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Latin Translation Notes

a maiore ad minus from the greater to the smaller From general to particular;
"What holds for all X also holds for one particular X." � argumentum a fortiori
a minore ad maius from the smaller to the greater an inference from smaller to
bigger; what is forbidden at least is forbidden at more ("If riding a bicycle with
two on it is forbidden, riding it with three on it is at least similarly
punished".)
A solis ortu usque ad occasum from sunrise to sunset
ab absurdo from the absurd Said of an argument either for a conclusion that
rests on the alleged absurdity of an opponent's argument (cf. appeal to ridicule)
or that another assertion is false because it is absurd. The phrase is distinct
from reductio ad absurdum, which is usually a valid logical argument.
ab abusu ad usum non valet consequentia an inference from an abuse to a use is
not valid Rights abused are still rights; confer abusus non tollit usum.
ab aeterno from the eternal Literally, "from the everlasting", "from eternity",
and "from outside of time". Philosophically and theologically, it indicates
something, e. g., the universe, that was created from outside of time. Sometimes
the phrase is used incorrectly to denote "from time immemorial", "since the
beginning of time", or "from an infinitely remote time in the past", i. e., not
from without time but from a point within time.
ab antiquo from the ancient From ancient times
a bene placito from one well pleased Or, "at will" or "at one's pleasure".
This phrase, and its Italian (beneplacito) and Spanish (benepl�cito) derivatives,
are synonymous with the more common ad libitum (at pleasure).
ab epistulis from the letters[1] Regarding or pertaining to
correspondence;[1] secretarial office in the Roman Empire
ab extra from beyond/without Legal term denoting derivation from an external
source, rather than from a person's self or mind, this latter source being denoted
by "ab intra".
ab hinc from here on Also sometimes written as "abhinc"
ab imo pectore from the deepest chest Or "from the bottom of my heart", "with
deepest affection", or "sincerely". Attributed to Julius Caesar.
ab inconvenienti from an inconvenient thing New Latin for "based on
unsuitability", "from inconvenience", or "from hardship". An argumentum ab
inconvenienti is one based on the difficulties involved in pursuing a line of
reasoning, and is thus a form of appeal to consequences. The phrase refers to the
legal principle that an argument from inconvenience has great weight.
ab incunabulis from the cradle Thus, "from the beginning" or "from infancy".
Incunabula is commonly used in English to refer to the earliest stage or origin of
something, and especially to copies of books that predate the spread of the
printing press circa AD 1500.
ab initio from the beginning Or, "from the outset", referring to an inquiry
or investigation. In literature, it refers to a story told from the beginning
rather than "in medias res" ("from the middle"). In law, it refers to a thing being
true from its beginning or from the instant of the act, rather than from when the
court declared it so. An annulment is a judicial declaration of the invalidity or
nullity of a marriage ab initio; i. e., that the pseudo marriage was "no thing" (in
Latin, "nullius", from which the word "nullity" derives) and never existed, except
perhaps in name only. In science, the phrase refers to the first principles. In
other contexts, it often refers to beginner or training courses. "Ab initio mundi"
means "from the beginning of the world".
ab intestato from an intestate From a decedent, i. e., a dead person, who died
without executing a legal will; cf. ex testamento
ab intra from within From the inside; the opposite of ab extra
ab invito unwillingly
ab irato from an angry man Or, "by an angry person"; used in law to describe a
decision or action that is detrimental to those whom it affects and is motivated by
hatred or anger instead of reason. The form irato is masculine; however, this does
not limit the application of the phrase to men: rather, "person" is meant because
the phrase probably elides "homo" ("man/person"), not "vir" ("men").
ab origine from the source From the origin, beginning, source, or commencement;
i. e., "originally". It is the source of the word aboriginal.
ab ovo usque ad mala from the egg to the apples From Horace, Satire, 1.3.
Means "from beginning to end", based on the Roman main meal typically beginning
with an egg dish and ending with fruit; cf. the English phrase soup to nuts. Thus,
ab ovo means "from the beginning", and can connote thoroughness.
absens haeres non erit an absent person will not be an heir Legal principle
that a person who is not present is unlikely to inherit
absente reo (abs. re.) [with] the defendant being absent Legal phrase denoting
action "in the absence of the accused"
absit iniuria "let injury be absent" Expresses the wish that no insult or
injury be presumed or done by the speaker's words, i. e., "no offense". Also
rendered absit iniuria verbis ("let injury be absent from these words"). Contrast
with absit invidia.
absit invidia "let ill will/envy be absent" Said in the context of a statement
of excellence: unlike the English expression "no offense", absit invidia is
intended to ward off envious deities who might interpret a statement of excellence
as hubris. Also extended to absit invidia verbo, ("may ill will/envy be absent from
these words"). Contrast it with absit iniuria verbis. An explanation of Livy's
usage.
