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Fluid Properties

Oil PVT Properties


Oil PVT Properties

Specific Gravity, API Gravity and


Surface Density

γ o = 141.5/( API + 131.5)


o

For Example:

40 API → γ o = 0.825
o

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.2
Oil PVT Properties

ƒ API gravity is an indicator of crude oil value,


but other factors may be important.
ƒ Surface density is specific gravity times
surface density of pure water.

ρ o, s.c. = γ o x ρ w, s.c.
ρ o, s.c . = γ ox(62.4) lbs cf
ƒ Surface density is a simulation input.

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.3
Density and Compressibility

ƒ Relation used in simulation programs

ρo =
1
Bo
(
ρ o, sc + R s ρ g, sc )
Rs in ft3/ft3 or m3/m3
ƒ Compressibility particularly important
when pressure greater than bubble
point
cO ≈ ΔBO B O ΔP
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.4
Oil PVT Properties

6000

5000
Under-saturated
4000
Pressure

3000

Saturated
2000

1000

0
50 100 150 200 250 300
Temperature

Behavior above and below Bubble Point


Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.5
Oil PVT Properties

(A)

Bob
Bo = Bbls Res space/Bbl tank oil

Boi

Bo1

Pa P1 Pb Pi
Pressure (psia)

Oil formation volume factor and


dissolved gas-oil ratio
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.6
Oil PVT Properties

(B)

Rs = SCF gas/Bbl tank oil Roi = Rob

Ro1

Pa P1 Pb Pi
Pressure (psia)

Oil formation volume factor and


dissolved gas-oil ratio
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.7
Oil PVT Properties

Oil viscosity ( o) (centipoise) (C)

Pa P1 Pb Pi
Pressure (psia)

Oil viscosity
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.8
Oil PVT Properties

Determining Oil Volume Factor, Dissolved


Gas-Oil Ratio and Viscosity

ƒ Correlations (Regression Fit of Data)

ƒ Sampling and lab analysis

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.9
Why Correlations?

ƒ PVT Analysis may not be available

ƒ Check reasonableness of PVT analysis

ƒ Discriminate correct PVT analysis among differing


tests
ƒ Extend PVT properties to account for reservoir
variations in fluids where no PVT analysis exists
ƒ Incorporate variations in fluid properties due to
temperature variations (e.g. flow up tubing)

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.10
Oil Correlations

ƒ Require:
– API Oil Gravity
– Initial Solution Gas-Oil Ratio
– Reservoir Temperature
– Separator Gas Gravity, Temperature and
Pressure

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.11
Oil Correlations

ƒ Procedure: (Vasquez, Beggs Correlations)


– Correct Gas Gravity to 100 psi separator
equivalent conditions, (γgp, API,T & Psep)
– Calculate Bubble Point Pressure (γgp, API,Tres, Rs)
– Define Rs below Pbp (γgp, API, Tres, P)
– Define Bo at Pbp (γgp, API, Tres, Rs)
– Define co (γgp, API, Pres, Tres, Rs)
− co ( p − pb )
B o = B obp e
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.12
Oil Correlations

ƒ Procedure: Continued
– Calculate the Saturated Oil viscosity below
Pbp (API, Tres, Rs)
– Calculate the Under- saturated Oil viscosity
above Pbp (Pres/Pbp)

All in Chapter 3 of OGCI Applied Reservoir


Engineering. Other correlations exist as well –
local favorites. GOM – Petrosky-Farshad,
Nigeria, Eastern Venezuela, California –
Standing’s.
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.13
Water PVT Properties

ƒ Most Important
– Water density affects gravity segregation

– Water compressibility influences aquifer


support
– Water viscosity is part of mobility ratio in
waterfloods
– Water composition for water compatibility
(scaling) and tracking

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.14
Water PVT Properties

ƒ Less Important
– Water formation volume factor
(approximately 1.0)
– Dissolved gas-water ratio

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.15
Water Composition

ƒ Pure Water
– At standard conditions, specific gravity
(γw, pure) is 1.0 gm/cc
– At standard conditions, density is 62.4 lb/cf

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.16
Water Composition

ƒ Oil Field Water


– Contains dissolved solids

– Common cations: Na+, Ca++, Mg++, K+,


Ba++, Li+, Fe++, Sr++
– Common anions: Cl-, SO4=, HCO3-, CO3=,
NO3=, Br-, I-, BO3=, S=
– Water chemistry useful in identifying source
of water and water compatibility of injected
and formation water.
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.17
Water Composition

ƒ Concentration of Solids
– “ppm” is grams solid per million grams of
brine
– “Wt % solids” is ppm / 10,000

– “mg / liter” is ppm x brine density (gm /


cc) at standard conditions

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.18
Water Density

ƒ At Standard Conditions
ρw,s.c. = γw x 62.4 lb/scf
ƒ If know total dissolved solids then find
brine density at standard conditions

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.19
Water Density

76

74
Brine density at 14.7 psia and 60°F., lb/cu ft.

72

70

68

66

64

62

60
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Total dissolved solids, %

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.20
Water Compressibility

ƒ Rule of Thumb: cw = 0.000003


vol/vol/psi
ƒ More precise approach requires
knowledge of amount of gas dissolved in
water. Correlations based on hydrocarbon
gas. Significantly different for CO2.

Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.21
Water Viscosity

ƒ From lab
measurement or
correlation
ƒ Van Wingen plot

Page 3-82
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.22
Water Formation Volume Factor

ƒ Rule of Thumb: Bw = 1.03 RB/STB


ƒ Temperature and Pressure Effects
– Water volume expands with increased

temperature

ƒ Water volume contracts with increased


pressure
(See Figure 3-52 and 3-53)
Reservoir Engineering
Fluid Properties 3.3.23