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Vivekananda Road, Pipulpati, P.O & Dist – Hooghly, West Bengal, Pin – 712103



CODE: ME 303





BATCH: 2017-2018
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
SL. Contact
No. Hours
1 Introduction: Material Science―its importance in engineering; Classification of 2
Materials―metals, polymers, ceramics, composites; Advanced materials―semiconductors,
smart materials, nano-materials; Review atomic structure, Atomic bonding in solids―bonding
forces and energies; ionic/covalent/metallic bonding
2 Crystal Structure: Fundamental concepts; Unit cells; seven crystal systems; single crystal, 2
polycrystalline and non-crystalline materials; Metallic crystal structures―FCC, atomic packing
factor, BCC & HCP structures
3 Imperfections in Metals: Point defects due to vacancy & impurities, alloys, solid solutions; 2
Dislocations―linear defects, interfacial defects, grain boundaries
4 Phase Diagrams: Definition and basic concepts; solubility limit; Phase equilibria, one 3
component phase diagram, binary phase diagram, interpretation of phase diagrams
5 Iron-carbon System: allotropy of iron, iron-iron carbide phase diagram, properties and uses of 2
plain carbon steel
6 Classification of Metals and Alloys- compositions, general properties and uses: 6
6.1 Ferrous alloys: Classification –low carbon steels, medium carbon steels, high carbon steels,
stainless steels, alloy steels, tool and die steel, cast irons.
6.2 Non-ferrous alloys: Copper & Copper alloys; Aluminum alloys; Zinc alloys; Nickel alloys;
Lead & Tin alloys
7 Mechanical Properties of Materials: Elastic properties of materials―tensile and compressive 6
stress and strain, stress-strain behaviour, modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus), yield
strength, tensile strength, plastic deformation, true stress and strain; Ductility; Resilience;
Toughness, impact tests; Hardness- Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers hardness and their testing
procedures, correlation between hardness and tensile strength; Fatigue strength; Effect of
temperature on tensile strength & impact properties, creep failure
8 Heat Treatment: Definition and purposes; Heat treatment processes for steels―Hardening, 4
structural change during heating and cooling, factors affecting hardening; Tempering;
Austempering; Normalizing; Annealing―full annealing, spheroidising annealing, stress–
relieving, recrystallisation annealing; Precipitation or Age Hardening of non-ferrous alloys
9 Polymers & Elastomers: Definition; How polymers are made- polymerization; Polymer 2
molecular structures; Thermoplastics & Thermosets; Special characteristics like low sp. gravity,
optical, electrical & thermal property, decorative color, easy formability, low corrosion etc;
Uses of polymers and elastomers
10 Ceramic Materials: What is ceramics; common ceramic materials and their characteristics; 2
How ceramics are made―sintering and vitrification process; Ceramic structures; Properties
and applications
11 Composite materials: What is composites; Polymers matrix and their applications; Metal 2
matrix and ceramic matrix composites and their applications; How composites are made
12 Corrosion and Degradation of Engineering Materials: Definition; Types of 2
corrosion―uniform, pitting, crevice, galvanic, stress corrosion cracking and erosion; Corrosion
control ― material selection, environment control, proper design
13 Materials Selection Methodology: Selection of material based on required properties, 1
availability and cost of material, environmental issues
Total Contact Hrs 36

Books Recommended
1. Materials Science and Engineering by W.D. Callister and adapted by R. Balasubramaniam, Willey India,
2010 Ed.

2|Question Bank
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What are the main categories of engineering materials?
(a) metals, composites and polymers (b) metals, polymers and polymers
(c) electronic, nano and composites (d) smart, nano and composites
2. Materials Engineering is primarily concerned with
(a) basic knowledge of materials (b) structure property relationship
(c) applied knowledge of materials (d) corrosion properties of materials
3. Piezoeletric materials, produce electric field when subjected to
(a) magnetic field (b) optical rays (c) thermal radiation (d) mechanical force
4. Which of the following materials is generally very hard?
(a) polymers (b) ceramics (c) metals (d) composites
5. Piezoeletric ceramics and shape memory alloys fall in the category of
(a) metals and alloys (b) ceramic materials (c) smart materials (d) nano-materials
6. Ionic bonds are categorized as
(a) primary atomic bond (b) secondary atomic bond
(c) tertiary atomic bond (d) secondary atomic bond
7. Covalent bond is formed by
(a) sharing of electrons between atoms (b) transfer of electrons between atoms
(c) sharing and transfer of electrons between atoms bond (d) any one of the above
8. Secondary bonds are also called
(a) ionic bonds (b) covalent bonds (c) molecular bonds (d) metallic bonds
9. Which of the following is not a secondary bond? (04)
(a) Van-dar Waal’s bonds (b) Covalent bonds (c) Dipole bonds (d) Hydrogen bonds
10. Among the following bonds which is the strongest bond? (14)
(a) hydrogen bond (b) metallic bond (c) ionic bond (d) dispersion bond.
11. Which one of the following is not a strong bond? (09)
(a) van der Wall’s bond (b) Covalent bond (c) Metallic bond (d) Ionic bond
12. Which of the following bonds is the weakest? (11)
(a) Ionic bond (b) Covalent bond (c) Metallic bond (d) Secondary Dipole bond
13. The cause of hydrogen bonding is (12)
(a) dipole bonding (b) vander Waals’ bonding (c) ionic bond (d) all of these
14. A three-dimensional array of points, each of which has identical surroundings, is
called a
(a) space lattice (b) unit cell (c) lattice points (d) all of these
15. The tiny block formed by the arrangement of small group of atoms is called
(a) space lattice (b) unit cell (c) lattice points (d) none of these
16. A single crystal is use in
(a) Pottery industry (b) Tool manufacturing industry
(c) Cottage industry (d) Electronic industry.
17. How many types of basic crystal systems?
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 7

