide Liquid, Tide Powder, Tide with
Febreze Freshness, Tide Coldwater, Tide with touch of Downy, Tide with Bleach,
Tide with Bleach Alternative, Tide HE (High Efficiency), Tide Kick, Tide
Stainbrush, Tide Buzz, and others, it continued its stability in the market and its
fifty years of commitment in helping families in their laundry needs (Tide Fabric
Care Network, 2006).

Price – Being the most powerful tool in marketing, price is identified

following the company’s established goals and objectives. These goals range
from enhancing the market share of the products, improving the demands in the
target markets, to extending the sales at an even rate for one whole day, week,
month, or year. Pricing is utilized in several ways namely (1) to increase unit
sales so that resources of the firm; (2) to restrict sales, or limit the quantities
demanded per unit time;(3) to make the market less attractive to actual or
potential competitors; and (4) to attract buyers so that they will buy other items
once the transaction has begun.

Today, P&G pricing of Tide detergent soap proves to be an effective

means not only to attract consumers but also to lessen the market appeal of its
competitors. These had been the case in India, where P&G had launched the 20-
50% discounts for both Ariel and Tide. As a result, buying Tide has become an
economic-wise option for the larger masses. The prime purpose was to lure more
consumers to try the product. With the slashed price, volumes of Tide sales have
surged tremendously triggering.
Product-Service Offering – Product-service offering, on the hand
involves the offerings that can be manipulated. These include the features or
attributes (actual or perceived), images, warranties, after-sales service, training
for the customers, delivery, installation of the product, and responsibility for the
product at the end of its productive life.

Tide’s usefulness expires as soon as the laundry is finished, but this is

not to suggest that P&G will not be held liable after its use. As in the usual trend
nowadays, providing a somewhat feedback mechanism is indeed useful.
Although, this has long been realized by the P&G that’s why in every
sachet/package of Tide one would notice phrases like “if you have comments/
suggestions…” However, only few of the modern consumers know of this right.
Usually, they are contented with using the products, and no longer care less with
how much the company would appreciate their effort to give them a ring or write
them. P&G should reinforce the message to its consumers with their TV/radio/net
ads so that the consumers would know of their rights. In return, the company
would be able to know directly for costumers how they feel about the products,
what they think of it, what recommendations they can provide etc.

“Tide” as a brand name is an excellent choice. It passes on the messages

of supremacy and toughness. Tide has been renowned by its reputation of
complimenting the ever-changing people’s temperaments for fashion. When,
white fabric has been the overwhelming obsession, Tide with whitening power
has been introduced. Likewise, when bright colors reigned, P&G led the
campaign for Tide “extra action” specializing on bright-colored clothes.

Promotion – In 1999, Procter and Gamble spends nearly $5.5 billion on global
advertising making it one of the world’s biggest advertisers. Procter and Gamble
exhausts the benefits of both the print and electronic media worldwide.
Today, the existence of Internet and the continued revolution in the world
of Information Technology are certainly positive signs for the blossoming of many
new advertising opportunities. For instance, pop-up ads and email ads have
started to invade the Internet. Similarly, TV and radio advertising are also
important channels to further promote Tide. Usually, effective television and radio
advertising involves a good opening punch line, presentation of the competitor’s
product and its weakness, testimony of experts or renowned
personalities/authorities, and in some cases, use of famous movie actors and
actress also helps.

A thorough consideration has been given to the content of the site.

Content’s breadth, depth, manner of presentation, and timeliness are what
primarily holds the attention of visitors. The more engaging is the site, the greater
the possibility that the consumers will act positively to the ads. Lastly, it is very
vital indeed to retain the site in order to engage site’s visitors. To do this, the site
must always be monitored and updated. It must also provide venue where
visitors could give their comments, recommendations, and other feedbacks to the
site or the product so that improvements may be incorporated accordingly.

Effective promotion of the product through advertising in various media

maintains the superior standing of the product in the wide detergent marketplace.

Place/Distribution –

Tide being a product that serve to satisfy the immediate nee of people is
always available in both retail stores and wholesalers’ stores.
On the one hand, packaging the product involved the following
considerations; packaging must (1) facilitate storage and handling of the product,
(2) protect Tide for extreme temperature or moisture, (3) protect Tide from being
deformed or damaged, (4) to provide quantity, source (brand), and the concerned
party to be called in times of any trouble with the products occur and, (5) isolate
appropriate purchase quantities. Colors of the packaging materials (sachets and
the like) must be bright colors to instantly capture the attention of the consumers.
It does matter, too if the words are clearly comprehensible for the consumers. On
the one hand, it is a minus factor when the words written in the packaging
materials are of different language. This implies that the company is not “in
communion” with the consumers since it further indicates that the target
consumers are of someplace else.

