0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

23 просмотров92 страницыJun 03, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

23 просмотров92 страницы© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 92

Conceptual Problems

particles (protons and electrons); however, we rarely observe the effects of the

electrostatic force. Explain why we do not observe these effects.

Determine the Concept The net charge on large objects is always very close to

zero. Hence the most obvious force is the gravitational force.

2 • A carbon atom can become a carbon ion if it has one or more of its

electrons removed during a process called ionization. What is the net charge on a

carbon atom that has had two of its electrons removed? (a) +e, (b) – e, (c) +2e,

(d) –2e

Determine the Concept If two electrons are removed from a carbon atom, it will

have a net positive charge of +2e. (c ) is correct.

which you claim to disprove Coulomb’s law. You first run a rubber comb through

your dry hair, then use it to attract tiny neutral pieces of paper on the desk. You

then say ″Coulomb’s law states that for there to be electrostatic forces of

attraction between two objects, both objects need to be charged. However, the

paper was not charged. So according to Coulomb’s law, there should be no

electrostatic forces of attraction between them, yet there clearly was.″ You rest

your case. (a) What is wrong with your assumptions? (b) Does attraction between

the paper and the comb require that the net charge on the comb be negative?

Explain.

(a) Coulomb’s law is only valid for point particles. The paper bits cannot be

modeled as point particles because the paper bits become polarized.

(b) No, the attraction does not depend on the sign of the charge on the comb. The

induced charge on the paper that is closest to the comb is always opposite in sign

to of the charge on the comb, and thus the net force on the paper is always

attractive.

4 •• You have a positively charged insulating rod and two metal spheres on

insulating stands. Give step-by-step directions of how the rod, without actually

touching either sphere, can be used to give one of the spheres (a) a negative

charge, and (b) a positive charge.

1997

1998 Chapter 21

(a) Connect the metal sphere to ground; bring the insulating rod near the metal

sphere and disconnect the sphere from ground; then remove the insulating rod.

The sphere will be negatively charged.

(b) Bring the insulating rod in contact with the metal sphere; some of the positive

charge on the rod will be transferred to the metal sphere.

5 •• (a) Two point particles that have charges of +4q and –3q are separated

by distance d. Use field lines to draw a visualization of the electric field in the

neighborhood of this system. (b) Draw the field lines at distances much greater

than d from the charges.

Determine the Concept (a) We can use the rules for drawing electric field lines

to draw the electric field lines for this system. Two field lines have been assigned

to each charge q. (b) At distances much greater than the separation distance

between the two charges, the system of two charged bodies will ″look like″ a

single charge of +q and the field pattern will be that due to a point charge of +q.

Eight field lines have been assigned to the single charge.

(a) (b)

+ 4q − 3q

+q

electrically attract another positively charged ball? Explain your answer.

proximity of a positively charged ball (not necessarily a conductor), will induce a

redistribution of charges on the metal sphere with the surface nearer the positively

charged ball becoming negatively charged. Because the negative charges on the

metal sphere are closer to the positively charged ball than are the positive charges

on the metal sphere, the net force will be attractive.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 1999

by dangling a small ball of crumpled aluminum foil on a string and bringing a

charged rod near the ball. The ball initially will be attracted to the rod, but once

they touch, the ball will be strongly repelled from it. Explain these observations.

Determine the Concept Assume that the rod has a negative charge. When the

charged rod is brought near the aluminum foil, it induces a redistribution of

charges with the side nearer the rod becoming positively charged, and so it swings

toward the rod. When it touches the rod, some of the negative charge is

transferred to the foil, which, as a result, acquires a net negative charge and is

now repelled by the rod.

8 •• Two positive point charges that are equal in magnitude are fixed in

place, one at x = 0.00 m and the other at x = 1.00 m, on the x axis. A third positive

point charge is placed at an equilibrium position. (a) Where is this equilibrium

position? (b) Is the equilibrium position stable if the third particle is constrained

to move parallel with the x axis? (c) What about if it is constrained to move

parallel with the y axis? Explain.

(a) A third positive charge can be placed midway between the fixed positive

charges. This is the only location.

(b) Yes. The position identified in (a) is one of stable equilibrium. It is stable in

the x-direction because regardless of whether you displace the third positive

charge to the right or to the left, the net force acting on it is back toward the

midpoint between the two fixed charges.

(c) If the third positive charge is displaced in the y direction, the net force acting

on it will be away from its equilibrium position. Hence the position midway

between the fixed positive charges is one of unstable equilibrium in the y

direction.

large wooden table by insulated stands. A positively charged rod is brought up

close to the surface of one of the spheres on the side opposite its point of contact

with the other sphere. (a) Describe the induced charges on the two conducting

spheres, and sketch the charge distributions on them. (b) The two spheres are

separated and then the charged rod is removed. The spheres are then separated far

apart. Sketch the charge distributions on the separated spheres.

Determine the Concept Because the spheres are conductors, there are free

electrons on them that will reposition themselves when the positively charged rod

is brought nearby.

2000 Chapter 21

charged rod, the induced charge is − +

− +

negative and near the rod. On the other + + + + + − +

− +

+

in the diagram.

− +

far apart and the rod has been removed,

− +

the induced charges are distributed

− +

uniformly over each sphere. The charge − +

distributions are shown in the diagram.

10 •• Three point charges, +q, +Q, and –Q, are placed at the corners of an

equilateral triangle as shown in Figure 21-33. No other charged objects are

nearby. (a) What is the direction of the net force on charge +q due to the other

two charges? (b) What is the total electric force on the system of three charges?

Explain.

r

Determine the Concept The forces F+Q

acting on point charge +q are shown in

the diagram. The force acting on point

charge +q due to point charge −Q is +q

along the line joining them and directed

toward −Q. The force acting on point

charge +q due to point charge +Q is r

along the line joining them and directed

F−Q

away from point charge +Q.

1 +Q 2 −Q

(a) Because point charges +Q and −Q are equal in magnitude, the forces due to

these charges are equal and their sum (the net force on charge +q) will

be to the right. Note that the vertical components of these forces add up to zero.

(b) Because no other charged objects are nearby, the forces acting on this system

of three point charges are internal forces and the net force acting on the system is

zero .

11 •• A positively

r charged particle is free to move in a region with an

electric field E . Which statements must be true?

r

(a) The particle is accelerating in the direction perpendicular to E .

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2001

r

(b) The particle is accelerating in the directionrof E .

(c) The particle is moving in the direction of E .

(d) The particle could be momentarily at rest. r

(e) The force on the particle is opposite the directionrof E .

(f) The particle is moving opposite the direction of E .

(a) False. The only force acting on the particle is in the direction of E .

(b) True. Therelectrical force experienced by the particle is, by definition, in the

direction of E .

(c) False. We don’t know whether the particle is moving or momentarilyr at rest.

All we know is that the net force acting on it is in the direction of E .

(d) Possibly, Whether the particle is ever at rest depends on how it was initially

placed in the electric field.

r That is, it depends

r on whether its initial velocity was

zero, in the direction of E , or opposite E .

(e) False. By definition, the electric force acting on a positively charged particle in

an electric field is in the direction of the field.

(f) True. All we know for sure is that the electric force

r and, hence, the

acceleration of the particle, is in the direction of E . The particle could be moving

in the direction of the field, in the direction opposite the field, or it could be

momentarily at rest. We do know that, if it is at any time at rest, it will not stay at

rest.

Figure 21-34. No other charges are nearby. Which of the following statements is

true?

r

(a) Er is zero at the midpoints of all four sides of the square.

(b) Er is zero at the center of the square.

(c) E is zero midway between the top two charges and midway between the

bottom two charges.

r

Determine the Concept E is zero wherever the net force acting on a test charge

is zero.

(a) False. A test charge placed at these locations will experience a net force.

2002 Chapter 21

(b) True. At the center of the square the two positive charges alone produce a net

electric field of zero, and the two negative charges alone also produce a net

electric field of zero. Thus, the net force acting on a test charge at the midpoint

of the square is zero.

(c) False. A test charge placed at any of these locations will experience a net

force.

13 •• [SSM] Two point particles that have charges of +q and –3q are

separated by distance d. (a) Use field lines to sketch the electric field in the

neighborhood of this system. (b) Draw the field lines at distances much greater

than d from the charges.

Determine the Concept (a) We can use the rules for drawing electric field lines

to draw the electric field lines for this system. In the field-line sketch we’ve

assigned 2 field lines to each charge q. (b) At distances much greater than the

separation distance between the two charges, the system of two charged bodies

will ″look like″ a single charge of −2q and the field pattern will be that due to a

point charge of −2q. Four field lines have been assigned to each charge −q.

(a) (b)

− 2q

14 •• Three equal positive point charges (each charge +q) are fixed at the

vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of length a. The origin is at the

midpoint of one side the triangle, the center of the triangle on the x axis at x = x1

and the vertex opposite the origin is on the x axis at x = x2. (a) Express x1 and x2 in

terms of a. (b) Write an expression for the electric field on the x axis a distance x

from the origin on the interval 0 ≤ x < x2. (c) Show that the expression you

obtained in (b) gives the expected results for x = 0 and for x = x1.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2003

a + q3

2

the geometry of an equilateral triangle

to express x1 and x2 in terms of the side 30°

on the x axis a distance x from the P + q2

0 x1 x x2

origin on the interval 0 ≤ x < x2 is the

superposition of the electric fields due

to the point charges q2, q3, and q4

located at the vertices of the triangle.

− 12 a +q

4

2 3

2 a

to the triangle whose vertices are at

(0,0) , (0, 12 a ) , and ( x2 ,0) to obtain:

Referring to the triangle whose x1

tan 30° = ⇒ x1 = 12 a tan 30°

vertices are at (0,0) , (0, 12 a ) , 1

2 a

and ( x1 ,0) , note that:

a

6

r r r r

(b) The electric field at P is the E P = E 2 + E3 + E 4 (1)

superposition of the electric fields

due to the charges q2, q3, and q4:

E 2 = 2 2 rˆ2, P = 3 2 r2, P

q2: r2, P r2, P

where

r

r2, P = ( x − x2 ) iˆ = x − 23 a iˆ ( )

and

r2, P = x2 − x

r

Substituting for q2, r2, P , and r2,P r

E2 =

kq

(x − 3

)

a iˆ

yields: ( 2

3

a−x )

3 2

kq

=− iˆ

( 2

3

a−x )2

2004 Chapter 21

E3 = 2 3 rˆ3, P = 3 3 r3, P

q3: r3, P r3, P

where

r

r3, P = ( x − 0 ) iˆ + (0 − 12 a ) ˆj = x iˆ − 12 aˆj

and

r3, P = ( x − 0)2 + (0 − 12 a )2 = x 2 + 14 a 2

r

Substituting for q3, r3, P , and r3,P r

E3 =

kq

(x iˆ − aˆj )

1

yields: (x 2

+ a

1

4

2 32

) 2

r

Proceed similarly for E4 to obtain: r

E4 =

kq

(x iˆ + aˆj )

1

(x 2

+ a

1

4 )

2 32 2

r r r

Substituting for E2 , E3 , and E4 in equation (1) and simplifying yields:

r

EP = −

kq

iˆ +

kq

(x iˆ − aˆj ) +

1 kq

(x iˆ + aˆj )

1

( 2

3

a−x )

2

(x 2

+ a

1

4

)

2 32 2

(x 2

+ a 1

4 )

2 32 2

⎡ 1 2x ⎤

= kq ⎢− + ⎥ iˆ

⎢⎣ ( 2

3

a−x ) ( 2

x + 4a

2 1 2

32

⎥⎦)

r

(c) Evaluating E P (0 ) yields:

r ⎡ 1 2(0) ⎤ ˆ kq ˆ

E P (0) = kq ⎢− + ⎥i = − i

⎢⎣ 23 a

2

1 2

4 a

3 2

⎥

⎦ ( ) ( )

2

3

a

2

( )

Note that, because the electric fields due to q3 and q4 cancel each other at the

origin and the resultant field is that due to q2, this is the expected result.

( a ) to obtain:

r

Evaluate E P 6

3

r

( a ) = kq ⎢⎢−

⎡

1

⎤

2 ( a)

3

⎥ iˆ = kq ⎡− 3 + 3 ⎤ iˆ = 0

+

) (( ) )

3 6

EP 6

⎣ 2

3

a − 6(

3

a

2

6

3

a

2

+ 1 2

4 a

3 2

⎥

⎦

⎢⎣ a 2 a 2 ⎥⎦

Note that, because the point at the center of the equilateral triangle is equidistant

from the three vertices, the electric fields due to the charges at the vertices cancel

and this is the expected result.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2005

r

15 •• A molecule has a dipole moment given by p . The molecule is

r r

momentarily at rest with p making an angle θ with a uniform electric field E .

Describe the subsequent motion of the dipole moment.

Determine the Concept The dipole moment rotates back and forth in oscillatory

motion. The dipole moment gains angular speed as it rotates toward the direction

of the electric field, and losing angular speed as it rotates away from the direction

of the electric field.

16 •• True or false:

(a) The electric field of a point charge always points away from the charge.

(b) The electric force on a charged particle in an electric field is always in the

same direction as the field.

(c) Electric field lines never intersect.

(d) All molecules have dipole moments in the presence of an external electric

field.

(b) False. The direction of the electric force acting on a point charge depends on

the sign of the point charge.

(c) False. Electric field lines intersect any point in space occupied by a point

charge.

(d) True. An electric field partially polarizes the molecules; resulting in the

separation of their charges and the creation of electric dipole moments.

The dipole moments are oriented in various configurations as shown in Figure 21-

34. Determine the electric-field direction at each of the numbered locations.

Explain your answers.

Determine the Concept Figure 21-23 shows the electric field due to a single

dipole, where the dipole moment is directed toward the right. The electric field

due two a pair of dipoles can be obtained by superposing the two electric fields.

1 2 3

(a) down up up

(b) up right left

(c) down up up

(d) down up up

2006 Chapter 21

18 •• Estimate the force required to bind the two protons in the He nucleus

together. HINT: Model the protons as point charges. You will need to have an

estimate of the distance between them.

Picture the Problem Because the nucleus is in equilibrium, the binding force

must be equal to the electrostatic force of repulsion between the protons.

r

Apply ∑ F = 0 to a proton to obtain: Fbinding − Felectrostatic = 0

for Felectrostatic : Fbinding =

r2

numerical values and evaluate Felectrostatic :

Fbinding =

(8.988 ×10 9

)(

N ⋅ m 2 / C 2 1.602 × 10 −19 C ) 2

≈ 0.2 kN

(10 −15

m)

2

with fur to give the rod charge, and then placing the rod near an empty soda can

that is on its side (Figure 21-36). Explain why the can will roll toward the rod.

Determine the Concept Because the can is grounded, the presence of the

negatively-charged plastic rod induces a positive charge on it. The positive

charges induced on the can are attracted, via the Coulomb interaction, to the

negative charges on the plastic rod. Unlike charges attract, so the can will roll

toward the rod.

20 ••• Sparks in air occur when ions in the air are accelerated to a such a

high speed by an electric field that when they impact on neutral gas molecules the

neutral molecules become ions. If the electric field strength is large enough, the

ionized collision products are themselves accelerated and produce more ions on

impact, and so forth. This avalanche of ions is what we call a spark. (a) Assume

that an ion moves, on average, exactly one mean free path through the air before

hitting a molecule. If the ion needs to acquire approximately 1.0 eV of kinetic

energy in order to ionize a molecule, estimate the minimum strength of the

electric field required at standard room pressure and temperature. Assume that the

cross-sectional area of an air molecule is about 0.10 nm2. (b) How does the

strength of the electric field in (a) depend on temperature? (c) How does the

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2007

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of electric field to express E in

terms of the work done on the ionizing electrons and the distance they travel λ

between collisions. We can use the ideal-gas law to relate the number density of

molecules in the gas ρ and the scattering cross-section σ to the mean free path

and, hence, to the electric field.

relate the work done on the electrons

by the electric field to the change in

their kinetic energy:

field we have:

Substitute for F and Δs to obtain: W = qEλ , where the mean free path λ

is the distance traveled by the electrons

between ionizing collisions with

nitrogen atoms.

