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SPE 120681

Effects of Subsurface Pump Size and Setting Depth on Performance of


Sucker Rod Artificial Lift—A Simulation Approach
Shedid A. Shedid, Texas A&M University at Qatar

Copyright 2009, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2009 SPE Production Operations. Symposium held 4 -8 April 2009 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position
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Abstract the costly downtime due to breakdown. This means


The need for better understanding of sucker rod pumping obtaining a better understanding of the important factors
process is heavily required. Many problems are still under affecting the pump performance such as the influence of
investigation such as determination of the fluid level from the fluid level from surface, the effect of pump size and
surface, selection of the optimum pump size and the pump setting depth on both the pump flow rate and the
required pump setting depth to maximize the pumping rod stress of the sucker rod as an artificial lift method.
rate in a particular well. The main purposes of this study The purpose of the artificial lift is to maintain a reduced
are to investigate effects of fluid level over pump, pump bottom-hole pressure so that the producing formation can
size, and pump setting depth on the sucker rod provide the desired flow rate of reservoir fluids. There are
performance. These goals are achieved using the Artificial many artificial lift systems1-6 currently applicable in the
Sucker Rod Pump (ASRP) design simulator with actual petroleum industry. These systems include: (1) Sucker
field data. rod pumping (Beam pumping), (2) Gas lift, (3) Electrical
The results show that applying good fluid level from the submersible pumping, (4) Hydraulic (Piston and Jet)
surface and increasing the plunger stroke consequently pumping, (5) Plunger (Free-piston) lift, and (6) other
increase the resultant pumping flow rate. Furthermore, methods such as: Ball-pump and Gas-actuated pump. The
good fluid level yields high pump intake pressure and beam pumping system3 is the most popular artificial lift
results in a good pump fillage, which increases the pump system all over the world.The sucker rod pumping
efficiency. In addition, the analysis of the effect of pump system1,3,5,6 consists mainly of five parts including (1) The
size on rod stress shows that the increase of pump size subsurface sucker rod-driven pump, (2) The sucker rod
increases the rod stress and increases the pump flow rate. string, (3) The surface pumping equipment, (4) The power
Therefore, the plunger size must be selected according to transmission unit, and (5) The prime mover. The pump1
both the required flow rate and the allowable sucker rod consists simply of a working barrel (or linear) suspended
stress. With respect to the effect of the pump setting depth on the tubing; the plunger is moved up and down inside
on the performance of the sucker rod pump, the increase this barrel by the sucker rod string. At the surface, the unit
of the pump setting depth reduces the pump flow rate and and prime mover provide the oscillating motion to the
increases the rod stress. Actual Egyptian field data is used sucker rod string and then to the subsurface pump. Sucker
for the purpose of achieving this simulation investigation rods are available in different sizes including the
of the above-mention effects. following standard sizes 5/8, 3/4, 7/8, 1.0, and 17/8// in
diameter. Two valves are installed at the bottom of the
1. Introduction and Literature Review working barrel. These valves are (a) standing valve (SV):
The energy crisis confronting the world now has made the it is a stationary ball-and-seat valve, and (b) travelling
optimum selection and operating of the oil field valve (TV): it is located in the plunger.
production equipment to be a must. This is certainly very Maintaining the required bottom-hole pressure is the basis
true of oil field pumping units, especially for the for the design procedure of any artificial lift installation
developed/depleted wells. It is imperative to size the regardless of the type of lift installed. All methods2, 3 of
pumping unit according to the well conditions as accurate the design of a sucker rod pumping system confirmed that
as possible. In the mean time, it is equally important to the fluid level over the pump and the setting depth of the
operate the pumping unit within its optimum rate to avoid pump represent two of the minimum mainly required
2 SPE 120681

