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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/nucengdes

Thermal striping limits for components of sodium cooled fast spectrum reactors

P. Chellapandi ∗ , S.C. Chetal, Baldev Raj

Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102, Tamil Nadu, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: With the objective of establishing thermal striping limits for future sodium cooled fast spectrum reac-

Received 11 March 2009 tors (SFR), a fracture mechanics-based method employing ‘-d approach’ recommended in RCC-MR:

Received in revised form 7 August 2009 Appendix A16 has been followed. Towards this, an idealized geometry, thermal ﬂuctuations in the form

Accepted 14 August 2009

of constant power spectral density and pessimistic material data were considered and temperature and

thermal stresses are computed taking in to account frequency-dependent thermal attenuation on the

structural wall. The effect of attenuation is found to be signiﬁcant. The limits are derived at various

potential locations in SFRs, which are also subjected to creep-fatigue damage due to major cycles caused

by startup, shutdown, power failures and pump trips, etc. The maximum range of temperature ﬂuctua-

tions can be as high as 70 K where there is practically no accumulated creep-fatigue damage and 45 K is

acceptable where the creep-fatigue is signiﬁcant (0.9). These limits are found to be consistent with the

broad limits extrapolated from the failure experiences of international SFRs and sodium facilities. Pool

hydraulic computations carried out to identify and quantify the thermal striping zones conﬁrmed that

the proposed limits can be respected with good margins for SFRs.

© 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction In the pool type concept, both hot sodium pool which is at about

820 K and cold pool at about 670 K co-exist, which imposes high

Liquid sodium is the preferred coolant in almost all liquid metal T (150 K-maximum) in sodium in the narrow transition regions

cooled fast spectrum reactors (SFR). High boiling point implies that of hot and cold pools, during normal operating as well as transient

sodium remains in liquid state up to the temperature of 1175 K conditions. This is termed as ‘thermal stratiﬁcation’. With the ASS

at atmospheric pressure. Excellent heat transfer characteristics of as structural material which has low thermal conductivity and high

sodium are advantageous. Higher boiling point permits high oper- coefﬁcient of thermal expansion and the sodium with its inherently

ating temperature for the reactor, still ensuring sufﬁciently high high heat transfer coefﬁcient, the adjoining structural wall surface

margin to avoid boiling of the coolant under all the design basis is subjected to high T, created in sodium without any signiﬁcant

events. Sodium remains in liquid state during operating conditions ﬁlm drop and time delay. This causes high thermal stress range

without calling for any pressurization and hence design pressure () in the structural wall. Further concern of thermal stratiﬁcation

for components is nearly atmospheric, in turn requiring lower wall is steady oscillations, relatively at lower frequencies (<1 Hz), which

thickness for structures. The excellent heat transfer properties pro- is one of the sources of high cycle thermal fatigue damage for the

vide high natural heat removal capability, particularly in the pool metal wall. Apart from this mechanism, high thermal fatigue cycles

type concept. While pool type concept has many distinct advan- are caused by a special phenomenon called ‘thermal striping’. Ther-

tages from the point of view of safety, such as high thermal capacity mal striping is a complex thermal hydraulics phenomenon, which

to accommodate thermal transients without signiﬁcant tempera- generates random fast temperature ﬂuctuations, originating from

ture rise and natural convection capability, there are certain critical the incomplete mixing of hot and cold jets of ﬂuid, sodium in the

structural mechanics issues, especially with the austenitic stain- present context, in the vicinity of adjoining structural wall surface

less steels (ASS), commonly used structural materials in view of (Fig. 1). Thermal striping occurs at a few locations in the hot and

their good compatibility with sodium and high strength at ele- cold sodium pools in the reactor assembly, predominantly on the

vated temperatures. These problems are addressed in this paper core cover plate of control plug and at mixing ‘Tee’ junctions in

with reference to a typical 500 MWe capacity SFR. the secondary sodium pipelines. It is worth mentioning that apart

from thermal striping, oscillations of thermal stratiﬁcation layers

and sodium free level do cause temperature ﬂuctuations in certain

locations in the sodium pools. Fig. 2 shows a few possible areas of

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 44 27480106; fax: +91 44 27480104. level ﬂuctuation, thermal stratiﬁcations and thermal striping. The

E-mail address: pcp@igcar.gov.in (P. Chellapandi). concerns of thermal ﬂuctuations are addressed comprehensively

0029-5493/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2009.08.014

P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765 2755

Nomenclature

el elastic stress range

elpl elastoplastic stress range

m mean primary stress

k governing stress for creep damage

d sigma-d stress

Deff equivalent creep-fatigue damage

nL applied load cycles

Poisson’s ratio

∈c creep strain range

∈elpl elastoplastic strain range

∈el elastic strain range

∈t total strain range

Tmax peak through-wall temperature gradient

Tp permissible range of temperature gradient

Ts temperature ﬂuctuations on the metal wall surface

Kf stress intensity factor range

Ks symmetrisation coefﬁcient

Np permissible number of cycles

Jr creep strength reduction factor

Jf fatigue strength reduction factor

tr time to rupture

Sr minimum stress to rupture

V fatigue damage

W creep damage Fig. 2. Thermal striping, thermal stratiﬁcation and level ﬂuctuations in FBR.