3|Question Bank
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
18. According to Bravais how many possible types of space lattices in the seven basic
crystal systems? (14)
(a) 8 (b) 14 (c) 20 (d) 24 (14)
19. The atomic diameter of a FCC crystal (lattice parameter is α) is
2 2 3 
(a) α (b) α (c) α (d)
2 4 4 2
20. If the radius of an simple atom in a simple cube crystal is r, the body diagonal of the
unit cell is
( a) r 3 (b) 2 r 3 (c)
21. The equation nλ= 2dsin θ represents (12)
(a) Bragg’s law (b) Miller indices (c) Atomic packing factor (d)None of these
22. Number of atoms per unit cell of BCC crystal is (09)
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
23. If a is the lattice parameter of a BCC crystal, the distance between two nearest
neighbours is (08, 13)
(a) √3a/2 (b) 2a (c) √2a/3 (d) √3a
24. Atomic Packing Factor is maximum for (11)
(a) Prism (b) Simple Cube (c) FCC (d) BCC
25. Number of atoms present per unit cell of a HCP crystal is (09)
(a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 4 (d) 1
26. The ideal (c / a) ratio for an HCP crystal is (07)
(a) 1.366 (b) 1.633 (c) 1.636 (d) 1.363
27. Crystal Structure of metals is studied by (04, 09, 10)
(a) Metallographic technique (b) X-ray technique
(c) Ultrasonic method (d) Electron microscopy
28. An interstitialcy is a (06)
(a) point defect (b) line defect (c) surface defect (d) volume defect.
29. Vacancies are
(a) planer defects (b) line defects (c) point defects (d) volume defects
30. Examples of line defects
(a) vacancies (b) dislocations (c) twins (d) stacking faults
31. Grain boundary is an example of (14)
(a) point imperfection (b) volume imperfection
(c) line imperfection (d) surface imperfection
32. In the imperfection of crystal structure the displacement distance of the atoms
around the dislocation is called (12)
(a)Twin (b) Slip (c) Imperfection (d) Exceed order quantity
33. The equilibrium stacking sequence of the most close-packed planes in a FCC crystal
is (06)

4|Question Bank
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
34. In case of an edge dislocation, the angle between the Burgers vector and the
dislocation line is (06, 08, 11)
(a) 0° (b) 30° (c) 60° (d) 90°
35. In a crystal the phenomenon ‚cross slip’ occurs in (08)
(a) edge dislocation (b) screw dislocation
(c) both edge and screw dislocations (d) mechanical deformation.
36. Number of phase present at the triple point is (11)
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) none of these.
37. Degree of freedom of an invariant reaction is (14)
(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0
38. Gibbs phase rule is used for computing
(a) number of phases that can coexist in equilibrium in a system
(b) degree of freedom (c) number of components in the system
(d) none of the above
39. Gibbs phase rule as applicable to solid state reaction under constant pressure is
(a) F = C + P -1 (b) F= C- P -1 (c) F= P- C +1 (d) F = C –P + 1 (06, 08, 11, 14)
40. Lever rule is used to compute
(a) volume percentage of the phases in any two-phase region of a binary phase
(b) weight percentage of the phases in any two-phase region of a binary phase
(c) volume percentage of the two liquid phases in any binary phase diagram
(d) weight percentage of the two liquid phases in any binary phase diagram
41. The crystal structure of Cementite is (04, 10, 11)
(a) FCC (b) BCC (c) Tetragonal (d) Rhombic
42. The crystal structure of Martensite is
(a) FCC (b) BCC (c) BCT (d) Rhombic
43. The following types of materials are usually the most ductile
(a) face-centred cubic lattice (b) body-centred cubic lattice
(c) hexagonal close-packed lattice (d) none of the above
44. Pure iron is the structure of
(a) Ferrite (b) Pearlite (c) Austenite (d) Ferrite and Cementite
45. Which of the following represents the allotropic forms of iron
(a) alpha iron, beta iron and gamma iron (b) alpha iron and beta iron
(c) alpha iron, gamma from and delta iron (d) none of the above
46. Which is the magnetic allotrope of iron? (09)
(a) α-iron (b)  -iron (c) -iron (d) -iron
47. Which of the following shows ferromagnetism? (07, 10)
(a) Cementite (b) Pearlite (c) Austentite (d) Ferrite
48. Supersaturated solid solution of carbon in alpha iron is (06)
(a) Ferrite (b) Austenite (c) Pearlite (d) in-martensite
49. The crystal structure of ferrite is
(a) FCC (b) BCC (c) HCP (d) Tetragonal
5|Question Bank
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
50. The crystal structure of austenite is (08)
(a) FCC (b) BCC` (c) HCP (d) Tetragonal
51. The maximum percentage of carbon in ferrite is (09, 13)
(a) 0.025 (b) 0.1 (c) 0.5 (d) 0.17
52. Maximum percentage of carbon in austenite is
(a) 0.025% (b) 0.26% (c) 0.8% (d) 1.7%.
53. Perlite is a mixture of Cementite and (13)
(a) Ferrite (b) Austenite (c) Bainite (d) Martensite
54. In Fc/C alloy, carbon content in ledeburite is (08)
(a) 0.85% (b) 1.7% (c) 4.3% (d) 6.67%.
55. Eutectoid steel contains following percentage of carbon
(a) 0.02% (b) 0.3% (c) 0.8% (d) 1.2%
56. During transformation of austenite to bainite (07)
(a) Change in crystal structure takes place (b) Intermetallic compound occurs
(c) Redistribution of alloying elements in iron matrix takes place
(d) Redistribution of carbon in iron matrix takes place
57. Critical cooling rate is (07)
(a) The minimum quenching rate at which only pearlitic phase transformation
(b) The maximum quenching rate at which austenite can be transformed to bainite
(c) The quenching rate at which no phase transformation occurs
(d) The minimum quenching rate at which martensitic transformation just begins
58. In normalizing heat treatment (07)
(a) Air is used as quenching medium
(b) Oil is used as quenching medium
(c) Hot water is used as quenching medium
(d) Inert atmosphere is used as quenching medium.
59. The microstructure of a steel specimen shows fine pearlite when austenite is (14)
(a) quenched in oil (b) cooled in steel air
(c) slowly cooled in furnace (d) quenched in water
60. Hardening is a heat treatment process designed to (08)
(a) increase ductility (b) increase the hardness of the steel
(c) decrease the brittleness (d) none of these
61. Recrystallisation temperature is one
(a) at which crystals first start forming from molten metal when it is cooled
(b) at which new spherical crystals first begin to form from the old deformed one
when a strained metal is heated
(c) at which change of allotropic form takes place
(d) at which crystals grow bigger in size
62. Recrystallisation temperature of a given crystal (07, 08,10)
(a) Decreases in presence of impurities (b) Increases in presences if impurities
(c) Remains constant in presence of impurities
(d) Initially increases but later on decreases in presence of impurities

