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RECREATIONAL

CRAFT
DIRECTIVE

WORKSHOP MANUAL

Revision 1 2014

Copyright BMF 2014


Table of Contents
Foreword (BMF) ...................................................................................................................................... 5
1 INTRODUCTION TO THE RCD MANUAL ........................................................................................... 6
2 SUMMARY OF THE RCD AND THE AMENDMENTS TO THE RCD ...................................................... 8
3 BOAT DESIGN CATEGORIES ...........................................................................................................11
4 IDENTIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION .....................................................................................13
Craft Identification Number (CIN) .....................................................................................................13
Builder's Plate .................................................................................................................................... 15
Owner's manual................................................................................................................................. 17
5 CONSTRUCTION .............................................................................................................................19
Hull structure .....................................................................................................................................19
Doors, windows and hatches ............................................................................................................21
Anchoring, mooring and towing points .............................................................................................24
6 STABILITY, BUOYANCY and LOADING ............................................................................................ 25
Maximum number of persons ...........................................................................................................25
Maximum recommended load .......................................................................................................... 25
Stability, Freeboard and Buoyancy .................................................................................................... 27
Cockpits and Flooding........................................................................................................................36
Bilge Pumping System and Bailing.....................................................................................................37
Escape and Escape from Inverted Multihulls ....................................................................................38
7 HANDLING, POWERING, VISABILITY AND OVERBOARD PREVENTION ...............................................40
Handling under power and maximum power ................................................................................... 40
Visibility from the main steering position ......................................................................................... 41
Protection from falling overboard and means of reboarding ...........................................................43
8 ENGINE INSTALLATION AND FUEL SYSTEM ................................................................................... 47
Engine installation .............................................................................................................................47
Fuel system and fuel tanks ................................................................................................................ 48
Ventilation of engine and fuel tank compartments .......................................................................... 49
Exposed parts .................................................................................................................................... 49
9 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ...................................................................................................................... 50
10 GAS INSTALLATION ....................................................................................................................51
11 FIRE PROTECTION ...................................................................................................................... 52
12 STEERING SYSTEM AND OTHER INSTALLATIONS ....................................................................... 54
Steering system ................................................................................................................................. 54
Navigation lights ................................................................................................................................54
Discharge prevention and toilet installations ................................................................................... 54
Seacocks and through-hull fittings .................................................................................................... 55
Liferaft stowage ................................................................................................................................. 55
13 SOUND ASSESSMENT.................................................................................................................56
Essential requirements for noise emissions ...................................................................................... 56
14 MANUFACTURE OF MARINE ENGINES ...................................................................................... 59
15 MANUFACTURE OF COMPONENTS ...........................................................................................62
16 TECHNICAL FILE......................................................................................................................... 64
17 DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY ............................................................................................... 65
18 COMFORMITY ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES ...............................................................................68
19 PART BUILT BOATS ....................................................................................................................71
20 POST-CONSTRUCTIONAL ASSESSMENT .....................................................................................72
21 THE CE MARK .............................................................................................................................73
22 EXEMPTIONS AND LABELS .........................................................................................................74
Supporting Documentation

Definitions/Glossary Appendix 2

List of Notified Bodies Appendix 3

List of Countries and Dependencies within the EEA Appendix 4

Owner’s Manual - Information and Examples.

Commission Comments and Directive Combined 94/25/EC RSG Guidelines

BMF Boatbuilders Guide

Directive 94/25/EC and 2003/44/EC

Model Declaration of Conformity

Stability Calculation Work Sheet


Foreword (BMF)

This manual replaces the previously issued BMF RCD Management Manual. It incorporates much new
material on applying the RCD in a format that focuses more on the specific technical requirements that
apply to different boat types.

We have done this by introducing a range of example boats to illustrate how the RCD applies to each of
them. For each case specific requirements for compliance with the RCD are considered, assuming that
the harmonised standards are followed. We hope that these examples will help a builder building a
similar style of boat to quickly identify the RCD requirements that apply for that boat type.

The manual also introduces the new requirements of the amendments to the RCD that cover sound and
exhaust emissions and amend some details of the original Directive.

Now that most of the RCD’s supporting standards are complete and harmonised it has been possible to
provide detail on the requirements of these standards. Information on many of the requirements in
harmonised standards is included in the manual, including considerable detail from the stability and
buoyancy standards for each example boat.

In order to avoid confusion between the Directive and the Manual the term ‘Annex’ is confined to the
Annex’s as the official Recreational Craft Directive. All other supplementary and additional information
in this manual will be in an ‘Appendix’.

We acknowledge the help and co-operation of the following people and organisations;-

Mr Paul Handley CEN consultant.

Mr Tim Rowe CE proof ltd.

Mr Andrew Yates Royal Yachting Association.

British Standards Institution.

Department of Trade and Industry.

We hope you will find that the manual is useful and would welcome any feedback etc…
1 INTRODUCTION TO THE RCD MANUAL

The principle aim of this manual is to provide information for boat builders that will assist them with the
task of ensuring that their boats meet all the relevant requirements, both administrative and technical,
for compliance with the Recreational Craft Directive (RCD) and the subsequent Directive amending the
RCD.

The approach followed is to state all the technical requirements of the RCD (essential requirements), to
expand on these as thought necessary and to provide some detail on the relevant harmonised
standards that may be used to demonstrate compliance with each of these requirements.

For installation requirements that are almost independent of boat type, i.e. gas and electrical
installations, the examples refer back to the main text of the manual which provides a summary and
some of the details of the requirements of the relevant harmonised standards.

It is not possible within the scope of this manual to cover every detailed requirement of the harmonised
standards and with this in mind the person responsible for compliance must ensure that he/she checks
that all of the requirements of the most up to date version of the standard that has been followed.
These standards are available at www.rulefinder.com, www.rcdweb.com, http://shop.bsigroup.com

When reading this manual remember that it does not include the full text of the Directive nor all the
additional comments on the Directive published by the Commission and other authorities. The full text
of the RCD is on the BMF RCD KEY. Two useful documents that contain the full text of the Directive plus
official comments are the Commissions CC Document and RSG Guidelines.

RSG Guidelines are updated yearly and you are recommended to use the updated document.

Compliance with the essential requirements

The fundamental requirement for all boat builders is to ensure that their boats meet the RCD’s Essential
Requirements (ERs). In this manual we have used the harmonised standards to demonstrate
compliance of the example boats with the ERs, but other methods and standards may be also used.
However, those using alternatives will have to ensure that they are able to clearly demonstrate that
they meet the ER's. This must be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the notified body where a notified
body is involved.

An established history of satisfactory performance adequately documented can also be used to show
compliance as long as all the ER's are met to current market expectations. Some of the examples
suggest this approach where harmonised standards do not yet exist, e.g. in some cases for hull
construction.

Harmonised standards

There are over 65 standards that are either complete and hence harmonised or being developed to
support this Directive. All the harmonised standards and draft standards that are mandated to become
harmonised are available at www.rulefinder.com, www.rcdweb.com, http://shop.bsigroup.com

Many of these standards relate to components, different materials used in construction or are
appropriate for different sizes or types of craft, and therefore only a relatively small number apply to
any particular boat. The manufacturer of a complex and probably large craft may need to focus on
approximately 30 standards, a simple craft 10 or less, and inflatables, RIBs and PWCs have their own
standards covering nearly all of the Directive’s requirements.

Some standards, such as those on Craft identification coding (CIN) system, Principal Data, Graphic
symbols and Owner’s manual are relevant for nearly all boats.

Other considerations

The RCD does not cover every element of the craft's construction and fit out (sails and rig on sailing craft
for instance). However, the manufacturer is still responsible for all equipment fitted and other aspects
of the craft under existing laws. These elements must be included in the owner’s manual and technical
details may be kept as an appendix to the Technical File.

General criteria

It is the responsibility of the boat builder to produce and keep for 10 years a Technical File detailing how
the boat meets the Essential Requirements of the Directive.

Decide upon the Design Category, build and document the construction in the Technical File, and before
delivery apply a Craft Identification Number, a Builders Plate and the CE mark. The owner is given an
Owner’s Manual and a Declaration of Conformity.
2 SUMMARY OF THE RCD AND THE AMENDMENTS TO THE RCD

Regulations E.U. Directive 94/25/EC and Directive 2003/44/EC

UK Regulations S.I. 2004 No. 1464

Status Directive 94/25/EC - In force (mandatory since 16 June 1998)

Directive 2003/44/EC – In force (mandatory since 1 January 2006)

Responsibility Lies with the company/person first putting the product on the European
Market i.e. the manufacturer or, if imported from outside Europe, the main
importer.

Scope Applies to recreational craft from 2.5m to 24m hull length, including partly
completed boats and some components. RC D amendments apply to
recreational craft and PWCs and include sound and engine exhaust emission
requirements.

Exemptions It excludes boats intended solely for racing, canoes, gondolas, and craft built for
own use and kept for a minimum of 5 years, etc. - see Section 22.

Enforcing Authority Trading Standards Officers are responsible for enforcing the Directive.

Penalties £5000 and/or 3 months in prison.

Compliance The RCD and amendments require that when placed on the EU market for the
Requirements first time any boat within the scope of the Directive shall comply with the
Essential Safety Requirements (Annex I)

and:-

* have Technical Documentation (Annex XIII and Section 16) to show that the
boat complies with the Essential Safety Requirements

* be built in accordance with the manufacturers Technical Documentation

* be marked with a Craft Identification Number (Annex I, 2.1)


* have a Builders Plate (Annex I, 2.2)

* have a CE mark to denote compliance (Article 10) on the Builders Plate

* have an Owner's Manual (Annex 1, 2.5)

* be provided with a Declaration of Conformity (Annex XV)

* be assembled using components that are CE marked if listed in Annex II or can be


shown to meet the ERs of Annex I

* comply with the sound and gas emission requirements Section 13 and 14

* satisfy the conformity assessment procedures Section 18

* also comply with any other Directives that apply to them (Article 4.5) e.g. Electro
Magnetic Compatibility, Gas Appliances, Electrical Appliances (AC) Machinery, General
Product Safety
Part complete boats

Part completed boats or kit boats must meet the compliance requirements listed above, as
appropriate. They must meet the Essential Requirements up to the stage of completion when supplied
and it must be possible to complete them in such a way that they will meet all the ERs when complete.
Instead of a CE mark they must be sold with a declaration stating that the partly complete boat or kit
met the Directive’s requirements up to the stage of completion when supplied. (See chapter 19).

Note RCD compliance applies when “placing on the market and/or putting into service”. A partly
completed craft cannot be put into service, therefore must be accompanied with the full RCD
assessment of all requirements that are applicable when put into service.

Inflatable boats

Inflatable boats and RIBs are covered by the Directive and must therefore meet the above list of
compliance requirements and be CE marked. However, compliance may be demonstrated by
complying with one relevant harmonised standard that is intended to support all of the relevant ERs.
This harmonised standard is in four parts depending on the size and power of the inflatable:

BS EN ISO 6185 Small craft - Inflatable boats -

Part 1:2001 Boats with a motor maximum power rating of 4,5 kW

Part 2:2001 Boats with a motor power rating of 4,5 kW to 15 kW inclusive

Part 3:2013 Boats with a motor power rating of 15 kW and greater

Part 4:2011 Boats with a hull length of between 8m and 24m with a motor power rating of 15 kW and
greater

PWCs

Personal watercraft (PWCs) must meet the design and construction requirements of the original
directive and the emission requirements of the amending Directive and be CE marked. The design and
construction requirements are covered the harmonised standard BS EN ISO 13590:2003 Personal
watercraft – Construction and system installation requirements which, as for inflatable boats, is
intended to cover nearly all the relevant ERs without the need to refer to other harmonised standards.

Components

Manufacturers of components listed in Annex II must ensure that these components meet the
compliance requirements listed above, as relevant for the component, and CE mark them to show
compliance. Section 15 provides more information on manufacture of components.
3 BOAT DESIGN CATEGORIES

Definitions:

A. OCEAN: Designed for extended voyages where conditions may exceed wind force 8 (Beaufort scale)
and significant wave heights of 4 m and above but excluding abnormal conditions, and vessels largely
self-sufficient.

B: OFFSHORE: Designed for offshore voyages where conditions up to, and including, wind force 8 and
significant wave heights up to, and including, 4 m may be experienced.

C: INSHORE: Designed for voyages in coastal waters, large bays, estuaries, lakes and rivers where
conditions up to, and including, wind force 6 and significant wave heights up to, and including, 2 m may
be experienced.

D: SHELTERED WATERS: Designed for voyages on sheltered coastal waters, small bays, small lakes,
rivers, and canals when conditions up to, and including, wind force 4 and significant wave heights up to,
and including, 0,3 m may be experienced, with occasional waves of 0.5m maximum height, for example
from passing vessels.