d distance from crack tip

D/h slenderness ratio of shell

There are a few reported failures, in the form of extensive

nH number of high frequency thermal cycles

cracking due to thermal striping in the operating reactors at sec-

T speciﬁed plant life

ondary sodium pump vessel in Phenix (Gelineau and Sperandio,

LF load factor

1994), Tee junction of an auxiliary pipe of the secondary circuit

a crack depth

in SPX (Gelineau and Sperandio, 1994), control rod guide tube

f thermal striping frequency

in PFR (Bettes et al., 1994), and primary cold trap in BN 600

ı uniform wall thickness

(Sobolev and Kuzavkov, 1994). In view of these reported failures,

ω frequency of oscillations

the structural mechanics specialists have been investigating ther-

˛ temperature attenuation factor on the surface

mal striping phenomenon both experimentally and theoretically.

Investigations focus both on thermal hydraulics and structural

mechanics aspects. Thermal hydraulics studies cover basic under-

by Ohshime et al. (1994) and Gelineau and Sperandio (1994). The standing of the phenomenon (Czeslaw and Trass, 1991; Tokuhiro

range of frequency of oscillations under thermal striping is found and Kimura, 1999), establishing experimental simulation princi-

to be 0.1–10 Hz as seen from spectra (Fig. 3), obtained from a rig at ples and assessments based on tests with water and air (Tenchine

AEA technology (Jones and Lewis, 1994). and Moro, private communication), numerical simulation tech-

Fig. 1. Thermal striping phenomenon in the vicinity of core cover plate in FBR. Fig. 3. Power spectral density of a typical thermal striping (PFR) .

2756 P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765

niques such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) (Muramatsu, 1994a, ble to most of the current and evolving SFR designs. Accordingly,

1998a, 1998b; Hu and Kazimi, 2006; Menant and Villand, 1994) the structural material considered is austenitic stainless steel type

and attenuation characteristics of thermal striping on the metal SS 316 LN, which is the general choice of current and future SFR

wall (Muramatsu, 1994b; Wakamatsu et al., 1995). By attenuation, designs. From thermal striping considerations, alternate material

it is meant that the temperature ﬂuctuations experienced on the is considered for above core structure parts to allow higher ther-

metal wall are expected to be lower depending upon the frequency mal striping limits. However, in this case, thermal striping would

of oscillation and heat transfer coefﬁcient. The outcome of thermal not be of concern. Further, the hot pool is at isothermal temperature

hydraulics investigations is the random temperature ﬂuctuations at 823 K during normal operating condition. This temperature has

on the metal wall, which involve many system parameters and been selected for the new designs such as EFR (France), JSFR (Japan)

hence need to be assessed case by case. However, a few generic and BN-series of reactors (Russia). In view of high heat transfer coef-

conclusions can be derived with reference to frequency contents, ﬁcient of sodium, the structural wall surface where the damage is

attenuation characteristics, etc. These informations are useful to maximum, sees the temperature of hot pool sodium (823 K). Since,

derive thermal striping limits. Structural mechanics investigations the maximum temperature should be considered for the creep-

are reported extensively in literature (Clayton and Irvine, 1987; fatigue damage assessment as per design codes such as ASME Sec III

Miller, 1980; Tanaka and Toyoda, 1996; Gruter and Huget, 1982; NH (ASME, 2007) and RCC-MR (RCC-MR, 2007), the temperature of

Durbay and Acker, 1994; Jones, 1997; Kasahara, 1999; Kasahara, 823 K is considered for the damage assessment. For computing the

2001; Muralidharan et al., 2001). The main objective of the inves- through-wall temperature distribution, heat transfer coefﬁcient of

tigation is to derive high cycle design fatigue curves and thereby sodium in the vicinity of wall surface is required. Since the sodium

establishing thermal striping limits, based on numerical analysis has excellent heat transfer properties, its heat transfer coefﬁcient

as well as from the results derived from dedicated facilities such as is high, generally varying from 10,000 to 40,000 W/m2 -K. For the

SOMITE & SUPERSOMITE in UK (Picker, 1996) and FAENA & SPALSH computation of structural wall temperatures and stresses, higher

in CEA France (Lejeail, 1994; Poette, 1998). Reﬂecting the available heat transfer coefﬁcient value yields conservative results and hence

data and numerical results, design rules have been reported for the 40,000 W/m2 -K is used. As regards the wall thickness, the maxi-

structures subjected to thermal striping by Buckthorpe (1997) and mum thickness of hot pool components is 30 mm, which is assumed

Gelineau et al. (1999). In spite of such extensive data and publica- in the analysis. It will be shown in the paper that beyond this thick-

tions available, robust design rules to specify the thermal striping ness, it does not have any signiﬁcant effect. Apart from the above

limits reﬂecting the latest creep-fatigue design criteria and further mentioned material, temperature and wall thickness, another input

conﬁrmation of such limits with thermal hydraulics analysis are data required is the accumulated creep and fatigue damage at the

not reported comprehensively any where to the best of authors’ speciﬁed locations, which is a parameter in the present study.