Meanwhile, storing Tide must be done complimenting the environmental

rules of the place where it is to be stored. For effective handling of the storage
costs P&G must inform its stakeholders, manufacturers and brokers about the
various storage risks. These could range from fires, theft, or loss of market
demand. There is also a need to further rationalize the supply chain
management. P&G may opt to operationally implements the just-in-time
management of products. The process may involve building of sound
communication channels with the consumers, manufacturers, brokers, and other
stakeholders (Ghosal and Bartlett, 1998).

In summary, the marketing strategy for P&G to promote Tide detergent

laundry soap consists was founded on the considerations of various marketing
mix (4Ps). Pricing decisions was done considering the demographic and socio-
economic attributes of its target market. Product-service offerings included a
sound feedback mechanism. On the one hand, P&G focused on net advertising
for Tide and its related products. Lastly, decisions on place/distribution were
shared by various stakeholders – manufacturers, retailers, broker, and the
customers. Thus, the international marketing superiority of Tide is irrevocable.


The house - hold chore of doing the laundry began to change with the
introduction of washing powders in the 1880s. These new laundry products
originally were simply spewed soap. New cleaning-product marketing successes,
such as the 1890s introduction of the N. K. Fair bank Company's Gold Dust
Washing Powder (which used a breakthrough hydrogenation process in its
formulation), and Hudson's heavily advertised product, Rinso, proved that there
was a ready market for better cleaning agents. Henkel & Cie's "self-activating" (or
self bleaching) cleaner, "Persil;" (introduced in 1907); the
early synthetic detergent, BASF's "FeWA" (introduced in 1932); and Procter &
Gamble's 1933 totally synthetic creation, "Dreft," (marketed for use on infant-
wear) —all indicated significant advances in the laundry cleaning product market.

The detergent business was further revolutionized with the discovery of

the alkylbenzene sulfonates, which, when combined with the use of chemical
"builders", made machine washingwith hard water possible.[4] This presented
Procter and Gamble with the opportunity to create a product such as "Tide".

The original Tide laundry detergent was a synthetic designed specifically for
heavy-duty, machine cleaning (an advance over the milder cleaning capabilities
of "FeWA" and "Dreft"). Tide was first introduced in U.S. test markets in 1946 as
the world's first heavy-duty detergent, with nation-wide distribution accomplished
in 1949. Tide claimed it was "America's Washday Favorite." Authority was quickly
gained in the U.S. detergent market, dwarfing the sales of Ivory Snow; and
accelerating the demise of two of its main competing products, Rinso and Gold
Dust Washing Powder, both then Lever Brothers brands. These other brands
came in the more familiar soap-powder and soap-flake forms. Tide, however,
initially came shaped as a white powdered bead. The line was expanded to
include an orange-tinted clear liquid form in 1984. Today, most formulations of
liquid Tide are dark blue, with the exception of "Tide Free", which is clear.

In 2006, the development of Tide was designated an ACS National Historical

Chemical Landmark in recognition of its significance as the first heavy-duty
synthetic detergent.
Each year, Tide researchers duplicate the mineral content of water from all parts
of the United States and wash 50,000 loads of laundry to test Tide detergent’s
consistency and performance.


The following project has been given to us in order to make us understand the
real environment of the market in which research is conducted. Marketing
research, being a very important field of study in management can only be
learned through practically working in the markets. The subject of our study being
an FMCG product made us go and interact with the households and know their
buying behaviour, preferences and expectations from the detergents they use. In
our study we defined our research objectives as follows:-

 To find the customer preference in the forms of detergents

 To find the customer frequency of use of detergents/ number of times they
purchase a product in a month
 To find the various ways by which the customers wash their clothes/ dishes
 To find the brand loyalty of the customers
 To find the qualities they look for while buying a detergent
 To study the reasons that made the customer switch from their previous brands
 To find the mode of communication through which they came to know about the
qualities/ features of their present brand
 To find the number of times the customer switches from one brand to another.
 To find the role of packaging in the purchase behavior of a product- quantity.
 Consumers’ awareness about the harmful effects of the detergents.
The objectives hence set paved the way for the exhaustive research that we
conducted in the field to elaborate and analyse separately in order to get a
complete and a dynamic overview.