λ=

related to the scattering cross-section σn

σ and the number density for air

molecules n:

W= ⇒E =

σn q

n= =

V kT

E= (1)

qkT

2 N ⎞

3

2 ⎟

(1.0 eV )⎛⎜1.602 ×10 −19 J ⎞⎟

eV ⎠

E= ⎝ m ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 2.4 × 10 6 N/C

( )

⎛ J⎞

1.602 × 10 −19 C ⎜1.381× 10 − 23 ⎟ (300 K )

K⎠

⎝

2008 Chapter 21

Charge

of –0.80 μC. How many electrons are transferred from the wool shirt to the plastic

rod?

Picture the Problem The charge acquired by the plastic rod is an integral

number of electronic charges, that is, q = ne(−e).

q

plastic rod to the number of −e

electrons transferred from the wool

shirt:

ne =

evaluate ne: C

− 1.602 × 10 −19

electron

= 5.0 × 1012 electrons

(NA = 6.02 × 1023) is called a faraday. Calculate the number of coulombs in a

faraday.

Picture the Problem One faraday = NAe. We can use this definition to find the

number of coulombs in a faraday.

( )( )

1 faraday = N A e = 6.02 × 10 23 electrons 1.602 × 10 −19 C/electron = 9.63 × 10 4 C

carbon?

Picture the Problem We can find the number of coulombs of positive charge

there are in 1.00 kg of carbon from Q = 6nCe , where nC is the number of atoms in

1.00 kg of carbon and the factor of 6 is present to account for the presence of 6

protons in each atom. We can find the number of atoms in 1.00 kg of carbon by

setting up a proportion relating Avogadro’s number, the mass of carbon, and the

molecular mass of carbon to nC. See Appendix C for the molar mass of carbon.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2009

of the electronic charge, the number

of protons per atom, and the number

of atoms in 1.00 kg of carbon:

= ⇒ nC = A C

number of atoms in 1.00 kg of NA M M

carbon nC, to Avogadro’s number

and the molecular mass M of carbon:

Q=

M

⎛

6⎜ 6.022 × 10 23

atoms ⎞

mol ⎠

(

⎟ (1.00 kg ) 1.602 × 10 C

−19

)

Q= ⎝ = 4.82 × 10 7 C

kg

0.01201

mol

net charge of +2.50 pC. (a)What percentage of the electrons originally in the

cube was removed? (b) By what percentage has the mass of the cube decreased

because of this removal?

Picture the Problem (a) The percentage of the electrons originally in the cube

that was removed can be found from the ratio of the number of electrons removed

to the number of electrons originally in the cube. (b) The percentage decrease in

the mass of the cube can be found from the ratio of the mass of the electrons

removed to the mass of the cube.

removed to the number of electrons N rem e

originally in the cube: = (1)

N ini N electrons N atoms

per atom

the ratio of the mass of the cube to N atoms = = Al cube

mAl atom mAl atom

the mass of an aluminum atom:

2010 Chapter 21

molar mass divided by Avogadro’s m Al atom =

NA

number:

N atoms = =

M Al M Al

NA

and simplify to obtain: N rem e

=

N ini ⎛ ρ AlVcube N A ⎞

N electrons ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

per atom ⎝ M Al ⎠

Qaccumulated M Al

=

N electrons ρ AlVcube eN A

per atom

N rem

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

N ini

⎟

N rem ⎝ mol ⎠

=

N ini ⎛ electrons ⎞ ⎛

⎜13

g ⎞

( ⎛

⎟ ⎜ 2.70 3 ⎟ (1.00 cm ) 1.602 × 10 C ⎜ 6.022 × 10

atom ⎠ ⎝

3 −19

)

23 atoms ⎞

mol ⎠

⎟

⎝ cm ⎠ ⎝

≈ 1.99 × 10 −15 %

the electrons removed to the mass of =

mcube ρ AlVcube

the cube:

N rem =

removed is given by: e

melectron

mrem e

=

mcube ρ AlVcube

Qaccumulated melectron

=

eρ AlVcube

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2011

mrem

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

mcube

mrem

=

(2.50 pC)(9.109 ×10 −31 kg ) ≈ 5.26 ×10 −19 %

mcube

(1.602 ×10 −19

)⎛ g ⎞

(

C ⎜ 2.70 3 ⎟ 1.00 cm 3

cm ⎠

)

⎝

light can be used to charge a piece of metal. (a) If such light is incident on a slab

of conducting material and electrons are ejected with enough energy that they

escape the surface of the metal, how long before the metal has a net charge of

+1.50 nC if 1.00 × 106 electrons are ejected per second? (b) If 1.3 eV is needed to

eject an electron from the surface, what is the power rating of the light beam?

(Assume this process is 100% efficient.)

Picture the Problem (a) The required time is the ratio of the charge that

accumulates to the rate at which it is delivered to the conductor. (b) We can use

the definition of power to find the power rating of the light beam.

the charge that accumulates to the Δt = =

I dq dt

rate at which it is delivered:

1.50 nC 1h

Δt = = 9.363 × 103 s ×

⎛ 6 electrons ⎞ ⎛ −19 C ⎞ 3600 s

⎜1.00 × 10 ⎟ ⎜1.602 × 10 ⎟

⎝ s ⎠⎝ electron ⎠

= 2.60 h

p=

beam is the rate at which it delivers Δt

energy:

the product of the energy per electron

the number of electrons removed per

unit time), and the elapsed time:

for P and simplifying yields: p=

electron

= Eper I electron

Δt electron

2012 Chapter 21

P = ⎜⎜1.3 × ⎟⎟ ⎜1.00 × 10 6 −13

⎟ = 2.1× 10 W

⎝ electron eV ⎠⎝ s ⎠

Coulomb’s Law

μC is on the x-axis at x = 3.0 m. (a) Find the electric force on charge q2. (b) Find

the electric force on q1. (c) How would your answers for Parts (a) and (b) differ if

q2 were –6.0 μC?

Picture the Problem We can find the electric forces the two charges exert on

each by applying Coulomb’s law and Newton’s 3rd law. Note that

rˆ1, 2 = iˆ because the vector pointing from q1 to q2 is in the positive x direction.

The diagram shows the situation for Parts (a) and (b).

r r

F2,1 0 1 2 3 F1, 2

x, m

q1 = 4.0 μC q2 = 6.0 μC

F1, 2 = 12 2 r̂1, 2

the force that q1 exerts on q2: r1, 2

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F1, 2 :

r

F1, 2 =

( )

8.988 ×109 N ⋅ m 2 /C2 (4.0 μC)(6.0 μC) ˆ

i= (24 mN) iˆ

(3.0 m )2

r r

(b) Because these are action-and- F2,1 = − F1, 2 = − (24 mN ) iˆ

reaction forces, we can apply

Newton’s 3rd law to obtain:

(c) If q2 is −6.0 μC, the force between q1 and q2 is attractive and both force

vectors are reversed:

r

F1, 2 =

( )

8.988 ×109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (4.0 μC)(− 6.0 μC) ˆ

i = − (24 mN) iˆ

(3.0 m)2

and

r r

F2,1 = − F1, 2 = (24 mN) iˆ

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2013

x = –3.0 m, q2 = 4.0 μC is at the origin, and q3 = –6.0 μC is at x = 3.0 m. Find the

electric force on q1.

r

Picture the Problem q2 exerts an attractive electric force F2,1 on point charge q1

r

and q3 exerts a repulsive electric force F3,1 on point charge q1. We can find the net

electric force on q1 by adding these forces (that is, by using the superposition

principle).

r r

F3,1 −3 − 2 F2,1 -1 0 1 2 3

x, m

q1 = −6.0μ C q2 = 4.0 μC q3 = −6.0μC

r r r

Express the net force acting on q1: F1 = F2,1 + F3,1

F2,1 = 12 2 iˆ

q1: r2,1

q1:

r kq q

F3,1 = 12 3 − iˆ

r3,1

( )

Substitute and simplify to obtain: r kq q kq q

F1 = 12 2 iˆ − 12 3 iˆ

r2,1 r3,1

⎛q q ⎞

= k q1 ⎜⎜ 22 − 23 ⎟⎟iˆ

⎝ r2,1 r3,1 ⎠

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F1 :

r ⎛ 4.0 μC 6.0 μC ⎞ ˆ

( )

F1 = 8.988 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (6.0 μC )⎜⎜ − ( )

⎟ i = 1.5 ×10 −2 N iˆ

2 ⎟

⎝ (3.0 m ) (6.0 m ) ⎠

2

apart. Where should a third point charge be placed so that the electric force on

that third charge is zero?

Picture the Problem The third point charge should be placed at the location at

which the forces on the third point charge due to each of the other two point

charges cancel. There can be no such place except on the line between the two

point charges. Denote the 2.0 μC and 4.0 μC point charges by the numerals 2 and

4, respectively, and the third point charge by the numeral 3. Assume that the

2014 Chapter 21

2.0 μC point charge is to the left of the 4.0 μC point charge, let the +x direction be

to the right. Then the 4.0 μC point charge is located at x = L.

r r

Apply the condition for translational F4 ,3 + F2,3 = 0

equilibrium to the third point charge:

or

F4,3 = F2,3 (1)

F4,3 =

point charge to the 4.0 μC point (L − x )2

charge be x, express the force that

the 4.0 μC point charge exerts on the

third point charge:

F2,3 =

charge exerts on the third charge is x2

given by:

=

(L − x ) 2

x2

or, simplifying,

q4 q

= 22

(L − x ) x

2

a quadratic equations yields:

x= = −L ± 2L

2

The root corresponding to the negative sign between the terms is extraneous

because it corresponds to a position to the left of the 2.0 μC point charge and is,

therefore, not a physically meaningful root. Hence the third point charge should

be placed between the point charges and a distance equal to 0.41L away from the

2.0-μC charge.

apart. Where should a third point charge be placed so that the electric force on

that third charge is zero?

Picture the Problem The third point charge should be placed at the location at

which the forces on the third point charge due to each of the other two point

charges cancel. There can be no such place between the two point charges.

Beyond the 4.0 μC point charge, and on the line containing the two point charges,

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2015

the force due to the 4.0 μC point charge overwhelms the force due to the −2.0 μC

point charge. Beyond the −2.0 μC point charge, and on the line containing the two

point charges, however, we can find a place where these forces cancel because

they are equal in magnitude and oppositely directed. Denote the −2.0 μC and 4.0

μC point charges by the numerals 2 and 4, respectively, and the third point charge

by the numeral 3. Let the +x direction be to the right with the origin at the

position of the −2.0 μC point charge and the 4.0 μC point charge be located at

x = L.

r r

Apply the condition for translational F4 ,3 + F2,3 = 0

equilibrium to the third point charge:

or

F4,3 = F2,3 (1)

F4,3 =

point charge to the 4.0 μC point (L + x )2

charge be x, express the force that

the 4.0 μC point charge exerts on the

third point charge:

F2,3 =

charge exerts on the third point x2

charge is given by:

= ⇒ = 22

(L + x ) 2

x 2

(L + x ) x

2

a quadratic equations yields:

x= = L ± 2L

2

The root corresponding to the positive sign between the terms is extraneous

because it corresponds to a position to the right of the 2.0 μC point charge and is,

therefore, not a physically meaningful root. Hence the third point charge should

be placed a distance equal to 0.41L from the –2.0-μC charge on the side away

from the 4.0-μC charge.

corners of a square of edge length 5.00 cm. The two point charges at opposite

corners are positive, and the third point charge is negative. Find the electric force

exerted by these point charges on a fourth point charge q4 = +3.00 nC at the

remaining corner.

2016 Chapter 21

Picture the Problem The configuration of the point charges and the forces on the

fourth point charge are shown in the figure … as is a coordinate system. From the

figure it is evident that the net force on the point charge q4 is along the diagonal of

the square and directed away from point charge q3. We can apply Coulomb’s law

r r r

to express F1, 4 , F2, 4 and F3, 4 and then add them (that is, use the principle of

superposition of forces) to find the net electric force on point charge q4.

y, cm r

F1, 4

q2 = 3.00 nC q4 = 3.00 nC

5.00

r

r F2, 4

F3, 4

q1 = 3.00 nC

x , cm

0 q = −3.00 nC

3 5.00

r r r r

Express the net force acting on F4 = F1, 4 + F2, 4 + F3, 4 (1)

point charge q4:

F1, 4 = 12 4 ˆj

q1 exerts on point charge q4: r1, 4

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F1, 4 :

r ⎛ N ⋅ m2 ⎞ ⎛ 3.00 nC ⎞ ˆ

F1, 4 = ⎜⎜ 8.988 × 109 ⎟⎟ (3.00 nC )⎜⎜ ( )

⎟ j = 3.236 ×10 −5 N ˆj

2 ⎟

⎝ (0.0500 m ) ⎠

2

⎝ C ⎠

F2, 4 = 22 4 iˆ

exerts on point charge q4: r2, 4

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F2, 4 :

r ⎛ N ⋅ m2 ⎞ ⎛ 3.00 nC ⎞ ˆ

F2, 4 = ⎜⎜ 8.988 × 109 ⎟⎟ (3.00 nC )⎜⎜ ( )

⎟ i = 3.236 × 10−5 N iˆ

2 ⎟

⎝ (0.0500 m ) ⎠

2

⎝ C ⎠

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2017

F3, 4 = 32 4 r̂3, 4 , where r̂3, 4 is a unit

exerts on point charge q4: r3, 4

vector pointing from q3 to q4.

r r r r r r

Express r3, 4 in terms of r3,1 and r1, 4 : r3, 4 = r3,1 + r1, 4

= (0.0500 m ) iˆ + (0.0500 m ) ˆj

r

Convert r3, 4 to r̂3, 4 :

r

r3, 4

rˆ3, 4 = r =

(0.0500 m ) iˆ + (0.0500 m ) ˆj = 0.707 iˆ + 0.707 ˆj

r3, 4 (0.0500 m )2 + (0.0500 m )2

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F3, 4 :

⎛ ⎞

r ⎛

F3, 4 = ⎜⎜ 8.988 × 10 9

N ⋅ m2 ⎞

⎟⎟ (− 3.00 nC ) ⎜

3.00 nC

(

⎟ 0.707 iˆ + 0.707 ˆj )

⎝ C ⎠2

⎝ (

⎜ 0.0500 2 m )

2

⎟

⎠

( ) ( )

= − 1.14 × 10 −5 N iˆ − 1.14 × 10 −5 N ˆj

r

Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and simplify to find F4 :

r

( ) ( ) ( ) (

F4 = 3.24 ×10−5 N ˆj + 3.24 ×10−5 N iˆ − 1.14 ×10 −5 N iˆ − 1.14 ×10 −5 N ˆj )

= (2.10 ×10−5 N )iˆ + (2.10 ×10 N ) ˆj

−5

point charge of –5.00 μC is on the y axis at y = –3.00 cm. Find the electric force

on a point charge of 2.00 μC on the x axis at x = 8.00 cm.

Picture the Problem The configuration of the point charges and the forces on

point charge q3 are shown in the figure … as is a coordinate system. From the

geometry of the charge distribution it is evident that the net force on the 2.00 μC

point charge is in the negative y direction. We can apply Coulomb’s law to

r r

express F1,3 and F2,3 and then add them (that is, use the principle of superposition

of forces) to find the net force on point charge q3.

2018 Chapter 21

y, cm

3.00 q1 = 5.00 μC

q3 = 2.00μC

0 x , cm

θ 8.00

θ

r r

F2,3 F1,3

− 3.00

q2 = −5.00μC

r r r

The net force acting on point charge F3 = F1,3 + F2,3

q3 is given by:

r

The force that point charge q1 exerts F1,3 = F cos θ iˆ − F sin θ ˆj

on point charge q3 is:

F is given by:

⎛ N ⋅ m2 ⎞

⎜⎜ 8.988 × 10 9 ⎟ (5.00 μC )(2.00 μC )

kq1 q3 ⎝ C 2 ⎟⎠

F= 2 = = 12.32 N

r (0.0300 m )2 + (0.0800 m )2

and

⎛ 3.00 cm ⎞

θ = tan −1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 20.56°

⎝ 8.00 cm ⎠

r

The force that point charge q2 exerts F2,3 = − F cos θ iˆ − F sin θ ˆj

on point charge q3 is:

r r r

Substitute for F1,3 and F2,3 and F3 = F cos θ iˆ − F sin θ ˆj − F cos θ iˆ

simplify to obtain: − F sin θ ˆj

= −2 F sin θ ˆj

r

Substitute numerical values and

r F3 = −2(12.32 N )sin 20.56° ˆj

evaluate F3 :

= − (8.65 N ) ˆj

second point particle that has a charge of 6.0 μC is at x = 1.0 m, y = 0.50 m. A

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2019

third point particle, and electron, is at a point with coordinates (x, y). Find the

values of x and y such that the electron is in equilibrium.