Craft in each Category must be designed and constructed to withstand these parameters in respect of
stability, buoyancy, and other relevant essential requirements listed in Annex I, and to have good
handling characteristics.

For Design Category A, unlimited wind and wave conditions apply as they reflect that a vessel engaged
on a long voyage might incur any conditions and should be designed accordingly. The amended
Directive now states that this is ‘excluding abnormal conditions’, which was added to make it clear that
some extreme conditions need not be considered, such as a hurricane. In practice this still means that a
Category A boat should be designed to be able to survive being caught out in gale and storm force
winds at sea.

Most large sailing yachts that are designed for blue water cruising are, out of necessity, designed to be
able survive such conditions and therefore Category A may be applicable. Very few motor cruisers are
designed with such conditions in mind and most large offshore motor cruisers are therefore assigned to
Category B.
For category D the wording has been changed slightly by the amendments to the Directive. The
maximum significant wave height is now 0.3m, but allowance must be made for waves of passing
vessels up to a maximum wave height of 0,5 m.

It is important to note that the design category parameters are intended to define the physical
conditions that might arise in any boat category for design evaluation. They are not intended for
limiting the use of the recreational craft in any geographical areas of operation after it has been put into
service.

The European Commission has issued some additional guidance on the physical conditions, i.e. sea
state, that should be considered from a design perspective for each category. It states that the physical
conditions for each category are determined by the maximum wind strength and wave shapes, where
the shape of the waves are consistent with waves generated by wind blowing at the maximum stated
strength for a prolonged period, subject to limits of the implied fetch and the maximum stated wave
heights, and excluding abnormal factors such as sudden change in depth or tidal races.

Put simply this means that that waves in Category D will be not only be small, but also of fairly regular
shape, i.e. breaking waves are not envisaged, but for Category A the combination of severe winds and
tall seas may result in very steep and even breaking waves.
4 IDENTIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Craft Identification Number (CIN)


ER 2.1 Each craft shall be marked with an identification number including the following information:

- Manufacturer’s code

- Country of manufacture

- Unique serial number

- Year of production

- Model year

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 10087:2006 - Small craft - Craft identification – Coding System

It should be noted that this is one of the few cases where the Directive refers specifically to ‘the
relevant harmonised standard’ which implies that it is a requirement to use the harmonised standard
rather than being optional. In practice this is limited to meeting a small number of requirements on
placement of the number and size of characters used.

Make up of CIN

GB - ABC B7123 G 5 06

Country Code

*Manufacturer’s Identification Code

Serial Number

**Month of Manufacture

Year of Manufacture

Model Year

*Manufacturer’s Identification Code (MIC). For professional builders in the UK the MIC is held on the
BMF database. DIY builders should contact the RYA for a complete Craft Identification Number where
“RYA” is used as the MIC.

**The Month of Manufacture is not listed but is included in the harmonised standard. The CIN is to be
made up of characters at least 6mm high and positioned visibly on the starboard outboard side of the
transom, or near the stern within 50mm of transom top, gunwale, hull/deck joint or capping. A
duplicate CIN is to be affixed to a non-removable part of the craft in a hidden location.
Examples
Builder's Plate
ER 2.2 Each craft shall carry a permanently affixed plate mounted separately from the boat craft
identification number, containing the following information:

- Manufacturer’s name

- CE marking

- Boat design category according to section 1

- Manufacturer’s maximum recommended load derived from section 3.6 excluding the
weight of the contents of the fixed tanks when full

- Number of persons recommended by the manufacturer for which the boat was
designed to carry when underway.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 14945:2004 Small craft - Builder’s plate

Separate from the CIN, the boat must display a Builder’s Plate that clearly shows the information
required by ER 2.2. The harmonised standard BS EN ISO 14945:2004 Small craft - Builder’s plate
provides details regarding the plate to ensure that information is always displayed in a standard
recognisable format.

The information shown on the plate will vary depending on the type of boat, e.g. if it does/does not
have an outboard engine, etc. To illustrate how this information varies examples of plates are given
for each of the example boats in Appendix 1.

The information shown will always include the boatyard name, the Design Category, the maximum
number of persons and person symbol, the maximum weight that can be carried and the CE mark. A
typical example is shown below:
The line showing the person, suitcase and outboard
outboard symbols followed by a weight, shows the maximum
total weight that can be added to the boat - 600kg for this example. This weight includes the outboard
weight for outboard boats, but excludes the mass of the contents of any fixed fuel and water tanks
when full in accordance with the amended text of the Directive.

The weight shown on the plate may therefore be different from the maximum recommended load used
for loading and stability tests or calculations, which includes the weight of the content of al
all tanks. An
explanation of the weight to be shown on the plate is given for each example boat.

The boat builder must fix the Builder’s Plate in a clearly visible location on the boat before it leaves the
manufacturer's control. The word ‘plate’ in this context
context is taken to include aluminium foil plates and
vinyl stickers or markings on the hull surface, i.e. the required text and symbols may be moulded,
printed, carved, stamped or otherwise indelibly marked on the hull.

According to BS EN ISO 14945:2004 characters


characters for the required information shall be not less than 5 mm
in height and other letters and numbers shall be not less than 3 mm in height. Symbols used should be
at least 8mm in height.

Examples
It is possible for a boat to be simultaneously assigned
assigned more than one design category with different
maximum capacities for each category. If this route is followed the different criteria for each category
should be clearly separated on the builders plate.

Owner's manual
ER 2.5 Each craft shall bee provided with an owner’s manual in the official Community language or
languages, which may be determined by the Member State in which it is marketed in accordance
with the Treaty. This manual should draw particular attention to risks of fire and flooding and shall
contain the information listed in sections 2.2, 3.6 and 4 as well as the unladen weight of the craft in
kilograms.

Relevant parts of standard: BS EN ISO 10240:2004 Small Craft - Owner's manual.


The boat must be supplied with an Owner’s Manual that provides basic information on using it safely,
as is the case for most other products on the market today. This information does not need to go into
details of all the skills required, e.g. how to sail or mooring a boat, but may be limited to descriptions of
specific features and recommended actions to use the boat safely, such as engine starting procedures,
re-fuelling etc.

The harmonised standard BS EN ISO 10240:2004 Small Craft - Owner's manual (under revision)
summarises the typical contents for an Owner’s Manual and should be read by all boat builders. Also
the individual standards on stability, gas installations, etc. often contain an annex with more detailed
requirements for information in the Owner’s Manual specific to the subject covered. Throughout this
manual references are also made to information that should be in the manual, including for the
example boats.

The information in the Owner’s Manual must cover the safe operation of the craft with due
consideration for the environment. It does not however have to include technical servicing
information, such as wiring diagrams, fuel piping, etc., which may be included in another document
separate from the Owner’s Manual. It should however contain ‘trouble shooting’ advice e.g. how to
change the engine fuel filter. Even where a standard requires descriptions, drawings, and diagrams,
some of this information may be omitted from the Owner’s Manual if included in a separate technical
servicing document.

If a boat is to be exported, the Owner’s Manual supplied with it must be translated into the language of
the country where it is placed on the market. If a technical service document is supplied in addition to
the manual it does not need to be translated. Equipment manuals supplied in addition to the manual
also do not need to be translated.

A generic Owner’s Manual, i.e. one that applies for a range of boats, is acceptable provided that it
contains all the required information for each model covered. It may also have provisions for filling out
specific model information by hand.’

A copy of the Declaration of Conformity – see Section 17 for model, must also be included with the
Owner’s manual.
5 CONSTRUCTION

Hull structure
ER 3.1 The choice and combination of materials and its construction shall ensure that the craft is strong
enough in all respects. Special attention shall be paid to the design category according to section 1, and
the manufacturer’s maximum recommended load in accordance with section 3.6.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 12215 Small craft - Hull construction - Scantlings

Part 1:2000 Materials: Thermosetting resins, glass fibre reinforcement, reference laminate.

Part 2:2002 Sandwich construction

Part 3:2002 Steel, wood, aluminium, other materials

Part 4:2002 Workshop and construction

Part 5:2008 Design pressures for monohulls, design stresses, scantlings determination

Part 6:2008 Structural arrangements and details

Part 7 (draft): Scantling determination of multihulls

Part 8 2009: Rudders

Part 9 2012: Sailing craft appendages

The harmonised standard BS EN ISO 12215 Hull construction - Scantlings is in nine parts, one of which is
still under development.

EN ISO 12215 Part 5, includes an annex containing simplified methods for calculating the scantlings of
motorboats and sailing boats with a hull length of less than 9m of design categories C and D.

Scantlings may be quickly obtained from this annex for construction of single-skin GRP, ,GRP sandwich,
mild steel, aluminium alloy, plywood or strip planking.

The method applies only to small sailing boats, up to 9m length. This method provides the skin
thickness in single-skin GRP for sailing boats from a short equation using the loaded displacement of the
boat (weight with all people, equipment etc. on board).

The thickness obtained for single-skin GRP by the simplified methods can then be converted to the
thickness required for other materials by using simple conversion factors. For example, the hull skin
thickness required for strip-plank wood construction is simply 2.5 times the thickness obtained for
single skin GRP (e.g. 20mm strip plank could be used instead of 8mm GRP). Similarly the required
thickness for the basic GRP laminate may be altered if more woven roving is used or bulking material
such as Coremat are added. Thickness can also be easily converted to the quantity of glass
reinforcement required for a specified resin ratio.
a number of other approaches can be followed to demonstrate compliance with the scantling rules:

1. The structural requirements of the hull may be assessed by other acceptable scantling
determination methods that are applicable to the boat type, design category and the maximum
recommended load. Typical classification society rules for small craft include those from Lloyds
Register, ABS, DNV and RINA.

2. Construction calculation(s) from other published methods for determining small craft scantlings
or from engineering principals. All calculations must be documented.

3. Trials and/or testing (e.g. drop test < 6m Annex B). Details of trials or testing shall be
documented.

4. In some cases empirical knowledge, i.e. established service history without problems, can be
used to demonstrate the structural adequacy of the hull. This empirical knowledge must be
documented.

5. Comparison of structure with another similar boat with a known acceptable service history.
The rationale supporting the comparison method must be documented.

For most boats over approximately 6m length, the calculation of strength using a scantling
determination method is likely to be the preferred method, possibly backed up by some trials. For a
small boat, typically less than 6m length, there are not many scantling rules in existence other than ISO
12215-5 that are suitable and therefore assessment of the structure could be carried out by physical
trials. A series of ‘test to near destruction’ trials could be devised, where the boat is tested with a load
exceeding the maximum recommended load and in conditions (wind and sea state) exceeding that of
the assigned Design Category. If the boat showed no signs of deterioration or damage from such tests
this could be used to demonstrate compliance with the structural requirements, but these tests and
the results must be well documented.

ISO 12215 includes a ‘drop test’ method of demonstrating compliance for vessels, 6m, applicable for
boats of single-skin construction. To test the boat is lifted, fully loaded, and dropped from a prescribed
height. It must survive without visible damage. This drop test method has been used to assess the
structure of RIBs for many years and would probably provide a practical test for determining
compliance of a small boat.

Whatever method is used to demonstrate compliance with the structural requirements the
justification, including details of any trials, comparison, test or calculation must be documented and
included in the Technical Documentation for the boat (see below). This documentation could be partly
in the form of a video or photographic record if trials are conducted.

Separate from the requirement to document how the boat demonstrates compliance with the essential
requirements, a record of the construction specification and method must be included in the Technical
Documentation. This would include the construction plans and all material and construction details for
a large boat but could be limited to a laminating schedule, if applicable, with material quantities and
possibly a photographic record of the construction for a small boat.
Doors, windows and hatches
ER 3.4 Openings in hull, deck(s) and superstructure shall not impair the structural integrity of the craft or
its weather tight integrity when closed.

Windows, portlights, doors and hatch covers shall withstand the water pressure likely to be encountered
in their specific position, as well as point loads applied by the weight of persons moving on deck.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 12216:2002 – Small Craft - Windows, portlights, hatches, deadlights
and doors - Strength and tightness requirements

Strength requirements for doors, windows, hatches and other opening appliances are covered by the
harmonised standard BS EN ISO 12216:2002 Windows, portlights, hatches, deadlights and doors -
Strength and tightness requirements. The requirement to ensure watertight integrity when closed, as
applicable to the position of the appliance and intended use of the boat (Design Category), is also
covered by the standard.