information to start the design procedure. Han et al7 load (PPRL), (3) Minimum polished rod load (MPRL),
showed that the setting depth of the subsurface pump is an (4) The required counterbalance effect (CBE) in pounds,
important predetermined parameter for the process of (5) Pumping speed in stroke per minute, (6) Polished rod
pump design, while assuming 100 % pump fillage and a horsepower (PRHP), (7) The production at 100 %
pumped off conditions. These conditions may not be efficiency in barrels per day, and (7) The production at 80
consistent with the operated well conditions. % efficiency in barrels per day. For the purpose of
achievement this simulation investigation study, the peak
Although sucker rod pumping has been widely applied in
polished rod load (% Goodman diagram) and the
the oil industry as one of the most popular artificial lift
production at 80 % efficiency are used since all of the
method, it still has many questions seeking satisfactory
other output parameters are kept constant as inputs.
answers. These questions may include what are the
optimum pump setting depth and the plunger size With respect to the selection of the pump size, the pump
providing the maximum pumping rate for a specific displacement3 for given plungers size and for given
producing well?, what is the required fluid depth over the combination of pumping speed and stroke can be
pump in the annulus during pumping?, and what is the determined from the following equation:
influence of rod stress on the selection of the pump size,
and consequently on the resultant flow rate?. PD = KxS P xN (1)

Actual field data of some Egyptian oil fields including: Where


Aman, North East, and Meleiha are used to achieve this
PD = Total pump displacement, B/D
study. In addition, this study investigates mainly the
effects of fluid over pump, pump size, and pump setting K = A pump constant, depending upon the plunger size
depth on the sucker rod pump performance. and given by K = 0.1484 AP.
AP = Cross-sectional area of the pump plunger, sq. inch
2. Sucker Rod Pumping Analysis SP = effective plunger stroke, inch
The analysis of the sucker rod pump has been performed N = Pumping speed, spm.
using the Artificial Sucker Rod Pump (ASRP) design
software called LOADCAL. LOADCAL8 is a design The volumetric pump efficiency (EV) can be determined
by:
calculation program for conventional-Mark II-RM- and
air balance units. This program uses API-RP-11L EV = Q / PD (2)
procedure and is based on developing a set of graphs for
the desired unit geometry and pumping conditions by Where
using a wave equation program. Through the development
of this design software, the wave equation and simulation Q = Actual production rate at the surface, B/D
techniques are used to mimic pumping conditions and The volumetric pump efficiency (EV) is influenced by
calculate the loads and displacements. pump slippage and produced fluid properties such as gas
Three selections are available while using the LOADCAL constant, foaming characteristics, and fluid shrinkage
program8. These selections include: (1) APIROD: factor.
Predicts pumping unit loadings for standard API rod With respect to the stress of the rod string, the maximum
strings, (2) SBAR: Predicts pumping unit loadings with anticipated stress of a tapered rod string has not to exceed
non-standard rod strings and/or sinker bars at the bottom the safe allowable working stress (usually 30,000 psi).
of the string, and (3) TMAX: Determines production and The maximum stress at the top of the entire rod string
pumping unit loads for a given maximum torque (A (also called Peak Polished Rod Load, PPRL) can be
standard API rod string is assumed). Another set of experimentally measured or calculated as follows:
selections are also used for the development of the
LOADCAL program and can be used for loading WMax
calculations. These sets involve: (1) Conventional, (2) Stress − at − the − top = (3)
ATop
Mark II, (3) RM Unit, and (4) Air Balance. This current
study has been achieved using the following two Where
selections, which satisfy the needs for the selected well
and pump conditions under investigation: (1) APIROD, WMax = Maximum weight of the rod string, lb
and (2) Mark II. It is important to indicate the difference ATop = Cross-sectional area of the top rod string section,
between the pump depth and the fluid level over pump.
sq. inch. The maximum stress5 of the rod string depends
The pump depth refers to the distance from surface to
mainly on the grade of the used rod. For API Grade C
pump (ft). The fluid level refers to the distance from rods, the maximum allowable stress is given by:
surface to fluid level in the producing well (ft).
The output of the LOADCAL program8 contains the
following information: (1) Torque, (2) Peak polished rod SA = (22,500 + 0.5625 Smin) x S. F (4)
SPE 120681 3