Picture the Problem The positions of the point particles are shown in the

diagram. It is apparent that the electron must be located along the line joining the

two point particles. Moreover, because it is negatively charged, it must be closer

to the particle with a charge of −2.5 μC than to the particle with a charge of

6.0 μC, as is indicated in the figure. We can find the x and y coordinates of the

electron’s position by equating the two electrostatic forces acting on it and solving

for its distance from the origin. We can use similar triangles to express this radial

distance in terms of the x and y coordinates of the electron.

y, m

q1 = 6.0μC

0.50

xe

x, m

q2 = − 2.5 μC 1.0

ye r

F2,e

r e

F1,e

satisfied if the electron is to be in

equilibrium:

F1,e =

the origin to the electron, express the (r + 1.25 m ) 2

particle whose charge is q1 exerts on

the electron:

F2,e =

that the particle whose charge is q2 r2

exerts on the electron:

=

(r + 1.25 m ) 2

r2

2020 Chapter 21

=

simplify to obtain: (r + 1.25 m ) 2

r2

and

r = −0.4386 m

Because r < 0 is unphysical, we’ll

consider only the positive root.

= ⇒ y e = 0.909 m

diagram to establish the proportion 0.50 m 1.12 m

involving the y coordinate of the

electron:

= ⇒ xe = 1.82 m

diagram to establish the proportion 1.0 m 1.12 m

involving the x coordinate of the

electron:

position are:

second point particle that has a charge of 2.0 μC is located at x = 0, y = 0.10 m;

and a third point particle that has a charge of 4.0 μC is located at x = 0.20 m,

y = 0. Find the total electric force on each of the three point charges.

the charge of the point particle at the F3,2

y, m

origin, q2 the charge of the point

particle at (0, 0.10 m), and q3 the q2 = 2.0 μ C

0.10

charge of the point particle at

F1,2

(0.20 m, 0). The diagram shows the

forces acting on each of the point F2,1

particles. Note the action-and-reaction q1 = −1.0μ C q3 = 4.0μ C

x, m

pairs. We can apply Coulomb’s law 0.20

F3,1 F1,3

and the principle of superposition of

forces to find the net force acting on F2,3

each of the point particles.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2021

r r r

Express the net force acting on the F1 = F2,1 + F3,1

point particle whose charge is q1:

r

Express the force that the point r kq2 q1 kq2 q1 r2,1 kq2 q1 r

F2,1 = 2 rˆ2,1 = 2 = 3 r2,1

particle whose charge is q2 exerts on r2,1 r2,1 r2,1 r2,1

the point particle whose charge is q1:

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F2,1 :

r ⎛

F2,1 = ⎜⎜ 8.988 × 109

N ⋅ m2 ⎞

⎟⎟ (2.0 μC )

(− 1.0 μC) (− 0.10 m ) ˆj = (1.80 N ) ˆj

⎝ C ⎠2

(0.10 m )3

F3,1 = 33 1 r3,1

particle whose charge is q3 exerts on r3,1

the point particle whose charge is q1:

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F3,1 :

r ⎛

F3,1 = ⎜⎜ 8.988 ×109

N ⋅ m2 ⎞

⎟⎟ (4.0 μC )

(− 1.0 μC) (− 0.20 m ) iˆ = (0.899 N ) iˆ

⎝ C ⎠2

(0.20 m )3

r r

Substitute to find F1 : F1 = (0.90 N ) iˆ + (1.8 N ) ˆj

r r r

Express the net force acting on the F2 = F3, 2 + F1, 2

point particle whose charge is q2: r r

= F3, 2 − F2,1

r

= F3, 2 − (1.80 N ) ˆj

r r

because F1, 2 and F2,1 are action-and-reactio

forces.

F3, 2 = 33 2 r3, 2

particle whose charge is q3 exerts on r3, 2

[ ]

the point particle whose charge is q2: kq3q2

= (− 0.20 m ) iˆ + (0.10 m ) ˆj

r33, 2

2022 Chapter 21

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F3, 2 :

r ⎛

F3, 2 = ⎜⎜ 8.988 × 109

N ⋅ m2 ⎞

⎟⎟ (4.0 μC )

(2.0 μC) (− 0.20 m ) iˆ + (0.10 m ) ˆj

[ ]

⎝

2

C ⎠ (0.224 m )3

= (− 1.28 N ) iˆ + (0.640 N ) ˆj

Find the net force acting on the point particle whose charge is q2:

r r

F2 = F3, 2 − (1.80 N ) ˆj = (− 1.28 N ) iˆ + (0.640 N ) ˆj − (1.80 N ) ˆj

= (− 1.3 N ) iˆ − (1.2 N ) ˆj

r r r r

Noting that F1,3 and F3,1 are an action-and-reaction pair, as are F2,3 and F3, 2 ,

express the net force acting on the point particle whose charge is q3:

r r r r r

[

F3 = F1,3 + F2,3 = − F3,1 − F3, 2 = −(0.899 N ) iˆ − (− 1.28 N ) iˆ + (0.640 N ) ˆj ]

= (0.4 N ) iˆ − (0.64 N ) ˆj

and a point particle that has a charge q is located at x = 4.00 cm, y = 0. The

electric force on a point particle that has a charge of 2.00 μC at x = 8.00 cm, y = 0

is –(19.7 N) iˆ. When this 2.00-μC charge is repositioned at x = 17.8 cm, y = 0, the

electric force on it is zero. Determine the charge q.

Picture the Problem Let q1 represent the charge of the point particle at the origin

and q3 the charge of the point particle initially at (8.00 cm, 0) and later positioned

at (17.8 cm, 0). The diagram shows the forces acting on the point particle whose

charge is q3 at (8.00 cm, 0). We can apply Coulomb’s law and the principle of

superposition of forces to find the net force acting on each of the point particles.

y

q3 = 2.00μ C

q F2,3 F1,3

x, cm

q1 = 5.00 μC 4.00 8.00

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2023

r r r

Express the net force on the point F2 (8.00 cm,0) = F1,3 + F2,3

particle whose charge is q2 when it is kq1 q3 r kqq r

at (8.00 cm, 0): = 3

r1,3 + 3 3 r2,3

r1,3 r2,3

⎛q r q r ⎞

= kq3 ⎜ 31 r1,3 + 3 r2,3 ⎟

⎜r r2,3 ⎟

⎝ 1,3 ⎠

⎛ ⎞

(− 19.7 N ) iˆ = ⎜⎜ 8.988 × 10 9 N ⋅ m2 ⎟⎟ (2.00 μC )

2

⎝ C ⎠

⎡ 5.00 μC ˆ⎤⎥

×⎢ (0 . 0800 m ) ˆ+

i

q

(0 . 0400 m ) i

⎣ (0.0800 m ) (0.0400 m )3

3

⎦

on q2 when it is at (17.8 cm, 0).

35 ••• [SSM] Five identical point charges, each having charge Q, are

equally spaced on a semicircle of radius R as shown in Figure 21-37. Find the

force (in terms of k, Q, and R) on a charge q located equidistant from the five

other charges.

Picture the Problem By considering the symmetry of the array of charged point

particles, we can see that the y component of the force on q is zero. We can apply

Coulomb’s law and the principle of superposition of forces to find the net force

acting on q.

r r r

Express the net force acting on the Fq = FQ on x axis, q + 2 FQ at 45°, q

point charge q:

FQ on x axis,q = 2 iˆ

due to the point charge Q on the x R

axis:

2FQ at 45°,q = 2 2 cos 45°iˆ

q due to the point charges at 45°: R

2 kqQ ˆ

= 2

i

2 R

2024 Chapter 21

r r

Substitute for FQ on x axis, q and kqQ 2 kqQ ˆ

r Fq = 2 iˆ + 2

i

2FQ at 45°,q to obtain:

R 2 R

=

kqQ

R2

(

1 + 2 iˆ )

36 ••• The structure of the NH3 molecule is approximately that of an

equilateral tetrahedron, with three H+ ions forming the base and an N3– ion at the

apex of the tetrahedron. The length of each side is 1.64 × 10–10 m. Calculate the

electric force that acts on each ion.

Picture the Problem Let the H+ ions be in the x-y plane with H1 at (0, 0, 0), H2 at

⎛a a 3 ⎞

(a, 0, 0), and H3 at ⎜⎜ , ,0 ⎟⎟ . The N−3 ion, with charge q4 in our notation, is

⎝2 2 ⎠

⎛a a 2⎞

then at ⎜⎜ , ,a ⎟ where a =1.64 × 10−10 m. To simplify our calculations

⎝2 2 3 3 ⎟⎠

we’ll set ke2 a 2 = C = 8.56 × 10−9 N . We can apply Coulomb’s law and the

principle of superposition of forces to find the net force acting on each ion.

z

a

⎛a a 2⎞

q2 ⎜ , ⎟

1

a ⎜ 2 2 3 ,a 3 ⎟

2 ⎝ ⎠

q1 1

2 a a

y

q3

1

2 a ⎛a a 3 ⎞

⎜ , ⎟

⎜ 2 2 ,0 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

a (a,0,0)

q3

x

r r r r

Express the net force acting on point F1 = F2,1 + F3,1 + F4,1

charge q1:

r

Find F2,1 : r kq q

( )

F2,1 = 12 2 rˆ2,1 = C − iˆ = −Ciˆ

r2,1

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2025

r r

Find F3,1 : kq q

F3,1 = 32 1 rˆ3,1

r3,1

⎛ a⎞ ⎛ a 3⎞ˆ

⎜ 0 − ⎟ iˆ + ⎜⎜ 0 − ⎟j

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

=C

a

⎛1 3 ˆ⎞

= −C ⎜⎜ iˆ + j ⎟⎟

⎝ 2 2 ⎠

Noting that the magnitude of point charge q4 is three times that of the other point

r

charges and that it is negative, express F4,1 :

⎛ a⎞ ⎛ a ⎞ˆ ⎛ a 2⎞ˆ

⎜ 0 − ⎟iˆ + ⎜ 0 − ⎟ j + ⎜⎜ 0 − ⎟k

⎟

r ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠

F4,1 = 3Crˆ4,1 = −3C

2 2

⎛ a ⎞ ⎛ a ⎞ ⎛⎜ a 2 ⎞⎟

2

⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 3 ⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠

⎛ a ⎞ ˆ ⎛ a ⎞ ˆ ⎛⎜ a 2 ⎞⎟ ˆ

⎜ ⎟i + ⎜ ⎟j+ k

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 3 ⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎤

= 3C = 3C ⎢⎜ ⎟iˆ + ⎜ ⎟ ˆj + ⎜⎜ ⎟kˆ ⎥

⎟

a ⎢⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎥⎦

r

Substitute in the expression for F1 to r ⎛1 3 ˆ⎞

F1 = −Ciˆ − C ⎜⎜ iˆ + j ⎟⎟

obtain: ⎝ 2 2 ⎠

⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎤

+ 3C ⎢⎜ ⎟iˆ + ⎜ ⎟ ˆj + ⎜⎜ ⎟kˆ ⎥

⎟

⎢⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 3 ⎠ ⎝

2 3 ⎠ ⎥⎦

= C 6kˆ

r r r

From symmetry considerations: F2 = F3 = F1 = C 6kˆ

r r r r

Express the condition that the F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 = 0

molecule is in equilibrium:

( )

r r r r r r

Solve for and evaluate F4 : F4 = − F1 + F2 + F3 = −3F1

= − 3C 6kˆ

2026 Chapter 21

magnitude and direction of the electric field on the x axis at (a) x = 6.0 m, and

(b) x = –10 m? (c) Sketch the function Ex versus x for both positive and negative

r

values of x. (Remember that Ex is negative when E points in the −x direction.)

Picture the Problem Let q represent the point charge at the origin and use

r

Coulomb’s law for E due to a point charge to find the electric field at x = 6.0 m

and −10 m.

E ( x ) = 2 r̂P,0

kq

point P located a distance x from a x

point charge q:

⎛ N ⋅ m2 ⎞

⎜⎜ 8.988 × 10 9 ⎟⎟ (4.0 μC )

r ⎝ C2 ⎠

E (6.0 m ) = iˆ = (0.10 kN/C) iˆ

(6.0 m )2

r

(b) Evaluate E at x = −10 m:

⎛ 9 N⋅m ⎞

2

⎜⎜ 8.988 × 10 ⎟(4.0 μC )

C 2 ⎟⎠

r

E (− 10 m ) = ⎝

(10 m )2

( )

− iˆ = (− 0.36 kN/C ) iˆ

500

250

Ex (N/C)

-250

-500

-2 -1 0 1 2

x (m)

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2027

38 • Two point charges, each +4.0 μC, are on the x axis; one point charge is

at the origin and the other is at x = 8.0 m. Find the electric field on the x axis at

(a) x = –2.0 m, (b) x = 2.0 m, (c) x = 6.0 m, and (d) x = 10 m. (e) At what point on

the x axis is the electric field zero? (f) Sketch Ex versus x for –3.0 m < x < 11 m.

Picture the Problem Let q represent the point charges of +4.0 μC and use

r

Coulomb’s law for E due to a point charge and the principle of superposition for

fields to find the electric field at the locations specified.

Noting that q1 = q2, use Coulomb’s law and the principle of superposition to

express the electric field due to the given charges at point P a distance x from the

origin:

r r r kq kq2

E ( x ) = E q1 ( x ) + E q2 ( x ) = 21 rˆq1 ,P + rˆ

x (8.0 m − x )2 q2 ,P

⎛ 1 1 ⎞

= kq1 ⎜⎜ 2 rˆq1 ,P + rˆ ⎟

2 q2 ,P ⎟

⎝x (8.0 m − x ) ⎠

⎛ 1 ⎞

( )

= 36 kN ⋅ m 2 /C ⎜⎜ 2 rˆq1 ,P +

1

rˆ ⎟

2 q2 ,P ⎟

⎝x (8.0 m − x ) ⎠

r ⎡ 1

E (− 2.0 m ) = (36 kN ⋅ m 2 /C )⎢ ( )

− iˆ +

1 ⎤

( )

− iˆ ⎥ = (− 9.4 kN/C) iˆ

⎣ (2.0 m ) (10 m )

2 2

⎦

r

(b) Evaluate E at x = 2.0 m:

r

( ⎡ 1

E (2.0 m ) = 36 kN ⋅ m 2 /C ⎢ ) iˆ + () 1 ⎤

( )

− iˆ ⎥ = (8.0 kN/C) iˆ

⎣ (2.0 m ) (6.0 m )

2 2

⎦

r

(c) Evaluate E at x = 6.0 m:

r

( ⎡ 1

E (6.0 m ) = 36 kN ⋅ m 2 /C ⎢ ) iˆ + () 1 ⎤

( )

− iˆ ⎥ = (− 8.0 kN/C) iˆ

⎣ (6.0 m ) (2.0 m )

2 2

⎦

r

(d) Evaluate E at x = 10 m:

r

( ⎡ 1

E (10 m ) = 36 kN ⋅ m 2 /C ⎢ ) iˆ + () 1 ⎤

iˆ ⎥ = () (9.4 kN/C ) iˆ

⎣ (10 m ) (2.0 m ) ⎦

2 2

2028 Chapter 21

r

(e) From symmetry considerations: E (4.0 m ) = 0

100

75

50

Ex ( kN m /C) 25

2

-25

-50

-75

-100

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

x (m)

electric force of 8.0 × 10–4 N in the +y direction. (a) What is the electric field at

the origin? (b) What would be the electric force on a –4.0-nC point charge placed

at the origin? (c) If this force is due to the electric field of a point charge on the y

axis at y = 3.0 cm, what is the value of that charge?