If a commercially available appliance, such as a standard production hatch, is to be fitted, then the boat
builder need only ensure that this hatch has been CE marked for RCD compliance by its manufacturer
(as a component covered by Annex 2) and is fitted as required by its manufacturer. The hatch
manufacturer would have the responsibility for ensuring that this component has adequate strength
and watertight integrity if fitted correctly, and would normally refer to BS EN ISO 12216 to ensure
compliance of its strength and other requirements. Note that as the requirements for appliances vary
according to Design Category, type of boat and position, the boat builder must ascertain that the CE
marked hatch is suitable for use on the boat in its intended position. Information on this should be
provided by the hatch manufacturer.

If a boat builder makes a custom appliance for the boat, such as a door or window, then the boat builder
has the responsibility for compliance of the item with ER 3.4, even if the manufacture of the item is sub-
contracted. In such cases the boat builder would normally be expected to refer to BS EN ISO 12216 for
the strength and watertightness requirements. The CE marking comes within the CE marking of the
boat.

When using BS EN ISO 12216 the boat builder should note that the standard’s requirements vary
depending on the location of the appliance on the boat, the Design Category and the type of boat –
power or sailing. The thickness of window plating also varies depending on the plating material and type
of edge connection used to secure the plate to the boat. Subject to these considerations the minimum
thickness for plates may be either calculated or found from tables in the standard.

The following summarises some of the requirements of the standard:

- There shall be no sliding appliances on the hull

- Flexibly connected plates (car windscreen types) may be used only on the superstructure for
Category C and D.

- Windows in superstructure should be water tight to degree 3 - Except Category D.

- All glass shall be temperature or chemically reinforced or laminated


The thickness required by the standard for a window of any size and of most common materials can be
found by using the pre-calculated tables in the standard. To do this, first the basic design pressure must
be taken from the table below for the type of boat and position of the window. The position is defined
by one of four main areas, corresponding to: Area 1 – Hull, Area II – Deck and cabin tops, Area III -
Superstructure sides and Area IV – other area. More detailed definitions of these areas and illustrations
are given in the standard. The table below also splits Area III requirements for the superstructure front
and sides (higher requirement for front.

As an example, for a Category B motorboat window on the front of the cabin the basic design pressure is
9 (kPa) from the table below.

Basic design pressure p

Application I IIb IIb IIb IIa III III III III III III III III IV IV
location area
Boat type Any Any Any Any Any Sail Motor Moto Moto Moto Moto Moto Sail
Sail Moto
Design category Any A B C,D Any A, B C, D A rB rA rB rC rD Any rAny
Particular Any Any Any Any Any Any Any Front Front Side Side Any Any Any Any

(front,
Pressureside,
kPaany) 70 70 50 28 28 18 12 12 9 9 6 6 6 12 6
From the table below the thickness required for a tempered glass window of width 1000mm and height
700mm would be 5.7mm for this pressure. This has to be rounded to the nearest mm, so the window
fitted would have to have a minimum nominal thickness of 6mm.

From another table it can be found that the required thickness for the same size side window in
polycarbonate would be 8mm.

The thickness requirements from the tables also apply to doors and hatches, again dependant on material
and location.
Anchoring, mooring and towing points
ER 3.9 All craft, taking into account their design category and their characteristics shall be fitted with one or more
strong points or other means capable of safely accepting anchoring, mooring and towing loads.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 15084:2003 Small craft - Anchoring, mooring and towing - Strong points

All boats must have one or more attachment point strong enough to take the loads of anchoring, mooring or
being towed. The harmonised standard BS EN ISO 15084:2003 Anchoring, mooring and towing - Strong points
provides details for the location, number and strength of such strong points.

The position and number of points specified by BS EN ISO 15084:2003 can be summarised as follows:

- Craft under 6 m LH - at least one point forward for anchoring, mooring or towing

- Craft over 6 m LH - at least one additional mooring point aft

- Craft over 12 m LH - at least one additional mooring point both forward and aft

- Craft over 18 m LH - at least one additional mooring point both port and starboard.

For small boats and dinghies the requirement for only one point, positioned forward, might typically be met by
eye or ring on the bow for the painter or towing line.

Strength requirements are also set by BS EN ISO 15084:2003. The standard requires that each strong point shall
be designed and constructed so that it can take a horizontal load of P without failure of the strong point or the
surrounding structure to which it is attached, where:

ISO 15084 adds that the breaking strength of a strong point for any application need not be higher than
that required to withstand a load representing the mass of the boat in the fully loaded ready for use
condition mLDC.
6 STABILITY, BUOYANCY and LOADING
Maximum number of persons
From ER 2.2, the Builders Plate shall include the - number of persons recommended by the manufacturer
for which the boat was designed to carry when underway.

ER 2.2 requires that the manufacturer’s maximum recommended number of persons that the boat is
designed to carry when underway is shown on the Builders Plate, and according to ER 2.5 this number
must also be stated in the Owner’s Manual. This maximum recommended number of persons is also an
important piece of information to be incorporated in the stability and buoyancy calculations.

The maximum number of persons may be limited by either or both, the amount of practical seating
space available or the maximum weight that can be safely carried, both of which need to be applied.

The harmonised standard BS EN ISO 14946:2001 Maximum Load capacity defines a ‘seat’ as any surface
where a person may sit with minimum dimensions of 400 mm width by 750 mm length, i.e. depth of the
seat plus clear space for legs in front of the seat, and recommends that the width be 500 mm. For cases
where a seat is not provided it defines ‘seating area’ as clear cockpit sole space of area 750 mm by 500
mm for each person. For small boats and dinghies the deck area beside the cockpit may be considered
as the seats.

The maximum recommended number of persons must not exceed the number of seats/seating spaces
available when measured according to these definitions. However for larger boats the sensible limit on
the number of persons is likely to be far less than the number from a calculation based on the available
area.

Maximum recommended load


ER 3.6 The manufacturer’s maximum recommended load (fuel, water, provisions,
miscellaneous equipment and people (in kilograms)) for which the boat was designed shall be
determined according to the design category (section 1), stability and freeboard (section 3.2) and
buoyancy and flotation (section 3.3).

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 14946:2001 - Small craft - Maximum load capacity

The manufacturer must recommend a maximum weight of load, which shall include the weight of all
items and persons (see above), that can be safely added to the empty boat without it being overloaded.

The items to be included in this maximum recommended load are listed in ER 3.6, as quoted above, and
defined in more detail in the harmonised standard BS EN ISO 14946:2001 Small craft - Maximum load
capacity

It is the manufacturer’s responsibility to recommend the maximum load weight based on experience
and any relevant design considerations. This recommended figure is required to be verified by the
stability and buoyancy tests of BS EN ISO 12217:2013 and should be included in the Owner’s Manual,
together with an explanation of its significance and the safety implications of exceeding it.

BS EN ISO 14946:2001 states that the maximum load shall include the weight of the following:
a) The number of persons at 75 kg each (for adults - where children are carried as part of
the crew a child’s mass shall be taken as 37.5 kg)

b) Basic equipment of (LH – 2.5)2, but not less than 10 kg,

c) Stores and cargo (if any), dry provisions, consumable liquids and miscellaneous
equipment not included in the light craft mass or in clause b above,

d) Consumable liquids (fresh water, fuel) in portable tanks filled to the maximum capacity,

e) Consumable liquids (fresh water, fuel) of permanently installed tanks filled to the
maximum capacity,

f) A liferaft or dinghy when intended to be carried.

The maximum load weight calculated in this way is the Maximum Total Load (mMTL) to be used in the
stability and buoyancy calculations. A breakdown of this maximum load should be included in the
Owner’s Manual and for larger boats information regarding the vertical distribution of load may also be
important.

The weight given in the Owner’s Manual for the maximum load and used for calculations might be
different from the weight stated on the Builder’s plate. For safety reasons to avoid this being mistaken
as weight allowance for luggage and other carry-on gear, the weight of all liquids in fixed fuel and water
tanks is excluded from the weight shown on the Builder’s plate.

When considering the maximum load that can be added to the empty boat, the empty boat is defined
as the boat in the light craft condition as defined in BS EN ISO 8666:2002. For outboard powered boats,
this is the weight of the empty boat plus the weight of an outboard of the maximum recommended
size. Accordingly the outboard weight is not included in the maximum load, but it is included in the
weight shown on the Builder’s plate.

The important consideration to remember when assessing the boat weight and maximum load weight
is that the following must always apply:

Loaded Displacement Mass (mLDC) = Light Craft Mass + Maximum Total Load (mMTL)

Where the Light Craft Mass is as defined in BS EN ISO 8666:2002 and the Maximum Total Load (mMTL) is
the manufacturer’s maximum recommended load as defined above. The Loaded Displacement Mass
(mLDC), which is the sum of these two weights, is the weight of the boat in the fully loaded condition
which is to be considered in the stability tests and calculations.
Stability, Freeboard and Buoyancy
ER 3.2 The craft shall have sufficient stability and freeboard considering its design category according to
section 1 and the manufacturer’s recommended load according to section 3.6.

ER 3.3 The craft shall be constructed to ensure that it has buoyancy characteristics appropriate to its
design category according to section 1.1, and the manufacturer’s maximum recommended load according to
section 3.6. All habitable multihull craft shall be so designed as to have sufficient buoyancy to remain
afloat in the inverted position.

Boats of less than six meters in length that are susceptible to swamping when used in their design category
shall be provided with appropriate means of flotation in the swamped condition.

The harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 12217 Small craft - Stability and buoyancy - assessment and
categorisation sets requirements relating to the minimum freeboard, stability and buoyancy, as appropriate
for the type of boat.

Part 1:2013 Non-sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m.

Part 2:2013 Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m.

Part 3:2013 Boats of hull length less than 6m.

For inflatable boats and RIB’s up to 24m LH assessments should be carried out using BS EN ISO 6185 Small craft
- Inflatable boats

BS EN ISO 12217-1:2013 Non-sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to


6m

This part of the stability standard covers “the stability and buoyancy of non-sailing boats of hull length greater
or equal to 6 m”. It offers one option for the assessment for Design Category A (Ocean) and B (Offshore) boats
built with full watertight deck, quick draining cockpits and small deck recesses, one option for Design Category
B (Offshore) boats with any form of deck and various options for Design Category C (Inshore) and D (Sheltered
water) boats.

These options mean that a vessel without a full watertight deck, quick draining cockpits and small deck
recesses can never be assigned with a Design Category A and will only ever be assigned Category B if it is able
to float with a required level of reserve buoyancy when fully swamped.

The criteria for assessment for each option is detailed in the BS EN ISO 12217-1 and depending on the type of
craft and design category requires the assessment of the some of the criteria detailed below.

Downflooding Height Measurement & Assessment

All options address the risk of downflooding which is the risk of water entering non-draining parts of a boat.
The size and position of openings in the hull and their height, or in an open boat, the gunwale height above
the water level must be greater than a given limit. Engine exhausts, discharges connected to watertight
systems (bilge outlet for example) and openings that are provided with a watertight means of closure are not
considered, although the companionway is always considered open however watertight it may be. The full
procedure is detailed in the standard and involves measuring the height of openings above the loaded
waterline with the boat at the Loaded Displacement Mass (mLDC).

BS EN ISO 12217-1 gives tables with the required limits for the downflooding height which depend on the
Design Category and length of the craft. If the craft does not meet these values given in the tables a more
detailed calculation provided in Annex A (Full method for required downflooding height) may be used to
demonstrate compliance with the standard.

Downflooding Angle

This requirement is to show that there is sufficient margin of heel angle before significant quantities of water
can enter the boat. A simple method of calculating this is provided in BS EN ISO 12217-1, Annex C (Methods
for calculating downflooding angle) and similarly to the downflooding height, if this method does not show
compliance with the requirements, practical testing or computer simulation may provide an alternative
method.

Offset Load Test

This test demonstrates sufficient stability for the boat at loaded displacement mass against offset loading by
the crew. BS EN ISO 12217-1, Annex B (Method for offset-load test) gives the procedure for conducting the
test with the maximum allowable heel angle that may be obtained which is a function of length given in Clause
6.2 of the standard.

Resistance to Waves & Wind (Categories A & B only)

These calculations require a righting moment curve. Righting moment curves are normally produced by the
designer or a naval architect from the lines plan, with an inclining experiment on the completed boat and
addresses the forces likely to be applied and the energies dissipated when a boat is rolling in beam waves and
wind.

Heel due to Wind Action (Category C and D)

This is only a requirement for boats where in the minimum operating condition ALV ≥ 0.55 LWLBH. The standard
gives limits for the maximum heel angle resulting from the application of a wind heeling moment. The purpose
of the test or calculation is to show that the actual angle of heel is less than the assumed maximum. If
performed by practical test, the maximum moment required for the calculation is the maximum offset load
moment. These calculations should be carried out for the craft in both conditions.