Detergent is a material intended to assist cleaning. The term is sometimes used

to differentiate between soap and other surfactants used for cleaning. As an
adjective pertaining to a substance, it (or "detersive") means "cleaning" or
"having cleaning properties"; "detergency" indicates presence or degree of
cleaning property.
The term detergent by itself is sometimes used to refer specifically to clothing
detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents.

Plain water, if used for cleaning, is a detergent. Probably the most widely used
detergents other than water are soaps or mixtures composed chiefly of soaps.
However, not all soaps have significant detergency and, although the words
"detergent" and "soap" are sometimes used interchangeably, not every detergent
is a soap. The term detergent is sometimes used to refer to any surfactant, even
when it is not used for cleaning. This terminology should be avoided as long as
the term surfactant itself is available.


Detergents, especially those made for use with water, often include different
components such as:

 Surfactants to 'cut' (Emulsify) grease and to wet surfaces

 Abrasive to scour
 Substances to modify pH or to affect performance or stability of other
ingredients, acids for descaling or caustics to break down organic compounds
 Water softeners to counteract the effect of "hardness" ions on other ingredients
 oxidants (oxidizers) for bleaching, disinfection, and breaking down organic
 Non-surfactant materials that keep dirt in suspension
 Enzymes to digest proteins, fats, or carbohydrates in stains or to modifyfabric
 Ingredients that modify the foaming properties of the cleaning surfactants, to
either stabilize or counteract foam
 Ingredients to increase or decrease the viscosity of the solution, or to keep other
ingredients in solution, in a detergent supplied as a water solution or gel
 Ingredients that affect aesthetic properties of the item to be cleaned, or of the
detergent itself before or during use, such as optical brighteners, fabric softeners,
colors, perfumes, etc.
 Ingredients such as corrosion inhibitors to counteract damage to equipment with
which the detergent is used
 Ingredients to reduce harm or produce benefits to skin, when the detergent is
used by bare hand on inanimate objects or used to clean skin
 Preservatives to prevent spoilage of other ingredients Sometimes materials more
complicated than mere mixtures of compounds are said to be detergent. For
instance, certain foods such as celery are said to be detergent or detersive to

There are several factors that dictate what compositions of detergent should be
used, including the material to be cleaned, the apparatus to be used, and
tolerance for and type of dirt. For instance, all of the following are used to clean
glass. The sheer range of different detergents that can be used demonstrates the
importance of context in the selection of an appropriate glass-cleaning agent:

 a chromic acid solution—to get glass very clean for certain precision demanding
purposes such as analytical chemistry
 a high-foaming mixture of surfactants with low skin irritation—for hand washing of
dishware in a sink or dishpan
 any of various non-foaming compositions—for dishware in a dishwashing
 other surfactant-based compositions—for washing windows with a squeegee,
followed by rinsing
 an ammonia-containing solution—for cleaning windows with no additional dilution
and no rinsing
 ethano l or methanol in windshield washer fluid—used for a vehicle in motion,
with no additional dilution glass contact lens cleaning solutions, which must clean
and disinfect without leaving any eye-harming material that would not be easily


Procter & Gamble (P&G) is in just such a situation. When the Rs 750-crore
company introduced Tide in India, it was meant to accentuate the fortunes of the
company’s detergent business in the Indian market. After all, Tide is P&G’s best
bet globally, accounting for 10 per cent of the multinational’s $ 35 billion global
turnover; it is also the world’s largest-selling detergent brand.

However, three years after its entry into India, there is little to prove that Tide has
made that desired splash for P&G. According to retail audit house, Tide has
grown marginally from 0.1 per cent volume share in 2000 (it was launched in May
2000) to 0.7 per cent at present. P&G’s older brand in the Indian market, Ariel
(launched in 1991), is also suffering. Ariel’s volume share has dipped from 2.6
per cent in 1998 to 1.5 per cent currently. Worse still, P&G’s total volume share
in the detergents market has dipped from 2.6 per cent in 1998 to 2.2 per cent
currently. But still P&G launched another premium detergent in a market where
its super-premium brand was already present, risking cannibalization by the new