And for API Grade D rods, the maximum allowable stress of the pump flow rate when the fluid level over
is given by: pump increases. The good fluid level over the pump
SA = (28,750 + 0.5625 Smin) x S. F (5) reduces the rod stretch and consequently increases
the effective plunger stroke. This consequently leads
Where
to an increase in the pump flow rate due to the
Smin = Minimum rod stress (either calculated or measured) resulting high pump intake pressure. In addition, the
S F = Service Factor (S F = 1.0 for API Grades C and D) increase of fluid level leads to a reduction in sucker
rod stress, due to the buoyancy effect. A conclusion
can be drawn that the increase of fluid level leads to
3. Results and Discussions an increase of pump flow rate and a decrease of rod
stress, for different values of stroke length, pump
The flow rate (at 80 % pump efficiency) and stress speed, and pump setting depth.
load for sucker rods (Norrris, N97) versus fluid over
the pump have been estimated for the well and pump
conditions, listed in Tables 1 and 2. These 3.2. Effect of Pump Size
conditions represent a wider range than actual and
currently used conditions in the Egyptian oil fields. Four different pump sizes are selected to study this
effect on the artificial sucker rod pump performance.
The flow rate (at 80 % pump efficiency) is These pump sizes include: 2.5, 2.25, 2.0, and 1.75
calculated considering the plunger/barrel slippage inch. For each pump size, Nine runs are made for
effect, well fluid properties and the shrinkage factor. different values of stroke length (112, 128, and 144
The rod stress of the sucker rod pump is also inch). Therefore, the total number of performed runs
calculated as a percentage of Goodman diagram is thirty-six for each fluid level. Two other sets (each
considering Artificial Service Factor (ASF) to be of 36 runs) are made for other two fluid levels of
unity. 500 and 1,500 ft respectively. Results are tabulated
in Tables 3 for pump setting depth of 5,500 ft and in
Table 4 for pump setting depth of 5,900 ft. There is
3.1. Effects of Fluid Level from Surface and an optimum pump-bore, which provides effective
Fluid over Pump stroke travel and maintains moderate speed of
Seven different fluid levels from surface are used to operation. Larger plunger provides unnecessarily
investigate this effect, as shown in Figs. 1 to 5. The high load upon equipment while smaller plunger
influences of fluid level on required power, leads to high pumping speed and increases
maximum load, net production, maximum torque, acceleration (inertial) effects. Equation 2 is usually
and rod loading are shown in Figs. 1 to 5, used to select the most suitable pump size based on
respectively. The results indicated that an increase in the actual production rate at the surface and the
net production occurs with a decrease in fluid level pump displacement. The main drawback of this
from surface (or increase of fluid over pump). Three equation is that it does not consider the effect of
different fluid levels over the pump are used to increasing the flow rate on the rod stress. Therefore,
investigate the influence of fluid over pump on the current study generates satisfactory results for
pump flow rate and rod stress. These fluid levels are: filling this gap, treating this lack, and overcoming
(1) Zero ft (pump is set at the same fluid level), (2) this drawback of equation 2. The results of this
500 ft above the pump and (3) 1,500 ft above the study, tabulated in Tables 3 and 4, indicate that
pump. Using well and pump conditions listed in using larger pump size increases the flow rate and
Table 2 and for pump setting depth equals 5,500 ft, also increases the sucker rod stress. Then, Using a
both the pump rate (at 80 % efficiency) and the rod smaller sucker rod size can reduce the rod stress of
stress (% of Goodman diagram) are calculated using the sucker rod pump without reducing the well flow
the LOADCAL program. One-hundred-eight runs rate. The application of this beneficial conclusion is
are performed and the results are tabulated as shown expected to reduce the rod parted phenomena and
in Table 3. Another set of 108 runs is made but for the downhole pump failures.
pump setting depth of 5,900 ft, Table 4. The results More sizes of pumps are also investigated and
indicated that the increase of fluid over pump graphically plotted in Figs. 6 to 10. The influence of
increase the attained flow rate for different stroke pump diameter on surface maximum load, power
lengths and different stroke per minutes. Results required, existing maximum torque, rod loading, and
concerning the investigation of this effect are shown average pumping speed, are shown respectively in
in Tables 3 and 4. These results indicate an increase
4 SPE 120681