Picture the Problem We can find the electric field at the origin from its

r r

definition and the electric force on a point charge placed there using F = qE . We

can apply Coulomb’s law to find the value of the point charge placed at y = 3 cm.

r

(a) Apply the definition of electric r

E (0,0 ) = =

(

F (0,0 ) 8.0 × 10 −4 N ˆj )

field to obtain: q0 2.0 nC

(

= 4.0 ×10 5 N/C ˆj )

r r

(b) The force on a point charge in an F (0,0) = qE (0,0)

electric field is given by: = (− 4.0 nC )(400 kN/C) ˆj

= (− 1.6 mN) ˆj

kq(− 4.0 nC ) ˆ

(c) Apply Coulomb’s law to obtain:

(0.030 m )2

( )

− j = (− 1.60 mN ) ˆj

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2029

q=−

(1.60 mN )(0.030 m )

2

= − 40 nC

40 • The electric field near the surface of Earth points downward and has a

magnitude of 150 N/C. (a) Compare the magnitude of the upward electric force

on an electron with the magnitude of the gravitational force on the electron.

(b) What charge should be placed on a ping pong ball of mass 2.70 g so that the

electric force balances the weight of the ball near Earth’s surface?

Picture the Problem We can compare the electric and gravitational forces acting

on an electron by expressing their ratio. Because the ping pong ball is in

equilibrium under the influence of the electric and gravitational forces acting on

it, we can use the condition for translational equilibrium to find the charge that

would have to be placed on it in order to balance Earth’s gravitational force on it.

electric force acting on the electron:

gravitational force acting on the

electron:

=

obtain: Fg mg

=

( )

1.602 ×10 −19 C (150 N/C )

evaluate Fe/Fg: Fg ( )(

9.109 ×10 −31 kg 9.81m/s 2 )

= 2.69 × 1012

or

(

Fe = 2.69 × 1012 Fg )

Thus, the electric force is greater by a

factor of 2.69×1012.

positive, apply the condition for or

static equilibrium to the ping pong mg

− qE − mg = 0 ⇒ q = −

ball to obtain: E

2030 Chapter 21

q=−

(3.00 ×10 −3

)(

kg 9.81m/s 2 )

evaluate q: 150 N/C

= − 0.196 mC

+6.0 nC and are on the y axis at y1 = +3.0 cm and y2 = –3.0 cm respectively.

(a) What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field on the x axis at

x = 4.0 cm? (b) What is the force exerted on a third charge q0 = 2.0 nC when it is

placed on the x axis at x = 4.0 cm?

Picture the Problem The diagram shows the locations of the point charges q1 and

r

q2 and the point on the x axis at which we are to find E. From symmetry

r

considerations we can conclude that the y component of E at any point on the x

axis is zero. We can use Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to point charges

and the principle of superposition for fields to find the field at any point on the x

r r

axis and F = qE to find the force on a point charge q0 placed on the x axis at

x = 4.0 cm.

y, cm

3.0 q1 = 6.0 nC

r

θ 4.0

0 x , cm

θ

r

Eq1

− 3.0 q2 = 6.0 nC

E x = 2 cos θ iˆ

component of the electric field due r

to one point charge as a function of

the distance r from either point

charge to the point of interest:

r r

Express E x for both charges: kq

E x = 2 2 cos θ iˆ

r

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2031

Substitute for cosθ and r, substitute numerical values, and evaluate to obtain:

r kq 0.040 m ˆ 2kq(0.040 m ) ˆ

E (4.0 cm )x = 2 2 i= i

r r r3

=

( )

2 8.988 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (6.0 nC )(0.040 m ) ˆ

i

[

(0.030 m )2 + (0.040 m )2 ]

3 2

electric field at x = 4.0 cm is:

r r r

(b) Apply F = qE to find the force F = (2.0 nC)(34.5 kN/C)iˆ

on a point charge q0 placed on the = (69 μN )iˆ

x axis at x = 4.0 cm:

a second point charge of –8.0 μC is located on the x axi at x = +4.0 cm. Where

should a third charge of +6.0 μC be placed so that the electric field at the origin is

zero?

Picture the Problem If the electric field at x = 0 is zero, both its x and y

components must be zero. The only way this condition can be satisfied with point

charges of +5.0 μC and −8.0 μC on the x axis is if the point charge +6.0 μC is

also on the x axis. Let the subscripts 5, −8, and 6 identify the point charges and

r

their fields. We can use Coulomb’s law for E due to a point charge and the

principle of superposition for fields to determine where the +6.0 μC point charge

should be located so that the electric field at x = 0 is zero.

r r r r

Express the electric field at x = 0 in E (0) = E5 μC + E−8 μC + E6 μC

terms of the fields due to the point =0

charges of +5.0 μC, −8.0 μC, and

+6.0 μC:

rˆ + 26 rˆ6 + 2−8 rˆ−8 = 0

2 5

obtain: r5 r6 r−8

or

r52

( )

kq5 ˆ kq6 ˆ kq−8 ˆ

i + 2 −i + 2 −i =0

r6 r−8

( )

2032 Chapter 21

− − =0

obtain: r52 r62 r−28

− 2− =0

obtain: (3.0 cm ) r6 (4.0 cm )2

2

12-μC point charge is located at x = 1.0 m, y = 2.0 m. (a) Find the magnitude and

direction of the electric field at x = –1.0 m, y = 0. (b) Calculate the magnitude and

direction of the electric force on an electron that is placed at x = –1.0 m, y = 0.

Picture the Problem The diagram shows the electric field vectors at the point of

r

interest P due to the two point charges. We can use Coulomb’s law for E due to

r

point charges and the superposition principle for electric fields to find E P . We

r r

can apply F = qE to find the force on an electron at (−1.0 m, 0).

y, m

2 q2 = 12μ C

−2 −1

x, m

P 1 2 3 4

−1 E1

E2

−2

q1 = −5.0μ C

r r r

(a) Express the electric field at E P = E1 + E 2

(−1.0 m, 0) due to the point

charges q1 and q2:

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2033

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E1 :

r kq

E1 = 2 1 rˆ1,P =

( )

8.988 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (− 5.0 μC ) ⎛⎜ (− 5.0 m ) iˆ + (2.0 m ) ˆj ⎞⎟

r1,P (5.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2 ⎜ (5.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

( )(

= − 1.55 × 103 N/C − 0.928 iˆ + 0.371 ˆj )

= (1.44 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 0.575 kN/C ) ˆj

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E2 :

r kq2

E 2 = 2 r2,P =

ˆ

( )

8.988 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (12 μC ) ⎛⎜ (− 2.0 m ) iˆ + (− 2.0 m ) ˆj ⎞⎟

r2,P (2.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2 ⎜ (2.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

( )(

= 13.5 × 10 N/C − 0.707 iˆ − 0.707 ˆj

3

)

= (− 9.54 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 9.54 kN/C ) ˆj

r r r

Substitute for E1 and E 2 and simplify to find E P :

r

E P = (1.44 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 0.575 kN/C ) ˆj + (− 9.54 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 9.54 kN/C ) ˆj

= (− 8.10 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 10.1 kN/C ) ˆj

r

The magnitude of E P is: EP = (− 8.10 kN/C)2 + (− 10.1kN/C)2

= 13 kN/C

r

The direction of E P is: ⎛ − 10.1kN/C ⎞

θ E = tan −1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 230°

⎝ − 8.10 kN/C ⎠

Note that the angle returned by your

⎛ − 10.1 kN/C ⎞

calculator for tan −1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ is the

⎝ − 8.10 kN/C ⎠

reference angle and must be increased

by 180° to yield θE.

r r

[

F = qE P = (− 1.602 × 10 −19 C ) (− 8.10 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 10.1kN/C ) ˆj ]

= (1.30 × 10 −15 N )iˆ + (1.62 × 10 −15 N ) ˆj

2034 Chapter 21

r

Find the magnitude of F : F= (1.30 ×10 −15

) (

2

N + 1.62 × 10 −15 N ) 2

= 2.1× 10 −15 N

r

Find the direction of F : ⎛ 1.62 × 10−15 N ⎞

θ F = tan −1 ⎜⎜ −15

⎟⎟ = 51°

⎝ 1.3 × 10 N ⎠

44 •• Two equal positive charges q are on the y axis; one point charge is at

y = +a and the other is at y = –a. (a) Show that on the x axis the x component of

the electric field is given by Ex = 2kqx/(x2 + a2)3/2. (b) Show that near the origin,

where x is much smaller than a, Ex ≈ 2kqx/a3. (c) Show that for values of x much

larger than a, Ex ≈ 2kq/x2. Explain why a person might expect this result even

without deriving it by taking the appropriate limit.

Picture the Problem The diagram shows the locations of point charges q1 and q2

r

and the point on the x axis at which we are to find E . From symmetry

r

considerations we can conclude that the y component of E at any point on the x

axis is zero. We can use Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to point charges

and the principle of superposition of fields to find the field at any point on the x

axis. We can establish the results called for in Parts (b) and (c) by factoring the

radicand and using the approximation 1 + α ≈ 1 whenever α << 1.

y

q1 = q

a

θ P

0 x

x θ

Eq

1

−a q2 = q

E x = 2 2 cos θ iˆ

electric field due to the point charges r

at y = a and y = −a as a function of

the distance r from either charge to

point P:

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2035

E x = 2 2 iˆ = 3 iˆ = iˆ

r r r x2 + a2 ( )

32

2kqx

= iˆ

(

x +a

2 2 3 2

)

r

The magnitude of E x is: 2kqx

Ex =

(x 2

+ a2 )

32

Ex ≈ =

(a )2 32 a3

(c) For x >> a, the charges separated by a would appear to be a single charge of

2kq

magnitude 2q. Its field would be given by E x = 2 .

x

−3 2

Factor the radicand to obtain: ⎡ ⎛ a 2 ⎞⎤

Ex = 2kqx ⎢ x 2 ⎜⎜1 + 2 ⎟⎟⎥

⎣ ⎝ x ⎠⎦

For a << x, 1 +

a2

x2

≈ 1 and: E x = 2kqx x 2 [ ] −3 2

=

2kq

x2

–4.0-μC point charge is located at x = 2.0 m, y = –2.0 m. (a) Find the magnitude

and direction of the electric field at x = −3.0 m, y = 1.0 m. (b) Find the magnitude

and direction of the force on a proton placed at x = –3.0 m, y = 1.0 m.

Picture the Problem The diagram shows the electric field vectors at the point of

r

interest P due to the two point charges. We can use Coulomb’s law for E due to

r

point charges and the superposition principle for electric fields to find E P . We can

r r

apply F = qE to find the force on a proton at (−3.0 m, 1.0 m).

2036 Chapter 21

y, m

3 q2 = 5.0 μC

P 1

E2 E1

x, m

−3 −2 −1 1 2

21

22 q1 = −4.0 μC

r r r

(a) Express the electric field at E P = E1 + E 2

(−3.0 m, 1.0 m) due to the point

charges q1 and q2:

r

Evaluate E1 :

r kq

E1 = 2 1 rˆ1,P =

( )

8.988 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (− 4.0 μC) ⎛⎜ (− 5.0 m ) iˆ + (3.0 m ) ˆj ⎞⎟

r1.P (5.0 m )2 + (3.0 m )2 ⎜ (5.0 m )2 + (3.0 m )2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

( ˆ ˆ )

= (− 1.06 kN/C) − 0.857 i + 0.514 j = (0.907 kN/C) i + (− 0.544 kN/C) ˆj

ˆ

r

Evaluate E2 :

r kq2

E 2 = 2 r2,P =

ˆ

( )

8.988 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (5.0 μC ) ⎛⎜ (− 4.0 m ) iˆ + (− 2.0 m ) ˆj ⎞⎟

r2,P (4.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2 ⎜ (4.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

( ˆ ˆ )

= (2.25 kN/C ) − 0.894 i − 0.447 j = (− 2.01 kN/C ) i + (− 1.01kN/C ) j

ˆ ˆ

r

Substitute and simplify to find E P :

r

E P = (0.908 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 0.544 kN/C ) ˆj + (− 2.01 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 1.01 kN/C ) ˆj

= (− 1.10 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 1.55 kN/C ) ˆj

r

The magnitude of E P is: EP = (1.10 kN/C)2 + (1.55 kN/C)2

= 1.9 kN/C

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2037

r

The direction of E P is: ⎛ − 1.55 kN/C ⎞

θ E = tan −1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 230°

⎝ − 1.10 kN/C ⎠

Note that the angle returned by your

⎛ − 1.55 kN/C ⎞

calculator for tan −1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ is the

⎝ − 1.10 kN/C ⎠

reference angle and must be increased

by 180° to yield θE.

r r

[

F = qE P = (1.602 × 10 −19 C ) (− 1.10 kN/C ) iˆ + (− 1.55 kN/C ) ˆj ]

= (− 1.76 × 10 −16 N ) iˆ + (− 2.48 × 10 −16 N ) ˆj

r

The magnitude of F is:

N ) + (− 2.48 ×10

2 −16

N ) 2

= 3.0 × 10 −16 N

r

The direction of F is: ⎛ − 2.48 × 10−16 N ⎞

θ F = tan −1 ⎜⎜ −16

⎟⎟ = 230°

⎝ − 1.76 × 10 N ⎠

where, as noted above, the angle

returned by your calculator for

−1 ⎛ − 2.48 × 10 N⎞

−16

tan ⎜⎜ −16

⎟⎟ is the reference

⎝ − 1.76 × 10 N ⎠

angle and must be increased by 180° to

yield θE.

46 •• Two positive point charges, each having a charge Q, are on the y axis,

one at y = +a and the other at y = –a. (a) Show that the electric field strength on

the x axis is greatest at the points x = a/ 2 and x = −a/ 2 by computing

∂Ex/∂x and setting the derivative equal to zero. (b) Sketch the function Ex versus x

using your results for Part (a) of this problem and the fact that Ex is approximately

2kqx/a3 when x is much smaller than a and Ex is approximately 2kq/x2 when x is

much larger than a,.

Picture the Problem In Problem 44 it is shown that the electric field on the x

axis, due to equal positive charges located at (0, a) and (0,−a), is given by

(

Ex = 2kqx x 2 + a 2 )

−3 2

. We can identify the locations at which Ex has it greatest

values by setting ∂Ex/∂x equal to zero.

2038 Chapter 21

∂E x

(a) Evaluate to obtain:

∂x

∂E x

∂x

=

d

dx

[ (

2kqx x 2 + a 2

−3 2

= 2kq ) d

dx

]

x x2 + a2

−3 2

[( ) ]

⎡ d 2

= 2kq ⎢ x x + a2 ( −3 2

+ x2 + a2 ) −3 2 ⎤

⎥⎦ ( )

⎣ dx

⎡ ⎛ 3⎞

= 2kq ⎢ x⎜ − ⎟ x 2 + a 2 (

−5 2

(2 x ) + x 2 + a 2 −3 2 ⎤⎥

) ( )

⎣ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎦

[ (

= 2kq − 3 x 2 x 2 + a 2 ) −5 2

(

+ x2 + a2 )

−3 2

]

− 3 x 2 (x 2 + a 2 ) + (x 2 + a 2 )

−5 2 −3 2

Set this derivative equal to zero for =0

extreme values:

x= ±

2

2kq = 1 and a = 1

0.4

0.2

E x 0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-10 -5 0 5 10

x

47 •• [SSM] Two point particles, each having a charge q, sit on the base of

an equilateral triangle that has sides of length L as shown in Figure 21-38. A third

point particle that has a charge equal to 2q sits at the apex of the triangle. Where

must a fourth point particle that has a charge equal to q be placed in order that the

electric field at the center of the triangle be zero? (The center is in the plane of

the triangle and equidistant from the three vertices.)

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2039

Picture the Problem The electric field of 4th charged point particle must cancel

the sum of the electric fields due to the other three charged point particles. By

symmetry, the position of the 4th charged point particle must lie on the vertical

centerline of the triangle. Using trigonometry, one can show that the center of an

equilateral triangle is a distance L 3 from each vertex, where L is the length of

the side of the triangle. Note that the x components of the fields due to the base

charged particles cancel each other, so we only need concern ourselves with the y

components of the fields due to the charged point particles at the vertices of the

triangle. Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the midpoint of the

base of the triangle, the +x direction is to the right, and the +y direction is upward.

Note that the x components of the electric field vectors add up to zero.

y

q3 = 2 q

L 3

r 60° r

E2 E1

L 3 L 3

q1 60° q 2

r x

E3

r

Express the condition that must be ∑ i =0

E

satisfied if the electric field at the i =1 to 4

r r r r

Substituting for E1 , E2 , E3 , and E4 yields:

k (q ) k (q ) k (2q ) ˆ kq ˆ

cos 60° ˆj +

2 2

cos 60° ˆj − 2

j+ 2 j =0

⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞ y

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

y=±

3

2040 Chapter 21

y=−

corresponds to the 4th charge being at 3

the center of the triangle, it follows

that:

The charge must be placed a distance equal to the length of the side of the triangle

divided by the square root of three below the midpoint of the base of the triangle,

where L is the length of a side of the triangle.