knowledge. This is the scope of the present paper. Accordingly, allowable thermal striping limits are recommended

The paper presents a general methodology based on fracture as the function of accumulated creep-fatigue damage.

mechanics concepts for establishing allowable T between hot and For deriving thermal striping limits, it is assumed that the struc-

cold sodium streams in the vicinity of metal wall surface and the tural wall has accumulated an effective creep-fatigue damage,

recommendations of thermal striping limits at a few potential loca- termed as ‘Deff ’, due to the major load cycles caused by nor-

tions in the reactor assembly. Gelineau et al. (1999) Descatha et mal and thermal transient conditions. Further, it is also assumed

al. (1980), Saanouni and Bathias (1982), Roche (1987), Moulin et that the structural wall has an initial part-through crack size of

al. (1987, 1995), and Autrusson et al. (1988) address the fracture 0.1 mm which might not have been detected by the existing NDE

mechanics approaches relevant to structural integrity assessment techniques, that can grow due to the imposed major load cycles,

under thermal striping. depending upon the value of Deff . As per the applicable design codes

The paper has four sections. Section 1 is the introduction to the for the structural design of SFR components (ASME, 2007; RCC-

subject matter of this paper. Section 2 presents the overall method- MR, 2007), the maximum permissible value for Deff is equal to 1.

ology adopted for (1) idealization of geometry, (2) derivation of Thus, the structure can have a value for Deff , varying from 0 to 1. As

equivalent crack depth corresponding to Deff , (3) idealization of per the approach, proposed by Picker (1996), when the Deff value

temperature ﬂuctuations through power spectral density (PSD), (4) varies from 0 to 1, the crack grows from 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm. This

main steps involved in the derivation of thermal striping limits and implies that we are permitting/restricting a maximum crack size of

(5) computation of temperature, stress and stress intensity distri- 0.5 mm in the design stage itself, which can be detected conﬁdently

butions. Section 3 deals with the application of methodology to during periodic in-service inspection stage, employing appropri-

derive thermal striping limits for 500 MWe prototype fast breeder ate NDE techniques. The plate can have any crack size (a) within

reactor (PFBR), as a function of accumulated creep-fatigue dam- the range of 0.1–0.5 mm, depending upon the accumulated dam-

age and assessment of these limits with the operating experiences. age (Deff ) at that location. With the presence of thermal ﬂuctuations

Section 4 presents the summary of thermal hydraulics analysis car- imposed by thermal striping, it is restricted that the crack should

ried out for PFBR to demonstrate that the recommended limits not further grow due to thermal striping. This condition is ensured

are respected. The highlights of creep-fatigue damage and fracture by satisfying the fatigue damage design criteria recommended by

assessment procedures of RCC-MR (edition 2007) (RCC-MR, 2007) A16 through ‘-d approach’ (RCC-MR A16, 2007). The extract of

and A16 (RCC-MR A16, 2007), which form the basis for establish- the design rules are presented in the Appendix of this paper. The

ing thermal striping limits are presented in Appendix. In the main step by step procedure of establishing thermal striping limits as

part, the expression for the equivalent damage (Deff ) to represent per the approach described above is illustrated in the following

the creep-fatigue damage interaction is only presented. sections.

2. Methodology to establish thermal striping limits

SFR geometries are generally cylindrical shells with L-seam and

Thermal striping limits are established by specifying acceptable C-seam welds. These are idealized as plates. This assumption also is

T in the sodium jets in the vicinity of structural wall surface, valid for the cylindrical shell with high diameter by thickness ratio

delinking the thermal hydraulics of the sodium system. Associated (D/h). For a smaller D/h ratio, the plate assumption yields conser-

parameters are chosen to make the recommended limits applica- vative results (Jones, 1997). An idealized temporal random surface

P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765 2757

Fig. 4. Creep-fatigue interaction diagram for SS 316 LN. and af for t = tf , yields:

t

1/0.19

a = a0.19 + (a0.19

f

− a0.19

0 ) (4)

temperature history is derived from the operating experiences, tf

which is presented in Section 2.3.

Since t/tf = W,

The number of high frequency thermal cycles (nH ) is determined

from the speciﬁed plant life (T), load factor (LF) and frequency (f): 1/0.19

a = [a0.19 + (a0.19 − a0.19 )W ] (5)

nH = (T × LF × f) × 365 × 24 × 3600 = 3.15 × 107 (T × LF × f). For typi- 0 f 0

Under the assumption of only fatigue damage, the crack growth

nH works out be ∼1.0 × 109 . However, T = 60 years and LF = 85% are

is due to fatigue crack growth, governed by the following growth

targeted for future SFRs.

law recommended in A16.

n

2.2. Effective creep-fatigue damage (Deff ) da/dn = C2 (K) (6)

As per RCC-MR creep-fatigue interaction diagram, which is bi- √

and K ∝ a,

linear in nature, the creep damage (W) and fatigue damage (V)

should lie within the safe operating domain (Fig. 4). A single param- da/dn = C2 a1.65 (7)

eter called ‘effective creep-fatigue damage (Deff )’ is derived from

the individual values of W and V such that if a particular com- Integration of above equation with the conditions: a0 for n = 0

bination of W and V just lies on the bi-linear curve, then Deff and af for n = nf , yields:

is equal to 1. Accordingly the expression for Deff is deﬁned as n

−1/0.665

follows: a = a−0.665 + (a−0.665 − a−0.665 ) (8)