6|Question Bank
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
63. High hardenability of a steel specimen signifiers that (07)
(a) Transformation of austenite to pearlite occurs at high cooling rate
(b) Transformation of austenite to pearlite and martensite occurs at slow cooling
(c) Transformation of austenite to martensite occurs at high cooling rate
(d) Transformation of austenite to martensite occurs at slow cooling rate
64. The ideal critical diameter (D1) is a measure of hardenability of a steel specimen. This
D1 – value (07)
(a) Increases with the increase in severity of quench
(b) Increases with the decrease in severity of quench
(c) Is independent of severity of quench
(d) Initially increases with increase in severity of quench but later on decreases
65. Temper brittleness arises due to (14)
(a) transformation of austenite to martensite
(b) transformation of austenite to pearlite
(c) formation of alloy carbides
(d) dissociation of martensite to cementite
66. Coarse grained alloys have (04, 10)
(a) higher yield strength, (b) longer fatigue life
(c) longer time to rupture in creep (d) higher modulus of elasticity
67. The microstructure of Martempering steel contains (10)
(a) Pearlite (b) Martensite (c) Bainite (d) Austenite.
68. In grey cast iron, carbon is present in the form of
(a) cementite (b) flakes (c) spheroids (d) nodular aggregates of graphite
69. Cast iron is a family of ferrous alloy with a wide range of properties and as their
name implies because (12)
(a) They are intended to be cast into the desired shape instead of being worked in
(b) It contains 2 to 4% carbon (c) It also contains 1 to 3% silicon (d) All of these
70. In S.G cast, Iron graphite is present in the form of (04, 10)
(a) Flakes (b) Nodules (c) Temper (d) None of these.
71. In malleable cast iron, graphite is present in the form of (04, 09)
(a) flakes (b) nodules (c) temper carbon (d) none of these
72. Addition of Mg to cast iron increases its (13)
(a) Hardness (b) Corrosion resistance
(c) Creep strength (d) Ductile and strength in tension.
73. An increase in the percentage of carbon is results into decrease in its (09, 13)
(a) hardness (b) ductility (c) ultimate strength (d) corrosion resistance
74. Mild steel belongs to the following category
(a) low carbon steel (b) medium carbon steel
(c) high carbon steel (d) alloy steel
75. Which one of the following alloys is used for excavation work? (10)
(a) Plain carbon steel (b) HSLA steel (c) Tool steel (d) Hadfield manganese steel

