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As per Hydrocarbon and other liquid ASME B31.

4 definition Surge pressures in a liquid pipeline are

produced by sudden change in the velocity of the moving stream that results from shutting down of a
pump station (due to pump power failure) or pumping unit, pump start-up, valve movements or
closing of a valve, or blockage of the moving stream. These surge pressures are the highest and lowest
in the pipeline systems. If surge pressure excesses the maximum allowable pipeline pressure, result in
damage the pipeline, relief system valves and pumps. If surge pressure is below the minimum
allowable operating pressure, results in cavitation and pipeline collapse. The standards often allow
overpressure condition above Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) for a short period. The
pipeline may operate for short time above MAOP and still be within the permissible limits defined by
the code. The Safe Operating limit above which the pipeline may be allowed to operate is typically 10%
to 15% above the MAOP limit, depending upon prevailing regulations.

Surge analysis studies for different operating variants were carried out through a simulation model
developed in dynamic multiphase flow simulator OLGA. The model consisted of pipeline as per
geometry, pumps, valves, controls and pressure safety devise. Each pipeline will be unique in this
respect; however the following is a sample of scenarios which should be considered:

1) What if one pump trips and another keeps running?

2) What if a pump is restarted within a given number of seconds after being tripped?

3) What if a control or emergency shut-down valve is closed rapidly?

4) What if an operator opens/closes a valve too quickly?

5) what if a given pipeline component malfunctions?

6) What if power fails to the motors driving the pumps?

7) What if the power fails to the motors driving the pumps?

8) What if the pump delivery valve closes in a given number of seconds?

9) What if the demand on the system is increased?

The complete pipeline valuation requires simulation and examination of different operating conditions
for each valve closure, pump trip and fluid parameters. The dynamic model was used to simulate surge
pressure condition within the pipeline system for valve operation, sudden blockage, pump trip, if
pump does not trip etc. Simulation runs were carried out for several variants like, Closure of
sectionalizing motor operated valve (MOV) on the mainline, Closure of inlet MOV of the storage Tanks
during receipt, Stoppage of Pump (s) at originating / intermediate pump station, Closure of valves
during emergency shutdown, farthest valve closure, mid valve closure and nearest valve closure. For
each variant predicted maximum surge pressure and its location in the pipeline.

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