0 f 0 nf

Deff = (3V + 7W )/3 for W ≤ V

(1) Since n/nf = V,

= (3W + 7V )/3 for W ≥ V

−1/0.665

It may be veriﬁed that, for the combinations (W = 0 and V = 1), a = [a−0.665

0

+ (a−0.665

f

− a−0.665

0

)V ] (9)

(W = 0.3 and V = 0.3) and (W = 1 and V = 0), the value for Deff is equal

to 1. As per UK fatigue design procedure recommended by Picker

(1996), the crack depth a resulting due to the applied creep-fatigue

damage Ve , is expressed as follows:

2.3. Equivalent crack length for accumulated creep-fatigue

damage a = a0 e1.61Deff (mm) (10)

Under the assumption of only creep damage, the crack growth It may be checked that a = 0.1 mm for Deff = 0 and a = 0.5 mm for

from 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm is due to creep crack growth. A16 recom- Deff = 1.

mends following growth law: Using the values of a0 = 0.1 mm, af = 0.5 mm, nf = 1 × 109 and

tf = 3 × 105 h, the curves obeying Eqs. (5)–(9) and (10) are plotted

da/dt = C ∗ [J]k (2) in Fig. 5. Assessment of creep-fatigue damages for various reactor

assembly components of PFBR indicates that the creep damage is

Applying the recommended value for k = 0.81 for 1S material at dominant. The trend curve recommended by Picker (1996), reﬂects

820 K and J ∝ a, this situation and hence the Eq. (10) is used for deriving the equiv-

alent crack size, ‘a’ for the given Deff value depending upon the

da/dt = C1 a0.81 (3) location.

2758 P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765

2.4. Idealized power spectral density for thermal striping ing a part-through-wall crack of size a, and subjected to random

temperature history surface temperature history with the peak value Tmax , whose

PSD has a constant value up to 10 Hz and zero beyond 10 Hz.

The temperature ﬂuctuations either in the ﬂuid or in the metal The plate has accumulated fatigue and creep damage values of

wall surface are random in nature. Hence, temperature histories are V and W respectively due to normal and design basis thermal

deﬁned as power spectral density (PSD), from which RMS values transients. With these idealizations, the temperature, stress com-

can be derived by integration. Thermal striping phenomenon has ponents and stress intensity values are derived analytically with

been simulated in water tests to get an idea of frequency contents the objective of determining permissible temperature range (Tp )

through a dedicated test setup, developed at IGCAR (Fig. 6). The

setup simulates the situations of thermal hydraulics in the vicinity

of core cover plate, placed on the control plug just above core. Tem-

peratures and ﬂow rates of hot and cold water are varied over wide

ranges. A maximum T of 90 K is possible in the setup. A few typi-

cal power spectral density (PSD) diagrams generated from test data

are shown in Fig. 7. These are broadly similar to the idealized PSD

shape (‘Proﬁle A’) as shown in Fig. 8, which was considered for the

analysis by Jones and Lewis (1994). Further, the Fig. 8 also shows a

constant spectrum (white noise) up to a frequency of 10 Hz (‘Proﬁle

B’), considered for the present analysis in view of its computational

simplicity. It has been conﬁrmed from the analysis by Jones and

Lewis, who used the ‘Proﬁle A’ and ‘Proﬁle B’ and have shown that

results are similar for small crack size up to about 0.5 mm (Jones

and Lewis, 1994).

problem is idealized as a plate of uniform wall thickness h, hav- Fig. 7. Typical PSD generated from experimental data (IGCAR).

P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765 2759

adiabatic. The temperature distribution across the plate thickness

h is expressed as

iQ(ω,x))/(R + iS).

The functions P and Q are obtained so that the Eq. (13) sat-

isﬁes the governing differential Eq. (14) and adiabatic boundary

condition deﬁned by Eq. (15):

∂2 T 1 ∂T

= (14)

∂x2 k ∂t

where k is thermal diffusivity of structural material.

Fig. 8. Idealized PSD considered for establishing thermal striping limits. Adiabatic wall condition:

∂T

=0 at x=h (15)

as a function of Deff . The following steps are followed to derive such ∂x

relation. The following analytical expressions for P and Q satisfy the above

Eqs. (14) and (15)

• Knowing V and W, Deff is computed using Eq. (1).

• For the known Deff , equivalent crack depth a is computed using P(ω, x) = cos (h − x) cosh (h − x)

(16)

Q (ω, x) = sin (h − x) sinh (h − x)

Eq. (10).