7|Question Bank
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
76. Chisels are generally made of (11)
(a) Dead mild steel (b) Low carbon steel
(c) Medium carbon steel (d) High carbon steel
77. 18-4-1 high speed steel contains (04)
(a) Vanadium 4%, chromium 18% and tungsten 1%
(b) Vanadium 1%, chromium 4% and tungsten 18%
(c) Vanadium 18%, chromium 1% and tungsten 4%
(d) none of the above
78. Manganese present in the alloy steel increases the property of (12)
(a) Magnetism (b) Hardness (c) Toughness (d) All of these.
79. The basic constituents of Hastelloy are
(a) aluminium, copper etc. (b) nickel, molybdenum etc
(c) nickel, copper, etc (c) none of the above
80. The alloy that does not contain Aluminium is (04, 09)
(a) Magnelium (b) Invar (c) Alnico (d) Duralumin
81. Basic constituents of Monel metal are
(a) nickel, copper (b) nickel, molybdenum
(c) zinc, tin, lead (d) nickel, lead and tin
82. Solder is an alloy of (11)
(a) Cu – Zn (b) Pb – Sn (c) Cu – Sn (d) Cu – Sn – Ag
83. Inconel is an alloy of
(a) nickel, chromium and iron (b) nickel, copper
(c) nickel, chromium (d) nickel, zinc
84. Ductility of a material can be defined as
(a) ability to undergo large permanent deformations in compression
(b) ability to undergo large permanent deformations in tension
(c) ability to recover its original form (d) all of the above
85. Ductility is measured in terms of (14)
(a) Ultimate tensile strength (b) Percentage elongation
(c) Modulus of toughness (d) Modulus of resilience.
86. Which of the following loads is used to determine Rockwell-C hardness of given
specimen (07, 08,10)
(a)100kg (b) 125kg (c) 150kg (d) 175kg
87. Rockwell reading is a measure of the penetration caused by the (04)
(a) Major load only (b) minor load only
(c) Both major and minor loads (d) standard loads
88. At ductile – brittle transition (DBT) of a specimen, which one of the following
relations holds good? (11)
(a) 𝑦 > 𝑓 (b) 𝑓 > 𝑦 (c) 𝑓 = 0 (d) 𝑓 + 𝑦
89. Strain hardening improves (10)
(a) Static Tensile strength (b) Steady State creep rate
(c) Fatigue life (d) None of these

8|Question Bank
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
90. Continuous deformation of metal under steady load is called (13)
(a) Creep (b) Fatigue (c) Corrosion (d) none
91. Slow elastic deformation of metals under a constant stress is known as (08)
(a) Fatigue (b) Stress relaxation (c) Creep (d) Endurance failure
92. Deformation under dynamic load is called (14)
(a) creep (b) fatigue (c) impact. (d) wear
93. Shot peeing improves (04)
(a) static tensile strength (b) steady state creep rate
(c) fatigue life (d) none of these
94. The ability of the material by virtue of which it can be drawn into a wire is known as
(a) Malleability (b) Drawing (c) Fatigue (d) all of these (12)
95. The electrical resistivity of normal metal and alloy decreases steadily as the
temperature decreases and reaches a low residual value. This phenomenon is called
(a) Hysteresis (b) Superconductivity (c) Conductivity (d) All of these (12)
96. Corrosion can be used advantageously too because (13)
(a) it helps in etching operation for microstructural studies
(b) batteries such as car battery uses corrosion to provide power
(c) current is developed in dry cell batteries as a result of corrosion process
(d) all of these
97. The conversion of metal to its metallic oxide and salts is known as (12)
(a) Pitting (b) oxidation (c) corrosion (d) none of these.
98. Which of the following is not a thermoplastic (13)
(a) PVC (b) Nylon (c) Phenolic (d) Acrylic
99. Certain ceramic materials are used for tape recorder head because they have (09)
(a) low tensile strength (b) high compressive strength
(c) hardness and resistance to wear (d) low fraction strength
100. The term ‘sintering ‘ is associated with (11)
(a) welding technique (b) die casting technique
(c) powder metallurgy technique (d) soldering technique
101. The assignment matrix is (12)
(a) identity matrix (b) null matrix (c) square matrix (d) rectangular matrix
102. Composite materials are classified based on
(a) Type of matrix (b) Size-and-shape of reinforcement (c) Both (d) None of these
103. Major load carrier in dispersion-strengthened composites
(a) Matrix (b) Fiber (c) Both (d) None of these
104. Metal matrix with composites are mostly made up of (11)
(a) Metal matrix with metallic wires as reinforcement
(b) Metal matrix with ceramic fibres as reinforcement
(c) Metal matrix with polymeric fibres as reinforcement
(d) All these are applicable
105. Usually softer constituent of a composite is
(a) Matrix (b) Reinforcement (c) Both are of equal strength (d) None of these

9|Question Bank
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
106. Usually stronger constituent of a composite is
(a) Matrix (b) Reinforcement (c) Both are of equal strength (d) None of these
107. Last constituent to fail in fiber reinforced composites
(a) Matrix (b) Fiber (c) Both fails at same time (d) None of these
108. Size range of dispersoids used in dispersion strengthened composites
(a) 0.01-0.1 µm (b) 0.01-0.1 nm (c) 0.01-0.1 mm (d) None of these
109. Rule-of-mixture provides for mechanical properties of particulate composites
(a) Lower bound (b) Upper bound (c) Both (d) None
110. Al-alloys for engine/automobile parts are reinforced to increase their
(a) Strength (b) Wear resistance (c) Elastic modulus (d) Density
111. Mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites depend on
(a) Properties of constituents (b) Interface strength
(c) Fiber length, orientation, and volume fraction (d) All of these
112. Longitudinal strength of fiber reinforced composite is mainly influenced by
(a) Fiber strength (b) Fiber orientation
(c) Fiber volume fraction (d) Fiber length
113. The following material can be used for filling in sandwich structures
(a) Polymers (b) Cement (c) Wood (d) All
114. Not an example for laminar composite
(a) Wood (b) Bimetallic (c) Coatings/Paints (d) Claddings

