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1. Drying Test with a Foodstuff. In order to test the feasibility of drying a certain
foodstuff, drying data were obtained in a tray dryer with air flow over the top exposed
surface having an area of 0.186 m2. The bone dry sample weight was 3.765 kg dry
solid. At equilibrium after a long period, the wet sample weight was 3.955 kg H2O +
solid. Hence, 3.955 - 3.765 or 0.190 kg of equilibrium moisture was present. The
following table provides the sample weights versus time during the drying test:

Time (h) Weight (kg) Time (hr) Weight (kg) Time (hr) Weight (kg)

0 4.944 2.2 4.554 7.0 4.019

0.4 4.885 3.0 4.404 9.0 3.978

0.8 4.808 4.2 4.241 12.0 3.955

a) C
1.4 4.699 5.0 4.150
Calulate the free moisture content X kg H2O/kg dry solid for each data point and
plot X versus time. (Hint: for 0 h, 4.944 – 0.190 – 3.765 = 0.989 kg free moisture
in 3.765 kg dry solid. Hence, X = 0.989/3.765.)
b) Measure the slope, calculate the drying rates R in kg H2O/h m, and plot R versus
c) Using this drying rate curve, predict the total time to dry the sample from X =
0.20 to X = 0.04. Use graphical integration for the falling rate period. What is the
drying rate RC in the constant rate period and XC?
2. Dehumidification of Air. Air having a dry bulb temprature of 37.8°C and a welt bulb
of 26.7°C is to be dried by first cooling to 15.6°C to condense water vapor and then
heating to 23.9°C.
a) Calculate the initial humidity and percentage humdity
b) Calculate the final humidity and percentage humidity. [Hint : Locate the initial
point on the humidity chart. Then go horizontally (cooling) to the 100% saturation
line. Follow this line to 15.6°C. Then go horizontally to the right to 23.9°C.]

3. Gas-Permeation Membrane of Oxygenation. To determine the suitability of silicone

rubber for its use as a membrane for a heart-lung machine to oxygenate blood, an experimental value
of the permeability at 30°C of oxygen was obtained where P°M = 6.50 x 10 – 7 cm3 O2 (STP)/(s-
cm2 - cm Hg/mm)
a) Predict the maximum flux of O2 in kg mol/s m2 with an O2 pressure of 700 mm Hg on one side
of the membrane and an equivalent pressure in the blood film side of 50 mm Hg. Themembrane
is 0.165 mm thick. Since the gas film is pure oxygen, the gas film resistance is zero. Neglect the
blood film resistance in this case.
b) Assuming a maximum requirement for an adult of 300 cm3 O2 (STP) per minute,
calculatethe membrane surface area required in m2 . (Note: the actual area needed should
be considerably larger since the blood film resistance, which must be determined
by experiment, can be appreciable.)

4. Separation Of Helium From Natural Gas. A typical composition of a natural gas

(S1) is 0.5% He (A), 17.0% N2 (B), 76.5% CH4 (C), and 6.0% higher hydrocarbons
(D). The membrane proposed to separate helium has a thickness of 2.54 × 10-3 cm and
the permebilities are P’A = 60 × 10-10 cm3 (STP)-cm/(s cm2 cm Hg), P’B = 3.0 × 10-10,
and P’C = 1.5 × 10-10. It is assumed that the higher hydrocarbons are essentially non-
permeable (P’D 0). The feed flow rate is 2.0 × 105 cm3 (STP)/s. The feed preasure
ph = 500 cm Hg and the permeate pressure pi = 20 cm Hg.
a) For a fraction permeated of 0.2, calculate the permeate composition, the reject
composition, and the membrane area using the complete mixing model.
b) Use the permeate from part (a) as feed to completely mixed second stage. The
pressure ph = 500 cm Hg and pi = 20 cm. For a reaction permeated of 0.20,
calculate the permeate composition and the membrane area.