48 •• Two point particles, each having a charge equal to q, sit on the base of

an equilateral triangle that has sides of length L as shown in Figure 21-38. A third

point particle that has a charge equal to 2q sits at the apex of the triangle. A fourth

point particle that has charge q′ is placed at the midpoint of the baseline making

the electric field at the center of the triangle equal to zero. What is the value of

q′? (The center is in the plane of the triangle and equidistant from all three

vertices.)

Picture the Problem The electric field of 4th charge must cancel the sum of the

electric fields due to the other three charges. By symmetry, the position of the 4th

charge must lie on the vertical centerline of the triangle. Using trigonometry, one

can show that the center of an equilateral triangle is a distance L 3 from each

vertex, where L is the length of the side of the triangle. The distance from the

center point of the triangle to the midpoint of the base is half this distance. Note

that the x components of the fields due to the base charges cancel each other, so

we only need concern ourselves with the y components of the fields due to the

charges at the vertices of the triangle. Choose a coordinate system in which the

origin is at the midpoint of the base of the triangle, the +x direction is to the right,

and the +y direction is upward.

y

q3 = 2 q

L 3

r

E4

r 60°

E2 r

E1

r

L 3 E3 L 3

q1 60° q 2

x

q4 = q '

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2041

r

Express the condition that must be ∑ i =0

E

satisfied if the electric field at the i =1 to 4

r r r r

Substituting for E1 , E2 , E3 , and E4 yields:

k (q ) k (q ) k (2q ) ˆ kq' ˆ

cos 60° ˆj +

2 2

cos 60° ˆj − 2

j+ 2

j=0

⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝2 3⎠

4 q

49 ••• Two equal positive point charges +q are on the y axis; one is at y = +a

and the other is at y = –a. The electric field at the origin is zero. A test charge q0

placed at the origin will therefore be in equilibrium. (a) Discuss the stability of

the equilibrium for a positive test charge by considering small displacements from

equilibrium along the x axis and small displacements along the y axis. (b) Repeat

Part (a) for a negative test charge. (c) Find the magnitude and sign of a charge q0

that when placed at the origin results in a net force of zero on each of the three

charges.

Picture the Problem We can determine the stability of the equilibrium in Part (a)

and Part (b) by considering the forces the equal point charges q at y = +a and

y = −a exert on the test charge when it is given a small displacement along either

the x or y axis. (c) The application of Coulomb’s law in Part (c) will lead to the

magnitude and sign of the charge that must be placed at the origin in order that a

net force of zero is experienced by each of the three point charges.

(a) Because Ex is in the x direction, a positive test charge that is displaced from

(0, 0) in either the +x direction or the −x direction will experience a force pointing

away from the origin and accelerate in the direction of the force. Consequently,

the equilibrium at (0,0) is unstable for a small displacement along the x axis.

If the positive test charge is displaced in the direction of increasing y (the positive

y direction), the charge at y = +a will exert a greater force than the charge at

y = −a, and the net force is then in the −y direction; i.e., it is a restoring force.

Similarly, if the positive test charge is displaced in the direction of decreasing y

(the negative y direction), the charge at y = −a will exert a greater force than the

charge at y = −a, and the net force is then in the −y direction; i.e., it is a restoring

force. Consequently, the equilibrium at (0,0) is stable for a small displacement

along the y axis.

2042 Chapter 21

(b) Following the same arguments as in Part (a), one finds that, for a negative test

charge, the equilibrium is stable at (0,0) for displacements along the x axis and

unstable for displacements along the y axis.

charge at y = +a: ∑ Fq at y=+ a = a2

+

(2a )2

=0

(d) If point charge q0 is given a small displacement along the y axis, the force

exerted on it by the nearest positive point charge will increase and the force

exerted on it by the positive point charge that is farther away will decrease. Hence

there will be a net force in the direction of its displacement that will accelerate the

point charge q0 away from the origin. The equilibrium of the system is unstable.

Remarks: In Part (c), we could just as well have expressed the net force

acting on the charge at y = −a. Due to the symmetric distribution of the

charges at y = −a and y = +a, summing the forces acting on q0 at the origin

does not lead to a relationship between q0 and q.

50 ••• Two positive point charges +q are on the y axis at y = +a and y = –a. A

bead of mass m and charge –q slides without friction along a taut thread that runs

along the x axis. Let x be the position of the bead. (a) Show that for x << a, the

bead experiences a linear restoring force (a force that is proportional to x and

directed toward the equilibrium position at x = 0) and therefore undergoes simple

harmonic motion. (b) Find the period of the motion.

Picture the Problem In Problem 44 it is shown that the electric field on the x

axis, due to equal positive point charges located at (0, a) and (0,−a), is given by

(

Ex = 2kqx x 2 + a 2 )

−3 2

. We can use T = 2π m k' to express the period of the

motion of the bead in terms of the restoring constant k′.

Fx = −qEx = −

bead when its displacement from the (x 2

+ a2 )

32

origin is x:

Fx = −

obtain: ⎛ x2 ⎞

32

a ⎜⎜ 2 + 1⎟⎟

2

⎝a ⎠

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2043

Fx = − x

a3

That is, the bead experiences a linear

restoring force.

T = 2π

harmonic oscillator: k'

k' =

a3

obtain: T = 2π = 2π

2kq 2 2kq 2

a3

q/m (the charge-to-mass ratio of the particle). (a) Compute q/m for an electron.

(b) What is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of an electron in a

uniform electric field that has a magnitude of 100 N/C? (c) Compute the time it

takes for an electron placed at rest in a uniform electric field that has a magnitude

of 100 N/C to reach a speed of 0.01c. (When the speed of an electron approaches

the speed of light c, relativistic kinematics must be used to calculate its motion,

but at speeds of 0.01c or less, non-relativistic kinematics is sufficiently accurate

for most purposes.) (d) How far does the electron travel in that time?

Picture the Problem We can use Newton’s 2nd law of motion to find the

acceleration of the electron in the uniform electric field and constant-acceleration

equations to find the time required for it to reach a speed of 0.01c and the distance

it travels while acquiring this speed.

=

your text to compute e/m for an me 9.109 ×10 −31 kg

electron:

= 1.76 ×1011 C/kg

a= =

the acceleration of the electron to the me me

electric field:

2044 Chapter 21

a=

(1.602 ×10 −19

)

C (100 N/C)

evaluate a: 9.109 × 10 −31 kg

= 1.759 × 1013 m/s 2

= 1.76 × 1013 m/s 2

Δt = =

acceleration, relate the time required a a

for an electron to reach 0.01c to its

acceleration:

Δt = = 0.1704 μs

evaluate Δt: 1.759 × 1013 m/s 2

= 0.2 μs

(d) Find the distance the electron travels from its average speed and the elapsed

time:

Δx = vav Δt = 1

2 [0 + 0.01(2.998 ×10 8

]

m/s) (0.1704 μs ) = 3 mm

charge-to-mass ratio of the particle. (a) Compute q/m for a proton, and find its

acceleration in a uniform electric field that has a magnitude of 100 N/C. (b) Find

the time it takes for a proton initially at rest in such a field to reach a speed of

0.01c (where c is the speed of light). (When the speed of an electron approaches

the speed of light c, relativistic kinematics must be used to calculate its motion,

but at speeds of 0.01c or less, non-relativistic kinematics is sufficiently accurate

for most purposes.)

Picture the Problem We can use Newton’s 2nd law of motion to find the

acceleration of the proton in the uniform electric field and constant-acceleration

equations to find the time required for it to reach a speed of 0.01c and the

distance it travels while acquiring this speed.

=

your text to compute e/m for an m p 1.673 ×10 −27 kg

electron:

= 9.58 ×10 7 C/kg

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2045

Fnet eE

=

acceleration of the electron to the mp mp

electric field:

a=

(1.602 ×10 −19

)

C (100 N/C)

evaluate a: 1.673 × 10 −27 kg

= 9.576 × 10 9 m/s 2

= 9.58 × 10 9 m/s 2

field.

Δt = =

acceleration, relate the time required a a

for an electron to reach 0.01c to its

acceleration:

Δt =

(

0.01 2.998 ×108 m/s )

= 0.3 ms

evaluate Δt: 9.576 ×109 m/s 2

r

It enters a region that has a uniform electric field E = (300 N/C ) ˆj . (a) Find the

acceleration of the electron. (b) How long does it take for the electron to travel

10.0 cm in the x direction in the region that has the field? (c) Through what angle,

and in what direction, is the electron deflected while traveling the 10.0 cm in the x

direction?

Picture the Problem The electric force acting on the electron is opposite the

direction of the electric field. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to find the

electron’s acceleration and use constant acceleration equations to find how long it

takes the electron to travel a given distance and its deflection during this interval

of time. Finally, we can use the pictorial representation to obtain an expression for

the angle through which the electron is deflected while traveling 10.0 cm in the x

direction.

2046 Chapter 21

r

E = (300 N/C) ˆj

m, e Δx

θ

v = (2.00 × 10 6 m/s ) iˆ

r

Δy

r r

(a) Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate r Fnet − eE

a= =

the acceleration of the electron first me me

to the net force acting on it and

then the electric field in which it

finds itself:

r

evaluate a :

a=− (300 N/C) ˆj

9.109 × 10 −31 kg

(

= − 5.276 × 1013 m/s 2 ˆj)

(

= − 5.28 × 1013 m/s 2 ) ˆj

(b) Relate the time to travel a given Δx 0.100 m

Δt = = = 50.0 ns

distance in the x direction to the v x 2.00 × 10 6 m/s

electron’s speed in the x direction:

θ = tan −1 ⎢ ⎥

electron is deflected as it travels a ⎣ Δx ⎦

horizontal distance Δx is given by: where Δy is its vertical deflection.

Δy = 12 a y (Δt )

2

Using a constant-acceleration

equation, relate the vertical That is, the electron is deflected

deflection of the electron to its 6.60 cm downward.

acceleration and the elapsed time:

yields: θ = tan ⎢ −1 −1

⎥ = tan ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣ Δx ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2Δx ⎥⎦

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2047

θ = tan −1 ⎢

( )

⎡ 5.28 × 1013 m/s 2 (50.0 ns )2 ⎤

evaluate θ: ⎥

⎣ 2(10.0 cm ) ⎦

= 33.4°

Because the acceleration of the electron

is downward and it was moving

horizontally initially, it is deflected

downward .

r

( )

E = − 1.50 ×10 −10 N/C ˆj . After the electron has traveled a vertical distance of

1.0 μm, what is its speed? (Do not neglect the gravitational force on the electron.)

Picture the Problem Because the electric field is in the −y direction, the force it

exerts on the electron is in the +y direction. Applying Newton’s 2nd law to the

electron will yield an expression for the acceleration of the electron in the y

direction. We can then use a constant-acceleration equation to relate its speed to

its acceleration and the distance it has traveled.

obtain: or, because FE = eE and Fg = mg ,

eE − mg = ma y

eE

−g

m

to relate the speed of the electron to or, because the electron starts at rest,

its acceleration and the distance it v y2 = 2a y Δy ⇒ v y = 2a y Δy

travels:

vy: v y = 2⎜ − g ⎟Δy

⎝m ⎠

v y = 2⎢ −31

− 9.81 m/s 2 ⎥ (1.0 × 10 −6 m )

⎣ 9.109 × 10 kg ⎦

= 5.8 mm/s

2048 Chapter 21

r

uniform electric field E = (300 N/C) iˆ . After traveling a distance of 0.500 m in

this region, the particle has a kinetic energy of 0.120 J. Determine the charge of

the particle.

Picture the Problem We can apply the work-kinetic energy theorem to relate the

change in the object’s kinetic energy to the net force acting on it. We can express

the net force acting on the charged body in terms of its charge and the electric

field.

theorem, express the kinetic energy

of the object in terms of the net force

acting on it and its displacement:

charged particle to the electric field:

or, because Ki = 0,

K

K f = qEΔx ⇒ q = f

EΔx

q= = 800 μC

evaluate q: (300 N/C )(0.500 m )

56 •• A charged particle leaves the origin with a speed of 3.00 × 106 m/s at

r

an angle of 35º above the x axis. A uniform electric field given by E = − E0 ˆj exists

throughout the region. Find E0 such that the particle will cross the x axis at

x = 1.50 cm if the particle is (a) an electron, and (b) a proton.

and y coordinates of the particle in terms of the parameter t and Newton’s 2nd law

to express the constant acceleration in terms of the electric field. Eliminating the

parameter will yield an equation for y as a function of x, q, and m that we can

solve for Ey.

the particle as functions of time: and

y = (v sin θ )t − 12 a y t 2

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2049

ay = =

acceleration of the particle to the net m m

force acting on it:

y = (v sin θ )t − t2

equation to obtain: 2m

y = (tan θ )x − x2

between the two equations to 2mv cos θ2 2

obtain:

Ey =

qx

2

Substitute the non-particle-specific

Ey =

data to obtain: q(0.0150 m )

m

q

9.109 × 10 −31 kg

E y = (5.638 × 10 m/s )

(a) Substitute for the mass and 14 2

charge of an electron and 1.602 × 10 −19 C

evaluate Ey: = 3.2 kN/C

1.673 × 10 −27 kg

E y = (5.64 × 1014 m/s 2 )

(b) Substitute for the mass and

charge of a proton and evaluate 1.602 × 10 −19 C

Ey: = 5.9 MN/C

an initial speed v0 = 5.00 × 106 m/s at 45º to the x axis. The electric field is in the

+y direction and has a magnitude of 3.50 × 103 N/C. The black lines in the figure

are charged metal plates. On which plate and at what location will the electron

strike?

and y coordinates of the electron in terms of the parameter t and Newton’s 2nd law

to express the constant acceleration in terms of the electric field. Eliminating the

parameter will yield an equation for y as a function of x, q, and m. We can decide

whether the electron will strike the upper plate by finding the maximum value of

its y coordinate. Should we find that it does not strike the upper plate, we can

determine where it strikes the lower plate by setting y(x) = 0. Ignore any effects of

gravitational forces.

2050 Chapter 21

the electron as functions of time: and

y = (v0 sin θ )t − 12 a y t 2

ay = =

acceleration of the electron to the net me me

force acting on it:

y = (v0 sin θ )t − t2

equation to obtain: 2me

y ( x ) = (tan θ )x − x 2 (1)

the two equations to obtain: 2me v02 cos 2 θ

= tan θ − x'

extrema: dx me v02 cos 2 θ

= 0 for extrema

x' = (See remark below.)

2eE y

ymax =

to obtain ymax: 2eE y

ymax =

(9.109 ×10 kg )(5.00 ×10 m/s) sin 45° = 1.02 cm

−31 6 2 2

−19 3

and, because the plates are separated by 2 cm, the electron does not strike the

upper plate.

x=

strike the lower plate, set y = 0 in eE y

equation (1) and solve for x to

obtain:

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2051

x=

(9.109 ×10 kg )(5.00 ×10 m/s) sin 90° =

−31 6 2

4.1cm

(1.602 ×10 C)(3.50 ×10 N/C)

−19 3

show that it is a maximum we need to show that d2y/dx2, evaluated at x′, is

negative. A simple alternative is to use your graphing calculator to show that

the graph of y(x) is a maximum at x′. Yet another alternative is to recognize

that, because equation (1) is quadratic and the coefficient of x2 is negative, its

graph is a parabola that opens downward.

to the right along the axis of a cathode-ray tube as shown in Figure 21-41. An

r

( )

electric field E = 2.00 ×10 4 N/C ˆj exists in the region between the deflection

r

plates; and no electric field ( E = 0 ) exists outside this region. (a) How far is the

electron from the axis of the tube when it exits the region between the plates? (b)

At what angle is the electron moving, with respect to the axis, after exiting the

region between the plates? (c) At what distance from the axis will the electron

strike the fluorescent screen?