1. b 2. c 3. d 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. a 8. c 9. b 10. c
11. a 12. d 13. d 14. a 15. b 16. d 17. d 18. b 19. a 20. b
21. a 22. b 23. a 24. c 25. b 26. b 27. b 28. a 29. c 30. b
31. d 32. b 33. c 34. d 35. b 36. c 37. d 38. a 39. d 40. b
41. d 42. c 43. a 44. a 45. d 46. a 47. d 48. c 49. b 50. a
51. a 52. c 53. a 54. d 55. c 56. a 57. d 58. a 59. b 60. b
61. b 62. b 63. c 64. b 65. d 66. c 67. b 68. b 69. d 70. b
71. c 72. d 73. b 74. a 75. d 76. d 77. b 78. b 79. b 80. b
81. a 82. b 83. a 84. b 85. b 86. c 87. c 88. a 89. a 90. a
91. c 92. b 93. c 94. b 95. b 96. d 97. c 98. c 99. c 100. c
101. c 102. c 103. a 104. a 105. a 106. b 107. a 108. a 109. c 110. b
111. d 112. a 113. d 114. a

10 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
Descriptive Type Questions
Module 1 (Introduction)
1. Define materials science and material engineering. (2)
2. What are the main classes of engineering materials? (2)
3. What are some of the important properties of each of these engineering materials? (3)
4 What are different types of advanced materials? (2)
4. Explain atomic weight and atomic number. What is the significance between these
two? (3)
5. Name the types of chemical bond according to strength. (3) (WBUT 05)
6. Explain covalent bond is directional and the metallic and ionic bonds are non-
directional (3)
7. What are primary bonds & secondary bonds? Explain Hydrogen bond with a sketch.
(3) (WBUT 10, 11)
8. In what respect secondary or molecular bonds differ from primary bonds? (2)
9. What is radius ratio? Predict the coordination number for the ionic solid CsCl and
NaCl. ( WBUT 2012)
10. Derive an expression for critical radius of nucleation (homogeneous) during primary
solidification of metal. ( WBUT 2015,2013)

Module 2 (Crystal Structure)

11. What are lattice parameters of a unit cell? Enumerate and sketch the basic seven
crystal systems. (2+5)
12. What are the 14 Bravais unit cells? (5)
13. What is co-ordination number? (2)
14. What is atomic radius? Calculate its value for body centered cube and face centered
cube. (1+4)
15. Calculate the atomic packing factor of BCC crystal (2) (WBUT 14)
16. Prove that APF of FCC unit cell is 74% (5)
17. Prove that % APF of an HCP unit cell is 74%. Given: c/a = √8/3, where c = height of the
unit cell and a = edge length of the unit cell. (5) (WBUT 09, 11)
18. Show that the ideal c/a ratio of a hexagonal closed-packed crystal is 1.633
approximately. (3) (WBUT 05, 10)
19. Draw the followign planes and directions in a FCC structure (any five):
(001), (102), (010), (020), (101), (112) (5) (WBUT 14)
20. What is radius ratio? Predict the coordination number for the ionic solids CsCl and
NaCl. Use the following ionic radii for the prediction Cs+ = 0.170 nm, Na+ = 0.102 nm
and Cl- = 0.181 nm. Ans: 8 and 6 (2+3) (WBUT 11, 12)
21. The Bragg’s angle corresponding to the first order reflection from (111) planes in a
crystal is 30˚ when x-rays of wavelength of 1.75 angstrom are used. Calculate the
atomic spacing (n = 1). Ans: 1.75 angsstrom (3) (WBUT 14)

11 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
Module 3 (Imperfections in Metals)
22. What do you mean by point defects? Name their types with sketches. (3)
(WBUT 07, 10)
23. What is Solid Solution? Mention the factors that govern complete Solid solubility in
metal. (3) (WBUT 10)
24. State the Hume-Rothery rule for solid solubility. Classify the solid solution with
example. (5) (WBUT 06, 08, 13)
25. Distinguish between substitutional and interstitial atoms. (5) (WBUT 14)
26. Explain Edge and Screw dislocations. (2) (WBUT 11)
27. With the help of neat sketches, explain how slip occurs by the movement of edge
dislocation. (5) (WBUT 08, 10)
28. Draw neat sketches to show the atomic arrangement in the neighborhood of a screw
dislocation. Explain the reason for the name, ‘screw’ dislocation. (4) (WBUT 05)
29. What is the difference between the slip and twining mechanism of plastic
deformation of metals? (3) (WBUT 11)
30. (a) List four major differences between deformation by slip and deformation by
(b) Cite the difference between mechanical and annealing twins.
(c) Draw a neat sketch to show the automatic arrangement in the immediate
neighborhood of an edge dislocation. Distinguish between positive and negative
edge dislocations. Label your drawing. (3+2+5) (WBUT 04, 05)
31. Calculate the fraction of atomic sites that are vacant for copper, at its melting
temperature 1084 deg . Assume energy or vacancy formation is 0.90 eV/atom (2015)
32. Discuss about mixed dislocation. Why edge dislocation can climb and it cannot cross-

Module 4 (Phase Diagram)

31. What do you mean by phase? Write Gibbs’ Phase Rule and explain all the terms used
in this equation. How many types of phases available in the engineering materials?
(1+4) (WBUT 09, 12, 13)
32. What is phase diagram? How is this constructed? What important information is
obtained from phase diagram? (2+3+3) (WBUT 05, 07,08, 10, 12)
33. Define the following: (2+2+1) (WBUT 11, 14)
(a) Phase diagrams (b) Phase equilibrium (c) Solubility limit
34. Derive the lever rule for the amount in weight percent of each phase two-phase
regions of a binary phase diagram. Use a phase diagram in which two elements are
completely soluble in each other. (2+5)
35. What are ternary diagrams? (3) (WBUT 09)
36. Draw and explain Binary isomorphous system with real type example. Find out
degree of freedom at melting temperature of second component with the help of
Gibbs’ phase rule.