Floatation Requirements

Depending on the assessment schedule used from Table 2 of BS EN ISO 12217-1 a floatation test may be
required for open boats to demonstrate adequate swamped buoyancy and stability. These are detailed in
Annex F (Method for level floatation test) and Annex G (Floatation material and elements).
BS EN ISO 12217 -2 : 2013 Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m

Part 2 of the standard covers “the stability and buoyancy of sailing boats of hull length greater or equal to
6m”. Like Part 1 it offers an option for the assessment for Design Category A (Ocean) and B (Offshore) boats
built with full watertight deck, quick draining cockpits and small deck recesses, and various options for Design
Category C (Inshore) and D (Sheltered water) boats.

The assessment requirements for each option are detailed in BS EN ISO 12217-2 and depending on the type of
craft the assessment looks at different criteria. The main criteria, which can be used for assessment for any
design categories, is the AVS (Angle of Vanishing Stability) related to it’s mass and STIX (Stability Index – see
next page) calculation which requires a righting lever curve.

A righting lever curve is generated by plotting a stationary (static) boat’s righting lever against its angle of heel.
The lever is the horizontal distance between the boat’s centre of gravity (CG) and a vertical line through its
centre of buoyancy (CB). This lever is known as GZ and that’s why the stability curve is often called a GZ curve.

When upright, the CG will be in the same vertical line as the CB (usually the centreline) and so there is no
righting lever i.e. GZ=Zero. But, when a boat heels (through the action of wind or waves), whereas the CG will
remain in the same place (assuming no bilge water), the CB will move to one side and a righting lever is
generated. As the boat continues to heel the lever will increase to a maximum and then start diminishing until
the CB is once again on the same vertical line as the CG. At this point the righting lever is again zero but unlike
when upright, the boat will tend to invert if its heel angle continues to increase.

This point is called the Angle of Vanishing Stability (AVS). Once heeled past its AVS the GZ will become
negative and an inverting lever rather than righting lever. Unless affected by some outside force, the boat will
continue to 180 degrees of heel until the CG and CB are once again on the same vertical line and the boat is
stable although now upside down. The diagram above shows a GZ curve for a typical monohull ballasted
sailing yacht.
A righting moment curve as required for the assessment in BS EN ISO 12217-1, for a given boat is
diagrammatically the same as it’s GZ. The only difference is that the vertical axis is a moment i.e. the GZ lever
multiplied by the boat mass, rather than just the GZ lever.

Angle of Vanishing Stability (AVS) (Mandatory for Category A & B, optional for C & D)

For yachts one of the most easily seen and meaningful aspects of a GZ curve is the AVS. The angle of vanishing
stability (i.e. the angle at which the righting moment is zero) must be greater than a function based on
displacement and a minimum value.

Category A boat limits are an AVS greater than (130 – 0.002m) but always equal to or greater than 100º.

Category B boat limits are an AVS greater than (130 – 0.005m) but always equal to or greater than 95º.

Where m represents the boats mass.

Additionally when this option is used Category C boats must have an AVS greater than 90º and Category D
boats an AVS greater than 75º.

Stability Index (STIX) (Mandatory for Category A & B, optional for C & D)

The stability index is a method of obtaining an assessment of the ability of a monohull boat to resist, and to
recover from, a knockdown or inversion. The index consists of a length factor which may be modified by seven
factors which address separate aspects of the stability and buoyancy properties.

The ‘norm’ value for each modifying factor is 1 and each has absolute maximum and minimum limits. If data
for one or more of the modifying factors is not available when calculating a STIX, the minimum limit for that
factor would be used. For example four of the modifying factors require righting moment data. If this was not
available then a STIX can still be calculated but the result would reflect the lack of righting moment data and
the result tend to the cautious end of the STIX scale.

STIX Factors

a) FDS - Dynamic stability factor - This factor represents the inherent righting energy (relative to
its length) to be overcome before a stability incident occurs.

b) FIR - Inversion recovery factor - This factor represents the ability to recover unaided after an
inversion.

c) FKR - Knockdown recovery factor - This factor represents the ability of a boat to spill water out
of the sails and hence recover after being knocked down

d) FDL - Displacement-length factor - This factor accounts for the favourable effect of heavier
displacement on a given length increasing the resistance to capsize.

e) FBD - Beam-displacement factor - This factor accounts for the increased vulnerability to
capsize in beam seas of boats with appreciable topside flare, and increased beam in relation
to displacement.
f) FWM - Wind moment factor - For boats where either Ø D or Ø DH is less than 90°, this factor
represents the risk of downflooding due to a gust of wind heeling an unreefed boat.
g) FDF – Downflooding factor - This factor represents the risk of downflooding in a knockdown.

Downflooding Height Measurement & Assessment

Most options address the risk of downflooding which is the risk of water entering non- draining parts of a
boat. The size and position of openings in the hull and their height, or in an open boat, the gunwale height
above the water level must be greater than given limits. Engine exhausts, discharges connected to watertight
systems (bilge outlet for example) and openings that are provided with a watertight means of closure are not
considered. The companionway is always to be considered open however watertight it may be. The full
procedure for measurement is detailed in the standard and involves measuring the height of openings above
the loaded waterline with the boat at the Loaded Displacement Mass (mLDC).

BS EN ISO 12217-2 gives tables with the required downflooding heights depending on the Design Category and
length of the craft, if the craft does not meet these requirements, using the more detailed calculations
provided in Annex A (Full method for required downflooding height) may demonstrate compliance with the
standard.

Downflooding Angle

This requirement is to show that there is sufficient margin of heel angle before significant quantities of water
can enter the boat. A simply method of calculating this is provided in Annex B (Methods for calculating
downflooding angle), similarly to the downflooding height if this method does not show compliance with the
requirements practical testing or computer simulation may provide an alternative method.

Knockdown Recovery Test (Category C & D only)

As an alternative to the STIX calculation this is a simple test shows that a boat with crew, will recover from a
knockdown with sufficient speed to minimise the risk of swamping and sinking. The masthead is hauled down
so that it touches the water before being released. The boat may downflood while being hauled over but it
must recover to a position where it can still support the maximum load and be bailed out.

Wind Stiffness Test (Category C & D only)

Another alternative to the STIX calculation is to demonstrate by a test that, when a sailing boat is heeled to a
steady wind speed appropriate to the category, it does not start flooding. This test is conducted by heeling the
boat over to 45°or the point where the boat starts to fill with water by a line from the mast attached to a
load cell and performing a simple calculation based on the result.

Capsize Recovery Test (Category C & D only)

The capsize-recovery test is designed to show that an inverted sailing boat, with full fore and aft sails hoisted,
can be returned to the upright by the action of one or more crew members and that it will subsequently float
with its full crew complement aboard. The minimum weight of the crew required to right the boat is recorded
in the Owner’s Manual.
Sailing Multihulls

Sailing multihulls are also assessed using BS EN ISO 12217-2 (although only catamarans and trimarans are
specified). Where the hull length (LH) is greater than 5 times the beam between the centres of buoyancy of
the sidehulls, the boat is treated as a monohull and assessed as above; in all other cases Clause 7 of the
standard applies. This section requires either

a) A capsize recovery test of the type used for smaller boats being assessed for Category C or D,

or,

b) Assessment of the boat’s

- Downflooding heights (as above for monohulls)

- Recess Sizes

- Bare Poles Factor

- Inherent buoyancy to demonstrate that it will float even if capsized,

- Protection against being inverted by breaking waves.

- Pitchpoling

- Diagonal stability

Buoyancy when Inverted

The volume of the fabric of the boat must be shown to support the maximum load when inverted and/or
flooded in addition to 15% margin. This is usually demonstrated by calculation using BS EN ISO 12217-2
Annex D (Method for calculating reserve of buoyancy after collision or flooding) and no allowance can be
given for trapped bubbles of air (apart from dedicated air tanks and watertight compartments).

Rolling in Breaking Waves (Category A, B & C only)

To provide a degree of protection against being rolled over by breaking waves, the maximum transverse lever
(m) for the boat in the minimum operating condition shall exceed the values given in table 8. BPF – Bare Pole
Factor
In addition to the above the displaying on the boat of warning symbols and/or notices of the type shown below
to draw attention to the risk of capsize
BS EN ISO 12217 Part 3: Boats of hull length less than 6m (Non-sailing or sailing)

Within this part of the stability standard sailing and non-sailing boats are considered separately. This decision
is based on the premise that most users perceive a non-sailing boat to be more stable that a sailing boat.
Dinghy sailors know that a capsize is always a possibility and prepare accordingly, but this is not expected for
users of small motor dinghies. In determining whether a boat is non-sailing or sailing the standard provides a
formula that relates the sail area to displacement.

Sail Area (m2) ˂ 0.07 x (mLDC)2/3

Non-sailing boats

With small powerboats (and other non-sailing boats) the risk of downflooding, that is when water starts
entering non-draining parts of a boat, and the heel angle reached when all the people crowd to one side are
measured in the same way as for larger boats. If the freeboard is high enough, then that is sufficient. If this is
not the case then the boat is required to be fitted with flotation elements sufficient for it to pass either a
flotation or capsize recovery test and to float in an appropriate attitude after the test.

Downflooding Height and Offset Load Tests

These are carried out in a similar way as for Part 1 of the standard detailed in the explanation of BS EN ISO
12217-1 with an additional test for outboard boats when starting, a more detailed explanation is given in BS
EN ISO 12217-3.

Flotation

There are two methods, Level Flotation and Basic Flotation. If the basic flotation route is followed, the
downflooding height requirements are more onerous than they would have been under level flotation.

Flotation need not be addressed if the boat has quick draining cockpits in accordance with BS EN ISO 11812 or
if it is fully or partially decked. (These terms are detailed in clauses 3.1.5 and 3.1.6 of BS EN ISO 12217-3).
Additionally an open boat over 4.8m with sufficient freeboard may meet the requirements for Category D
without floatation elements.
Basic Flotation (LH ≥ 4.8m only)

This does not impose a swamp test although if the buoyancy provided is marginal or the exact weight of the
boat and its fittings are not known, a practical test is advisable. This simply requires a demonstration that the
boat has a margin of more buoyancy than the weight of the fully laden (excepting crew) boat. The density of
standard materials, fittings and engines is tabled in the standard and therefore, if the weight is known the
volume can be calculated.

Level Flotation

This requires a swamp test, consisting of two parts; buoyancy when swamped and stability when swamped.
The buoyancy measurement demonstrates that the boat floats reasonably level with at least two thirds of the
periphery above the surface when swamped and will support a minimum weight which is based on but not
equal to the actual crew weight. The stability test shows the boat will not capsize when a weight is suspended
in turn over the gunwale in each of four places. Boats under 4.8m also must be capable of being pumped or
bailed dry from the swamped condition with one person on board. When conducting these swamping tests it
is worth remembering that at the end of the test you will need to bail a significant amount of water from the
boat so it is advisable to have a pump or bucket available.

Sailing boats

With small open sailing boats, due the action of the wind in their sails, particularly in gusts, the likelihood of
swamping is greater than with non-sailing boats. For this reason, to apply the method used to assess
powerboats is judged by the standard to be inappropriate. A different approach is taken giving, three
alternative types of assessment: -

- The capsize-recovery test

- The knockdown recovery test

- The wind stiffness test

Capsize Recovery Test

As its name suggest, the capsize-recovery test is designed to show that an inverted sailing boat, with full fore
and aft sails hoisted, can be returned to the upright by the action of one or more crew members and that it
will subsequently float with its full crew complement aboard. The minimum weight of the crew required to
right the boat is recorded in the Owner’s Manual.

Knockdown Recovery Test

Knockdown recovery tests (which may be undertaken virtually by calculation) are conducted with the crew or
an equivalent mass aboard. For Design Category C, the boat is quickly pulled down until its masthead touches
the water. After 60 seconds the boat is released and should rapidly return to nearly upright such that it can be
bailed out. For an RCD Design Category D the mast only needs to be pulled down to the horizontal and the
boat is released after just 10 seconds.
Wind Stiffness Test

The wind stiffness test (which again may be undertaken by calculation) simulates what happens when a
sailing boat, with the weight of one crewmember aboard, is heeled by the steady wind speed of the
chosen Design Category. Twin underwater restraint lines around the underside of the hull, one forward
one aft, tether the boat. A further line is attached to the mast and pulled, heeling the boat until either

— The boat begins to fill with water; or

— The load T and the corresponding heel angle meet those for the desired wind
speed; or

— The boat reaches 45° heel; or

— For catamarans the underside of one hull begins to emerge, or

— For trimarans the deck of one side hull begins to become submerged or the centre
hull begins to emerge, Whichever occurs sooner.