Picture the Problem The trajectory of the electron while it is in the electric field

is parabolic (its acceleration is downward and constant) and its trajectory, once it

is out of the electric field is, if we ignore the small gravitational force acting on it,

linear. We can use constant-acceleration equations and Newton’s 2nd law to

express the electron’s x and y coordinates parametrically and then eliminate the

parameter t to express y(x). We can find the angle with the horizontal at which the

electron leaves the electric field from the x and y components of its velocity and

its total vertical deflection by summing its deflections over the first 4 cm and the

final 12 cm of its flight.

equation, express the x and y and

coordinates of the electron as y (t ) = v0, y t + 12 a y t 2

functions of time:

and

y (t ) = 12 a y t 2

2052 Chapter 21

ay = =

acceleration of the electron to the me me

electric field:

Substitute to obtain: eE y

y(t ) = − t2 (2)

2me

y(x ) = − 2

x2 = − x2

equations (1) and (2) to obtain: 2m v

e 0 4K

y (0.04 m ) = −

(1.602 ×10 −19

C)(2.00 ×104 N/C)(0.0400 m )

2

= − 6.40 mm

4(2.00 ×10−16 J )

vertical components of the and

electron’s speed as it leaves the v y = v0 sin θ

electric field:

equations by the first to obtain:

θ = tan −1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = tan −1 ⎜⎜ y ⎟⎟

⎝ vx ⎠ ⎝ v0 ⎠

equation, express vy as a function or, because v0,y = 0

of the electron’s acceleration and F eE x

its time in the electric field: v y = a y t = net, y t = − y

me me v0

Substitute to obtain: ⎛ eE y x ⎞ ⎛ eE x ⎞

θ = tan −1 ⎜⎜ − ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜⎜ − y ⎟⎟

2 ⎟

⎝ me v0 ⎠ ⎝ 2K ⎠

( )( )

⎡ 1.602 ×10−19 C 2.00 × 104 N/C (0.0400 m )⎤

θ = tan −1 ⎢−

(

2 2.00 × 10−16 J ) ⎥ = − 17.7°

⎣ ⎦

displacement of the electron:

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2053

distances traveled to the screen and

to the horizontal and vertical y = v y Δt

components of its velocity:

y= x = (tan θ )x

to obtain: vx

evaluate y:

evaluate ytotal: = − 4.47 cm

That is, the electron will strike the

fluorescent screen 4.47 cm below the

horizontal axis.

Dipoles

4.0 μm. (a) What is the magnitude of the dipole moment of this pair of charges?

(b) Sketch the pair and show the direction of the dipole moment.

Picture the Problem We can use its definition to find the dipole moment of this

pair of charges.

r r

(a) Apply the definition of p = qL

electric dipole moment to obtain: and

p = (2.0 pC )(4.0 μm )

= 8.0 × 10 −18 C ⋅ m

oriented as shown to the right, then r

r p

p is to the right; pointing from the

negative charge toward the positive −q +q

charge.

has a magnitude of 4.0 × 104 N/C. What is the magnitude of the torque on the

dipole when (a) the dipole is aligned with the electric field, (b) the dipole is

transverse to (perpendicular to) the electric field, and (c) the dipole makes an

2054 Chapter 21

angle of 30º with the direction of the electric field? (d) Defining the potential

energy to be zero when the dipole is transverse to the electric field, find the

potential energy of the dipole for the orientations specified in Parts (a) and (c).

Picture the Problem The torque on an electric dipole in an electric field is given

r r r r r

by τ = p × E and the potential energy of the dipole by U = − p ⋅ E .

r r r

Using its definition, express the τ = p× E

torque on a dipole moment in a and

uniform electric field: τ = pE sin θ where θ is the angle

between the electric dipole moment and

the electric field.

r r

(d) Using its definition, express the U = − p ⋅ E = − pE cosθ

potential energy of a dipole in an

electric field:

( )

U (0°) = −(0.50 e ⋅ nm ) 4.0 ×104 N/C cos 0° = − 3.2 ×10−24 J

( )

U (30°) = −(0.50 e ⋅ nm ) 4.0 ×104 N/C cos 30° = − 2.8 ×10−24 J

General Problems

an ordinary empty coffee cup by considering the following situation. Assume the

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2055

first proton is fixed at the bottom of the cup. Determine the distance directly

above this proton where a second proton would be in equilibrium. Compare this

distance to the depth of an ordinary coffee cup to complete the argument.

Picture the Problem Equilibrium of the second proton requires that the sum of

the electric and gravitational forces acting on it be zero. Let the upward direction

be the +y direction and apply the condition for equilibrium to the second proton.

r r

Apply ∑F y = 0 to the second Fe + Fg = 0

proton: or

kqp2 kqp2

− mp g = 0 ⇒ h =

h2 mp g

⎛ N ⋅ m2 ⎞

⎜⎜ 8.988 × 109

C ⎠2

(

⎟⎟ 1.602 × 10 −19 C

2

)

h= ⎝ ≈ 12 cm ≈ 5 in

( )(

1.673 × 10 −27 kg 9.81 m/s 2 )

This separation of about 5 in is greater than the height of a typical coffee cup.

Thus the first proton will repel the second one out of the cup and the maximum

number of protons in the cup is one.

62 •• Point charges of –5.00 μC, +3.00μC, and +5.00 μC are located on the

x axis at x = –1.00 cm, x = 0, and x = +1.00 cm, respectively. Calculate the

electric field on the x axis at x = 3.00 cm and at x = 15.0 cm. Are there any points

on the x axis where the magnitude of the electric field is zero? If so, where are

those points?

Picture the Problem The locations of the point charges q1, q2 and q3 and the

points P1 and P2 at which we are to calculate the electric field are shown in the

r

diagram. From the diagram it is evident that E along the axis has no y

r

component. (a) We can use Coulomb’s law for E due to a point charge and the

r

superposition principle for electric fields to find E at points P1 and P2. (b) To

decide whether there are any points on the x axis where the magnitude of the

electric field is zero we need to consider the intervals (identified on the following

pictorial representation) I (x < −1.00 cm), II ( −1.00 cm < x < 0), III (0 < x < 1.00

cm), and IV (1.00 cm < x). Throughout interval II, the three electric fields are in

the same direction and so they cannot add up to zero. Throughout interval IV, the

electric-field strength due to the positive charge at x = 1.00 cm is larger than the

electric-field strength due to the negative charge at x = −1.00 cm. The fields due

2056 Chapter 21

the resultant field throughout this interval must also point in the +x direction.

Hence we can narrow our search for points on the x axis where the magnitude of

the electric field is zero to intervals I and III. Setting the resultant electric-field

strength on the x axis equal to zero throughout these intervals and solving the

resulting quadratic equations will identify the desired points. Sketching the

electric field vectors in intervals I and III will help you get the signs of the terms

in the quadratic equations right.

μC

μC

μC

0

.00

.00

5.0

=3

=5

=−

P1 P2

q2

q3

q1

x, cm

−1.00 0 1.00 3.00 15.0

Int

Int

Int

Int

erv

erv

erv

erv

al I

al I

al I

al I

II

I

V

r r r r

Using Coulomb’s law, and letting E P1 = E q1 + E q2 + E q3

r11 , r21 , and r31 represent the

kq1 ˆ kq2 ˆ kq3 ˆ

distances from P1 to point charges = i+ 2 i+ 2 i

r112 r21 r31

q1, q2, and q3, respectively, express

⎡q q q ⎤

the electric field at P1 due to the = k ⎢ 12 + 22 + 23 ⎥ iˆ

three charges: ⎣ r11 r21 r31 ⎦

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E P1 :

(

E P1 = 8.988 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 ⎢ ) + + 2⎥

i

⎣ (4 . 00 cm )2

(3 . 00 cm )2

(2 . 00 cm ) ⎦

(

= 1.14 × 10 N/C iˆ

8

)

r r r r

Using Coulomb’s law, and letting E P2 = E q1 + E q2 + E q3

r12 , r22 , and x32 represent the

⎡q q q ⎤

distances from P2 to point charges = k ⎢ 21 + 22 + 23 ⎥ iˆ

q1, q2, and q3, respectively, express ⎣ r12 r22 r32 ⎦

the electric field at P2 due to the

three charges:

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2057

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E P2 :

(

E P2 = 8.988 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 ⎢ ) + + 2⎥

i

⎣ (16.0 cm ) (15.0 cm ) (14.0 cm ) ⎦

2 2

(

= 1.74 × 106 N/C iˆ )

Applying Coulomb’s law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval I yields:

− − =0

[x − (− 1.00 cm )] 2

x 2

(x − 1.00 cm )2

where k has been divided out and x is in the interval defined by x < 0. The root

of this equation that is in the interval x < −1.00 cm is x = − 6.95 cm .

Applying Coulomb’s law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval III yields:

− + − =0

[x − (− 1.00 cm )] 2

x 2

(1.00 cm − x )2

The root of this equation that is in the interval 0 < x < 1.00 cm is x = 0.417 cm

x = –1.00 cm and x = +1.00 cm, respectively. (a) Calculate the electric field

strength at x = 10.0 cm. (b) Estimate the electric field strength at x = 10.00 cm by

modeling the two charges as an electric dipole located at the origin and using

3

E= 2kp x (Equation 21-10). Compare your result with the result obtained in

Part (a), and explain the reason for the difference between the two results.

Picture the Problem Let the point of interest (x = 10.0 cm) be identified as point

r

P. In Part (a) we can use Coulomb’s law for E due to a point charge and the

superposition principle to find the electric field strength at P. In Part (b) we can

use Equation 21-10 with p = 2aq to estimate the electric field strength at P.

2058 Chapter 21

C

0μ

μC

5 .0

.00

=−

=5

P

q2

q1

x, cm

−1.00 0 1.00 10.0

r r r

(a) Express the electric field at P as E P = E q1 + E q2

the sum of the fields due to the point kq kq

charges located at x = −1.00 cm and = 2

1

iˆ + 2

2

iˆ

x −1.00 cm → P x

1.00 cm → P

x = 1.00 cm:

⎡ q q ⎤

= k⎢ 2 1 + 2 2 ⎥ iˆ

⎣ x−1.00 cm→ P x1.00 cm→ P ⎦

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E P :

r ⎛ N ⋅ m 2 ⎞ ⎡ − 5.00 μC 5.00 μC ⎤ ˆ

E P = ⎜⎜ 8.988 × 10 9 ⎟⎟ ⎢ + 2⎥

i = (1.83 × 10 6 N/C)iˆ

⎠ ⎣ (11.00 cm ) (9.00 cm ) ⎦

2 2

⎝ C

and

E P = 1.83 × 10 6 N/C

dipole is given by Equation 21-10: E= 3

x

E=

separation of the charges that x

3

by:

⎛ N ⋅ m2 ⎞

4⎜⎜ 8.988 × 10 9 ⎟ (5.00 μC )(1.00 cm )

⎝ C 2 ⎟⎠

EP = 3

= 1.80 × 10 6 N/C

10.0 cm

The exact and estimated values of E P agree to within 2%. This difference is due to

the fact that the separation of the two charges of the dipole is 20% of the distance

from the center of the dipole to point P.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2059

+q and +4q, as shown in Figure 21-41. Find the tensions T1 and T2.

Picture the Problem The electrostatic forces between the charges are responsible

for the tensions in the strings. We’ll assume that these are point charges and

apply Coulomb’s law and the principle of the superposition of forces to find the

tension in each string.

net force on the charge +q:

T1 = + =

d2 (2d )2 d2

net force on the charge +4q:

T2 = + =

d2 (2d )2 d2

charges q1 and q2. Show that, for a given separation D, the force exerted by one

charge on the other is greatest if q1 = q2 = 12 Q.

Picture the Problem We can use Coulomb’s law to express the force exerted on

one charge by the other and then set the derivative of this expression equal to zero

to find the distribution of the charge that maximizes this force.

kq1q2

force that either charge exerts on the D2

other:

F=

D2

2060 Chapter 21

= 2 [q1 (Q − q1 )]

set this derivative equal to zero for dq1 D dq1

extreme values:

=

k

[q1 (− 1) + Q − q1 ]

D2

= 0 for extrema

a minimum exists at q1 = 12 Q , 2

k d

= 2 [Q − 2q1 ]

dq1 D dq1

differentiate F a second time and

evaluate this derivative at q1 = 12 Q : =

k

(− 2)

D2

< 0 independently of q1.

∴ q1 = q2 = 12 Q maximizes F .

4Q is located at x = 12.0 cm. The electric force on a point charge of –2 .00μC is

zero if that charge is placed at x = 4.00 cm, and is 126 N in the +x direction if

placed at x = 8.00 cm. Determine the charge Q.

Picture the Problem We can apply Coulomb’s law and the superposition of

forces to relate the net force acting on the charge q = −2.00 μC to x. Because Q

divides out of our equation when F(x) = 0, we’ll substitute the data given for

x = 8.00 cm.

F (x ) = −

kqQ

+

net electric force on q as a function x 2

(12.0 cm − x )2

of x:

Q=

⎡ 1 4 ⎤

kq ⎢− 2 + 2 ⎥

⎣ x (12.0 cm − x ) ⎦

126 N

Q= = 2.99 μC

⎡ ⎤

( 9 2 2

)

8.988 × 10 N ⋅ m /C (2.00 μC ) ⎢−

1

+

4

2⎥

⎣ (8.00 cm ) (4.00 cm ) ⎦

2

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2061

200 μC. (a) If the two particles repel each other with a force of 80 N, what is the

charge on each of the two particles? (b) If the two spheres attract each other with

a force of 80 N, what are the charges on the two particles?

Picture the Problem Knowing the total charge of the two point particles, we can

use Coulomb’s law to find the two combinations of charge that will satisfy the

condition that both are positive and hence repel each other. If the particles attract

each other, then there is just one distribution of charge that will satisfy the

conditions that the force is attractive and the sum of the two charges is 200 μC.

F=

the repulsive electric force each r12, 2

particle exerts on the other:

charge and q1:

F=

r12, 2

80 N =

(8.988×10 9

)[

N ⋅ m 2 /C2 (200 μC) q1 − q12 ]

(0.60 m)2

2

Use the quadratic formula or your q1 = 1.8 ×10 −5 C and q2 = 1.8 ×10 −4 μC

graphing calculator to obtain:

F =−

the attractive electric force each r12, 2

particle exerts on the other:

2062 Chapter 21

2

obtain:

r

from rest in a region that has a uniform electric field E that is directed vertically

downward. The particle hits the ground at a speed v = 2 gh , where h is the initial

height of the particle. Find m in terms of E, q, and g.

coordinate system shown in the v0 = 0

diagram and let Ug = 0 where y = 0. 0 m,+q

y0 = h

We’ll let our system include the point

particle and Earth. Then the work done

on the point particle by the electric

field will change the energy of the r

E

system. The diagram summarizes what

we know about the motion of the point

particle. We can apply the work-energy

theorem to our system to relate the y1 = 2 gh

work done by the electric field to the 1 y1 = 0

Ug = 0

change in its energy.

field

relate the work done by the electric

field to the change in the energy of = K1 − K 0 + U g,1 − U g,0

the system: or, because K1 = Ug,1 = 0,

Welectric = K 1 − U g,1

field

( )

field

2

and simplify to obtain: = 12 m 2 gh − mgh = mgh

m=

g

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2063

21-42). A charge q1 = 5.00 × 10–7 C is placed on one end of the rod, and a charge

q2 = – q1 is placed a distance d = 10.0 cm directly below it. (a) What is the force

exerted by q2 on q1? (b) What is the torque (measured about the rotation axis) due

to that force? (c) To counterbalance the attraction between the two charges, we

hang a block 25.0 cm from the pivot as shown. What value should we choose for

the mass of the block? (d) We now move the block and hang it a distance of

25.0 cm from the balance point, on the same side of the balance as the charge.

Keeping q1 the same, and d the same, what value should we choose for q2 to keep

this apparatus in balance?

Picture the Problem We can use Coulomb’s law, the definition of torque, and

the condition for rotational equilibrium to find the electrostatic force between the

two charged bodies, the torque this force produces about an axis through the

center of the rod, and the mass required to maintain equilibrium when it is located

either 25.0 cm to the right or to the left of the mid-point of the rod.

F=

the electric force between the two d2

charges:

F=

(8.988 ×10 9

)(

N ⋅ m 2 / C 2 5.00 × 10 −7 C ) 2

= 0.2247 N = 0.225 N

(0.100 m )2

(b) Apply the definition of torque to τ = Fl

obtain:

evaluate τ:

= 0.1124 N ⋅ m = 0.112 N ⋅ m ,

counterclockwise.

the rod

= 0 to the rod: τ − mgl' = 0 ⇒ m =

τ

gl'

Substitute numerical values and 0.1124 N ⋅ m

m=

evaluate m: ( )

9.81 m/s 2 (0.250 m )

= 0.04582 kg = 45.8 g

the rod

2064 Chapter 21

− + mg l ' = 0 ⇒ q 2' =

d2 kq1l

where q′ is the required charge.