Figs. 6 to 10. The results indicated that the minmum one is 105 BOPD and 1.0 BWPD. Therefore, this
maximum surface load is attained when pump well is expected to bear some mechanical problems
diameter of 1.50-in is used and the increase of pump and the well operating conditions should be re-
size increases to maximum load and decreases the evaluated. For the well M-1, Meleiha oil Field, the
power required. calculated flow rate is 315 BOPD with 27.4 Mcf/D
gas while the measured liquid flow rate is 550 B/D.
The difference is attributed to the existence of the
3.3. Effect of Pump Setting Depth fluid pound. Table 1 listed all the used field data,
Two different pump setting depths (5,500 and 5,900 the program results of flow rate and rod stress (%
ft) are considered for studying this effect on sucker Goodman diagram) and comment on the results.
rod pump performance. For each selected pump
depth, 108 runs are performed considering different
5. Conclusions
fluid levels (Zero, 500, and 1,500 ft), different pump
sizes (2.5, 2.25, 2.0, and 1.75 inch), different stroke This simulation study was undertaken usig actual
lengths (112, 128, and 144 inch), and different pump field data to investigate the effects of fluid level
speeds (6, 8, and 10 spm). The results of using pump from surface, pump diameter, and pump setting
depth equal to 5,500 ft is listed in Table 3, while the depth on the performance of sucker rod pump
results of pump depth equals 5,900 ft is shown in performance. The following conclusions are
Table 3. The increment of pump setting depth attained:
causes an increment of the length of sucker rod
1. The pump flow rate increases with the increment
string. This increment of pump setting depth yields
of the fluid level over the pump while the pump
an increase of the rod stretch and decreases the
rod stress decreases, for fixed values of pump
effective stroke length. Consequently, the increase of
speed, stroke length, and pump size of the
pump setting depth leads to a decrease in the
sucker rod pump.
resulting flow rate. This conclusion can be obtained
2. The increase of pump size increases the flow
from a comparison the results of Tables 3 and 4.
rate and decreases the rod stress. Therefore, the
The reduction in flow rate can be attributed to the
plunger size of the pump has to be selected to
increase of sucker rod stress due to the increase of
gain the desired flow rate and to avoid the
rod weight and the resulting increase of friction (due
overload stress condition. This conclusion is
to the increase of the number of rod connections).
valid for different conditions of fluid level,
pump setting depth, and stroke length.
3. The decrease of pump setting depth increases the
4. Field Applications
pump flow rate and decreases the rod stress. The
Three wells are selected from three different increase of the resulting flow rate is mainly
Egyptian oil fields, including North East, Aman, and attributed to the increase of pump intake
Meleiha, to be used as field applications of this pressure while the reduction of the resulting
study, Table 1. These selected wells and their pump stress is mainly attributed to the reduction in
conditions are then used to define the applied range length and weight of the sucker rod.
of well and pump conditions, as shown in Table 2.
In addition to studying the effects of fluid level over
6. Recommendations
pump, pump size, and pump setting depth on the
performance of the sucker rod performance, the 1. The results of this study recommend using 2.25//
obtained output of this study can be used effectively pump size because these pumps are more
for: (a) mechanical evaluation of the pump suitable for flow rate range of 500 to 600 BPD
performance, and (b) determination the importance with stroke length range of 8 to 10 inch and fluid
of considering the pump fillage and friction effects. level over pump > 500 ft.
2. The results proves that the 2.5// pumps have to
With respect to well NE-20, North East Field, the be installed to produce more than 600 BPD,
calculated flow rate is 611 B/D while the measured although higher rod stress (more than 70 % of
one is 540 BOPD with 36 Mcf/D gas. This deviation
Goodman diagram with artificial service factor =
is mainly attributed to the existence of gas since the
1.0) is encountered. This application has to be
used design method (API-RP-11L) assumes 100 %
limited to the only required special cases.
pump filling. For the well A-21, Aman oil Field, the
calculated flow rate is 293 B/D while the measured
SPE 120681 5