With each of the capsize recovery, knockdown recovery and wind stiffness tests the boat, unless it is fully
decked, is also required to be fitted with flotation. Annex C (Flotation material and elements) gives the
requirements for the floatation with the calculation method given in Annex D (Calculation method for
basic floatation requirements)

Cockpits and Flooding

ER 3.5 All craft shall be designed so as to minimise the risk of sinking. Particular attention should be paid
where appropriate to:

- Cockpits and wells, which should be self-draining or have other means of keeping water
out of the boat interior

- Ventilation fittings

- Removal of water by pumps or other means

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 11812:2001 Small craft - Watertight and quick draining cockpits
The harmonised standard BS EN ISO 11812 Watertight and quick draining cockpits used to demonstrate
that a cockpit is either quick-draining or watertight is applicable only when applied in conjunction in
conjunction with BS EN ISO 12217. The expression ‘quick- draining’ has been introduced to distinguish a
cockpit that drains very quickly, such that a stability hazard may be avoided, from a cockpit that is ‘self-
draining’ in the sense that all water that it traps will eventually drain away, out of the boat, but not
necessarily quickly.

To qualify as a quick-draining cockpit limits are given for the minimum drain sizes, based on the capacity of
the cockpit, size of boat and design category.

Other requirements also apply relating to the degree of watertightness, the height of the bottom of the
cockpit and sills between the cockpit and boat interior. For a quick-draining cockpit the minimum height of
the bottom of the cockpit above the loaded displacement waterline is specified as:

Category A – 0.15 m Category B – 0.10 m Category C – 0.075 m Category D – 0.05 m

Exceptions to this cockpit bottom height requirement are made for recesses for steering wheels and
cockpits lockers, with size restrictions for these recesses.

Bilge Pumping System and Bailing

ER 3.5 All craft shall be designed so as to minimise the risk of sinking. Particular attention should be paid
where appropriate to:

- Cockpits and wells, which should be self-draining or have other means of keeping water
out of the boat interior,

- Ventilation fittings,

- Removal of water by pumps or other means

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 15083 - Small craft - Bilge pumping systems

The Directive does not specifically require bilge pumps, but does refer to ‘removal of water by pumps or
other means’ in order to minimise the risk of sinking. Boats with only sealed volumes of hull and self-
draining cockpits or recesses are considered to remove water by other means, and may therefore not
require bilge pumps. For boats where bilge pumps are appropriate the harmonised standard BS EN ISO
15083 - Small craft - Bilge pumping systems provides requirements for bilge pumps and pump systems. It
is important to note that the standard specifies that its requirements do not cover pumps intended for
damage control or damage control systems.

The requirements of BS EN IS0 15083 for the bilge pump system are summarised in the following table:
Summary of bilge pump requirements

The capacity of each bilge pump required must not be less than:

10 l/min for boats with LH equal to or less than 6m;

15 l/min for boats with LH greater than 6m and less than 12m

30 l/min for boats with LH equal to or greater than 12m.

These volumes per minute shall be achieved when the pump is subjected to a back pressure of 10kPa

For manual bilge pumps, the capacity shall be rated for 45 strokes per minute.

The standard requires that these bilge pumps must be fitted in an accessible position where they can be
easily operated in addition to additional installation requirements.

In the Owner’s manual a description must be given of the type and position of each pump, together with
its operation instructions and basic servicing requirements. If a bucket or hand- held pump is to be carried
this must be specified in the manual.

The harmonised standard EN 28849:1993/A1: 20000 (ISO 8849:1990) – Small craft - Electrically operated
bilge pumps provides requirements for manufacture of electric bilge pumps and installation of electric
pumps.

Escape and Escape from Inverted Multihulls

ER 3.8 All habitable multihull craft over 12 metres long shall be provided with viable means of escape in the
event of inversion. All habitable craft shall be provided with viable means of escape in the event of fire.

Relevant parts of standards:


BS EN ISO 9094-1(up to and including 15m) or BS EN ISO 9094-2 (over 15m) – Small Craft - Fire protection.

BS EN ISO 12216:2002 – Small Craft - Windows, portlights, hatches, deadlights and doors - Strength and
tightness requirements.

Each habitable area of a multihull sailing craft shall have access to an escape hatch capable of being
used in the capsized position. See Section 11 on Fire Protection for information on fire escape
hatches and doors.
7 HANDLING, POWERING, VISIBILITY AND OVERBOARD PREVENTION
Handling under power and maximum power

ER 4.0 The manufacturer shall ensure that the handling characteristics of the craft are satisfactory with
the most powerful engine for which the boat is designed and constructed. For all recreational marine
engines, the maximum rated engine power shall be declared in the owner's manual in accordance with
the harmonised standard.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 11592:2001 – Small Craft - Determination of maximum propulsion


power - for craft less than 8 m length of hull.

BS EN ISO 8665:2006 Marine propulsion reciprocating internal combustion engines - Power


measurements and declarations

The handling characteristics of a boat are required to be satisfactory when operating with the maximum
recommended engine power. The choice of the maximum power to recommend must be made by the
boat builder based on their knowledge and experience with the boat.

As the requirement refers to the handling characteristics with the most powerful engine, this ER is
generally considered to relate only to high speed handling characteristics of powered craft when
operated at or near to maximum speed, and not to slow craft under power. It does not apply to sailing
boats when sailing as they are not under engine power.

However, in the RCD, Clause 1 of Annex 1 there is the general statement that all boats shall have good
handling characteristics with consideration to their Design Category. Accordingly it would be wrong to
conclude that handling characteristics in general can be ignored if this ER does not specifically apply.
Also, unsatisfactory handling characteristics in rough sea conditions (for offshore boats) could increase
the vulnerability of the craft and potentially lead to a stability incident.

For motor boats of less than 8m length, the harmonised standard BS EN ISO 11592:2001

Determination of maximum propulsion power applies. There are no standards covering handling of craft
above 8m length at the moment, but work has started on a draft for new standard on handling of
motorboats above 8m Lh in both flat water and rough conditions. The latter work may be incorporated
into the harmonised stability standard at the next revision, because the problem of operating in rough
seas is linked to stability.

The main requirement of BS EN ISO 11592 is a high speed avoidance test, to establish that the craft can
make a controlled turn sufficiently quickly to avoid an obstruction or possible collision. This is a useful
test, but it does not cover all aspects of handling of small, fast boats and it is therefore important that
the boat builder establishes that all aspects of handling are satisfactory, normally by conducting trials
over a range of conditions to establish the limits of the boat. A record of any trials conducted should be
kept in the technical documentation for the boat and any important information on handling or advice
included in the Owner’s Manual.

The maximum recommended engine power must also be recorded in the owner’s manual. The power to
quote is the power rating provided by the engine manufacturer for the most powerful engine that may
be fitted. This power must have been measured by the engine manufacturer in accordance with the
harmonised standard BS EN ISO 8665:2006 Marine propulsion reciprocating internal combustion engines
- Power measurements and declarations. This is another example of where the Directive has specifically
referred to the harmonised standard (second sentence of ER 4.0 above), which implies that use of this
standard is compulsory for the engine manufacture.

Visibility from the main steering position

ER 2.4 For motor boats, the main steering position shall give the operator, under normal conditions of
use (speed and load), good all-round visibility.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 11591:2000 Small Craft - Engine-driven small craft - Field of vision from
helm position

This requirement is also specifically for motor boats operating under power and does not apply for
sailing boats. The harmonised standard BS EN ISO 11591 Engine-driven small craft - Field of vision from
helm position applies. The standard is fairly straightforward, setting requirements for unobstructed, or
partially obstructed, field of vision for a range of eye positions from the helm area under normal
operating conditions. It sets the requirements for visibility by specifying the minimum arc of horizontal
vision and extent of vertical vision from the main operating position.

The intention of the requirements of the standard is to ensure that there will be good all round visibility
for the driver at all times. If forward vision is temporarily impaired by the high angle of bow-up trim
reached just before getting on to the plane, or under certain load conditions, then a warning must be
added to the Owner’s Manual to alert the owner to this fact. BS EN ISO 11591 requires a number of
advice notes such as this to be added to the Owner’s Manual.

The illustrations below, taken from EN ISO 11591, show the required extent of vertical vision and arc of
horizontal vision from the main operating position.
Protection from falling overboard and means of reboarding

ER 2.3 Depending on the design category, craft shall be designed to minimise the risks of falling
overboard and to facilitate reboarding.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 15085 + A1:2009 - Small craft - Man overboard prevention and
recovery

The boat must be designed to reduce the risk of falling overboard and have a means to enable a
person to re-board from the water. The requirements of BS EN ISO 15085 are intended to offer a
variety of solutions for reducing the risk of falling overboard, to take into account the diverse range
of boat types and to avoid type forming.

The requirements of the available options are summarised in the tables below for non-sailing and
sailing craft. For each design category, a cross signifies that the corresponding safety device is
required. Detailed requirements for each type of safety device is given in the standard, e.g.
minimum dimensions of foot-stops, strength of lifelines.
Requirements for non-sailing boats

For design category B, there are three options (2, 3 and 4) available for a motor boat.

For high speed boats, the body support required is intended to provide a means of support for each of
the occupants when the boat is underway, to limit the risk of being thrown overboard in case of sharp
turns, quick acceleration or movement on the sea. This support could be in the form of handholds, or
for seating/lying areas, a surrounding rigid support with a height of not less than 80 mm above the
seat. A ‘high speed boat’ is defined as a motor boat having a maximum speed, in knots, greater than

10 √LH or 25 Knots
Requirements for sailing boats

For sailing boats, the following options are available: for design category B there are two options (2 and
3) and for design category C, there are three options (2,3,4, and 5).

For motor and sailing boats the slip resistant surface is required on all working deck, where the
‘working deck’ is defined as:

‘areas defined by the boat builder for people to stand or walk on during normal operation of the boat
and to perform the following actions

- Boat steering and operation

- Sail handling and trimming

- Access to the accommodation/engine compartment’

The working deck is normally composed of rigid parts of the boat, such as decks, coach-roofs,
superstructures, flying bridges, etc. but may also consist of flexible parts, such as trampolines and nets.
On many motor boats the working is limited to the cockpit, the foredeck only being used for access to
the strong points.

Statements must be made in the owner’s manual to draw attention to the risks of falling overboard,
e.g.

- Use seats provided - do not stand when the boat is underway


- Take care when boarding and getting off, your weight will affect the trim of the
boat

- Tread only on the cockpit sole – do not tread on seats

- Always wear a life jacket

Unless specifically stated by the boat builder, areas having an inclination of more than 25° to the
horizontal in a longitudinal direction, or more than 30° in a transverse direction, are not considered to
be part of the working deck.

A means of reboarding, e.g. ladder, steps on hull, must be provided, except on dinghies. If this means is
a ladder, note that the top surface of the lowest step of the reboarding ladder must be at least 300 mm
below waterline when the boat is empty.

The means of reboarding provided and the method of deployment and recommended use must be
described in the Owner’s Manual.
8 ENGINE INSTALLATION AND FUEL SYSTEM

Engine installation

ER 5.1.1 Inboard engine - All inboard mounted engines shall be placed within an enclosure separated from
living quarters and installed so as to minimise the risk of fires or spread of fires as well as hazards from toxic
fumes, heat, noise or vibrations in the living quarters.

Engine parts and accessories that require frequent inspection and/or servicing shall be readily accessible.

The insulating materials inside engine spaces shall be non-combustible.

These requirements relate only to the installation of an inboard engine by the boat builder. As the
requirements are generally self-explanatory no harmonised standard is envisaged to support them. It should
be noted that these requirements also apply to installation of any inboard mounted engine, including main
engines and auxiliary engines.

The main requirement for installation of an inboard engines is that the engine should be enclosed in a housing
to protect the adjacent areas of the boat from the engine’s heat, fumes, moving parts, etc.

It is clear that this housing or compartment should provide some resistance to the spread of a possible fire
from the engine, however this has not been taken as a requirement that the engine compartment should be
built only from fire proof material. It is required that any insulation material used in the engine compartment,
e.g. sound insulation foam material, must be ‘non–combustible’.

There has been some debate about the level of fire-resistance to qualify as ‘non-combustible’ and accordingly
the following interpretation was issued: “Materials are considered as non- combustible if the oxygen index is
at least 21 when measured in accordance with ISO 4589 or ASTM D 2863.” The boat builder should check with
the material manufacturer that any foam or other insulating material used in the engine compartment meets
this level. In addition it has been agreed that insulating material shall present a non-fuel absorbent surface to
the engine.

The requirement for serviceable parts to be readily accessible should be noted, the definition of ‘readily
accessible’ is being ‘reached without the use of tools’.

There are no installation requirements specified for outboard engines, but the boat builder still has the
responsibility to ensure that when an outboard engine is supplied with the boat it has been fitted safely in
accordance with the engine manufacturers recommendations.

