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STUBBEN - INSPIRATION FROM VIENNA AND THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE POSEN IN XIXc.

IMPERIAL DISTRICT

Until the end of the 19th century Poznan was a fortification sur- rounded with a belt of massive defensive structures which hindered the spatial expansion of the city. After the Prussian fortifications were dismantled in 1902 an elegant layout was developed by Josef Stubben, one of the most remarkable European urban designers, which skillful- ly combined green areas and newly constructed public edifices repre- senting various styles. Since these were being erected in the proximi- ty of a castle which at the time was also under construction here, the whole area became known as the imperial district.

After the deconstruction of the polygonal part of the Stronghold Poznań, Poznań was transformed to a residential city (Haupt- und Resi- denzstadt). On the new lands, Prussian authorities - who acquired the city in the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 - decided to build a new Germanic urban core. Stübben marked out a stylish street which was to circle the city centre of Poznan - at present Independence Avenue (Aleje Niepodległości) and Queen Jadwiga Avenue (Królowej Jadwigi). Making a reference to Vienna and Krakow, this street along with the parks and green squares adjacent, was to serve as a promenade. In the place of the former Tietzen Fort, situated between the no longer existing Royal Gate and Berlin Gate, a large public park was planted (today - Mickiewicz Park), surrounded by magnificent buildings. Monu- mental buildings of the Imperial Districts surrounding the castle and park included:

-Post Office building

-headquarters of the Prussian Settlement Commission (now Collegium Maius)

-Royal Academy (Königliche Akademie in Posen) (today Aula of the-

-Adam Mickiewicz University, Collegium Minus and the Collegium Iu- ridicum)

-City Theatre (today the opera house)

-Academy of Music (Akademia Muzyczna w Poznaniu)

-Evangelical-Augsburg Church of St. Paul (today Roman Catholic

-Church of the Holiest Savior)

-Monument to Otto von Bismarck

Stübben borrowed the actual idea to situate the official buildings near the ring from Vienna. However, the Viennese developments aimed to preserve the Habsburg Kulturträger (bringer of culture) myth, where- as the Imperial District was a manifestation of the new Hebungspoli- tik, a pro Germanic policy for the eastern provinces of the Prussian state. The premises of the new town planning concept for Poznań made a reference to earlier plans for other German cities, for example the Ring and the New Town in Köln. They also displayed some analo- gies to solutions approved, for instance, for Metz and Strasbourg, as well as other Polish towns situated within the Austrian partition, for example the plan for Krakow of 1910.

View of the Imperial district in Poznan

for Krakow of 1910. View of the Imperial district in Poznan Map of fortified Poznan 1871.
for Krakow of 1910. View of the Imperial district in Poznan Map of fortified Poznan 1871.

Map of fortified Poznan 1871.

Imperial district in Poznan Map of fortified Poznan 1871. Josef Stübben, areas along ramparts (northern and

Josef Stübben, areas along ramparts (northern and southern section) showing the Imperial Forum

(northern and southern section) showing the Imperial Forum Map of Poznan 1909. after dismantlement of the

Map of Poznan 1909. after dismantlement of the fortifications

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE SEMESTER 4 2017/18 DINO JOZIC AND NEDZLA SEFEROVIC

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