An excerpt from Philip Kotler’s Marketing Management: The Millennium

Edition (Prentice Hall; 2000) throws some light on P&G’s global strategy with
respect to its detergents: “P&G will enter a market containing a large entrenched
competitor. Instead of launching a me-too product or a single-segment product, it
introduces a succession of products aimed at different segments. Each entry
creates a loyal following and takes some business away from the major
competitor. Soon the major competitor is surrounded, its revenues are weakened
and it is too late to launch new brands in outlying segments. P&G in a moment of
triumph then launches a brand against the major brand.” In the Indian market,
however, this global template quite didn’t work. True, P&G managed to pre-empt
adversary Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) to some extent by launching a premium
brand first in the Indian market first in 1991.
Thus, P&G saw the route to expansion in Indian detergents market through its
safest bet by far, Tide. But by the time Tide was launched in 2000, the lather was
subsidizing the premium detergents market. In 1999-2000 themselves, the
premium market shrank by 27.09 per cent (in volume terms). Analysts are of the
view that P&G floundered by launching Tide as a premium detergent at Rs 120
per kg, just Rs 35 lower than its super-premium sibling, Ariel.
The market was already experiencing a downward pull towards low-priced
options like Ghari and Fena which had increased their shares in the market.
Tide’s growth in the Indian market was initially slow on the uptake. Tide could
manage no more than 0.3 per cent. Also, Tide’s pricing was a deterrent to initial
product trials. Says Nikhil Vora, an FMCG analyst with ASK Raymond James,
“The need of the hour was a value-for-money brand and not another premium
brand but P&G did not take that into account.”
P&G did attempt to correct its mistake: in August 2001 it made Tide cheaper by
Rs 35. With the market price down to Rs 85 per kg, it could address the
consumer segment that couldn’t afford Ariel. According to analysts, P&G’s
strategy for Tide increasingly started to focus on the value-for-money consumer
and this could represent the company’s strongest effort so far to grab volumes in
India. Certainly, volume share crawled up. According to Rahul Malhotra, country
marketing manager, P&G, the Tide business has tripled post the price reduction.
But it’s not just the pricing strategy that helped Tide rise up.

Another factor, after the price game, that worked in favour of the detergent was
the “whiteness” proposition (Ariel has always been promoted on the “cleanliness”
platform). And finally, what helped Tide gain momentum is the communication
channels it chose to reach to its target audience, which was different from that of
In the case of Tide, though, P&G focused on the traditional Indian housewife (the
ideal core target for any detergent brand) from the beginning. Says Kamal Basu,
executive vice president, Saatchi & Saatchi (ad agency for Ariel), “The mid-priced
detergent segment is ballooning in Indian at present, eating into the shares of
both low and top-end segments. The price drop has only arrested the shrinkage
of this segment.

While media buyers say the game show is connecting with Tide’s audience, the
market dynamics pose a different challenge.Tide’s unique pricing could act as an
advantage because it is a convenient price point for a premium, “international”
brand in order to enable customers to downgrade from costlier brands. But what
if Tide washes away Ariel’s franchise?
Tide quickly spilled over the boundaries that company strategists had drawn for
the product and ripped through P&G's core markets.
“A powerful clean that won't wear out your clothes”. Tide Powder gets to the
bottom of dirt and stains to help keep your whites white and your colors bright.
For great stain
removal in any temperature, Quick Dissolving™ Tide is formulated to
immediately start dissolving — even in cold water and a super-soluble detergent
means virtually residue-free clothes! Moisture-resistant cartons — with Moisture
Guard Protection™ and Snap-Lock Lids™ — mean less clumping so your
powder stays fresh and free-flowing.
“Get the most out of your high efficiency washer”. High efficiency washing
machines accommodate larger loads and save money on utility bills. But unless
you're using the
right laundry detergent, you may not be getting the results you bargained for.
Tide HE is specially formulated to unlock the cleaning potential of high efficiency
washers in U.S.
Helps clean away stains and odors with ease. Tide with freshness gives you the
great cleaning you expect from Tide, now with the freshness you love. Tide with
Freshness is specially formulated to help target and remove common odors that
get trapped in fabrics, and then deposit "freshness actives."


