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Materials/Equipment and
Theory Statement of Problem
1. The use of sieves to separate coarse clastic 1. Determine the particle distribution using 1. Stack the sieves on top of each other
sediments dates back to the early days of sieving method. with the coarsest (largest opening) on
mechanical analysis. In practice, sieving is the top of the stack.
exceedingly simple and convenient for 2. Calculate and record the cumulative 2. Put the bottom pan under the finest
coarse clastic sediments and coarse percentages of samples. (smallest) opening sieve. This pan
sedimentary rocks which are friable or collects “fine” material that passes
easily disaggregated, but the theory of through the last one.
sieving deserves closer attention. 3. Compare the sum of the retained material 3. Use a laboratory scale (accurate to .1
2. The irregular grains can be conveniently and in the bottom pan to the original gram) to weigh an empty container
classifted into two groups; ellipsoida[ weight of the samples. (such as an extra empty bottom pan)
(spherical) grains (Case I) and tabular grains and establish the tare weight.
(Case I). The tabular grains are further 4. Weigh the sample material.
classified into angular (Case IIA) and 5. Empty the sample into the top of the
rounded (Case lIB). We shall now proceed stack. Make sure you do not overload
to derive the relation between the the surface as this causes “blinding”
intermediate diameter (b) and the shape of or blocking of the openings.
the grain in sieving for these idealized cases. 6. Empty the material from the coarsest
(Basanta, 2000) sieve into the empty container that
you weighed in step (3). Use a soft
bristle brush to gently brush the
underside of the sieve to remove all of
the particles.
7. Tap the side of the frame with the
handle of the brush to clean the
remaining material from the sieve.
8. Weigh the contents in the part to the
nearest 1/10 gram and record the data.
9. Return the material to its original
sample container.
10. Repeat steps 6 through 9, using the
container referenced in step (3) for
each sieve, including the fine material
in the bottom pan.
11. Total the weights to make sure the
sum of the retained material and the
material in the bottom pan is as close
as possible to the original weight.
Check your specification for
allowable variation.
12. Divide the weight obtained from each
sieve by the weight of the original
sample. Record the percentage for
each sieve.
13. Repeat all the steps above for 3 times.

Approved by: Engr. CAESAR P. LLAPITAN

Title of Experiment: FILTRATION +

Theory Statement of Problem Materials/Equipment and Procedures

1. Characterize the flow through the 1. Make sure you use the appropriate
1. Filtration, the technique used to separate simple laboratory test. size of filter. This is most important
solids from liquids, is the act of pouring a 2. Validate the theoretical predictions for filtration where the paper should
mixture onto a membrane (filter paper) that for dependence of the collected smaller in diameter than the base of
allows the passage of liquid (the filtrate) and filtrate volume on time. Buchner or Hirsch funnel (but it must
results in the collection of the solid. Two 3. Determine effects of pressure drop cover all the holes) and should sit flat
filtration techniques are generally used in and slurry concentration on the on the bottom of the funnel with no
chemical separations in general chemistry porosity and permeability of the filter creases or folds.
lab: "gravity" filtration and "vacuum" cake. 2. The steps to flute the filter paper are
filtration. 4. Use results of the batch filtration shown. First, fold in half; open and
2. Gravity filtration uses a polyethylene or experiment to predict dependence of fold in half at 90 to the first fold,
glass funnel with a stem and filter paper. the filtrate flow rate and the rate of the subsequently align adjacent folds and
Filter paper can have pore sizes ranging filter cake production in the large- make new folds bisecting the previous
from small to large to permit slow to fast scale continuous filtration on the folds until a fan-like arrangement is
filtering. The paper is folded in half (Figure speed of the drum rotation, pressure obtained. Pleat into a fan by folding
1), then folded in quarters, and the tip of one drop, and the slurry concentration. each segment in the opposite direction
corner is torn off to allow for a snug fit in to its neighbours, in accordion-like
the funnel cone. (If the paper has been pre- fashion. When opened out the
weighed, the torn corner piece must be complete fan-like fluted paper results.
saved to add to the post-filter weighing to Fluting the filter paper maximises the
avoid any errors.) The paper cone is fitted to rate at which the liquid may flow
the funnel so three thicknesses of the paper through the filter paper by increasing
line one-half of the cone and one thickness the surface area and by allowing air to
lines the opposite half (Figure 1). Now place enter the flask along its sides to permit
the funnel into a beaker and wet the filter rapid pressure equalisation.
paper completely 3. A filter paper is folded (conventional
3. Vacuum filtration uses a Buchner or fluted) and placed in a filter funnel
(pronounced "byook-ner") funnel and a which is then placed in the neck of an
water aspirator assembly. A Buchner funnel Erlenmeyer flask or supported in a
is a flat bottomed, porous, circular porcelain clamp or ring stand. The solution to be
bowl with a short stem. The stem is fitted filtered is then slowly and carefully
with a rubber stopper and inserted in the poured into the funnel taking care not
mouth of a side arm filter flask. Circular to fill the funnel above the edge of the
filter paper, the same diameter as the bowl, filter paper.
is placed on the flat bottom and wetted with
the appropriate solvent to create a seal
before starting the filtration.

Approved by: Engr. CAESAR P. LLAPITAN