• The temperature distribution within the metal wall of the plate,

which is subjected to random temperature history deﬁned in Sec- w

=

tion 2.3 is determined using frequency response function method 2k

(Jones and Lewis, 1994). The analytical expressions for R and S are obtained by satisfying

• The thermal stress range ( f ) that is associated with the tem- the following convective heat transfer boundary condition (21) on

perature ﬂuctuation (Ts ) and subsequently the range of stress the surface facing the ﬂuid temperature variations.

intensity factor (Kf ) corresponding to f are obtained as a

∂T

function of thermal striping frequency f. Ts is a parameter here. −K = H (Tf − Ts ) (17)

• Krms and subsequently Kmax are computed using idealized ∂x

PSD. dP dQ

• Knowing Kmax , the maximum stress range is computed using −KTfm eiωt (0) + i (0) /(R + iS)

dx dx

Crager’s formula recommended in A16 (RCC-MR A16, 2007) at

the distance of 50 m ahead of crack tip. P(0) + iQ (0)

= Heiωt Tfm − Tfm (18)

• ∈t is computed as per RCC-MR procedure presented in Section R + iS

2.1.

• As per ‘-d procedure’, ∈t /1.5 is compared with the allowable Simpliﬁcation of Eq. (18) yields:

value (∈allowable ). K

dP dQ

P(0) + iQ (0)

• ∈allowable for the ASS type 316 LN (1S as per RCC-MR designa- − (0) + i (0) /(R + iS) = 1 − (19)

H dx dx R + iS

tion) at the mean temperature of 820 K (typical situations of an K dP

K dQ

SFR), is equal to 0.104% as read from the Fig. 5 corresponding to P(0) − (0) + i Q (0) − (0) = R + iS (20)

the base metal. H dx H dx

• The T value for which this strain limit is respected is termed as From Eq. (20), the following expressions for R and S are obtained.

Tp . ⎫

• By varying Deff , corresponding Tp is computed by repeating the R = P(0) −

K dP

(0) ⎪

⎬

above steps. H dx

(21)

⎪

(0) ⎭

K dQ

S = Q (0) −

2.6. Transient temperature distribution H dx

From Eq. (16):

The solution for the transient temperature distribution in the

plate, surface of which is subjected to sinusoidal temperature vari- P(0) = cos h cosh h and Q (0) = sin h sinh h (22)

ation, is given by Carslaw and Jaeger (1959) and also by Jones and

Differentiation of Eq. (16) and putting x = 0,

Lewis (1994). In the present case, the convective boundary hav- ⎫

(0) = − [cos h sinh h − sin h cosh h] ⎪

ing heat transfer coefﬁcient, H, is assumed at the structural wall dP

⎬

surface, for which the solution is given below: dx

(23)

Temperature ﬂuctuations in the ﬂuid (Tf ) as well as on the ⎪

(0) = − [sin h cosh h + cos h sinh h] ⎭

dQ

surface (Ts ) are assumed to vary in phase as per the following Eq. dx

(11):

Substituting Eq. (23) into Eq. (21),

Tf = Tfm eiωt (11)

K

R = cos h cosh h + [cos h sinh h − sin h cosh h]

Ts = Tsm eiωt (12) H

(24)

K

where Tfm and Tsm are the maximum temperature difference S = sin h sinh h + [sin h cosh h + cos h sinh h]

(range) in the ﬂuid and at the metal surface respectively. ω is the H

frequency of oscillations expressed in radians/s, which is equal to If H → ∞, R = cos h cosh h and S = sin h sinh h (25)

2760 P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765

Fig. 10. Decay of stress across the structural wall thickness.

The expressions are matching with solutions given by Jones and

Lewis (1994) for case H → ∞.

once cracks are initiated by high cycle fatigue cycles (accumulated

The attenuation of peak temperature on the metal wall surface

quickly within a few years), other major load cycles causing creep-

is given by

fatigue damage can cause propagation and ultimate rupture.

Tsm (P 2 + Q 2 )

=˛= (26) 2.8. Determination of KI

Tfm (R2 + S 2 )

For a typical practical case: plate thickness (h) = 30 × 10−3 m, For the mode-I ﬁeld, the crack tip stress intensity factor cor-

heat transfer coefﬁcient of sodium (H) = 40,000 W/m2 -K and ther- responding to a part-through crack a is determined using the

mal diffusivity of austenitic stainless steel (k) = 4.76 × 10−6 m2 /s at Bueckner weight function as (Bueckner, 1973):

820 K, the attenuation factor (˛) is plotted as function of frequency
a

(f in Hz) using the Eq. (26) in Fig. 9. K1 (x, t) = (x, t)M(x) dx (30)

0

2.7. Transient thermal stress distribution

where the weight function M(x) for an edge cracked plate is given

by

It is conservatively assumed that the plate is fully constrained.