The Advertising Standards Council of India has

also laid down a specific code of conduct for self-
regulation in advertising, with the sole aim of regulating
the content of advertisements. Chapter 1 of the
Standards of Conduct not only deals with the honesty
of representation, but also deals with misleading
advertisements as well. It lays down the following criterion:
1. Advertisements must be truthful. All descriptions, claims and comparisons
which relate to matters of objectively ascertainable fact should be capable
of substantiation. Advertisers and advertising agencies are required to
produce such substantiation as and when called upon to do so by The
Advertising Standards Council of India.
2. Where advertising claims are expressly stated to be based on or supported
by independent research or assessment, the source and date of this
should be indicated in the advertisement.
3. Advertisements shall not, without permission from the person, firm or
institution under reference, contain any reference to such person, firm or
institution which confers an unjustified advantage on the product
advertised or tends to bring the person, firm or institution into ridicule or
disrepute. If and when required to do so by the Advertising Standards
Council of India, the advertiser and the advertising agency shall produce
explicit permission from the person, firm or institution to which reference is
made in the advertisement.
4. Advertisements shall neither distort facts nor mislead the consumer by
means of implications or omissions. Advertisements shall not contain
statements or visual presentation which directly or by implication or by
omission or by ambiguity or by exaggeration are likely to mislead the
consumer about the product advertised or the advertiser or about any
other product or advertiser.
5. Advertisements shall not be so framed as to abuse the trust of consumers
or exploit their lack of experience or knowledge. No advertisement shall be
permitted to contain any claim so exaggerated as to lead to grave or
widespread disappointment in the minds of consumers.

There are two debatable issues in this advertisement:

 The advertisement clearly shows a packet of Tide Naturals, which has
green packaging and is a cheaper extension of Tide, which orange
packaging) whereas the woman in the commercial says 'Tide se kahin
behatar safedi de Rin' (Rin gives better whiteness than Tide)- Does this
amount to misleading the public as per the Indian Law?
 At the end of the advertisement, a line is displayed on the bottom stating
that ''this claim is based on laboratory tests done through globally accepted
protocols in independent third-party laboratories' and Schematic
representation of superior whiteness is based on Whiteness Index test of
Rin Vs Tide Naturals as tested by Independent lab" . The challenge is
whether the present statement(s) can be substantiated by way of evidence
and if yes, whether such tests if conducted by any independent laboratory
continue to be the same.

Though P&G might seek a legal remedy, HUL appears to have enjoyed its share
of colorful Holi by taking advantage of the long weekend during which its
commercial was aired.

If the case does wind up in litigation, it would be interesting to see how Indian
courts react to this form of advertising.

As a lawyer, my view is that any judgement by a court will be critically important

when weighing the prospects of successful trade mark infringement action
against comparative advertisements.

It appears that P&G views its rival's latest commercial as a great lie and is acting
like a big fish on dry land; it may fret and fling and make a frightful bother, but it
cannot hurt you. You have only to keep still, and it will die of itself.

• The latest move comes in the wake of the high profile launch of Tide
detergent bar.
• Tide and Ariel always created problems for Surf and Rin. The migration of
Rin Supreme bar to Surf Excel bar is aimed at countering Tide.
• HLL has announced a drastic reduction in price by Rs 20 per kilo on
Surf Excel, its premium detergent brand, making it cheaper than competing
brand Ariel from Procter & Gamble (P&G). price cut, from Rs 155 to Rs
135 per kg.

Detergent Brands


Various Products offered by Nirma are:

Nirma Washing Powder

This product created a marketing miracle, when introduced in the domestic
marketplace. In 1969, when the detergents were priced so exorbitantly that for
most of the Indians, it was a luxury item. Nirma envisioned the vast Fabric Wash
market segment and sensed a tremendous potential therein. This product was
priced at almost one third to that of the competitor brands, resulting into instant
trial by the consumers. Owing to its unique environment-friendly, phosphate-free
formulation, the consumers became loyal to this brand, helping it to over-take the
decades’ old brands, in terms of volumes. This brand had been ranked as the
“Most widely distributed detergent powder brand in India” as per All India Census
of Retail Outlets carried out in 435 urban towns by the AIMS (Asian Information
Marketing & Social) Research agency [Brand Equity - The Economic Times,
March 11, 1997]. As per the ORG-MARG Rural Consumer Panel [December
1998] survey, Nirma brand has been ranked as highest in terms of
penetration in washing powder category [BT Rural Market Watch, Business
Today, June 22, 1999].

