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ELEC-E5650 Electroacoustics, Lecture 2

Part 1: Transducers

Ilkka Huhtakallio
Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics
Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering

March 03 2016
Contents

Electro-mechanic transducers
Electrodynamic
Electromagnetic (moving armature)
Capacitive
Piezoelectric
MEMS
Mechano-acoustic transducers
Piston

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Electrodynamic transducer 1/2

Electro-mechanical
Electro-mechanical
Electro-mechanical (moving-coil)
(moving-coil)
transducer
Electro-mechanical transduce
(moving-coil)transducer
transducer
static magnetic field
•  • Moving
Moving
dynamic coil
•  coil
Moving
field with
coil current
with
surrounding
with current in in
current magnetic
in magnetic
electrical
magnetic field:
field:
conductor
field: with current (a)(a)
(a)
Lorentz force moves the conductor (b)
(b)(b)

With controlled
Controlled sources
sources
•  Equivalent circuits:
u = Blv between
With domains
controlled sources
F = Bli With controlled sources
•  • Equivalent
Equivalent circuits:
circuits:
Figures adapted from [1]
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Electrodynamic transducer 2/2
Impedance transformation
F = Bli
u = Blv
Bli
Z M = F /v = u /(Bl )
= (Bl )2 i /u = (Bl )2 YE = (Bl )2 /ZE
With co
With controlled s
Equivalent •  Equivalent
•  Equivalent
circuits: circuits: circuits:

Using ideal transformer Using gyrator


With ideal
With ideal transformer transformer With gyrator
With gyrator With idealWith
tran
and
30 adapted from [1]
Figures and dualizer
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Electromagnetic transducers 1/2

Magnetic circuit is created MMF = M + Ni


ZM
by permanent magnet and
electromagnet.
The attraction force between
two poles can be modulated N turns
N
by electrical current in a coil. MMF
The flexing / hinged i S
armature is connected to
external mechanical circuit.

Unbalanced transducer
Figure modified from [2]

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Electromagnetic transducers 2/2
Balanced design increases
linearity
Called usually balanced
N
armature transducers S

Called also variable N


S
reluctance transducers i

Flexing designs are F


compliance controlled
Can be designed as mass
Balanced transducer
controlled rocking type Figure modified from [2]
transducer
Risk of "pole over"

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Capacitive transducer 1/3
Parallel conductive plates (electrodes) at close distance creates a
capacitor with capacitance CE
Where
ε r ε0 S εr and ε0 are constants
CE =
d S is area facing the electrodes
d is the distance between the electrodes
x x
Moving electrode diaphragm d0

d0
d0
Static electrode

Unbalanced Balanced

Figure adapted from [2]


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Capacitive transducer 2/3

Constant charge QE is supplied between electrodes using bias


voltage supply. The change in capacitance will result a change on
voltage:
QE
∆E =
∆CE

Sensing transducers are called condencer microphones


and
transmitting transducers electrostatic loudspeakers.

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Capacitive transducer 3/3

Polarization
voltage supply

Bias resistor High input impedance amplifier

N:1
A

e Audio signal
Diaphragm output
DC blocking
capacitor

Back electrode

Figure adapted from [2]

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Piezoelectric transducer

Piezoelectric effect is a property for certain materials to generate


electric charge distributed over its surface in response to a applied
mechanical stress.

The effect is reciprocal -> the material deforms if a charge is


applied.

Examples of piezoelectric materials:


Quarz and some other crystal
Some ceramics and even some polymers

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MEMS transducers

MEMS: Micro-electo-mechanical-system is a technology of very


small device

The sensing transducers are usually of capacitive type, but


manufacturing process is similar to that of an integrated circuits
Components 1 to 100 micrometers
Devices 20 micrometers to few millimeters
MEMS microphones usually includes amplifier, ADC and
codec (PDM or I2S)

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Mechanical-to-acoustical transducer (pisto
Mechanical-to-acoustical
•  Moving piston in fluid transducer (piston)
(air):
Mechanical-to-acoustical transducer
•  Moving
Moving pistonpiston
(areainS)
fluid
in (air):
a fluid
p = F /S
u = v (u=particle velocity, v=velocity of piston)
q = Sv (q=volume velocity)
Impedance transformation
ZM = F /v = qpS = S 2 p/q = S 2 ZA
•  /SEquivalent circuits:
•  Equivalent
Equivalent circuits:
circuits:

With
Using controlledWith
controlled controlled sources
sources
sources Withideal
Using ideal transformer
With ideal transformer transformer
31 Figures
31 adapted from [1]
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Bibliography

[1] Karjalainen, Matti. Analogies and equivalent circuits, Acoustics


seminar, 2009.
[2] Kleiner, Mendel. Electroacoustics. CRC Press, 2013.

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