√

The axial stress range induced at any distance x from surface is M(x) = 2a{(1 − x/a)−1/2 + m1 (1 − x/a)1/2 + m2 (1 − x/a)3/2 } (31)

expressed as

where m1 and m2 are the polynomials independent of x:

(x, t) = [E˛ Tf /(1 − )]A(ω, x) (27)

2 6

m1 = 0.6147 + 17.1844(a/h) + 8.7822(a/h)

where E, ˛ and are the Young’s modulus, coefﬁcient of thermal 2 6

m2 = 0.2502 + 3.2889(a/h) + 70.0444(a/h)

expansion and Poission’s ratio respectively for the structural mate-

rial. The peak-to-peak stress variation at any location measured Using Eq. (27) for (x,t) and Eq. (11) Tf for 0 ≤ a ≤ h/2

from the front face is expressed as a function of ω in the following
a

equation: K1 (a, t) = −[E˛ Tfm /(1 − v)]eiωt A(x, ω) M(x) dx

0 (32)

(x, ω) = [E˛ Tf /(1 − )] (P 2 + Q 2 )/ (R2 + S 2 ) (28)

K1 (a, ω) = −[E˛ Tf /(1 − v)] (I12 + I22 )

From Eq. (6), the stress range per unit Tf is expressed as

a a

where I1 = 0 P(x)M(x)dx and I2 = 0 Q (x)M(x)dx.

(x, ω) = [E˛/(1 − )] (P 2 + Q 2 )/ (R2 + S 2 ) (29)

The stress intensity factor (SIF) per unit Tf is expressed as

The stress decay has been plotted as a function of frequency

of striping in Fig. 10, using Eq. (26) across the plate thickness K1 (a, ω) = −[E˛/(1 − v)] (I12 + I22 ) (33)

(ı) = 30 × 10−3 m. Other parameters used are: heat transfer coef-

ﬁcient (h) → ∝ W/m2 -K, thermal diffusivity (k) = 4.76 × 10−6 m2 /s, In Fig. 11, KI is shown as a function of crack size a (0.1–5 mm)

Young’s modulus (E) = 1.63 × 105 MPa, = 0.3 and ˛ = 20.0 × 10−6 /K for 3 frequencies, 0.0625 Hz, 1.0 Hz and 6.25 Hz for the plate of

and Tfm of 20 K. From Fig. 10, it is seen that, in the case of constant thickness of 10 mm. The SIF increases monotonically for frequen-

temperature on the wall surface (frequency = 0), the stress is con- cies less than 1 Hz and for frequencies higher than 1 Hz, it increases

stant across the thickness. When the frequency increases from 0 to only up to a certain crack size. After reaching a maximum value, SIF

1 Hz, the stress decays rapidly across the thickness, which reaches decreases. This sort of drooping behaviour indicates that there is

nearly saturation at the frequency of about 1 Hz. Hence at higher a possibility of crack arrest under high frequency thermal ﬂuctua-

frequencies, the stresses are concentrated in the vicinity of surface tions. More pronounced drooping characteristics can be seen in the

without signiﬁcant penetration, implying that thermal striping can case of cylinders which are presented by Jones (1997). This ensures

only initiate cracks and does not have potential to cause growth. that the assumption of plate geometry yields conservative thermal

This physical understanding can be derived from Fig. 10. However, striping limits, which are preferred in the design stage.

P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765 2761

Table 1

Thermal striping experiences.

Operating reactors

Phenix Expansion tank 170 5.50 × 106

Phenix Mixing tee 90 3.24 × 108

SPX Mixing tee 220 1.44 × 104

BN 600 Cold trap 160 2.20 × 107

FAENA Cylindrical tube 1 378 1.60 × 104

Fig. 11. Through-wall variation of stress intensity factors. Cylindrical tube 2 192 1.05 × 106

Cylindrical tube 2 180 3.60 × 107

3. Establishing thermal striping limits for SFR

The methodology dealt in previous section is used for deriving 3.1. Operating experiences

permissible temperature ﬂuctuations (peak-to-peak temperature

range) for PFBR. The following parameters are considered. As mentioned in Section 1, two sodium leaks were detected in

Material SS 316 LN the secondary sodium circuit of 250 MWe Phenix reactor during the

Plate thickness h = 5–30 mm

inspection campaign after operation for about 90,000 h. The mate-

Cutoff frequency f = 10 Hz

Plant life (60 years with 85% LF) T = 4.47 × 105 h rial of construction is AISI 304. The ﬁrst one was found at the C-seam

Effective damage Deff = 0–1.0 weld on main pipeline near the mixing Tee where the tempera-

Maximum metal surface temperature 820 K ture between the hot sodium (703 K in the branch line) and cold

The material properties at 820 K: sodium (613 K in the main line) is 90 K. The second one is again

Young’s modulus E = 1.49 × 105 MPa

on the weld line in the expansion tank in the vicinity of sodium

Density

= 7739 kg/m3

Speciﬁc heat Cp = 582 J/kg-K discharge area. The temperature of the hot leg is 823 K and the

Thermal conductivity = 21.54 W/m-K temperature of sodium in the tank is 623 K. Taking into account the

Thermal expansion coefﬁcient ˛ = 20.4 × 10−6 /K proximity of mixing zone from the wall, the T between the hot

and cold sodium is 170 K at the failure location. The low frequency

Weld material properties are used for the damages assessment. displayed is 0.017 Hz and even less. In SPX reactor, sodium leak was

Permissible thermal striping limits (Tp ) are derived as a func- observed on a circumferential weld downstream of a Tee junction

tion for two cases: (1) there is no thermal attenuation on the surface in an auxiliary pipe of the secondary sodium circuit. The crack was

wall temperature, which has been implemented by setting h = ∝ and due to thermal striping T of 220 K, caused by partial opening of