Super Nirma Washing Powder

Exploding the myth that ‘better quality always demands higher price”, Nirma
introduced a spray-dried blue coloured washing powder in the premium segment,
in 1996. Available in 25g, 500g and 1000g packs, this product out-classed its
competitor brands. Though, priced almost 40 % lesser, thus providing a very
attractive ‘value-for-money’ proposition. This brand, within a short span of two
years, had cornered substantial market share in the premium detergent segment
and continues to perform well.

Nirma Popular Detergent Powder

To cater to the needs of the specific target audience, Nirma launched a good
quality product at a very affordable price. The objective is to convert the non-
users of detergents into users and also prevent the competitors and local
manufacturers to lure away the prospective Nirma consumers by sub-standard
products. This product has created a loyal consumer base of its own and has
established substantial amount of volumes. It is available in pack sizes of 500g
and 1000g pack sizes.

Nirma Detergent Cake

Deriving inspiration from its success in the Detergent Powder market, Nirma
expanded its product portfolio by introducing the “Nirma detergent cake” in 1987.
Here again, the excellent price-quality equation tempted the consumers to try the
product. Available in 125g and 250g pack sizes, this brand has done
exceptionally well. AIMS survey ranked Nirma detergent cake as “The Most
widely distributed detergent cake brand”. Due to its unique formulation, this
product offers benefits like less melting in water, better stability, and therefore
lasts longer. As per the ORG-MARG Rural Consumer Panel[December 1998]
survey, Nirma brand is ranked highest in terms of penetration in washing
cakes / bars category [BT Rural Market Watch, Business Today, June 22, 1999].

Super Nirma Detergent Cake

To meet the growing aspirations of consumers and to offer them value-chain

product portfolio, Nirma introduced Super Nirma Detergent Cake, in 1992.
Available in 125g and 250g pack sizes, this product, within a short span,
convinced the consumers of competitor brands to switch their loyalty towards
Super Nirma detergent cake. With a high detergency value, this product offers
quality wash to their consumers.

Super Nirma Detergent Cake was ranked as the fastest Climber for the year
1997-98 in the detergent cake/ bars category [BUSINESS TODAY, Octobers 22,
Nirma Popular Detergent Cake

The positioning of Nirma Popular Detergent Cake is similar to that of Nirma

Popular Detergent Powder. This product is available in 125g and 250g pack
sizes, targeted to first-time detergent cake user segment.


Wheel - your smart laundry choice

The largest laundry brand in Bangladesh, Wheel has always been focused in
making laundry a pleasurable and delightful experience for the housewives.
Based on its years of understanding of its consumers and huge experience in
laundry, Wheel has been continually improving its formulation and form to suit
the modern day users. Different formats and pack sizes of Wheel has been
designed to cater to the requirements of users with different family sizes, laundry
requirements and income groups.

Wheel Laundry Soap

Wheel Laundry Soap has a perfect formulation that not only gives great clean,
but also is gentle to both hand and cloth. The soap comes in individual shrink
wrap designed to ensure that the consumers receive a fresh soap with great
lemon fragrance. The improved formulation of Wheel Laundry Soap also helps
the users to wash more number of clothes than the traditional ball soap.

Wheel Washing Powder

A dominant market leader in the detergent segment, Wheel Washing Powder is
known for its great cleaning ability with minimum effort. The superior formulation
of Wheel Washing Powder is enhanced with the power of lemon, which not only
removes the tough dirt in your cloth, but also leaves a pleasant lemon
fresh fragrance well after washing. The convenience provided by Wheel Washing
Powder has relieved many housewives from the laborious laundry process of the
tradional Ball Soaps.


Ariel is a marketing line of laundry detergents made by Procter & Gamble. It is

the flagship brand in Procter &
Gamble's European,Mexican, Japanese, Brazilian, Peruvian, Turkish, Filipino,
and Venezuelan portfolios.

Ariel first appeared on the UK market circa 1968 and was the first detergent with
stain-removing enzymes. It was a high-sudsing powder designed for twin-tub and
top-loading washing machines. With the rise in popularity of automatic front-
loading washing machines, a suitable low-suds variant was launched in the early
1970s. The mid-eighties saw the range expanding to encompass liquid detergent
and compact powder.

The compact powder was originally known as "Ariel Ultra"; and was subsequently
reformulated into the nineties as "Ariel Futur". This was possibly in response
to Unilever's launch of the ultimately doomed "Persil Power", which was seen to
damage clothes. Compact powders never proved popular in the UK; so when the
tablet variant appeared in July 1999, the compact version disappeared.