2

q 2' = 5.00 × 10 −7 C

(8.988 ×109 N ⋅ m 2 / C 2 )(5.00 ×10 −7 C)(0.500 m) =

70 •• Two 3.0-μC point charges are located at x = 0, y = 2.0 m and at x = 0,

y = –2.0 m. Two other point charges, each with charge equal to Q, are located at

x = 4.0 m, y = 2.0 m and at x = 4.0 m, y = –2.0 m (Figure 21-43). The electric

field at x = 0, y = 0 due to the presence of the four charges is (4.0 × 103 N/C) iˆ .

Determine Q.

Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 refer to the point charge in the 1st

quadrant and the numeral 2 to the point charge in the 4th quadrant. We can use

Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to a point charge and the superposition of

forces to express the field at the origin and use this equation to solve for Q.

Express the electric field at the origin due to the point charges Q:

r r r kQ kQ

E (0,0 ) = E1 + E 2 = 2 rˆ1, 0 + 2 rˆ2,0

r1, 0 r2,0

=

kQ

3

[ (− 4.0 m ) iˆ + (− 2.0 m ) ˆj + kQ3 (− 4.0 m ) iˆ + (2.0 m ) ˆj = − (8.0 m3 )kQ iˆ

] [ ]

r r r

= E x iˆ

(8.0 m )kQ

where r is the distance from each charge to the origin and E x = − .

r3

(x, y) of the point charges:

Ex = −

(8.0 m )kQ

(x 2

+ y2 ) 32

Q=−

(

Ex x 2 + y 2 ) 3 2

k (8.0 m )

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2065

3 2

Substitute numerical values and 2 2

Q=−

evaluate Q: (8.988 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 )(8.0 m )

= − 5.0 μC

71 •• [SSM] Two point charges have a total charge of 200 μC and are

separated by 0.600 m. (a) Find the charge of each particle if the particles repel

each other with a force of 120 N. (b) Find the force on each particle if the charge

on each particle is 100 μC.

Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote one of the small spheres and the

numeral 2 the other. Knowing the total charge on the two spheres, we can use

Coulomb’s law to find the charge on each of them. A second application of

Coulomb’s law when the spheres carry the same charge and are 0.600 m apart

will yield the force each exerts on the other.

kq1q2

the repulsive force each charge r12, 2

exerts on the other:

charge and q1:

F=

r12, 2

120 N =

(8.988 ×10 9

)[

N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (200 μC ) q1 − q12 ]

(0.600 m )2

2

Simplify to obtain the quadratic

equation:

graphing calculator to obtain:

are:

2066 Chapter 21

kq1q2

the repulsive force each charge r12, 2

exerts on the other when

q1 = q2 = 100 μC:

) (100 μC)

2

(

F = 8.988 ×109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 = 250 N

(0.600 m )2

72 •• Two point charges have a total charge of 200 μC and are separated by

0.600 m. (a) Find the charge of each particle if the particles attract each other with

a force of 120 N. (b) Find the force on each particle if the charge on each particle

is 100 μC.

Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote one of the small spheres and the

numeral 2 the other. Knowing the total charge on the two point charges, we can

use Coulomb’s law to find the charge on each of them. A second application of

Coulomb’s law when the particles carry the same charge and are 0.600 m apart

will yield the electric force each exerts on the other.

kq1q2

the attractive electric force each r12, 2

particle exerts on the other:

charge and q1:

F =−

r12, 2

120 N =

( )[

− 8.988 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (200 μC ) q1 − q12 ]

(0.600 m)2

2

Simplify to obtain the quadratic

equation:

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2067

graphing calculator to obtain:

are:

kq1q2

the repulsive electric force each r12, 2

particle exerts on the other when

q1 = q2 = 100 μC:

) (100 μC)

2

(

F = 8.988 ×109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 = 250 N

(0.600 m )2

4.00 μC is located on the x axis at x = 0.200 m; a third point charge Q is located

on the x axis at x = 0.320 m. The electric force on the 4.00-μC charge is 240 N in

the +x direction. (a) Determine the charge Q. (b) With this configuration of three

charges, at what location(s) is the electric field zero?

Picture the Problem (a) We can use Coulomb’s law for point charges and the

superposition of forces to express the net electric force acting on q2 and then solve

this equation to determine the charge Q. (b) To identify the location(s) at which

the electric field is zero, we’ll need to systematically examine the resultant

electric fields in the intervals I, II, III, and IV identified below on the pictorial

representation. Drawing the electric field vectors in each of these intervals will

help you get the signs of the terms in the field equations right.

C

μC

0μ

.0 0

3. 0

=4

=−

Q

q2

q1

x,m

0 0.200 0.320

Interval I Interval II Interval III Interval IV

2068 Chapter 21

r r r

(a) Use Coulomb’s law to express F2 = F1, 2 + FQ , 2

the electric force on the particle

whose charge is 4.00-μC: =

kq1q2 ˆ kQq2 ˆ

r12, 2

i + 2 −i( )

rQ , 2

⎡q Q ⎤

= kq2 ⎢ 21 − 2 ⎥ iˆ = F2 iˆ

⎣⎢ r1, 2 rQ , 2 ⎦⎥

Q = rQ2, 2 ⎢ 21 − 2 ⎥

⎣⎢ r1, 2 kq2 ⎥⎦

2 ⎡ − 3.00 μC 240 N ⎤

Q = (0.120 m ) ⎢ − ⎥ = − 97.2 μC

⎣ (0.200 m ) (8.988 × 10 N ⋅ m /C )(4.00 μC ) ⎦

2 9 2 2

(b) Applying Coulomb’s law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval I yields:

− + =0

(x − 0) 2

(x − 0.200 m ) 2

(x − 0.320 m )2

where k has been divided out and x is in the interval defined by x < 0. The roots of

this equation are at x = 0.170 m and x =0.220 m. Neither of these are in interval I.

Applying Coulomb’s law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval II yields:

− − + =0

(x − 0) 2

(x − 0.200 m ) 2

(x − 0.320 m )2

The roots of this equation are at x = −0.0720 m, x = 0.0508 m, x = 0.169 m, and

x = 0.220 m. The second and third of these are in interval II.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2069

Applying Coulomb’s law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval III yields:

− + + =0

(x − 0) 2

(x − 0.200 m ) 2

(x − 0.320 m )2

The roots of this equation are at x = −0.0649 m and x = 0.0454 m. Neither of these

are in interval III.

Applying Coulomb’s law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval IV yields:

− + − =0

(x − 0) 2

(x − 0.200 m ) 2

(x − 0.320 m )2

The roots of this equation are at x = 0.170 m and x = 0.220. Neither of these are in

interval IV.

at two locations in interval II:

74 •• Two point particles, each of mass m and charge q, are suspended from

a common point by threads of length L. Each thread makes an angle θ with the

vertical as shown in Figure 21-44. (a) Show that q = 2 L sin θ (mg k ) tan θ

where k is the Coulomb constant. (b) Find q if m = 10.0 g, L = 50.0 cm, and

θ = 10.0º.

particle is in static equilibrium under

r

the influence of the tension T , the r

r T

gravitational force Fg , and the electric

r θ r

force FE . We can use Coulomb’s law to Fe

relate the electric force to the charge on x

each particle and their separation and

the conditions for static equilibrium to

r r

Fg = m g

relate these forces to the charge on each

particle.

2070 Chapter 21

equilibrium to the point particle ∑ Fx = FE − T sin θ = r 2 − T sin θ = 0

whose free-body diagram is shown and

above: ∑ Fy = T cos θ − mg = 0

Eliminate T between these kq 2 mg tan θ

tan θ = ⇒q = r

equations to obtain: mgr 2

k

separation of the spheres r to the

length of the pendulum L:

q = 2 L sin θ

k

(0.0100 kg ) (9.81 m/s 2 )tan 10.0° = 0.241 μC

8.988 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2

the angle that each string makes with the vertical if q = 0.75 μC? (b) What is the

angle that each string makes with the vertical if one particle has a charge of

0.50 μC, the other has a charge of 1.0 μC?

static equilibrium under the influence

r

of the tension T , the gravitational r

r r T

force Fg , and the electric force Fe . We

θ r

can use Coulomb’s law to relate the Fe

electric force to the charge on each x

sphere and their separation and the

conditions for static equilibrium to r r

Fg = m g

relate these forces to the charge on each

sphere.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2071

equilibrium to the charged sphere: ∑ Fx =Fe − T sin θ = r 2 − T sin θ = 0

and

∑ Fy =T cosθ − mg = 0

Eliminate T between these equations kq 2

tan θ =

to obtain: mgr 2

74, relate the separation of the

spheres r to the length of the

pendulum L:

tan θ =

4mgL2 sin 2 θ

or

kq 2

sin 2 θ tan θ = (1)

4mgL2

sin 2

θ tan θ =

(8.988 ×10 9

)

N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (0.75 μC )

2

= 5.73 ×10−3

(

4(0.010 kg ) 9.81m/s2 (1.5 m )

2

)

Because sin 2 θ tan θ << 1 : sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ

and

θ 3 ≈ 5.73 × 10 −3

sin 2 θ tan θ =

(8.988 ×10 9

)

N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 (0.50 μC )(1.0 μC )

= 5.09 ×10−3 ≈ θ 3

(

4(0.010 kg ) 9.81m/s2 (1.5 m ))2

square of side L as shown in Figure 21-45. (a) Find the magnitude and direction

2072 Chapter 21

of the force exerted on the charge in the lower left corner by the other three

charges. (b) Show that the electric field at the midpoint of one of the sides of the

square is directed along that side toward the negative charge and has a magnitude

8q ⎛ 1 ⎞

E given by E = k 2 ⎜ 1− .

L ⎝ 5 5 ⎟⎠

at the lower left-hand corner and y

the diagram. We can apply Coulomb’s

law for point charges to find the forces E2

L 2

L

use Coulomb’s law for the electric field F2,1

superposition of fields to find the F3,1

F4,1 q4 = −q

electric field at point P(0, L/2).

r r r r

(a) Using superposition of forces, F1 = F2,1 + F3,1 + F4,1

express the net force exerted on q1:

r F2,1 = 22 1 rˆ2,1 = 23 1 r2,1

F2,1 : r2,1 r2,1

k (− q )q

( )

2

= − L ˆj = kq ˆj

L3 L2

r F4,1 = 42 1 rˆ4,1 = 43 1 r4,1

F4,1 : r4,1 r4,1

k (− q )q

( )

2

= − L ˆ = kq iˆ

i

L3 L2

r F3,1 = 32 1 rˆ3,1 = 33 1 r3,1

F3,1 : r3,1 r3,1

=

kq 2

2 3 2 L3

(

− L iˆ − L ˆj )

kq 2

= − 3 2 2 iˆ + ˆj

2 L

( )

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2073

r kq 2 kq 2 ˆ

( )

2

Substitute and simplify to obtain: ˆ ˆj + kq iˆ

F1 = 2 j − 3 2 2 i +

L 2 L L2

( ) ( iˆ + ˆj )

2

kq kq 2

= 2 iˆ + ˆj − 3 2 2

L 2 L

=

kq 2 ⎛

2 ⎜

1−

L ⎝ 2 2⎠

1 ⎞ˆ ˆ

⎟i+ j ( )

r r r r r

(b) Using superposition of fields, E P = E1 + E 2 + E 3 + E 4 (1)

express the resultant field at point

P:

r

r kq kq ⎛ L

Use Coulomb’s law to express E1 :

E1 = 2 1 rˆ1, P = 3 ⎜ ˆj ⎞⎟

r1, P r1, P ⎝ 2 ⎠

kq ⎛ L ˆj ⎞⎟ = 4kq ˆj

= 3 ⎜ 2

⎛L⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ L

⎜ ⎟

⎝2⎠

r

Use Coulomb’s law to express E 2 : r kq k (− q ) ⎛ L ˆj ⎞⎟

E 2 = 2 2 rˆ2, P = 3 ⎜

r2, P r2, P ⎝ 2 ⎠

− kq ⎛ L ˆj ⎞⎟ = 4kq ˆj

= 3 ⎜

− 2

⎛L⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ L

⎜ ⎟

⎝2⎠

r

Use Coulomb’s law to express E3 : r kq kq ⎛ L ⎞

E 3 = 2 3 rˆ3, P = 3 ⎜ − Liˆ − ˆj ⎟

r3, P r3, P ⎝ 2 ⎠

8kq ⎛ ˆ 1 ˆj ⎞⎟

= ⎜− i −

53 2 L2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

r

Use Coulomb’s law to express E 4 : r kq k (− q ) ⎛ L ⎞

E 4 = 2 4 rˆ4, P = 3 ⎜ − Liˆ + ˆj ⎟

r4, P r4, P ⎝ 2 ⎠

8kq ⎛ ˆ 1 ˆj ⎞⎟

= ⎜i −

53 2 L2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

ˆj ⎞⎟ = 8kq ⎛⎜1 − 5 ⎞⎟ ˆj

r 8kq ⎛

4kq 4kq

E P = 2 ˆj + 2 ˆj + 3 2 2 ⎜ − iˆ −

1 ˆj ⎞⎟ + 8kq ⎛⎜ iˆ − 1

L L 5 L ⎝ 2 32 2

⎠ 5 L ⎝ 2 ⎠ L2 ⎜⎝ 25 ⎟⎠

2074 Chapter 21

small particles, each of mass m, attached to the ends of a thin (massless) rod of

length a that is pivoted at its center. The particles carry charges of +q and –q, and

r

the dumbbell is located in a uniform electric field E . Show that for small values

of the angle θ between the direction of the dipole and the direction of the electric

field, the system displays a rotational form of simple harmonic motion, and obtain

an expression for the period of that motion.

Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form to obtain

the differential equation of motion of the dipole and then use the small angle

approximation sinθ ≈ θ to show that the dipole experiences a linear restoring

torque and, hence, will experience simple harmonic motion.

− pE sin θ = I 2

dt

where τ is negative because acts in

such a direction as to decrease θ.

− pEθ = I

and: dt 2

the dipole:

dipole to its charge and the

charge separation:

1

2

ma 2 = − qaEθ

dt 2

or

d 2θ 2qE

2

=− θ

dt ma

the differential equation for a simple

harmonic oscillator with angular

frequency ω = 2qE ma .

T=

harmonic oscillator: ω

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2075

obtain: T = 2π

2qE

r

and E = (600 N/C) iˆ . The dumbbell is initially at rest and makes an angle of 60º

with the x axis. The dumbbell is then released, and when it is momentarily aligned

with the electric field, its kinetic energy is 5.00 × 10–3 J. Determine the magnitude

of q.

Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of energy and the definition of

the potential energy of a dipole in an electric field to relate q to the kinetic energy

of the dumbbell when it is aligned with the field.

the initial potential energy of the or, because Ki = 0,

dumbbell to its kinetic energy when K + ΔU = 0 (1)

it is momentarily aligned with the where K is the kinetic energy when it is

electric field: aligned with the field.

energy of the dumbbell as it aligns = − pE cos θ f + pE cos θ i

with the electric field in terms of its = qaE (cos 60° − 1)

dipole moment, the electric field,

and the angle through which it

rotates:

obtain:

q=

aE (1 − cos 60°)

q=

evaluate q: (0.300 m )(600 N/C)(1 − cos 60°)

= 56 μC

mass m) revolve around their common center of mass under the influence of their

attractive coulomb force. Find the speed v of each particle in terms of e, m, k, and

their separation distance L.

2076 Chapter 21

Picture the Problem The forces the electron and the proton exert on each other

constitute an action-and-reaction pair. Because the magnitudes of their charges

are equal and their masses are the same, we find the speed of each particle by

finding the speed of either one. We’ll apply Coulomb’s force law for point

charges and Newton’s 2nd law to relate v to e, m, k, and their separation distance

L.