(2) there is thermal attenuation depending upon the frequency for dry-out valve. The duration of the unexpected ﬂow is estimated as

h = 40,000 W/m2 -K. The results are shown in Fig. 12. It is noted from 4 h. In BN 600 reactor, after operation for about 10 years with 72%

this ﬁgure that the Tp reduces signiﬁcantly with the increase of load factor, primary sodium leaks took place in cold trap. Thermal

creep-fatigue damage: 39–26 K under the assumption of no atten- striping was identiﬁed as a possible reason. The associated T is

uation and 75–46 K with attenuation. This also indicates that the estimated as 160 K (possible if cold sodium leak exists).

effect of attenuation due to high frequency components of temper- In the international test facilities, viz. SUPERSOMITE (AEA, Ris-

ature spectrum is very signiﬁcant. This aspect has also been brought ley) and FAENA (CEA-Cadarache), thermal striping cracks were

out in Kasahara (1999). simulated on AISI 316 steels. In SUPERSOMITE tests on cylinder

It is worth mentioning that the creep-fatigue damage estimation with circumferential TIG welds, typically, T of 210 K and 180 K

approach and material data for establishing the limits have been

completely adopted from RCC-MR, which in turn accounts for the

various uncertainties including material data systematically. Thus

the present approach is considered as robust.

Fig. 12. Permissible thermal striping limits for the FBR structures, made of SS 316

LN. Fig. 13. Thermal striping limits and failure experiences.

2762 P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765

Fig. 14. Temperature ﬂuctuations in thermal striping zones in PFBR sodium pools.

caused crack initiation and some limited crack propagation after cal Tee in hot secondary sodium pipeline) where the creep-fatigue

about 1000 h and 10,000 h respectively. The FAENA tests indicated damage can be as high as 0.9.

that the T of 192 K (equivalent strain range = 0.382%) and 378 K Pool thermal hydraulics analysis of reactor assembly of PFBR,

(equivalent strain range = 0.75%) caused cracks of about 50 m size has been carried out based on direct numerical simulation (DNS)

after 1 × 106 and 1.6 × 104 cycles respectively. These data are sum- formulation (Velusamy et al., 2005). Fig. 14 shows the summary

marised in the Table 1 with the aim of assessing the reccommended of thermal hydraulics analysis, which indicates that the temper-

thermal striping limits. Wherever the frequency data is not avail- ature ﬂuctuations in the reactor assembly components, due to

able, 1 Hz is assumed and for the Phenix reactor, a load factor of thermal striping are well below the respective permissible values

50% is assumed to determine the number of cycles (N). (Tp ). In order to have realistic assessment of damage, the com-

From the data presented in Table 1, T and N are related by bined approach, i.e. computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) and stress

the relation: T = CN˛ . For determining C and ˛, 2 sets of data are and strain analysis, is preferred solution. With such approach, it

required. Accordingly, 3 pairs viz. Phenix, FAENA and SUPERSOMITE is possible to demonstrate the availability of higher safety mar-

test data are used to extrapolate for the 1 × 109 cycles (60 years gin above the inherent factor of safety speciﬁed in design codes.

design life with 85% load factor and 1 Hz frequency). The corre- This approach, of course involves many geometrical and process

sponding extrapolated values are: 68 K, 63 K and 144 K based on parameters that are system dependent. So in the present case, the

Phenix, FAENA, SUPERSOMITE data respectively. It is worth men- CFD analysis is performed, after establishing limits to demonstrate

tioning that, at all the failure locations in the operating reactors, that the PFBR plant meets the limits.

creep-fatigue damages due to major cycles were present. Hence, the

values are on lower side (63 K). For SUPERSOMITE, failure has been 4. Further works in progress

detected after certain crack propagation and hence it yields a higher

value (144 K). Extrapolation using SPX and BN-600 data could not The assessment of conservatism in the present analysis with

be made because the required minimum two sets of data are not actual 3D component analysis including the effects of the major

available. SPX data is not explainable due to limited information load cycles, understanding the thermal striping failure mechanisms

reported. Despite the above, this exercise provides good conﬁdence in the materials with a possible variations in the properties, valida-

on the thermal striping limits arrived in Section 3. This is under- tion of the structural mechanics analysis carried out for the damage

standable from Fig. 13 where the extrapolated T based on Phenix, assessment and thermal hydraulics analysis carried out for deter-

FAENA, SUPERSOMITE data are superimposed. With assumption of mining the temperatures in the potential places of thermal striping

LCF damage fraction in PHENIX and FAUNA, the permissible limits are the activities being pursued at the centre.

recommended reﬂect the operating experiences. In SUPERSOMITE

tests, there is no LFC damage and hence, the T at which failure 5. Conclusions

occurs is higher (144 K). Hence, they can be used for the future

FBRs, which are designed for long design life (60 years) and with The effect of frequency-dependent thermal attenuation on the

high capacity factor (85%). structural wall surface is quantiﬁed and found to be signiﬁcant. The