3. In order to avoid the rod partition and to reduce References


the spare parts, the following recommendations
1. Nind, T. E. W. :Principles of Oil Well
can be applied: (a) the Electrical Submersible
Production: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Pump (ESP) could replace the 2.5// sucker rod
Second Edition, New York, Chapter 9, 1981, P.
pump after a detailed reservoir analysis of
240-58.
well/pump conditions, and (b) the 2.5// pumps
2. Gibbs, S. G., “Predicting the Behavior of a
could be installed in wells producing more than
Sucker Rod Pumping System,” SPE Reprint
600 BPD and having a high value of water cut.
Series, No. 12, published by the Society of
4. The advantages of using 1.75// pump size
Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Edition of 1975,
instead of 2.0// are not so evident to justify their
pp. 13-22..
application for lower flow rates in the future.
3. Brown, K. E., “Overview of Artificial Lift
Systems,” Journal of Petroleum Technology,
Nomenclature October, 1982, pp.2384-96.
4. Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J. Rivas, O. and
ASRP Artificial Sucker Rod Pump
Troconis, H., “Production Optimization of
AP Cross-sectional area of the pump plunger, Sucker Rod Pumping Wells Producing Viscous
sq. oil in Boscan Field, Venezuela,” SPE 29536,
inch The Production Operation Symposium,
Oklahoma City, Ok, 1995.
ATop Cross-sectional area of the top rod string 5. Hirschfeldt, M., Martinez, P., and Distel, F.
section, sq. inch “Artificial Lift Systems Overview and Evolution
in a Mature Basin: Case Study of Golfo San
CBE Required Counterbalance Effect Jorge,” SPE 108054, the 2007 SPE Latin
K Pump constant, depending upon the plunger American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering
Conference, Buenos, Argentina, 15-18 April,
size and given by K = 0.1484 AP. 2007.
EV The volumetric pump efficiency 6. Ghareeb, M., Shedid, S. A., Ibrahim, M.,
“Simulation Investigations for Enhanced
MPRL Minimum Polished Rod Load Performance of Beam Pumping System for Deep
N Pumping speed, spm. High Volume Wells,” SPE 108284, the 2007
International Oil Conference and Exhibition in
PD Total pump displacement, B/D Mexico, Veracruz, Mexico, 27–30 June, 2007.
PPRL Peak Polished Rod Load 7. Han, D., Wiggins, M., and Menzie, D., “An
Approach to the Optimum Design of Sucker-
PRHP Polished Rod Horsepower Rod Pumping Systems,” SPE 29535, presented
Q Actual production rate at the surface, B/D at the Production Operation Symposium held in
Oklahoma City, OK, USA, 2-4 April, 1995, pp.
SA Maximum allowable stress, psi 855-866.
Smin Minimum rod stress (either calculated or 8. Instructions for the use of LOADCAL (IBM
Version)-Internal Edition: Lufkin Industries,
measured)
Inc., Texas, 1998, USA.
SF Service Factor (S F = 1.0 for API Grades C 9. Clegg, J. D., “Improved Sucker Rod Design
Calculations” Southwestern Petroleum Short
and D)
Course, 1988.
SP Effective plunger stroke, inch
WMax Maximum weight of the rod string, lb

Subscripts
P Plunger
Min Minimum

V Volumetric
6 SPE 120681

Table 1- Well and Pump Data of Three Egyptian Oil Fields

Field North East Aman Meleiha


Well Number North East-20 Aman-21 Meleiha-1
Pump type Lufkin Mark II Lufkin Mark II Lufkin Mark II
Stroke length 144 inch 144 inch 144 inch
Pump diameter 2.25 inch 2 inch 2.25 inch
Pump intake 5,600 ft 5,625 ft 5,785 ft
Oil API 40 degree 40 degree 40 degree
Water sp. gravity 1.05 1.05 1.05
Oil production rate 540 BOPD 105 BOPD 315 BOPD
Water prod. Rate 0.0 BWPD 1.0 BWPD 0.0 BWPD
Gas production rate 36 Mcf/d 0.0 Mcf/d 27.4 Mcf/d
o o o
Surface temperature 70 F 70 F 70 F
o o o
Bottom-hole temp. 180 F 180 F 180 F
Pump efficiency 97 % 100 % 77 %