12 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
37. Find the degree of freedom with Gibbs’ phase rule at i) melting temperature of pure
iron and ii) any point in hypoeutectic iron region below 727 deg C temperature.

Module 5 (Iron–Carbon Diagram)

38. What is eutectoid reaction? (2) (WBUT 05, 08)
39. Distinguish between ‘eutectoid’ and ‘eutectic’ reaction and define ‘pearlite’ in a plain
carbon steel. (4)
40. What is peritectic reaction? Provide example. (3) (WBUT 09)
41. Explain eutectic, eutectoid and peritectic reactions for Fe-Fe3C system. (7) (WBUT 14)
42. Explain the terms (i) hypoeutectoid alloy and (ii) hypereutectoid alloy in Fe/C
system. Draw the microstructure of each alloy. (5) (WBUT 08)
43. (a) Define the following phases that are present in the Fe – Fe3C phase diagram:
(i) Austenite (ii) α- Ferrite (iii) Cementite (iv) - Ferrite
(b) What is the structure of pearlite?
(c) Distinguish between the following three types of plain carbon steels:
(i) Eutectoid (ii) Hypoeutectoid (iii) Hypereutectoid (8 + 2 + 5) (WBUT 11)
44. Draw the Fe - Fe3C phase diagram and label it. What information is available from
the Fe - Fe3C phase diagram? (9) (WBUT 06, 13)
45. Draw a neat sketch of steel position of Iron Carbon diagram, showing the different
phase fields. (7) (WBUT 08,10, 14)
46. Find the relative amount of ferrite and pearlite in a fully annealed 0.5% carbon steel
at room temperature. Ans: Ferrite: 35% and Pearlite: 65% (4) (WBUT 05, 10)
47. For a 99.65 wt% C alloy at a temperature just below the eutectoid, determine the
(a) The fractions of total ferrite and cementite phases.
(b) The fractions of the proeutectoid ferrite and pearlite
(c) The fraction of eutectoid ferrite
Ans: (a) Total Ferrite: 95%, Pearlite: 5%, (b) Proeutectoid Ferrite: 56%, Pearlite: 44%
and (c) Eutectoid Ferrite: 39% (6) (WBUT 14)
48. (a) Describe the formation of bainite in Fe / Fe3C equilibrium system.
(b) Draw Fe / Fe3C equilibrium diagram and name the phase and their equilibrium
factions in a 0.5% plain carbon steel at the following conditions:
(i) Just above eutectoid temperature
(ii) Just below eutectoid temperature (4 + 8) (WBUT 09)
Ans: (i) Ferrite: 35% and Austenite: 65% (ii) Ferrite: 35% and Pearlite: 65%
49. (a) State the difference between ferrite and austenite.
(b) A plain carbon steel, having composition 0.35%, is allowed to cool from 1000°C to
100°C. Calculate the amount of ferrite and cementite in the microstructure.
Ans: Ferrite: 95% and Cementite = 5% (3+4) (WBUT 08)
50. A 0.80% C eutectoid plain carbon steel is slowly cooled from 750C to a temperature
just slightly below 723C. Assuming that the austenite is completely transformed to α
ferrite and cementite Fe3C, calculate the weight percent of eutectoid ferrite formed.

13 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
Ans: Eutectoid ferrite: 88% (6) (WBUT 13)
51. (a) A 0.40% C hypoeutectoid plain-carbon steel is slowly cooled from 940°C to a
temperature just slightly above 723°C
(i) Calculate weight per cent austenite present in the steel.
(ii) Calculate the weight per cent proeutectoid ferrite present in the steel.
(b) A 0.40% C hypoeutectoid plain-carbon steel is slowly cooled from 940°C to a
temperature just slightly below 723°C.
(i) Calculate weight per cent pro-eutectoid ferrite present in the steel.
(ii) Calculate the weight per cent eutectoid ferrite and weight per cent eutectoid
cementite present in the steel.
Ans: (a) (i) Austenite: 51% and (ii) Proeutectoid ferrite: 49%,
(b) (i) Proeutectoid ferrite: 49%,
1 1
(ii) Eutectoid ferrite: 45%, Eutectoid cementite: 6% (42 +42) (WBUT 12)
52. State the demerits of plain carbon steel.
53. Draw Iron-Carbon equilibrium diagram showing the temperatures, compositions
and phases; then determine the amount of following phases present in 1.1% carbon
steel under equilibrium conditions
(i) Austenite and cementite just above the eutectoid temperature
(ii) Proeutectoid cementite, Pearlite and total cementite at room temperature
Ans: (i) Austenite: 94% and Cementite: 6%, (ii) Proeutectoid cementite: 6%, Pearlite:
94% and Total cementite: 16% (9) (WBUT 04)

(Module 6 (Classification of Metals and Alloys)

