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Qms 125 Sem 2 2014/2015 1

Mzumbe University
Faculty of Science and Technology
Qms 125:Linear Algebra
Tutorial sheet 4.

Vector Spaces

 
x 1 1
 
1. Find (x, y) ∈ C2 such that the matrix A =  1 1 admits the vector [1, 2, 3]T as an eigenvector.
 
y
 
1 1 1

 
1 1 1 1
 
 
1 1 1 1
2. Given matrix A = 



1 1 1 1
 
1 1 1 1

a) Determine the characteristic polynomial of A and then eigenvalues of A.

b) Determine the basis of ker(A) and that of ker(λI − A).

c) Write down the basis of R4 formed by the eigenvectors of A.

3. Show that, if u and v are two vectors in Rn , then

a) |u.v| ≤ kukkuk (Cauchy-Schwartz inequality)

b) ku + vk ≤ kuk + kvk (Triangle inequality)

4. a) Prove that, if u and u are two orthogonal vectors in Rn then ku + vk2 = kuk2 + kvk2 (Pythagorean
theorem in Rn ).

b) If u and v are two vectors in Rn . Then required to prove that u.v = 41 ku + vk2 − 14 ku − vk2 .

5. If u, v and w are three vectors in Rn then show that:

a) d(u, v) ≥ 0

b) d(u, v) = 0 if and only if u = v

c) d(u, v) = d(v, u)

d d(u, v) ≤ d(u, w) + d(w, v) (Usually called the Triangle inequality)

6. Which one of the following subsets of R2 are subspaces?

a) W1 is the set of all vectors of the form (u1 , u2 ), where u1 ≥ 0 and u2 ≥ 0.

b) W2 is the set of all vectors of the form (x, y), where x = 0.

7. In R3 , let v1 = (1, 2, 1), v2 = (1, 0, 2) and v3 = (1, 1, 0). Determine whether the vector v = (2, 1, 5) is a linear
combination of the three vectors above.
Qms 125 Sem 2 2014/2015 2

 
1 2 1
 
8. Show that every vector in R3 of the form (t, −t, t) for t ∈ R is in the null space of the matrix A = −1
 
0 1
 
2 6 4

9. In R3 , let v1 = (2, 1, 1) and v2 = (1, −1, 3). Determine whether the vector v = (1, 5, −7) belongs to
Span{v1 , v2 }.

10. In P2 , let v1 = 2t2 + t + 2, v2 = t2 − 2t, v3 = 5t2 − 5t + 2 and v4 = −t2 − 3t − 2. Determine whether the
vector v = t2 + t + 2 belongs to Span{v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 }.

11. Let V be the vector space R3 . Let v1 = (1, 2, 1), v2 = (1, 0, 2) and v3 = (1, 1, 0). Find out whether v1 , v2 , v3
span V .

12. Determine whether the vectors v1 = (3, 2, 1), v2 = (1, 2, 0) and v3 = (−1, 2, −1) in R3 are linearly indepen-
dent.

13. Are the vectors v1 = (1, 0, 1, 2), v2 = (0, 1, 1, 2) and v3 = (1, 1, 1, 3) in R4 linearly dependent or linearly
independent?

     
2 1 1 2 0 −3
14. Are the vectors v1 =   , v2 =   , v3 =   in M22 linearly independent?
0 1 1 0 −2 1

15. Are the vectors v1 = t2 + t + 2, v2 = 2t2 + t and v3 = 3t2 + 2t + 2 in P2 linearly dependent or linearly
independent?

16. Consider the vectors v1 = (1, 2, −1), v2 = (1, −2, 1), v3 = (−3, 2, −1) and v4 = (2, 0, 0) in R3 . Is S =
{v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 } linearly dependent or linearly independent?

17. Fact: Let S = {v1 , v2 , . . . , vn } be the set of n vectors in Rn . Let A be the matrix whose columns(rows) are
the elements of S. Then S is linearly independent if and only if det A 6= 0. Is S = {[1, 2, 3], [0, 1, 2], [3, 0, −1]}
a linearly independent set of vectors in R3 ?
Qms 125 Sem 2 2014/2015 3

Assignment 2(Group Assignment)

 
6 0 0 0 0
 
−4
 
9 0 0 0
 
18. Compute the eigenvalues and the associated eigenspaces of the matrix P = −2
 
0 11 0 0
 
−1
 
1 3 0 0
 
0 1 −7 4 8