LOADCAL. Results
Flow Rate 611 B/D 293 B/D 550 B/D
Rod Stress 58.3 % 46.9 % 57.3 %
Comment Fluid pound exists ------- Fluid pound exists

Table 2 Applied Well and Pump Conditions

Type of surface unit Lufkin Mark II


Stroke/minute 6, 8, and 10.
Water cut 0 % and 50 %
Well head pressure 50 psi and 100 psi
Produced crude oil API 40 degree
Pump plunger size 2.5//, 2.25//, 2.0// and 1.75//
Pump setting depth 5,500 ft for runs in Table 3 and
5,900 ft for runs in Table 4
Type of rod string Norris 97 (high tensile-strength rod)
Produced crude oil specific gravity 0.82
Sucker rod string configuration size 87 ( 1// + 7/8// )
SPE 120681 7

Table 3- Calculated Values of Pump Flow Rate and String Load for
Different Pump Sizes, Fluid Level over Pump, Stroke Length,
and Stroke per Minute (Pump Setting Depth = 5,500 ft).
Operating Conditions
Pump Depth = 5,500 ft
Well Head Pressure (WHP) = 50 to 100 psi

Fluid Pump 112 128 144


Over Size Stroke Length(in) Stroke Length(in) Stroke Length(in)
Pump Goodman 6 8 10 6 8 10 6 8 10
(ft) Diagram SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
2.5// 296 410 532 355 486 636 412 567 739
% 57.4 57.4 62.9 53 59.6 66.3 54.6 61.6 69.6
//
2.25 256 353 460 302 417 543 349 480 624
0 % 44.3 50.2 56.5 46 52.5 60 45.2 55.3 63.1
//
2 213 294 362 250 344 445 287 393 507
% 38.2 44.1 50.7 40.9 47.3 53.7 43.5 60.6 66.7
1.75 171 235 302 200 273 350 226 311 396
% 34.1 39.8 44.9 36.8 43.1 48 39.4 46.3 51

2.5// 307 422 549 364 501 652 421 579 756
% 48.3 54.3 60.2 49.9 56.5 63.6 51.5 58.7 66.9
2.25// 262 361 471 306 425 553 443 487 632
500 % 41.7 47.6 54.3 43.8 50.3 57.7 46.4 53.4 60.6
//
2 217 299 367 254 348 449 291 396 512
% 36.8 42.6 45.7 39.5 45.8 51.7 42.1 49 54.7
1.75 174 237 305 202 275 353 230 313 401
% 33 38.7 43.3 36.7 41.9 46.4 38.3 45.1 49.5

2.5// 324 446 552 361 525 683 439 602 761
% 42 47.9 54.7 44.1 50.6 58 46.7 53.8 61
//
2.25 274 377 489 321 439 568 368 502 647
1500 % 37.4 43.3 49.5 40.1 46.6 52.2 42.7 49.8 55.6
//
2 225 306 396 262 358 459 299 407 521
% 33.9 39.6 44.5 35.6 42.9 47.7 39.2 46.1 50.7
1.75 178 243 311 207 281 359 234 319 407
% 30.5 35.4 40.1 32.8 39 43 33.9 40.3 45.3
8 SPE 120681