The Directive also requires that all boats with outboard engines shall have a device to prevent starting the
engine in gear, unless the engine thrust is less than 500N. The boat builder should check with the outboard
engine manufacturer that this is the case for any outboard to be fitted. PWC’s shall be designed either with an
automatic engine cut-off or with an automatic device to provide reduced speed, circular, forward movement
when the driver dismounts deliberately or falls overboard.
Fuel system and fuel tanks

ER 5.2.1 The filling, storage, venting and fuel supply arrangements and installations shall be designed and
installed so as to minimise the risk of fire and explosion.

ER 5.2.2 Fuel tanks - Fuel tanks, lines and hoses shall be secured and separated or protected from any source
of significant heat. The material the tanks are made of and their method of construction shall be according to
their capacity and the type of fuel. All tank spaces shall be ventilated.

Petrol shall be kept in tanks which do not form part of the hull and are:

(a) insulated from the engine compartment and from all other source of ignition; (b) separated from living
quarters.

Diesel fuel may be kept in tanks that are integral with the hull.

Harmonised standard:

BS EN ISO 10088:2013 Small craft - Permanently installed fuel systems

BS EN ISO 21487:2012 Small craft - Permanently installed petrol and diesel fuel tanks

The requirements for installation of a fuel system on a boat with fixed fuel tanks are given in the harmonised
standard BS EN ISO 10088 Permanently installed fuel systems and BS EN ISO 21487:2012 Small craft -
Permanently installed petrol and diesel fuel tanks.

The requirement for petrol fuel tanks to be ‘insulated from the engine and all other sources of ignition’ is
deemed to be complied with if a) the clearance between the petrol tank and the engine is greater than 100
mm and b) all electrical parts on the engine which could create a spark, and any other electrical components
in the engine/fuel compartment, are ignition protected. To ensure that these components are ignition
protected the boat builder should use a petrol engine that complies with BS EN ISO 15584 Inboard petrol
engines - fuel and electrical system components (the engine manufacture should provide this confirmation)
and for other parts, e.g. blower fan or electric bilge pump, use only components that have been CE marked in
accordance with Annex II 1. The clearance between a petrol tank and any dry exhaust components must be
greater than 250 mm, unless an equivalent thermal barrier is provided.

For diesel engine installations, the engines used should comply with BS EN ISO 16147 Inboard diesel
engines – Engine-mounted fuel and electrical components to ensure that the fuel components fitted on
the engine by the engine manufacturer are safe. The engine manufacture should provide confirmation
that the engine complies with this standard.

Fuel hose used in the system must be fire resistant if used in the engine compartment and Where fuel
hose is used the standard requires that only fire-resistant hose to BS EN ISO 7840 may be used in the
engine compartment. Such hose should be stamped to indicate compliance.
Ventilation of engine and fuel tank compartments
ER 5.1.2. Ventilation - The engine compartment shall be ventilated. The dangerous ingress of water into
the engine compartment through all inlets must be prevented.

BS EN ISO 11105:1997- Small craft -Ventilation of compartments containing petrol engines and/or petrol
fuel tanks. Purpose-designed specific ventilation systems for petrol engine and fuel tank spaces,
(excluding PWC’s) are described in the harmonised standard BS EN ISO 11105:1997- Small craft -
Ventilation of compartments containing petrol engines and/or petrol fuel tank.

For other installations the engine manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed.

Due consideration should be given for heat dissipation from the engine space as well as the air
requirements for the engine. The ventilation should not allow the ingress of water and these openings
may be considered in establishing the down flooding height and may have to be taken into account
when checking stability and buoyancy assessment. It should also be noted that fire extinguishing
systems may not be effective unless air intakes can be closed in the event of a fire.

Exposed parts
ER 5.1.3 Unless the engine is protected by a cover or its own enclosure, exposed moving or hot parts of
the engine that could cause personal injury shall be effectively shielded.

There is no standard applicable to this requirement. The principle being that if you can ‘walk into’ an
engine compartment then exposed moving or hot parts should be protected. An engine box or under
cockpit floor space would be deemed to be a cover.
9 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

ER 5.3 - Electrical systems shall be designed and installed so as to ensure proper operation of the craft
under normal conditions of use and shall be such as to minimise risk of fire and electric shock.

Attention shall be paid to the provision of overload and short-circuit protection of all circuits, except
engine starting circuits, supplied from batteries.

Ventilation shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of gases, which might be emitted from
batteries. Batteries shall be firmly secured and protected from ingress of water.

Harmonised standards:

BS EN ISO 10133:2012 Small craft - Electrical Equipment - Extra-low-voltage DC installations

BS EN ISO 13297:2012 Small craft - Electrical Equipment - AC installations

EN 60092-507:2000 Electrical installations in ships – Part 507: Pleasure craft (This standard is applicable
only to craft with three-phase electrical system)

Electrical equipment for use on 50-1000volts a.c is subject to the ‘Low Voltage Directive 93/68/EEC’
and must be separately CE marked.

In the UK guidance is provided by the British Marine Electrical and Electronics Association Code of
Practice that contains both of the harmonised standards BS EN ISO 10133 and BS EN ISO 13297
together with many notes and definitions with special sections on inverters and shore supply
connections.

The general requirements for extra low voltage d.c. systems is to use flexible cables properly supported
and with appropriate over current protection. Batteries should be in a ventilated compartment and
properly restrained against movement.

For low voltage (less than 250volt) a.c. systems earth-leakage protection should be provided in the
main supply circuit. Separation of conductors from any d.c. system is required.
10 GAS INSTALLATION

ER 5.5 Gas systems for domestic use shall be of the vapour-withdrawal type and shall be designed and
installed so as to avoid leaks and the risk of explosion and be capable of being tested for leaks.
Materials and components shall be suitable for the specific gas used to withstand the stresses and
exposures found in the marine environment.

Each appliance shall be equipped with a flame failure device effective on all burners. Each gas-
consuming appliance must be supplied by a separate branch of the distribution system, and each
appliance must be controlled by a separate closing device. Adequate ventilation must be provided to
prevent hazards from leaks and products of combustion.

All craft with a permanently installed gas system shall be fitted with an enclosure to contain all gas
cylinders. The enclosure shall be separated from the living quarters, accessible only from the outside
and ventilated to the outside so that any escaping gas drains overboard. Any permanent gas system
shall be tested after installation.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 10239:2008 - Small craft - Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) system

A semi-fixed system based on a portable device is considered as permanently installed

All equipment supplied must also be suitable for use in a recreational craft. For example, a properly CE
marked gas appliance may be satisfactory in a house or caravan, but not suitable for use in a marine
environment. Particular attention should be paid to the design of the system including ventilation
requirements. Room sealed appliances are necessary except for attended appliances i.e cookers. Gas
lockers need to be vapour tight to the craft interior and have an overboard drain.

Not specifically mentioned in the Essential Requirements are LPG powered craft. A harmonised
standard has been published as BS EN ISO 15609:2012 – LPG equipment and accessories – LPG
propulsion systems for boats, yachts and other craft. Further guidance is available from the LPGA Code
of Practice 18:2003 Recommendations for the safe use of LPG as a propulsion fuel for boats, yachts and
other craft.

Although private recreational craft do not come within scope of the Gas (Installation and Use)
Regulations 1998 installers of gas systems are still required to be ‘competent’ to carry out any work on
a gas installation.
11 FIRE PROTECTION

ER 5.6.1 The type of equipment installed and the layout of the craft shall take account of the risk and
spread of fire. Special attention shall be paid to the surroundings of open flame devices, hot areas or
engines and auxiliary machines, oil and fuel overflows, uncovered oil and fuel pipes and avoiding
electrical wiring above hot areas of machines.

ER 5.6.2 Fire-fighting equipment - Craft shall be supplied with fire-fighting equipment appropriate to
the fire hazard, or the position and capacity of fire-fighting equipment appropriate to the fire hazard
shall be indicated. Craft shall not be put into service until the appropriate fire-fighting equipment is in
place. Petrol engine enclosures shall be protected by a fire extinguishing system that avoids the need to
open the enclosure in the event of fire. Where fitted, portable fire extinguishers shall be readily
accessible and one shall be so positioned that it can easily be reached from the main steering position of
the craft.

ER 3.8 Escape (second paragraph) – All habitable craft shall be provided with a viable means of escape
in the event of fire.

Harmonised standards: BS EN ISO 9094-1:2003- Small Craft - Fire Protection Part 1: Craft with a hull
length of up to and including 15 metres

BS EN ISO 9094-2002 – Small Craft – Fire protection Part 2 Craft with hull length of over 15 metres.

General requirements relating to fire protection, fire-fighting equipment and escape in the event of fire
are provided in the harmonised standard BS EN ISO 9094 Small Craft - Fire Protection. The standard is
in two parts, one covering boats (excluding PWC’s) up to 15m length overall and the other covering
boats of length greater than 15m.

Some of the requirements of the standard can be summarised as follows:- A) Fire protection.

Physical barrier or air gap between petrol tanks and engines. Escape routes and exits to be not more
than 5 m distance. Not passing over cookers and if separated by a solid partition not leading past a
cooker or engine space. Minimum clear opening of 450 mm diameter or 380 mm smallest dimension if
not circular.

Materials near cooking appliances to be fireproof and/or restricted in their positioning. Engine spaces
shall be ventilated and if insulation installed it must be fire retardant. Electrical, fuel and LPG systems
should be installed to the appropriate harmonised standards.

B) Fire fighting systems for engine/fuel tank spaces.

Open boat and portable fuel tank – petrol outboard single tank <25kw no requirement. Above 25 kw
but below 10m hull length, one portable fire extinguisher located within one metre of the cockpit/helm
position. Minimum capacity 8A/68B.

Open boat with petrol outboard with more than one tank per engine or installed tanks in an enclosed
space – fixed or portable system to flood fuel space.

Petrol inboard engine – fixed system.


Diesel engine in open launch – portable extinguisher and fire port in engine casing. Diesel engine below
cockpit or inside boat – fixed system or portable with fire port.

Craft meet the RCD with the position and capacity of fire extinguisher(s) indicated, but can not be put
into service and operation until they are in place.

The number, type and capacity of portable fire extinguishers and the extinguishing media may also be
subject to national regulations.

Craft over 13.7 metres (45’) come under the Merchant Shipping (Fire Protection: Small Ships)
Regulations and awareness of these requirements and exemptions should be sought. Other local
conditions such as the Boat Safety Scheme for inland waterway craft may apply.
12 STEERING SYSTEM AND OTHER INSTALLATIONS

Steering system
ER 5.4.1 Steering systems shall be designed, constructed and installed in order to allow the transmission
of steering loads under foreseeable operating conditions.

ER 5.4.2 Emergency arrangements - Sailboat and single-engined inboard powered motor boats with
remote-controlled rudder steering systems shall be provided with emergency means of steering the craft
at reduced speed.

Harmonised standards:

EN ISO 8847: 2004 Small craft - Steering gear-wire rope and pulley systems

EN 28848:1993/A1:2000 (ISO 8848) Small craft - Remote steering systems

BS EN ISO 10592:1994/A1:2000 Small craft - Hydraulic steering

EN 29775:1993/A1:2000 (ISO 9775:1990) Small craft - Steering gear - max. 40 kW

BS EN ISO 13929:2001 Small craft - Steering gear - Geared link systems

The standards are recommendations for construction and testing of systems and are for use mainly by
steering gear manufacturers.

Emergency steering is deemed to be for manual control of the rudder.

Navigation lights
ER 5.7 Where navigation lights are fitted, they shall comply with the 1972 COLREGS or CEVNI
regulations, as appropriate.

Navigation lights fitted must comply with the 1972 COLREGS or CEVNI regulations as required to the
satisfaction of the appropriate authority of the state whose flag the vessel is entitled to fly. BS EN ISO
ISO 16180:2013 – Electric navigation lights – Installation and placement is the harmonised standard
providing the requirements for the installation of navigation lights. ISO 19009, Electrical navigations
lights – Performance requirements is currently under development and aims at navigation light
manufacturers setting the performance of modern (LED) navigation lights.

Discharge prevention and toilet installations


ER 5.8 Craft shall be constructed so as to prevent the accidental discharge of pollutants (oil, fuel, etc)
overboard.

Craft fitted with toilets shall have either: (a) holding tanks; or

(b) provision to fit holding tanks.

Craft with permanently installed holding tanks shall be fitted with a standard discharge connection to
enable pipes of reception facilities to be connected with the craft discharge pipeline.

In addition, any through-the-hull pipes for human waste shall be fitted with valves, which are capable of
being sealed shut.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 8099:2001 Small craft - Toilet Waste Retention Systems
Note that “sealed shut” means that the valve cannot be opened to discharge overboard without
breaking a seal or unlocking a mechanical device.