In 2003, Ariel brought out its quickwash action to its detergents, to allow
consumers to be able to do their laundry on a quickwash cycle.

In 2006, Ariel started its "turn to 30" campaign to inspire consumers to wash in
cool water so that energy can be saved.

Ariel launched a concentrated version of their liquid detergents named Ariel

Power in the spring of 2008.
In October 2008, Ariel launched their new Excel Gel product which can be used
in temperatures as low as 15 degrees celsius. This product was launched under
Ariel's "cold is the new hot" campaign.



Market segmentation is the process of dividing a heterogeneous market into

homogeneous sub- units. Consider the Indian market, which consists of more
that 1000 million people. For a consumer product company making detergents,
this is a big number and hence a big market. However, not all the 1000 million
people believe in the same things. Not all look for same
features and buy for the same reason.
The market segmentation helps a firm compete in a highly competitive market. A
successful marketer knows that all elements of marketing mix are imitable.
Sooner or later the competition will catch up and at the end of the day; it will
become a promotion and price war. To be able to
overcome this threat from competition, a successful marketer should always
segment the markets, and then position themselves in a segment where they
perceive they will be able todefend against competitive attacks, and emerge as
the segment leader. The competitive advantage of a firm lies in being everything
to a select few. To be everything toeveryone is a sure recipe for a strategic

Basis Used for Segmentation:

I) Preferences:
II) Hierarchy of Variables:
II) Situation Based

Targeting is the next step in the sequential process and involves a business
making choices about segment on which resources are to be focused. There are
three major targeting strategies: undifferentiated, concentrated, and

After the most attractive segments are selected, a company should not directly
start targeting all these segments. The attractiveness of the segments is also
depending on other important factors. In the main activity of defining a target
market, four sub activities are given which are the bases for deciding on which
segments will actually be targeted.
The four sub activities within targeting are:
1. Defining the abilities of the company and resources needed to enter a market
2. Analyzing competitor’s on their resources and skills
3. Considering the company’s abilities compared to the competitors
4. Deciding on the actual target markets.

Targeting can only be done when segments are predefined; there have to be
segments to analyze the competitors which are in this market. When the process
of targeting is ended, the markets to target are selected, but the way to use
marketing in these markets is not yet defined. To decide on the actual marketing
strategy, knowledge of the differential advantages of each segment is needed.
When positioning a product, the segments are first analyzed.

Positioning is what the customer believes about your product's value, features,
and benefits; it is a comparison to the other available alternatives offered by the
competition. These beliefs tend to based on customer experiences and evidence,
rather than awareness created by advertising or promotion.

The goal of product positioning is to keep your product on top of your customers’
mind when they’re considering a purchase. To be successful, product positioning
must achieve three objectives:
Differentiate your product from the competition’s
Address important customer buying criteria
Articulate key product (or company) characteristics


Understand your target market

Understand your competition

Map buying criteria against competitive positioning

Target market buying criteria Competitive positioning

(prioritized and weighted)
40% - Color selection Company C
30% - Length of warranty Company B
20% - Service reputation
10% - Makes me happy/feel good Company A
5% - High tech gadgetry Company B and D

Assess your product’s strengths against the buying criteria


Q.1 How frequently do you wash your clothes?

b) once a week
c) twice a week
d) fortnightly
e) monthly
How frequently do you wash your clothes?

Frequenc Valid Cumulative

y Percent Percent Percent

Valid daily 177 64.1 64.1 64.1

once a 21 7.6 7.6 71.7


twice a 78 28.3 28.3 100.0


Total 276 100.0 100.0

This table is showing that how frequently people wash their clothes.so out of 276
respondents 177 respondents wash their clothes daily which results for 64.1 % of
total and 21 wash their clothes once a week which result for 7.6 % of total ,78
wash their clothes twice a week which results for 28.3 % of total respondents.
Q.2) Which according to you is the most appropriate form for washing
a) bar
b) powder
c) liquid

Which is the most appropriate form of detergent for

washing clothes
Frequenc Valid Cumulative
y Percent Percent Percent
Valid Bar 27 9.8 9.8 9.8
Powde 228 82.6 82.6 92.4
Liquid 21 7.6 7.6 100.0
Total 276 100.0 100.0
From the above data it can be concluded without doubt that most people are
using powder for their washing of clothes. This data can be used well by
detergent producing organization. The data shows that people are using more of
powder form detergent which are mostly compatible with washing machine,
which presents a big market share which can be satisfied by moving towards
powder form of detergent.
Q.3) Do you consider using different products considering seasonal
a) yes
b) no