Table 4- Calculated Values of Pump Flow Rate and String Load for
Different Pump Sizes, Fluid Level over Pump, Stroke Lengths,
and Stroke per Minute (Pump Setting Depth = 5,900 ft).
Operating Conditions
Pump Depth = 5,900 ft
Well Head Pressure (WHP) = 50 to 100 psi
Fluid Pump 112 128 144
Over Size Stroke Length(in) Stroke Length(in) Stroke Length(in)
Pump Goodman 6 8 10 6 8 10 6 8 10
(ft) Diagram SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
//
2.5 265 395 504 427 474 606 399 554 712
% 65 60.6 66.3 56.3 63.9 69.4 58.6 55.9 73.2
//
2.25 248 334 441 294 409 525 340 474 609
0 % 47.6 53.7 59.4 49.4 55.6 63.5 51.3 57.9 67.4
2// 206 290 372 306 241 437 262 390 500
% 40.9 46.4 54.1 43.1 49 57.6 45.7 52.2 60.2
1.75 168 233 298 196 271 346 225 309 393
% 35.8 41.1 47.6 38.4 44.4 50.3 41 47.6 52.9

2.5// 294 406 522 351 488 626 406 568 729
% 51.9 65.2 63 53.8 60 67 55.6 52.7 70.9
//
2.25 254 353 453 300 418 537 347 483 620
500 % 45 51 57.5 47 63.1 61.6 49 55.4 66.2
//
2 212 295 380 249 345 442 286 395 505
% 39 44.2 52.6 41.6 47.5 55.2 44.1 50.7 57.8
1.75 171 236 301 199 247 349 227 312 397
% 34.6 40 45.7 37.3 43.3 48.4 39.8 46.5 50

2.5// 313 434 558 370 515 662 427 595 765
% 45.7 51.8 58.3 47.7 53.9 62.4 49.7 56.2 66.2
2.25// 266 371 477 313 434 557 360 491 636
1500 % 40.1 45.5 53.7 42.6 48.5 55.7 45.2 51.8 59.3
//
2 220 305 390 257 355 452 294 404 515
% 35.8 41.2 47.6 38.5 44.5 50.3 41.1 47.8 52.9
1.75 176 241 307 204 279 355 232 317 403
% 32.2 37.3 41.8 34.9 41 44.6 37.4 44.2 47.3
SPE 120681 9

65

60

55
Power required, hp

50

45

40

35

30
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 5950
Fluid level from surface, ft

Fig.1. Effect of fluid level from surface on required power.

30000
28000
26000
Peak polished rod load

24000
22000
20000
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 5950
Fluid level from surface,ft

Fig. 2. Effect of fluid level from surface on surface maximum load.


10 SPE 120681

850

Net bpdat 100% eff.


net production BP 800

750

700

650

600
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 5950
Fluid level from surface, ft

Fig. 3. Effect of fluid level from surface on o net production at 100 % efficiency.

1200

1000
peak torque, in-Ib

800

600

400

200

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 5950
Fluid level from surface, ft

Fig. 4. Effect of fluid level from surface on existing maximum torque.


SPE 120681 11

80

70

60
Rod Loading %

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 5950
Fluid level from surface, ft

Fig. 5. Effect of fluid level from surface on rod loading.

30000
Surface Max Load (lbs)

28000

26000

24000

22000

20000
2.75 2.5 2.25 2 1.75 1.5 1.25
Subsurface pump diameter, in

Fig. 6. Effect of subsurface pump diameter on surface maximum load.


12 SPE 120681

140

120

Power Required, h 100

80

60

40

20

0
2.75 2.5 2.25 2 1.75 1.5 1.25
Subsurface pump diameter, in

Fig. 7. Effect of subsurface pump diameter on power required.

1000
Existing Max Torque (m in-lbs)

900

800

700

600
2.75 2.5 2.25 2 1.75 1.5 1.25
Subsurface pump diameter, in

Fig. 8. Effect of subsurface pump diameter on existing maximum torque.


SPE 120681 13

70

65

Rod Loading, %
60

55

50

45

40
2.75 2.5 2.25 2 1.75 1.5 1.25
Subsurface pump diameter, in

Fig. 9. Effect of subsurface pump diameter on rod loading.

16
Average Pumping Speed (SPM)

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2.75 2.5 2.25 2 1.75 1.5 1.25
Subsurface pump diameter, in

Fig. 10. Effect of subsurface pump diameter on averaging pumping speed.