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Proof of Ceva’s Theorem

Three cevians of a triangle are concurrent if and only if the following equation holds,
AF CD BE
based on the diagram: ⋅ ⋅ =1
FC DB EA
By multiplying equal ratios on each side of an equation, we arrive at:

AF CD AH BE AH KD AK CB
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
FC AG DB EA BC AK KD AG

AH
Through cancelling and multiplying each side of the equation by , we get:
AG

AF CD BE
⋅ ⋅ =1
FC DB EA

Therefore, if three cevians are concurrent, the above equation will hold.
To prove the converse of the previous statement, thus entirely proving the biconditional
statement, assume that CE and BF intersect at K. We must show that AD will also
intersect at K.

Draw AK and find the point of intersection with BC , call it D’. Since these three are
concurrent, using our first proven statement, we know that the following holds:
AF CD ' BE
⋅ ⋅ =1
FC D' B EA

Since the hypothesis of our statement is that the following equation holds:
AF CD BE
⋅ ⋅ =1
FC DB EA

we can set the equations equal and get


CD ' CD
=
D' B DB
or
CD ' CD
+1= +1
D' B DB
so
CD '+ D' B CD + DB
=
D' B DB
Or
CB CB
=
D' B DB
This last equation can only be true if D and D’ are concurrent. Therefore, AD' = AD , so
the three cevians are concurrent.

We have now shown that three cevians in a triangle, AD, BF , and CE , will be concurrent
AF CD BE
iff ⋅ ⋅ =1
FC DB EA
The Four Points of Concurrency of a Triangle

There are four special points of concurrency in every triangle. Prove that each of the four
exists. For an interesting extension, investigate the Feuerbach Circle and the proof
that all nine of the special points fall on a single circle!

CENTROID
The centroid is the point of concurrency of the three medians of a triangle.

ORTHOCENTER
The orthocenter is the point of concurrency of the three altitudes of a triangle.

Hint: Look for some similar triangles.


INCENTER
The incenter is the point of concurrency of the three angle bisectors of a triangle.

Prove with and without Ceva’s Theorem!

CIRCUMCENTER
The circumcenter is the point of concurrency of the perpendicular bisectors of the three
sides of a triangle.

Does Ceva’s Theorem apply?