54. What are cast irons? What is their basic range of composition? (2) (WBUT 11)
55. Explain the difference in micro-structure and properties of white and gray cast iron.
(5) (WBUT 09)
56. Define cast iron and graphitization. ‚Grey cast iron is soft but white cast iron is
hard‛. Explain. (5) (WBUT 08)
57. (a) Explain clearly what are the advantages of alloy steel over plain carbon steel?
(b) What is HSS? State the important properties and uses of HSS (4 + 3) (WBUT 04)
58. (a) Explain the difference between carbon steel and alloy steel.
(b) What is meant by the term ‚high speed steel‛?
(c) State composition, properties and uses of carbon steel. (3 + 1+ 5) (WBUT 14)
59. What is tool steel? (2) (WBUT 05,08,10)
60. What is the role of Ni and Cr in stainless steel? (2) (WBUT 05, 10)
61. Give the composition and uses of the following: HSS, HSLA, Grey cast iron. (5)
62. Mention some application of bronzes and duralumin. (3) (WBUT 05,08,10)
63. Put down the different types of Copper alloys and explain in brief for any two,
composition, properties and applications. (5) (WBUT 13)
64. What are the typical alloys of copper used in engineering?
Describe briefly their composition and uses. (6) (WBUT 14)
65. Why we use brass (α+) for obtaining good mechanical strength? (2) (WBUT 05)

14 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
66. Write the composition, properties and typical uses of the following non-ferrous
(i) Phosphor bronze (ii) Nichrome (iii) Hestalloy (9) (WBUT 13)
Define plain carbon steel and alloy steel.

Module 7 (Mechanical Properties of Materials)

67. Draw the stress-strain curve for mild steel and cast iron. (3) (WBUT 11)
68. What is yield strength of a material? How the yield strength of aluminum is
determined? (1+2)
69. (a) Discuss engineering stress and engineering strain and true stress and true strain.
(b) Draw and describe engineering stress vs engineering strain and true stress vs true
strain plot for a ductile material. (4+6) (WBUT 14)
70. What is the difference between true and engineering stress? (2)
71. Establish the relation between true and engineering stress? (2)
72. Differentiate between Hardness and Toughness. (4)
73. What are the effects of temperature on yield strength, tensile strength, ductility and
impact strength? (4)
74. What do you mean by toughness and malleability of steel? What is ductility? (5)
(WBUT 11)
75. What is hardness? Describe Brinell and Rockwell hardness. (1+4) (WBUT 14)
76. A 10 mm diameter Brinel hardness indenter produced an indentation 2.50 mm in
diameter in a steel body when a load of 1000 kg was applied.
(i) Determine the HB of this material
(ii) What will be the diameter of the indentation to yield a hardness of 300 HB when
500 kg load is used on this metal?
(iii) Calculate the tensile strength of this material in MPa.
Ans: (i) 200.6 HB, (ii) 1.45 mm, (iii) 692.07 MPa (6) (WBUT 13)
77. Write down Hall- Petch equation for strengthening of materials and alloys by
controlling the grain size. (1) (WBUT 12)
78. (a) What is the difference between recovery, recrystallisation and grain growth?
(b) How do crystallization and grain growth affect the different mechanical
properties? (9+6) (WBUT 07)
79. What is meant by recovery? What are the five important factors that affect the
recrystallisation process in metals? (5) (WBUT 09)
80. What is meant by fracture of a material? Name different kinds of fracture and give
sketches. (2) (WBUT 12)
81. (a) Derive the expression for condition of crack-propagation according to Griffith
Fracture theory.
(b) Distinguish between ductile fracture and brittle fracture. (4+3) (WBUT 04, 05, 10)
82. Define fracture stress and explain how it depends on crack radius. Calculate the
fracture stress for a brittle material with the following properties: E =100 GPa, surface
energy = 1J/m 2, crack length == 2.5 pm. Ans: 225.7 MPa (6) (WBUT 07)
83. (a) Define fracture toughness of a material. (1) (WBUT 12)
15 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
(b) A high strength steel is having yield stress of 1460 MPa and Kic = 98 MPa√m.
Calculate the size of the surface crack that will lead to its catastrophic failure at an
applied stress of 2 Y.P. stress. Ans: 5.74 mm (2) (WBUT 12)
84. What is meant by fatigue failure? Which factors do influence on the fatigue failure of
a material? How can fatigue life be improved? (10) (WBUT 04, 06,10, 13)
85. Define fatigue limit and endurance ratio of a steel specimen. Explain the factors
influencing the fatigue limit. (5) (WBUT 07)
86. Distinguish between S-N curves of steel and Aluminium alloys. (5) (WBUT 04)
87. Define creep and creep strength. ‚Copper does not show creep at room temperature
but lead shows‛. Explain. (4) (WBUT 04)
88. Briefly describe creep phenomenon of a metal. (5) (WBUT 06)
89. Draw neat sketch of creep phenomenon showing different shapes. (2) (WBUT 12)
90. What is creep? Draw a continuous loading creep diagram at fixed temperature.
(1+4) (WBUT 12, 13)
91. What is the creep in metal and fracture strength? (4) (WBUT 11)
92. State the difference between Creep and Fatigue (3) (WBUT 04)
93. Brass and Tungstain cylinder samples having same cross srctional area A=100 sq
mm., but different lengths were deformed under 2000N load. If the initial and final
length of brass sample was 3 mm shorter and 5 mm

Module 8 (Heat Treatment)