Provision to fit holding tanks means that craft should be capable of the installation of a permanent
holding tank.

Standard discharge connection to be fitted is shown in BS EN ISO 8099.

Seacocks and through-hull fittings


ER 3.4 Openings in hull (last paragraph) - Through hull fittings designed to allow water passage into the
hull or out of the hull, below the waterline corresponding to the manufacturer’s maximum
recommended load according to section 3.6, shall be fitted with shutoff means which shall be readily
accessible.

Harmonised standard: BS EN ISO 9093 Small Craft - Seacocks and through-hull fittings

Part 1:1997 Metallic

Part 2:2002 Non-Metallic

The harmonised seacock standards, BS EN ISO 9093 Part 1and 2, mainly set requirements for the
manufacture of seacocks from metal or plastic. They also include some requirements for the
installation of seacocks that are relevant to boat builders. A summary of some of these installation
requirements is given in the notes below:

- Materials for fittings and fastenings, such as screws, shall be corrosion resistant and
the combination selected to avoid galvanic action.

- Hose ends shall be secured to fittings with double clamps if the through hull fitting is
below the waterline or within 300 mm of the waterline for sailing boats or 150mm for
motorboats.

- The position of seacocks must be such that they are readily accessible

- Seacocks must be securely fastened to permit easy operation without damage to the
hull structure or seacocks or loss of watertight integrity. If necessary the hull shall be
reinforced to prevent local lost of strength. In sandwich boats the core material shall
be replaced by a solid core in way of the fitting (or changed to single-skin).

The owners manual must include information on the position of seacocks, the operating instructions
(unless self-evident and/or marked on the seacock itself) and include a note recommending that
seacocks are kept closed when not needed for operation to minimise risk of flooding.

Liferaft stowage
ER 3.7 All craft of categories A and B, and craft of categories C and D longer than six metres shall be
provided with one or more stowage points for liferaft (s) large enough to hold the number of persons the
boat was designed to carry as recommended by the manufacturer. This (these) stowage point(s) shall be
readily accessible at all times.

Note that the words stowage point(s) have been interpreted to mean any space or surface in or on the
craft. The boat builder is only required to provide a suitable point or space for the liferaft, the actual
equipment and fittings may be provided by others.
Craft over 13.7 metres (45’) come under the Merchant Shipping (Fire Protection: Small Ships)
Regulations and awareness of these requirements and exemptions should be sought.

13 SOUND ASSESSMENT
Essential requirements for noise emissions
Recreational craft with inboard or stern drive engines without integral exhaust, personal watercraft and
outboard engines and stern drive engines with integral exhaust shall comply with the following
essential requirements for noise emissions.

NOISE EMISSION LEVELS

Recreational craft with inboard or stern drive engines without integral exhaust, personal watercraft and
outboard engines and stern drive engines with integral exhaust shall be designed, constructed and
assembled so that noise emissions measured in accordance with tests defined in the harmonised
standard EN ISO 14509 shall not exceed the limit values in the following table:

where PN = rated engine power in kW at rated speed and LpASmax = maximum sound pressure level in dB.

For twin-engine and multiple-engine units of all engine types an allowance of 3 dB may be applied.

This test is relatively straightforward to conduct when the wind and wave conditions are favourable,
but does require the use of specialist sound measuring equipment. Typically the sound measurement
would be conducted by a Notified Body or sub-contracted specialists that are acceptable to the Notified
body.

As an alternative to sound measurement tests, recreational craft with inboard engine configuration or
stern drive engine configuration, without integral exhaust, shall be deemed to comply with these noise
requirements if they have a Froude number of ≤ 1.1 and a power displacement ratio of ≤ 40 and where
the engine and exhaust system are installed in accordance with the engine manufacturer's
specifications.

"Froude number" shall be calculated by dividing the maximum boat speed V (m/s.) by the square root
of the waterline length lwl (m.) multiplied by a given gravitational constant,

"Power displacement ratio" shall be calculated by dividing the engine power P (kW) by the boat's
displacement D (t) = P/D
As a further alternative to sound measurement tests, recreational craft with inboard or stern drive
engine configurations without integral exhaust, shall be deemed to comply with these noise
requirements if their key design parameters are the same as or compatible with those of a certified
reference boat to tolerances specified in the harmonised standard.

Certified reference boat" shall mean a specific combination of hull/inboard engine or stern drive engine
without integral exhaust that has been found to comply with the noise emission requirements, when
measured in accordance with section 1.1, and for which all appropriate key design parameters and
sound level measurements have been included subsequently in the published list of certified reference
boats.

OWNER'S MANUAL

For recreational craft with inboard engine or stern drive engines with or without integral exhaust and
personal watercraft, the Owner's Manual required under Annex I.A Section 2.5, shall include information
necessary to maintain the craft and exhaust system in a condition that, insofar as is practicable, will
ensure compliance with the specified noise limit values when in normal use.

For outboard engines, the Owner's Manual required under Annex I.B.4 shall provide instructions
necessary to maintain the outboard engine in a condition, that insofar as is practicable, will ensure
compliance with the specified noise limit values when in normal use.
14 MANUFACTURE OF MARINE ENGINES

Essential requirements for exhaust emissions from propulsion engines

Propulsion engines shall comply with the following essential requirements for exhaust emissions.

ENGINE IDENTIFICATION

Each engine shall be clearly marked with the following information:

– Engine manufacturer's trademark or trade-name,

– Engine type, engine family, if applicable,

– A unique engine identification number,

– CE marking, if required under Article 10*.

These marks must be durable for the normal life of the engine and must be clearly legible and indelible. If
labels or plates are used, they must be attached in such a manner that the fixing is durable for the normal life
of the engine, and the labels/plates cannot be removed without destroying or defacing them.

These marks must be secured to an engine part necessary for normal engine operation and not normally
requiring replacement during the engine life.

These marks must be located so as to be readily visible to the average person after the engine has been
assembled with all the components necessary for engine operation.

EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Propulsion engines shall be designed, constructed and assembled so that when correctly installed and in
normal use, emissions shall not exceed the limit values obtained from the following table:

Where A, B and n are constants in accordance with the table, PN is the rated engine power in kW and the
exhaust emissions are measured in accordance with the harmonised standard EN ISO 8178-1:1996

For engines above 130 kW either E3 (IMO) or E5 (recreational marine) duty cycles may be used.

The reference fuels to be used for the emissions test for engines fuelled with petrol and diesel shall be as
specified in Directive 98/69/EC (Annex IX, Tables 1 and 2), and for those engines fuelled with Liquefied
Petroleum Gas as specified in Directive 98/77/EC.
DURABILITY

The manufacturer of the engine shall supply engine installation and maintenance instructions, which if
applied should mean that the engine in normal use will continue to comply with the above limits throughout
the normal life of the engine and under normal conditions of use.

This information shall be obtained by the engine manufacturer by use of prior endurance testing, based on
normal operating cycles, and by calculation of component fatigue so that the necessary maintenance
instructions may be prepared by the manufacturer and issued with all new engines when first placed on the
market.

The normal life of the engine is considered to mean:

(a) Inboard or stern drive engines with or without integral exhaust: 480 hours or 10 years,
whichever occurs first;

(b) Personal watercraft engines: 350 hours or 5 years, whichever occurs first; (c) outboard
engines: 350 hours or 10 years, whichever occurs first.

OWNER'S MANUAL

Each engine shall be provided with an Owner's Manual in the Community language or languages, which may
be determined by the Member State in which the engine is to be marketed. This manual shall:

(a) Provide instructions for the installation and maintenance needed to assure the proper
functioning of the engine to meet the requirements of paragraph 3, (Durability);

(b) Specify the power of the engine when measured in accordance with the harmonised
standard

BS EN ISO 16147:2002 Small craft - Inboard mounted diesel engine fuel and electrical system components

BS EN ISO 15584:2001 Small Craft - Inboard petrol engines – Engine-mounted fuel and electrical components

Notes:

Inboard and sterndrive engines are not subject to the Machinery Directive, but are referred to in the
Essential Safety Requirements of the Recreational Craft Directive, particularly those in points 2.5 Owners
Manual, 4 Handling Characteristics, 5.1.1 Inboard engine, but also 5.2.1 Fuel system, general, and 5.3
Electrical system.

*CE marking is required on outboard engines and stern drive engines with integral exhaust. Conforming
document(s) shall be supplied by the manufacturer/supplier of the engine.

Outboard engines

ER 5.1.4 All boats with outboard engines shall have a device to prevent starting the engine in gear, except:

(a) When the engine produces less than 500 Newtons (N) of static thrust;
(b) When the engine has a throttle limiting device to limit thrust to 500 N at the time of
starting the engine.

Relevant standard: BS EN ISO 11547:1995/A1:2000 - Small craft - Start-in-gear protection

Outboard engines will conform to the exhaust and sound emission requirements and be CE marked
accordingly.
15 MANUFACTURE OF COMPONENTS

Certain components are specifically mentioned in the Directive, and listed in Annex II:

"-whereas the essential requirements constitute the criteria by which recreational craft, partly completed craft
and their components when separate and when installed must comply".

Notes:

The certification requirements imply third party intervention, which has to take place before the component is
placed on the market. However, if the components in 2, 3, 4, and 5 below are made specifically by or for the
craft builder, the conformity assessment may be made by the craft builder with an Annex IIIb declaration.
They are not CE marked, falling under the CE marking of the craft.

CE marking for RCD 94/25/EC is only permitted for components listed in Annex II. Manufacturers of
components listed in Annex II for placing on the market for incorporation in a recreational craft must ensure
that these components meet the compliance requirements listed above, as relevant for the component, and
CE mark them to show compliance. Installation of components by the boat builder must be in accordance with
the component manufacturer’s instructions. If any variation to them is made it must be with the
manufacturer's written agreement unless the responsible person is satisfied that the installation is in
accordance with the ER's and is prepared to accept full responsibility.

The following components are subject to Annex II:

Ignition protected equipment for inboard and stern drive engines.

Any electrical equipment on a petrol inboard or sterndrive engine must be ignition protected. Accordingly any
electrical items manufactured for use on these engines, e.g. alternators, etc, must be ignition protected and
sold as components in accordance with this Annex. Other electrical items that are intended to be used in
petrol engine compartments or petrol fuel tank compartments, such as electric blower fans or electric bilge
pumps, must also be treated as a component in accordance with this annex and comply with the relevant
parts of the Directive.

Relevant harmonised standards for these components are:

EN 28846:1993/A1:2000 (ISO 8846:1990) Small craft - Electrical devices - Protection against ignition of
surrounding flammable gases

BS EN ISO 9097:1994/A1:2000 Small Craft - Electric fans

BS EN ISO 8849:1993/A1:2000 (ISO 8849:1990) Small craft - Electrically operated bilge pumps

Start-in-gear protection devices for outboard engines

ER 5.1.4, quoted above, requires start-in-gear protection devices for outboard engines. When such devices
are sold separately from the outboard engines they must be treated as components according to this annex.

The harmonised standard for such devices is BS EN ISO 11547:1995/A1:2000 Small craft - Start-in-gear
protection.
Steering wheels, steering mechanisms and cable assemblies

Steering wheels and steering gear systems that are sold for use on recreational craft must be treated as
components in accordance with this annex.

The harmonised standards applicable for different types of system are:-

BS EN ISO 8847:2004 - Steering - wire rope and pulley systems

EN 28848:1993/A1:2000 (ISO 8848:1990) Small craft - Remote steering system

EN 29775:1993/A1:2000 (ISO 9775:1990) - Small craft - Remote steering systems for outboard motors of 15
kW to 40 kW power

BS EN ISO 10592:1994/A1:2000 - Small craft - Hydraulic steering gear

BS EN ISO 13929:2001 - Small craft - Rack and pinion steering

Fuel tanks and fuel hoses

Fuel tanks and fuel hose sold for use on recreational craft must be treated as components according to this
annex. This applies to fuel tanks that are designed to be permanently fitted in recreational craft, i.e. it does
not apply to portable fuel tanks.

The harmonised standard BS EN ISO 10088:2013 Small craft - Permanently installed fuel systems and fixed fuel
tanks includes design and construction requirements for fuel tanks.

Fuel hose requirements are in the harmonised standards:-

BS EN ISO 7840:2013 Fire resistant fuel hoses

BS EN ISO 8469:2013 Non-fire resistant fuel hoses.

Prefabricated hatches and portlights

Prefabricated hatches and portlights sold to be fitted on recreational craft must be treated as components in
accordance with this annex. The term portlight is understood to refer to any prefabricated window for use in
the hull.