= m ⇒ = 2mv 2

positron to obtain: L2 1

2 L L

v=

2mL

placed in a uniform electric field E that is directed vertically upward. The bob

has a charge of –8.0 μC. Ther period of the pendulum is 1.2 s. What is the

magnitude and direction of E ?

period of this pendulum is 60% of the

period (2.006 s) of a simple pendulum P

with an uncharged bob, we know that

the bob must be experiencing an

θ

additional downward force (in the

direction of the gravitational force).

Because the electric force acting on the

L

negatively-charged bob is downward,

the electric field must be upward. We r

can find the magnitude of the electric T

field by apply Newton’s 2nd law in

rotational form to the simple pendulum. L sin θ

m, q

Doing so will lead us to the equation of r r

Fg = m g

motion for the pendulum and from this

equation we can obtain an expression r r

Fe = qE

relating its period to the magnitude of

E. Knowing the pendulum’s period in

the absence of the electric field will

allow us to derive an expression for E

from the ratio of the two periods.

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2077

negative, apply ∑ τ P = I Pα to the d 2θ

or, because I P = mL2 and α = ,

pendulum bob to obtain: dt 2

d 2θ

− (mg + qE ) L sin θ = mL2

dt 2

mL2 = −(mg + qE ) Lθ

equilibrium, sin θ ≈ θ : dt 2

or

d 2θ mg + qE

+ θ =0

dt 2 mL

ω2 =

harmonic motion with: mL

T' = = 2π

by: ω mg + qE

T = 2π

the period of the simple pendulum g

would be:

2π

equations by the first yields: T g mg + qE

= =

T' mL mg

2π

mg + qE

qE

= 1+

mg

E= ⎜ ⎟ −1

q ⎢⎣⎝ T' ⎠ ⎥⎦

Noting that the period of the simple pendulum in the absence of the electric field

is 2.006 s, substitute numerical values and evaluate E:

2

8.0 μC ⎢⎣⎝ 1.2 s ⎠ ⎥⎦

2078 Chapter 21

vertically inside a narrow, frictionless cylinder (Figure 21-47). At the bottom of

the cylinder is a point charge Q having the same sign as q. (a) Show that the

particle whose mass is m will be in equilibrium at a height y0 = (kqQ/mg)1/2.

(b) Show that if the particle is displaced from its equilibrium position by a small

amount and released, it will exhibit simple harmonic motion with angular

frequency ω = (2g/y0)1/2.

Picture the Problem We can use Coulomb’s force law for point particles and the

condition for translational equilibrium to express the equilibrium position as a

function of k, q, Q, m, and g. In Part (b) we’ll need to show that the displaced

point charge experiences a linear restoring force and, hence, will exhibit simple

harmonic motion.

translational equilibrium to the − mg = 0 ⇒ y0 =

y 02 mg

particle:

kqQ

−

kqQ

acts on the particle when it is ( y 0 + Δy ) 2

y 02

displaced a distance Δy from its or, because Δy << y0,

equilibrium position: kqQ kqQ

F≈ 2 − 2

y 0 + 2 y 0 Δy y0

F =− =− ≈−

y 0 + 2 y 0 Δy

4 3

4⎛ Δy ⎞ y 03

y 0 ⎜⎜1 + 2 ⎟⎟

⎝ y0 ⎠

again, because Δy << y0.

= mg

y02

kqQ 2mg

Substitute for and simplify to F =− Δy

y02 y0

obtain:

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2079

m 2 =− Δy

displaced particle to obtain: dt y0

or

d 2 Δy 2 g

+ Δy = 0

dt 2 y0

the differential equation of simple

harmonic motion with ω = 2 g y0 .

82 ••• Two neutral r molecules on the x axis attract each other. Each molecule

has a dipole moment p , and these dipole moments are on the +x axis and are

separated by a distance d. Derive an expression for the force of attraction in terms

of p and d.

Picture the Problem We can relate the force of attraction that each molecule

exerts on the other to the potential energy function of either molecule

using F = − dU dx. We can relate U to the electric field at either molecule due to

the presence of the other through U = −pE. Finally, the electric field at either

molecule is given by E = 2kp x3 .

dU 1

(1)

between the dipoles in terms of the dx

spatial derivative of the potential

energy function of p1:

the dipole p1: where E1 is the field at p1 due to p2.

E1 =

at p1 due to p2: x3

where x is the separation of the dipoles.

U1 = −

x3

F =− − =

differentiate with respect to x: dx ⎢⎣ x 3 ⎥⎦ x4

x = d to obtain: F=

d4

2080 Chapter 21

1

83 ••• Two equal positive point charges Q are on the x axis at x = 2 a and

x = – 12 a. (a) Obtain an expression for the electric field on the y axis as a function

of y. (b) A bead of mass M, which has a charge q, moves along the y axis on a thin

frictionless taut thread. Find the electric force that acts on the bead as a function

of y and determine the sign of q such that this force always points away from the

origin. (c) The bead is initially at rest at the origin. If it is given a slight nudge in

the +y direction, how fast will the bead be traveling the instant the net force on it

is a maximum? (Assume any effects due to gravity are negligible.)

Picture the Problem (a) We can use Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to a

point charge and superposition of fields to find the electric field at any point on

the y axis. (b) Using the definition of electric field will yield an expression for the

electric force that acts on the bead. In Part (c) we can set dFy dy = 0 to find the

value of y that maximizes Fy and then use the work-kinetic energy theorem

(integrating Fy from 0 to this extreme value will yield an expression for the work

done on the bead during this displacement) to find the speed of the bead when the

force acting on it is a maximum.

P

r

r2, P r1, P

y

q2 = Q q1 = Q

x

m,q

− 12 a 1

2 a

r r r

(a) Use Coulomb’s law for the E y = E1 + E 2

electric field due to a point charge kq1 kq

and superposition of fields, to = 2

rˆ1, P + 2 2 rˆ2, P

r1, P r2, P

express the field at point P on the y

axis:

r

The unit vectors rˆ1, P and rˆ2, P are r1, P − 12 aiˆ + yˆj

rˆ1, P = =

given by: r1, P r1, P

and

r

r2, P 12 aiˆ + yˆj

rˆ2, P = =

r2, P r2, P

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2081

[

Substituting for q1, q2, rˆ1, P , rˆ2, P and r1, P = r2,P = y 2 + ( 12 a )

2

]

12

yields:

r

Ey = 2 ⎜ 2

r1, P ⎜⎝ r1, P

+

⎟ r 2 ⎜ r2, P ⎟ r 3

= (

− 2 ai + yj + 3

r2, P

) ( aiˆ + yˆj )

1

2

⎠ 2 , P ⎝ ⎠ 1, P

=

kQ

( )

yˆj +

kQ

( )

yˆj =

2kQy ˆj

[

y + (2 a)

2 1 2

] 3 2

[ y + (2 a)

2 1 2 3

]2

[

y + 4a

2 1 2

32

]

(b) Relate the electric force on the r r 2kqQy

F = qE y = ˆj

bead to its charge and the electric [y 2

+ 14 a 2 ]

32

field: r

where q must be positive if F always

points away from the origin.

theorem to the bead as it moves from or, because Ki = 0,

the origin to the location at which Fy Wdone by Fy = 12 Mv f2

is a maximum to obtain:

vf =

M

2kqQy

the bead moves from the origin to

Wdone by Fy = ∫

0 [y 2

+ ( 12 a ) ]

2 3 2

dy

ymax (the y coordinate of the point at

which Fy is a maximum) is given by:

ymax

y

simplifying yields:

vf =

m ∫

0 [ y + ( 12 a )

2 2

] 32

dy

= =0

is: dy [

⎢ 2 1 2

dy ⎣⎢ y + ( 2 a ) ] 32⎥

⎦⎥

y max = where we’ve ignored the

differentiation and solving for the 2 2

critical value ymax yields: negative value because the bead is

given a nudge in the +y direction.

2082 Chapter 21

2 2

for vf to obtain: 4kqQ y

vf =

M ∫

0 [y + ( 12 a )

2 2

] 32

dy

2 2

y 0.367

∫

0 [y + ( 12 a )

2 2

] 32

dy ≈

a

a

4kqQ ⎛ 0.367 ⎞ kqQ

2 2

y vf = ⎜ ⎟ = 1.21

Substitute for ∫

0 [

y + ( 12 a )

2 2

] 32

dy M ⎝ a ⎠ aM

initially is at rest. When the proton is released, it speeds away because of the

repulsion that it experiences due to the charge on the gold nucleus. What is the

proton’s speed a large distance (assume to be infinity) from the gold nucleus?

(Assume the gold nucleus remains stationary.)

Picture the Problem The work done by the electric field of the gold nucleus

changes the kinetic energy of the proton. We can apply the work-kinetic energy

theorem to derive an expression for the speed of the proton as a function of its

r

distance from the gold nucleus. Because the repulsive Coulomb force Fe varies

r r

with distance, we’ll have to evaluate ∫ Fe ⋅ dr in order to find the work done on

the proton by this force.

∞ r

Apply the work-kinetic energy r

Wnet = ∫ Fe ⋅ dr = ΔK

theorem to the proton to obtain:

r0

r r ∞ ke (79e )

∞

or, because ∫ Fe ⋅ dr = ∫ dr and

r0 r0

r2

Ki = 0,

∞

dr 1

79ke 2 ∫ 2

= 2 m p vf2

r0

r

∞

Evaluating the integral yields: ⎡1 ⎤ 79ke 2

− 79ke ⎢ ⎥ = 2

= 12 mp vf2

⎣ ⎦ r0

r r0

vf = =e

mp r0 mp r0

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2083

⎛ N ⋅ m2 ⎞

158⎜⎜ 8.988 × 109 ⎟

C 2 ⎟⎠

(

vf = 1.602 × 10 −19 C ) ( ⎝

−27

)(

1.673 × 10 kg 1.00 × 10 m −13

= 1.48 × 107 m/s

)

85 ••• [SSM] During a famous experiment in 1919, Ernest Rutherford shot

doubly ionized helium nuclei (also known as alpha particles) at a gold foil. He

discovered that virtually all of the mass of an atom resides in an extremely

compact nucleus. Suppose that during such an experiment, an alpha particle far

from the foil has an initial kinetic energy of 5.0 MeV. If the alpha particle is

aimed directly at the gold nucleus, and the only force acting on it is the electric

force of repulsion exerted on it by the gold nucleus, how close will it approach the

gold nucleus before turning back? That is, what is the minimum center-to-center

separation of the alpha particle and the gold nucleus?

Picture the Problem The work done by the electric field of the gold nucleus

changes the kinetic energy of the alpha particle−eventually bringing it to rest. We

can apply the work-kinetic energy theorem to derive an expression for the

r

distance of closest approach. Because the repulsive Coulomb force Fe varies with

r r

distance, we’ll have to evaluate ∫ Fe ⋅ dr in order to find the work done on the

alpha particles by this force.

rmin

Wnet = ∫ e ⋅ dr = ΔK

∞

F

obtain:

or, because

r r k (2e )(79e )

rmin rmin

∫∞ Fe ⋅ dr = − ∞∫ r 2 dr and

Kf = 0,

rmin

dr

− 158ke ∫ = −Ki

2

∞

r2

rmin 2

− 158ke 2 ⎢ ⎥ = − = −Ki

⎣r ⎦ ∞ rmin

rmin =

Ki

2084 Chapter 21

⎛ N ⋅ m2 ⎞

158⎜⎜ 8.988 × 109

C ⎠2

( )

⎟⎟ 1.602 × 10−19 C

2

−19

1.602 × 10 J

5.0 Mev ×

eV

86 ••• During the Millikan experiment used to determine the charge on the

electron, a charged polystyrene microsphere is released in still air in a known

vertical electric field. The charged microsphere will accelerate in the direction of

the net force until it reaches terminal speed. The charge on the microsphere is

determined by measuring the terminal speed. During one such experiment, the

microsphere has radius of r = 5.50 × 107 m, and the field has a magnitude

E = 6.00 × 104 N/C. The magnitude of the drag force on the sphere is given by

FD = 6πηrv, where v is the speed of the sphere and η is the viscosity of air

(η = 1.8 × 10–5 N⋅s/m2). Polystyrene has density 1.05 × 103 kg/m3. (a) If the

electric field is pointing down and the polystyrene microsphere is rising with a

terminal speed of 1.16 × 10–4 m/s, what is the charge on the sphere? (b) How

many excess electrons are on the sphere? (c) If the direction of the electric field is

reversed but its magnitude remains the same, what is the new terminal speed?

microsphere of mass m and having an

excess charge of q = Ne when the r

electric field is downward. Under Fe

in equilibrium under the influence of

r r

the electric force Fe , its weight mg, and m, Ne

r

the drag force Fd . We can apply r

mg

Newton’s 2nd law, under terminal-speed

r

conditions, to relate the number of Fd

excess charges N on the sphere to its

mass and, using Stokes’ law, find its

terminal speed.

microsphere to obtain: or, because ay = 0,

Fe − mg − Fd, terminal = 0

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2085

obtain: or, because q = Ne,

NeE − 43 πr 3 ρg − 6πηrvt = 0

πr 3 ρg + 6πηrv t

Ne = 3

(1)

E

3

4

3

( )( )( )

6πη r v t = 6π 1.8 × 10 −5 Pa ⋅ s 5.50 × 10 −7 m 1.16 × 10 −4 m/s = 2.16 × 10 −14 N

equation (1) and evaluate Ne: Ne =

6.00 ×104 N / C

= 4.8 × 10−19 C

obtain: N= = 3

1.602 × 10−19 C

(c) With the field pointing upward, Fd, terminal − Fe − mg = 0

the electric force is downward and or

the application of ∑ Fy = ma y to the 6πηrv t − NeE − 43 πr 3 ρg = 0

bead yields:

vt =

6πηr

( ⎛

) N⎞

( 3⎛

)

kg ⎞ ⎛ m⎞

3 1.602 × 10 −19 C ⎜ 6.00 × 10 4 ⎟ + 43 π 5.50 × 10 −7 m ⎜1.05 × 103 3 ⎟ ⎜ 9.81 2 ⎟

vt = ⎝ C⎠ ⎝ m ⎠⎝ s ⎠

( )(

6π 1.8 × 10 Pa ⋅ s 5.50 × 10 m

−5 −7

)

= 0.19 mm/s

experiment used to determine the charge on the electron. During the experiment, a

switch is used to reverse the direction of the electric field without changing its

2086 Chapter 21

magnitude, so that one can measure the terminal speed of the microsphere both as

it is moving upward and as it is moving downward. Let vu represent the terminal

speed when the particle is moving up, and vd the terminal speed when moving

down. (a) If we let u = vu + vd, show that q = 3πηru E , where q is the

microsphere’s net charge. For the purpose of determining q, what advantage does

measuring both vu and vd have over measuring only one terminal speed?

(b) Because charge is quantized, u can only change by steps of magnitude N,

where N is an integer. Using the data from Problem 86, calculate Δu.

microsphere of mass m and having an

excess charge of q = Ne when the r

electric field is downward. Under Fe

in equilibrium under the influence of

r r

the electric force Fe , its weight mg, and m, Ne

r

the drag force Fd . We can apply r

mg

Newton’s 2nd law, under terminal-speed

r

conditions, to relate the number of Fd

excess charges N on the sphere to its

mass and, using Stokes’ law, to its

terminal speed.

microsphere when the electric field or, because ay = 0,

is downward:

Fe − mg − Fd, terminal = 0

obtain: or, because q = Ne,

NeE − mg − 6πηrvu = 0

vu = (1)

6πηr

electric force is downward and the or

application of Newton’s 2nd law to

6πηrvd − NeE − mg = 0

the microsphere yields:

vd = (2)

6πηr

The Electric Field I: Discrete Charge Distributions 2087

u = v u + vd = + = =

6πη r 6πη r 3πη r 3πη r

This has the advantage that you don’t need to know the mass of the microsphere.

in the terminal speed of the

microsphere due to a gain (or loss)

of one electron we have:

vN =

whether the microsphere is moving 6πηr

upward or downward, express its

terminal speed when it is moving

upward with N electronic charges on

it:

vN +1 =

(N + 1)eE − mg

when it has N + 1 electronic charges: 6πηr

Δu =

(N + 1)eE − mg − NeE − mg

6πηr 6πηr

eE

=

6πηr

Δu =

(1.602 ×10 −19

)(

C 6.00 × 10 4 N/C )

evaluate Δu: 6π (1.8 × 10−5

)(

Pa ⋅ m 5.50 × 10 −7 m )

= 52 μm/s

2088 Chapter 21

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.