absit omen let an omen be absent Or, "let this not be a bad omen". Expresses the
wish that something seemingly ill-boding does not turn out to be an omen for future
events, and calls on Divine protection against evil.
absolutum dominium absolute dominion Total, if not supreme, power, dominion,
ownership, and sovereignty
absolvo I acquit Legal term pronounced by a judge to acquit a defendant
following his trial. Te absolvo or absolvo te, translated, "I forgive you", said by
Roman Catholic priests during the Sacrament of Confession, in Latin prior to the
Second Vatican Council and in vernacular thereafter.
abundans cautela non nocet abundant caution does no harm Frequently re-phrased as
"one can never be too careful"
ab uno disce omnes from one, learn all From Virgil, Aeneid, Book 2, 65-6.
Refers to situations where a single example or observation indicates a general or
universal truth. Visible in the court of the character King Silas in the American
television series Kings.
ab urbe condita (a.u.c.) from the city having been founded Or, "from the
founding of Rome", which occurred in 753 BC, according to Livy's count. It was used
as a referential year in ancient Rome from which subsequent years were calculated,
prior to being replaced by other dating conventions. Also anno urbis conditae
(a.u.c.); literally "in the year of the founded city".
abusus non tollit usum misuse does not remove use The misuse of some thing does
not eliminate the possibility of its correct use.
ab utili from utility Used of an argument
abyssus abyssum invocat deep calleth unto deep From Psalms 42:7; some translations
have "sea calls to sea".
a caelo usque ad centrum from the sky to the center Or, "from Heaven all the
way to the center of the Earth". In law, it may refer to the proprietary principle
of Cuius est solum, eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos ("Whosesoever is the
soil, it is his up to the sky and down to the depths [of the Earth]").
a capite ad calcem from head to heel From top to bottom; all the way through;
or from head to toe; see also a pedibus usque ad caput
accipe hoc take this Motto of the 848 Naval Air Squadron, British Royal Navy
accusare nemo se debet nisi coram Deo no one ought to accuse himself except in
the presence of God Legal principle denoting that an accused person is entitled
to plead not guilty, and that a witness is not obligated to respond or submit a
document that would incriminate himself. A similar phrase is nemo tenetur se ipsum
accusare ("no one is bound to accuse himself"). See right to silence.
a contrario from the opposite Equivalent to "on the contrary" and "au contraire".
An argumentum a contrario ("argument from the contrary") is an argument or proof by
contrast or direct opposite.
acta deos numquam mortalia fallunt mortal actions never deceive the gods Ovid,
Tristia, 1.2.97: si tamen acta deos numquam mortalia fallunt, / a culpa facinus
scitis abesse mea. ("Yet if mortal actions never deceive the gods, / you know that
crime was absent from my fault.")
acta est fabula plaudite The play has been performed; applaud! Common
ending to ancient Roman comedies; Suetonius claimed in The Twelve Caesars that
these were the last words of Augustus; Sibelius applied them to the third movement
of his String Quartet No. 2, so that his audience would recognize that it was the
last one, because a fourth would be ordinarily expected.
acta non verba Deeds Not Words Motto of the United States Merchant Marine
Academy
acta sanctorum Deeds of the Saints Also used in the singular preceding a
saint's name: Acta Sancti ("Deeds of Saint") N.; a common title of hagiography
works
actiones secundum fidei action follows belief "We act according to what we
believe (ourselves to be)."[2]
actus me invito factus non est meus actus the act done by me against my will is not
my act
actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea The act does not make [a person] guilty
unless the mind should be guilty. Legal principle of the presumption of mens rea
in a crime
actus reus guilty act The actual crime that is committed, as distinguished from
the intent, thinking, and rationalizing that procured the criminal act; the
external elements of a crime, as contrasted with the mens rea, i. e., the internal
elements.
ad absurdum to absurdity In logic, to the point of being silly or nonsensical.
See also reductio ad absurdum. Not to be confused with ab absurdo ("from the
absurd").
ad abundantiam to abundance In legal language, used when providing
additional evidence to an already sufficient collection. Also used commonly, as an
equivalent of "as if this wasn't enough".
ad acta to the archives Denoting the irrelevance of a thing
ad altiora tendo I strive towards higher things
ad arbitrium at will, at pleasure
ad astra to the stars Name or motto, in whole or part, of many
organizations' publications
ad astra per aspera to the stars through difficulties Or, "a rough road leads
to the stars", as on the Launch Complex 34 memorial plaque for the astronauts of
Apollo 1; motto of the State of Kansas and other organisations

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