The requirements of the harmonised standard BS EN ISO 12216:2002 Small craft - Windows, portlights,
hatches, deadlights and doors - Strength and tightness requirements apply.
16 TECHNICAL FILE

The boat builder must retain a technical file for the boat with sufficient information to demonstrate
how the boat complies with the essential requirements of the Directive.

The documentation should include all specifications, drawings, calculations and information relating to
compliance with standards (e.g. electrical wiring specifications and diagrams) and results of tests
prescribed in standards. This is likely to be a large quantity of documentation altogether, and should be
stored by the boat builder for 10 years. Copies of this information do not need to be supplied with the
boats sold.

It is not sufficient to state, for example, that the boat complies with ISO 12217, a record of the tests of
calculations undertaken to establish this compliance must be kept. A written and possibly
photographic record of the stability test should be kept.

Note: The boat builder or person responsible for placing the boat on the market is required to keep the
Technical Documents for each type of craft, or each individual craft if a one-off, for 10 years after
completion of the last product (Annex 5.2). Where boats are being manufactured outside the EU and
no authorised representative is established within the EU then the person or company placing the boat
on the market must keep the Technical Documentation.
17 DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY

Anne XV requires that a written Declaration of Conformity to the provisions of the Directive must be
prepared by the manufacturer and a signed copy included in the Owner’s Manual supplied with each
boat sold.

The Directive requires that this Declaration shall include:

- Name and address of the manufacturer or his authorised representative established in


the Community

- Description of the recreational craft or of the component

- References to the relevant harmonised standards used, or references to the


specifications in relation to which conformity is declared

- Where appropriate, reference to the EC type-examination certificate issued by a


notified body

- Where appropriate, the name and address of the notified body

- Identification of the person empowered to sign on behalf of the manufacturer or his


authorised representative established within the community.

The Declaration must be draw up in the language applicable to the EEA State in which it is marketed.

A suggested layout for a Declaration of Conformity prepared by ADCO is shown with a template
provided in the supporting documentation.
18 COMFORMITY ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES

Before placing a boat or part completed boat on the market, and/or putting it into service, the
manufacturer or his authorised representative established in the Community is responsible for ensuring
that the appropriate conformity assessment procedures, also known as the “Modular Choice”, have
been applied to the boat.

The assessment procedures applicable to a particular boat depend on

a) The boat’s intended Design Category

b) The boat’s length

These criteria alone determine the appropriate conformity assessment, which should be used as
tabulated below.

*The use of Harmonised standards will give a presumption of conformity; however this does not
preclude the use of other standards that may be appropriate.

Module Descriptions

The conformity assessment procedures according to the required module must take place prior to
placing on the market.

Summary of the characteristics of modules

Module A -Internal Production Control - This is entirely a self-assessment module with no involvement
with a Notified Body, or any other 3rd party.

Module Aa - Internal Production Control plus Tests - Stability and buoyancy data or tests have to be
verified by a Notified Body, but all other criteria are still self-assessed.

Module B - EC Type-Examination - A “type-approval” procedure - the Responsible Person submits a


completed boat and its Technical Documentation for approval with a Notified Body.

Module C - Conformity To Type - When one boat of a class or family has been approved under Module
B, subsequent craft of the same class or family may use Module C, which is another self-assessment
module.

Module D - Production Quality Assurance - this is the equivalent of ISO 9002 - the quality assurance
procedure itself needs to be approved by a Notified Body.

Module E – Product Quality Assurance – for final product inspection and testing under the surveillance
of a notified body.

Module F - Product Verification - inspection by a Notified Body either of every product or of


homogeneous lots.

Module G - Unit Verification - Suitable for custom craft over 12m - Notified Body examines the
individual product.

Module H - Full Quality Assurance - the equivalent of ISO 9001, similar to Module D, but with additional
emphasis on quality assurance of design.
Notified Body Involvement

A full list of the Notified Bodies can be found in the support material and on the RSG (Recreational Craft
Sectoral Group Website (www.rsg.be). There is no requirement to use a Notified Body based in the
Country of build, so it is worthwhile contacting a number of Notified Bodies to compare the costs and
procedures. However a proportion of the cost of assessment will relate to the travel for the evaluator
so this may be another consideration to the choice of Notified Body.

It is always worthwhile discussing what tests and verifications will be required by the Notified
Body for your assessment as early in the design and build process as possible, this will allow both the
Notified Body and yourself to plans the assessments schedule and agree on the stages of construction
that inspections will be required before that stage of the build has been reached.

For a Module Aa Assessment

The Notified Body will review any technical documentation established by the manufacturer which
deals with stability and freeboard (3.2) and buoyancy and flotation (3.3) as well as with cockpit
drainage, openings in the cockpit and windows, as appropriate. This documentation may
comprise of test reports, calculations or other supplied information.

Tests, calculations, or other controls will them be performed on one or several boats
representing the production of the manufacturer, which are identified in the technical
documentation.

Upon satisfactory completion of the assessment the Notified Body will issue an Examination Report for
the craft which should be reference on the manufacturer’s Declaration of Conformity.

For a Module B Assessment

The Notified body will

Examine the technical documentation established by the manufacturer covering all objectives stated by
the essential safety requirements of the Directive,

Check the compliance of a specimen, representative of the production with the examined technical
documentation. In general this involves visiting the workshop and witnessing the different steps of
the construction of the craft (from hull construction till the final manufacturer’s tests); and
include the examination of construction processes in particular, for example composite construction
which is highly dependent on the production procedures. Test specimens may support the verification

Witness or verify tests deemed necessary, or endorse the corresponding test reports,

The following minimum survey activities must be performed (when applicable by random checks) with
regards to Construction

If necessary for the assessment of the structure, surveys shall be carried out during selected phases of
the project.

Verification of dimensions and position of structural members and enforcements

Visual inspection of construction details

Perform spot check of the specimen’s construction process. ( Laminating, welding, gluing, etc.)
Installations and Final inspection and trials

When conformity evidence to the Directive has been verified, an EC type-examination certificate
is issued by the Notified Body. The certificate contains the name and address of the manufacturer,
conclusions of the examination, conditions for its validity and the necessary data for identification
of the approved type.
19 PART BUILT BOATS

For part built boats including ‘sail-aways’ where all the constructional requirements of the Directive
cannot be complied with, a Declaration of Conformity in line with Annex IIIa of the Directive is required
to be given to the purchaser.

Part boats are not defined in the Directive but the European Commission definition is that a partly completed
boat does not meet all the essential requirements of the Directive related to the design and construction of
the craft and is destined to be completed by another party who will be regarded as the manufacturer. Note
RCD compliance applies when “placing on the market and/or putting into service”. A partly completed craft
cannot be put into service, therefore must be accompanied with the full RCD assessment of all requirements
that are applicable when put into service.

The official CIN number is not put on at this stage, the responsibility being that of the person taking the
final responsibility for completion of the craft.

The Annex IIIa Declaration requirements for part built craft are as follows:-

- name and address of the builder,


- the name and address of the representative of the builder established in the Community or,
if appropriate, of the person responsible for placing on the market,
- a description of the partly completed craft,
- a statement that the partly completed craft is intended to be completed by others and that
it complies with the essential requirements that apply at this stage of construction.

The shell/part boat or sail away builder will keep a technical file appropriate to the stage of construction
at which the craft was supplied. It is not a requirement to pass this on to the purchaser but may be
useful to maintain good customer relations
20 POST-CONSTRUCTIONAL ASSESSMENT

Post Construction Assessment (PCA) is the name given to compliance work on second-hand and
completed vessels that are required to be CE marked. Examples of this would be vessels whose origin
is outside of the EU being placed on the market or put into service after 16 June

1998. It is also applied to new boats built within the EU that for whatever reason have not been
through compliance procedures during build. Another situation would be where a vessel undergoes
such a major conversion that in effect it becomes a new vessel. The manufacturer of an older, non EU
(Third Country Vessel) may no longer be in business and this is frequently the case. However someone
has to take responsibility and in default this could be the boat owner himself.

The Directive states what has to be done in the absence of the Manufacturer or his Authorised

Representative. In these cases, the individual or company that places the vessel on the market or into
service under his own responsibility must lodge an application with a Notified Body (NoBo) for a post-
construction report. The Nobo should be supplied with any available technical information so that they
can inspect the vessel and make any additional calculations and assessments that will ensure that the
vessel has equivalent conformity to the requirements of the Directive. The NoBo will issue a
conformity report and inform the applicant of their responsibility to draw up a Declaration of
Conformity. A builders plate and CE mark will need to be made up and affixed to the vessel. In
addition to the normal technical information, the plate will bear the words “Post-Construction
Certificate” and show the Nobo’s identification number. It is essential to note that the responsibility for
compliance does not rest with the Notified Body but with the individual or company making the
application and named on the Declaration of Conformity.

In practice this means that all PCA performed under this regime will effectively be carried out in
Assessment Module G (Unit Verification) regardless of design category or length. To put this into
perspective, a narrowboat undergoing PCA will have to be inspected and the documentation certified
by the NoBo even though it is design category D and normally self assessed in Module A. The same
rule applies to a sportsboat that if assessed by the manufacturer or his authorised representative for
design category C again would use Module A because most are under 12 metres hull length.

The second-hand or existing vessel may be required to undergo testing for noise levels and internal
combustion engine emissions. This will have an impact on the price and the technical requirements
may prove an insurmountable obstacle to compliance without changing the machinery.

It is not true that boats brought in as personal imports for private use are exempt. Nor is it true that if
a boat is not sold for a period of five years, it becomes exempt. No legal status is acquired through
passage of time.

It is totally acceptable for the compliance inspections and the production of the Technical File to be
assigned to a competent third party. This could be a surveyor or a specialist consultancy for the
Recreational Craft Directive. Such organisations will have a library of up-to-date ISO standards and will
have considerable experience in applying equivalent alternatives where ISO standards cannot be
reasonably applied. They will be able to offer realistic practical solutions to non-conformities and be
able to produce a concise and compliant Technical File.
21 THE CE MARK
Annex IV of the Directive is the CE mark. The mark must be reproduced in accordance with the following form;

If the marking is reduced or enlarged, the proportions given in the above graduated drawing must be
respected. The various elements of the CE marking must have about the same vertical dimension, which shall
not be less than 5 mm. Usually incorporated in the builders plate.

The CE marking is followed by the identification number of the notified body, if it intervenes in the control of
production.
22 EXEMPTIONS AND LABELS
The following are excluded from the Directive:

a) Craft intended solely for racing, including rowing racing boats and labelled as such by the
manufacturer.

b) Canoes, kayaks, gondolas & pedalos.

c) Sailing surfboards.

d) Surfboards including powered surfboards.

e) Original, and individual replicas of, historical craft designed before 1950, built predominantly
with the original materials.

f) Experimental craft provided they are not subsequently placed on the Community market.

g) Craft or engines built for own use, provided they are not subsequently placed on the
Community market during a period of 5 years.

h) Craft intended for commercial purposes i) submersibles.

j) Air cushion vehicles.

k) Hydrofoils.

l) Steam powered craft, fuelled by coal, coke, wood, oil or gas.

m) Original and individual replicas of historical propulsion engines, which are based on a pre-
1950 design and fitted in craft referred to in e) or g).

For vessels outside the scope of defined legislation such as the Recreational Craft Directive, the General
Product Safety Directive (GPSD 2001/95/EC) prescribes an economic operator must have a process in place to
prevent unsafe goods being placed on the market. A technical file or technical documentation is a well
understood and established way of showing that a manufacturer is doing all they can to avoid placing unsafe
products on the market and to prove such a system is in place.

With regards to the content, a producer should be able to show that their product is a “safe” product. The
GPSD is focussed on risk management, assessment of the hazards and how the risks are being addressed. An
Economic operator should have some evidence that the product they are placing on the market is safe, for
example by calculation or test reports.

Businesses manufacturing products that fall under the remit of the GPSD are advised to best meet the
obligations of the directive by applying similar requirements to those found in the RCD. The use of the
Essential Requirements of the RCD as template guidance for inclusion in any technical documentation to
support conformity with the GPSD would be deemed as fulfilling the requirements to undertake a thorough
assessment of risk, and implementation of mitigation to those risks.

Due to the unique nature of many of the vessels constructed under the General Product Safety Directive, the
BMF would advise manufacturers to contact the Technical Department for further, individual information:
technical@britishmarine.co.uk.
Labelling - the exemption for ‘Racing Boats’ and ‘Historical craft’ requires them to be labelled as such. A
builders, label or plate as follows would satisfy this requirement.

ABC Boatyard

RACING CRAFT This craft is intended solely for racing and is outside

the scope of the EU Directive 94/25/EC for the

Construction of Recreational Craft

HISTORICAL CRAFT ABC Boatyard

Sunbeam class Historical Craft