94. Why is heat treatment necessary for ferrous metals and alloys? (2) (WBUT 12)
95. State the purpose of heat treatment. (3) (WBUT 14)
96. What is a T-T-T diagram? Explain the method of plotting of T-T-T diagram for
eutectoid steel. (2+6) (WBUT 04, 07,10)
97. Drew a typical TIT diagram for Fe-c alloys and discuss the microstructures formation
for different rates of cooling. (7) (WBUT 06)
98. Explain the principle of construction T-T-T diagram and discuss the effects of various
cooling rates of the transformation of austenite and their products. (10) (WBUT 09)
99. (a) Explain how bainite phase is formed during cooling of Fe/C-alloy. Hence define
feathery bainite and acicular bainite. State the crystal structure and composition of
cementite and epilson carbide.
(b) Draw CCT-diagram of an eutectoid alloy. (6+4) (WBUT 07)
100. Why is cementite hard? Explain ‚Martensite formation is a diffusionless process‛.
Explain ‚Quenching is always followed by tempering‛. (1 + 2 + 2) (WBUT 05, 11)
101. ‚Martensitic transformation in Fe/ C-alloy is irreversible but the same transformation
in other non-carbon alloys is reversible.‛ Explain. (3) (WBUT 07)
102. Why Martensite is hard and brittle? ( 3) (WBUT 04, 09)
103. Find the grain diameter of an austenite grain having ASTM grain size No. 6.
Ans: 0.045mm (2) (WBUT 07, 10, 12)
104. Explain the annealing process of Heat treatment with a suitable diagram.
(5) (WBUT 13)

16 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
105. Name the different annealing processes. (3) (WBUT 14)
106. Describe full annealing heat treatment for plain carbon steel. What types of micro
structure are produced by full annealing of eutectoid steel? (10) (WBUT 06, 09)
107. Differentiate between full and isothermal annealing of carbon steel. (2) (WBUT 04)
108. Discuss normalizing heat treatment process. (3) (WBUT 07, 11)
109. How can steel be made hard by quenching? Which quenching media is used in heat
treatment of steel? (5) (WBUT 04)
110. Distinguish between hardening, tempering and normalizing. (6) (WBUT 14)
111. Describe austempering process for a plain carbon steel (5) (WBUT 06)
112. Show the difference between Martempering and Austempering.
(5) (WBUT 05, 07, 09, 10, 12)
113. (a) Explain why austenitizing temperature is kept as low as possible during heat
treatment operation . Explain how hardenability of a steel specimen is influenced by
austenite grain size and other alloying elements present in the steel.
(b) Define cold tempering and temper brittleness. State how temper brittleness can be
avoided. (6+6) (WBUT 07)
114. What are the different case hardening methods that are used in heat treatment
process? Explain nitriding method. (2) (WBUT 12)
115. What is Carburizing? Is it necessary to harden and temper the components after
carburizing? (6) (WBUT 04, 09, 10, 13)
116. Why ‚retained austenite‛ is not desirable? (2) (WBUT 04)
117. For gear and axle in an automobile what sort of heat treatment should be suggested?
(Hint: Induction Hardening) (5) (WBUT 12)
118. Define age hardening. What improvements are expected from this process?
(3) (WBUT 14)

Module 9 (Polymers & Elastomeres)

119. What is polymerization? Describe the mechanism of polymerization. Write two
applications of elastomers. (1+4+2) (WBUT 11, 13)
120. Define degree of polymerization. The number average molecular mass of a
polymerized sample is 6000. Calculate the degree of polymerization, if the molecular
mass of monomer sample is 30. (5) (WBUT 14)
121. Differentiate between thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. Give examples of
each of them. Why plastics are considered as modern engineering materials?
(5 + 2 + 3) (WBUT 11, 12)

Module 10 (Ceramic Materials)

122. Describe the sintering process. (4) (WBUT 11)
123. Classify different types of ceramics and give an example for each type. (5)
124. How ceramics are made? Describe each process briefly. (2+4+4)
125. Make a qualitative comparison of the properties between metals and ceramics. (3)
(WBUT 04)

Module 11 (Composite Materials)

17 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Materials (ME 303)
126. What are sintering and vitrification? (3) (WBUT 13)
127. What is composite material? What are the basic differences between composite and
alloy? (1+2) (WBUT 13)
128. Define volume fraction of a composite material. (2)
129. Explain ceramics matrix composites and polymer matrix composites with few
applications of them. (6) (WBUT 13)
130. Differentiate between particulates, long fiber and short fiber. Give an example for
different types of composite materials. (7)
131. List the different methods of manufacturing fiber reinforced plastic. Explain any two
methods. (7)
132. Explain the following composite materials: (3+3)
(i) Agglomerates materials (ii) Reinforced materials

Module 12 (Corrosion and Degradation)

133. Define corrosion. What are the factors that affect the corrosion of a metal?
(1 + 3) (WBUT 11, 12, 13, 14)

134. (a) State and explain different types of corrosion in materials.

(b) How is corrosion controlled? (7 + 8) (WBUT 11, 13, 14)
135. Explain corrosion due to galvanic action and pitting corrosion. What are the methods
to prevent corrosion on the surface of the metal? Explain any one type of corrosion
preventive measure. (4 + 3 + 5) (WBUT 11, 12, 13, 14)
136. Explain stainless steel and effect of corrosion on it. (3) (WBUT 11)

Module 13 (Material Selection Methodology)

137. Describe briefly about the necessary requirements for selection of an appropriate
material and its subsequent conversion into a useful product with desired shape and
properties. (10)
138. Write short notes on the following: (5 x 9) (WBUT 05, 06, 07 09, 10)
1. Annealing and normalizing 2. Tempering
3. Induction flame hardening
4. Rockwell hardness test 5. Brinell Hardness Test
6. Composite material 7. Ceramics
8. Alloys for high temperature use
9. Application of Brasses and bronzes

18 | Q u e s t i o n B a n k