Do you use different products considering seasonal

Frequenc Valid Cumulative
y Percent Percent Percent
Valid yes 108 39.1 39.6 39.6
no 165 59.8 60.4 100.0
Total 273 98.9 100.0
Missing Syste 3 1.1
Total 276 100.0
This is an important fact being presented in the above table. The table shows
that people are more season conscious while choosing their detergent. This
means that people want their detergents to be adaptive to different clothes as the
season demands.
Q.4 Which is the previous brand you were using?
a) ariel
b) surf
c) tide
d) surf excel
e) wheel
f) nirma
g) others


Q58 What is the reason behind shifting to your current brand from the
previous one?
a) price
b) packaging
c) additional special features
d) friendliness
e) better cleaning
f) availability
g) offers associated with the product.

Q.6 What is the price range(per kg) of the detergent you use?
a) 50-75
b) 75-100
c) 100-125
d) 125-150
e) 150+



Today a brand needs to focus on all the aspects of its business, whether it is
external, internal, macro or micro. They should be analyzed based on PESTEL,
before deciding the business strategy. A business is impacted by all these factors
and so is the strategy of running the business. As we observed by the SWOT
analysis of the two brands rin and tide that, every product offering should
accentuate its strength and negate its weakness. The opportunities for both the
brands were similar in nature but still by proper segmentation targeting and
positioning, Tide was able to create its own category in the existing crowded
detergent market of India. Even though both the detergents more or less
provided the same kind of functional benefits still they had different marketing
mix (4ps) so as to differentiate. But faced with a competition mudslinging and
indulging in price war is never the best option. As we have observed that, rather
than gaining anything HUL kept loosing its market share and stock valuation
even after the defaming campaign.
The answer to competition is innovation. Tide was able to sweep HUL off its feet
was because they were not innovative enough. So if a brand is to be managed
properly one should depend on two tools: marketing and innovation.






Researcher's Name : Name of Person : ___________________

Class : B.B.A. II Sem Age : _____________________________

Gender : Occupation : ________________________

Q.1 How frequently do you wash your clothes?

b) once a week
c) twice a week
d) fortnightly
e) monthly
Q.2) Which according to you is the most appropriate form for washing
a) bar
b) powder
c) liquid
Q.3) Do you consider using different products considering seasonal
a) yes
b) no
Q.4 Which is the previous brand you were using?
a) ariel
b) surf
c) tide
d) surf excel
e) wheel
f) nirma
g) others
Q5 What is the reason behind shifting to your current brand from the
previous one?
a) price
b) packaging
c) additional special features
d) friendliness
e) better cleaning
f) availability
g) offers associated with the product.
Q.6 What is the price range(per kg) of the detergent you use?
a) 50-75
b) 75-100
c) 100-125
d) 125-150
e) 150+


This is based on our research work on Detergents, being FMCG, it made us go to

households and interact to find out the consumer’s buying behavior. Our objectives
were to find out what are the main features consumers look in detergents while
buying, brand loyalty towards a particular brand, major reasons of switching from
one brand to the other. To gather the data we used the questionnaires method. This
data was fed in a data analysis tool SPSS. With the help of which we analysed and
interpreted the data gathered, pertaining the buying behavior of consumers. Along
with questionnaires, we also used Internet to find out about the detergent industry
and the various brands available.

There are more than 10 brands available in the Indian market, but we have chosen
6 major brands. The Indian laundry market is Rs 5000 crore, with HUL enjoying
highest 38% of share, followed by others like P&G, Nirma, Ghari etc. Detergent
bar comprises of 43% of market share and powder enjoying the rest 57%. The
brands which we tapped are Nirma, Ariel, Surf, Tide, Wheel, Surf Excel and
leaving others as option. Competition in this market is really high with HUL, P&G,
Nirma etc strategizing and innovating to capture the market.

The research design used in our research was descriptive incorporating

knowledge from secondary information analysis, qualitative research,
methodology selection, question measurement & scale selection, questionnaire
design and sample design to be used. And simple random sampling was done.
Target customers were mainly housewives, bachelors and others who are using
detergents. The age group was not defined. Area where research is done is UP,
Delhi & NCR because of the convenience factor. Marjory Quantitative Techniques
like frequency distribution and cross tabulation to make interpretations

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