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Baugh & Cable: Ch 10 enriched and spiced by borrowings from Mexican

Spanish.
Factors that establish English society on a more
 rom Russia have come troika, vodka, and, with
democratic basis
momentous political and economic changes,
 Reorganisation of parliament glasnost and perestroika .
 Revision of penal code and poor laws
 Restrictions placed on child labour
 Other industrial reforms Self-explaining Compounds

Consequences:  represented in the practice of making self-


explaining compounds to derive new words
 Lessened the distance between upper and lower
classes Compounds formed from Greek and Latin Elements
 Increased the opportunities for the mass of the
 eugenics – eu (well) and yev (to be born)
population to share in the economic and cultural
advantages Prefixed and Suffixes

Factors that unite different parts of Britain & the  appending familiar prefixes and suffixes to
spreading of standard speech existing words on the pattern of similar words
in the language.
 Establishment of first cheap newspaper (1816)
and cheap postage (1840)
 Improved means of travel and communication
brought about by the railroad & steamboat
 Telegraph

Other developments

 Developments in science and rapid progress made


in intellectual activity
 When all classes of people participate in such
activity, it expands the usage of words

The Growth of Science

 Biology – anaemia, bronchitis, appendicitis


 Electricity – dynamo, commutator, alternating
current
 Chemistry – alkali, benzene, creosote

World Wars
 words that came into English (1914-1918) as
consequence of World War 1. Some of these are
military terms representing new methods of
warfare (air raid, antiaircraft gun), camouflage
(French)

Language as a Mirror of Progress

 Symbols by which people express their ideas

Sources of New Words: Borrowings

 Southwestern United States and increasingly


throughout the country, the dinner table is