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Electrical Protection

Electrical Faults

• Phase to phase
• Phase to ground
• Phase to
to ph
phase to
to phase
• Phase
hase to phas
phasee to
to pha
phase
se to gro
groun
und
d
Purpose of Protection System

• Minimize damage
• Leave unaffected equipment in-service
• Maintain equipment operating limits
• Maintain electrical system stability
Requirements of a Protection
System
• Speed
• Reliability
• Security
• Sensitivity
Some terms

• Over-current
• Overload
• Inverse time
Protection Zones
Simple Zone
Double Protection

Circuit Circuit
Breaker Breaker
Bus Zone X Y

CT CT CT CT Bus CT CT CT CT
1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1

"B" Bus Protection

"A" Bus Protection


Bus Zone H2 Bus Zone H3

Bus Zone H1
Bus x  Y Bus
H2 Bus H1 H3

Zone
T1 Transformer 
Zone T1
SST1

SST1 Bus L1 Bus Zone L1


Protection
LV Bus
Transformer 
SST1 Zones
Zone
G1 G1
Breaker Failure

• Minimizes the amount of equipment


removed from service in event of a failure
• Failure Determination
 – Not started opening in a certain time
 – Not open in a certain time
 – Current not broken in a certain time
Duplicate Protection Schemes
CT CT
1 2 Electrical
Electrical bus
System
PT
System
Input

Protection
A Protection B Protection
Logic

Initiate Trip Initiate Trip Close


Protection
Close
Output

Action Q Breaker X Breaker Y Device Z


Electrical
Devices
Bus Protection
Bus Protection

• Over-current
• Differential
• Back-up
• Under voltage
Over-current Relay

CT 2000/5 A

I 1P

I 1S
Differential Protection
I = 1P
I = 2P
I

CT1 2000/5 A X Bus Y


CT2 2000/5 A
H1
I 1P I 2P
I = 1S
I = 2S
I
I 1S I 2S

I 1S I 2S

I = 1S
I = 2S
I
Fault Conditions
Fault

CT1 2000/5 A X Bus Y CT2 2000/5 A


H1
I1P I2

I 1S I 2S

I1S I 2S
X Bus Y
CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A
H1
I 1P I 2P
I 3P
I 1S I 2S
I 3S
CT 2000/5 A

T1
I3S

I 1S I 2S
Bus Protection Scheme
Bus Differential Backup

X Zone L1
T1
Load
Bus L1
S

 Y Zone L2
Load
L2
Back-up relay
Over Current
Backup Relay Differential
Relay

X
T1
Load
Bus L1
S

 Y
Load
L2
Bus Under Voltage Protection
Armature shown in the non-energized (trip) position

Normally
Open
Contacts

To Potential
Transformer
Bus Protection

• Over-current
• Differential
• Back-up
• Under voltage
Transformer Protection
Transformer Protection

• Instantaneous
• Differential
• Gas
• Thermal Overload
• Ground
Transformer Characteristics

• High magnetizing inrush currents


• Ratio mismatch with CTs aggravated by
tap-changers
• Phase shifts
• Transformers are affected by over-fluxing
• Affected by over-temperature
Transformer Zone

T1 Zone

T1

CT CT CT CT CT CT CT CT
1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1
"B" Transformer Protection

"A" Transformer Protection


Differential
T1

CT1 CT2

I 1P I 2P

I 1S Restraint Restraint I 2S
Coil Coil

I 1S Operate
I 2S
Coil

I = 1S
I = 2S
I
Gas Relay
Winding Temperature
Ground Fault Protection
T1
CT2
CT1

IN

IF
CT3 Differential
Relay

Transformer 
Star Point

Ground Ground
CT Backup

IN
Transformer Protection

• Instantaneous
• Differential
• Gas
• Thermal Overload
• Ground
Motor Protection
Service Factor 

• Continuous allowable overload


 – Many motors some with a power rating and a
service factor 
 – A 10 HP motor with a service factor of 1.15
has a maximum continuous output of 11.5 HP
Motor Protection Summary

• Instantaneous Over-current
• Stall
• Thermal Overload
• Phase Unbalance
• Ground
Inverse
Time
Relay
Overload
Ground Fault Protection
Single Phase to Ground
Protection
Stalls
Thermal Overload & Phase
Unbalance
Diagram of the Unit

Rotation as Eleme nts Heat/Coo l


Load Indicating Pointer
Phase Unbalance Contacts
Heater Adjus table Overload Con tact
(electrical
connections not
shown)
Overload
Setting
Pointer

Actuating Bimetal

Ambient Compen sating Bime tal

Shaft

Heat Shield
Motor Protection Summary

• Instantaneous Over-current
• Stall
• Thermal Overload
• Phase Unbalance
• Ground
Generator Protection
Classes of TG trips

• Class A
 – Trip generator breaker, field breaker and
turbine
 – Electrical trips before the output breakers
breakers
• Class B
 – Trip generator output but leave it supplying
station service
 – Electrical faults in the switchyard
switchyard
Classes of TG trips
• Class C
 – Over excitation high V/Hz
 – Only used when generator is isolated
isolated from grid
• Class D
 – Trip turbine
turbine
 – Trip Generator after motoring
motoring is detected
 – Mechanical type turbine trips high
high condenser
condenser pressure
Generator Protection
• Over-current
• Overload
• Differential
• Split phase differential
• Ground
• Rotor ground
• Phase Unbalance
• Low field
• Under frequency
• Out of Step
• Reverse power 
Gene rato r Terminals

R  W B

Differential
Relay

Protection
Zones

Neutral Connection
to Gro und

a) He althy Phas e b) Faulted Phas e c ) Ope n Circ uit in


the Phas e
Differential
Generator
Star Point
IP = I1P = I2P
I 1P
G1 To Main
CT1 CT2 Transformer

I 2P

I 1S Restraint Restraint
I 2S
Coil Coil

Operate
I 1S I 2S
Coil

Is = I1S = I2S
Ground Fault Protection
T1

G1

GT1

Stator Ground
Relay
IF
Rotor Ground Fault
Other Protections
• Phase Unbalance
• Loss of field
• Under frequency
• Out of Step
Reverse Power 

V.T.
Reverse
Power
Realy
Generator Protection
• Over-current
• Overload
• Differential
• Split phase differential
• Ground
• Rotor ground
• Phase Unbalance
• Low field
• Under frequency
• Out of Step
• Reverse power