As per the recommendation, at the location such as core cover limits are derived at various potential locations in SFRs which are

plate where the accumulated creep damage is insigniﬁcant and also subjected to creep-fatigue damage due to major cycles caused

fatigue damage is small (<0.1), Tp can be 70 K. At the control plug by startup, shutdown, power failures and pump trips, etc. The max-

lower portion where the Deff is <0.3, Tp can be 62 K and at the main imum range of temperature ﬂuctuations can be as high as 70 K

vessel near IHX outlet, where Deff is <0.5, Tp can be 55 K. Further, where the accumulated creep-fatigue damage is insigniﬁcant (<0.1)

minimum Tp of 45 K can be acceptable at any location (e.g. typi- and 45 K is acceptable where the creep-fatigue is very signiﬁcant

P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765 2763

(0.9). These limits are found to be consistent with the broad limits

extrapolated from the failure experiences of international SFRs and

sodium facilities. Pool hydraulic computations carried out to iden-

tify and quantify the thermal striping zones have conﬁrmed that

the proposed limits can be respected with good margins (>25 K) for

future SFRs with the targeted design life of 60 years and load factor

of 85%.

Acknowledgements

helped to carry out experimental work, Dr. K. Velusamy who pro-

vided thermal hydraulics results and Miss M.D. Ambuja for typing

the manuscript, are sincerely acknowledged for their contributions.

RCC-MR

Fig. A2. Creep rupture curves for base metal and weld for SS 316 LN at 823 K.

A.1. Fatigue damage of base metal

Elastically computed equivalent stress range ( el ) and number

mary stress sustained during the hold period which is computed

of applied load cycles (nL ) are the input data. French design code

through elastic analysis. k is used for computing ∈c and creep

RCC-MR provides rules for estimating fatigue damage from el

damage in a load cycle.

and nL . The elastic strain range is computed as

Total strain range, ∈t = ∈1 + ∈2 + ∈3

∈ 1 = [2(1 + ) el ]/(3E) (A.1)

+∈4 + ∈c (A.4)

From ∈1, the plastic strain accumulation due to variation of

primary stresses (∈2 ), strain concentration (∈3 ), ∈4 the strain

enhancement due to the difference in the value of Poisson’s ratio Corresponding to ∈t , the permissible number of load cycles

(0.5 for plastic zone and 0.3 for elastic zone) and ∈c , creep strain Np is obtained from the design fatigue curve provided in the RCC-

developed during the hold time that is associated with the stabi- MR. Knowing the design load cycle nL and permissible cycle Np the

lized load cycle can be determined using the procedure of RCC-MR. fatigue damage (V) is computed as: V = nL /Np . If there are m number

For the plastic strain accumulation at the strain concentrated region of events, the above procedure is repeated to compute Vi for each

∈3 , Neuber’s rule is applied as follows: event knowing the ( el )i , (nL )i , the strain range and permissible

number of cycles that are associated with each cycle i. Then the

elpl ∈ elpl = invariant and hence = el el (A.2) cumulative fatigue damage V is summation of Vi , i.e., V = Vi .

The graphical construction for estimating the ∈elpl using the A.2. Creep damage of base metal

above Eq. (A.2) is illustrated in Fig. A1. Here ∈el = ∈1 + ∈2 and

∈elpl = ∈1 + ∈2 + ∈3 . The ∈c is the creep strain accumulated RCC-MR provides creep rupture curves which give the mini-

over the hold period in the given load cycle corresponding to k mum time to rupture for the given stress and temperature. For

which is given by welds, creep strength reduction factor called Jr is applied, which

is provided as a function of temperature and life. Introducing a fac-

k = m + Ks s elpl (A.3)

tor of safety on sustained stress k , the effective stress is deﬁned

as e = k /0.9. The minimum time to rupture (tr ) is read from the

creep rupture curve corresponding to e and appropriate temper-

ature. The creep damage of ith load cycle, Wi is equal to (ti /tri ). The

cumulative creep damage W is given by: W = Wi .

curves corresponding to its base metal are altered using the weld

strength reduction factors as indicated below:

The minimum stress (Sr ), the ordinate of creep rupture curve

is multiplied by a factor called Jr . Since Jr is less than 1, the stress

rupture curve for weld is lower than the curve corresponding to

base metal. In the following Table A1, the Jr values provided in RCC-

MR: Appendix A9 as a function of time are reproduced for stainless

steel SS 316 LN (1S material) at 823 K. Typical Sr curve thus derived

for welds at 823 K are shown along with respective curve for base

metal for 1S material in Fig. A2.

The strain range (∈), the ordinate of design fatigue curve is

divided by a factor called Jf . The Jf value is equal to 1.25. Accord-

Fig. A1. Neuber’s rule for estimating elastoplastic stress–strains. ingly, the design fatigue curve for weld is lower than the curve

2764 P. Chellapandi et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 239 (2009) 2754–2765

Table A1

Jr values for ASS at 823 K recommended in RCC-MR.

Time 1 101 3 × 101 1 × 102 3 × 102 1 × 103 3 × 103 1 × 104 3 × 104 1 × 105 3 × 105

Jr 1.0 1.0 0.99 0.98 0.89 0.80 0.78 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71

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