Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41

Lithium Ion Batteries in E-Mobility

Motivation
Design for Manufacturing
Trends

Klaus Grieshofer
04.03.2015
Outline

 Introduction of Magna Steyr Battery Systems


 Motivation for Electromobility
 Development
 Production
 Future Trends
MAGNA STEYR BATTERY SYSTEMS
Battery Systems
Top Quality Storage Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Austria
Graz, Zettling

North America China


Auburn Hills Shanghai,
Changchun

Li-Ion Low-voltage High-voltage


battery systems Testing services systems systems

Battery systems for passenger State-of-the-art test labs B:LiON lightweight B:LiON battery systems in
cars and commercial vehicles in Europe and North battery systems for the high-voltage range as
based on state-of-the-art America ensure the automotive micro, mild an energy store for fully
lithium-ion technology highest quality and safety and hybrid applications, electric or hybrid vehicle
standards as well as onboard power applications
supply

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Battery Systems Locations Europe

Zettling (HQ)

• Austria (Europe)
Employees: 171 (Status Q3 / 2013)
Plant Size: 14,060 m²
• Functions
Battery Pack Engineering
Prototype Battery Builds
Battery Pack Assembling

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Battery Systems Locations North America and China

Auburn Hills Changchun

• Michigan (USA) • China, Jilin Province


Employees: 48 (Status Q3 / 2013) • Expansion of existing plant
Plant Size: 7,630 m² Planned size: ~10.000 m²
• Functions Planned Production volume: ~35.000/(year)
Battery Pack Engineering
• Functions
Battery Testing
Battery Pack Assembly (SOP: Q2/2016)
Material Testing
Battery Pack Engineering

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Battery Systems Portfolio Automotive Market

Energy Plug-In PHEV Hybrid (HEV) 48V 12V Truck PHEV

Serial Production Serial Production Serial Production Serial Production

Energy
Content
16 - 36 kWh 6 - 18 kWh 0.2 - 3 kWh 0.25 - 1 kWh ~ 70 Wh 8 - 14 kWh

Power 50 - 120 kW 50 - 120 kW 10 - 50 kW 8 - 11 kW ~ 3 kW 100 - 170 kW

Voltage 400 V 400 V 120 / 400 V 48 V 12 V 400 / 700 V

Weight 180 - 400 kg 80 - 200 kg 10 - 40 kg ~ 15 kg ~ 5 kg 120 - 220 kg

AC cooling /
Cooling liquid (optional) liquid air / liquid ---- liquid
liquid
Manuf. < 100,000 /
Capacity
3,000 / year > 35,000 / year 50,000 / year 100,000 / year 3,000 / year
year

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Matrix of Battery Pack Applications

50
EV* Electric Vehicle
PHEV* Plug In Hybrid Vehicle
HEV* Hybrid Electric Vehicle
EV*
ENERGY
BATTERY PACKS

PHEV*
ENERGY BATTERY
PACKS
10
Total Energy [kWh]

TRUCK/BUS HEV*
HEAVY DUTY
POWER BATTERY PACKS

FULL HEV*
POWER BATTERY
PACKS
1
MILD HEV*
POWER
BATTERY PACKS
12 / 48V SYSTEMS
POWER BATTERY
PACKS

0
1 10 100 1000
Power [kW]
13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
MSBS Track Record

 12V Light Weight Li- 12V Light Weight


 HEV Truck Gen III Ion Battery PHEV / HEV Li-Ion Battery Gen II
Truck Gen IV

 HEV Truck Gen I 2016


2015

2014
2013
2013
High Power HEV Battery
2011
2010
2010
 PHEV Battery Pack
2009

 HEV Truck Gen II

 BEV
Battery Pack

 Serial Projects with SOP Development

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Motivation for Electromobility
CO2 is a Global Reference Point for Hybridization

Legislative Convergence across TRIAD,


China, and SK CO2 reduction requirements by OEM in EU

Source: IHS Automotive, Berlin March 2013

TODAY
Legislative CO2 reduction requirements
EU: -27% (2012-2020)
NA: -33% (2012-2020)

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Approach to reach the targets

CO2 measures on NEDC vs. Costs


Leightweight
Propulsion
System

€/%CO2 Reduction
Improved
efficiency

Aero- Rolling
dynamiics resistance

Propulsion-related measures
Other measures

Aero-
Propulsion-related
dynamics CO2 measures achieve a good cost relation

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
CO2 Reduction requires Diversification of Powertrains

ICE optimization
Light weight
Distance

Energy management
Long

CNG/ LPG
Aerodynamics & Synthetic sun fuels
Friction BiSG & CiSG, 12V/48V Mild hybrids
Stop/start Full hybrids Fuel cell vehicles
Range extended EV

PHEV
City

Electric vehicles
Electric vehicles
relative CO2

up to -40%
emissions

-20 to -30%
up to -60%

up to -100%

EU targets: 130 gCO2/km 95 gCO2/km tbc: 70 gCO2/km

High powertrain diversification expected over the years


For City emission free driving with PHEV and BEV
13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Comparison EV and conventional vehicle

Conventional Electric
A/B/C Segment
Vehicle Vehicle

Propulsion system Combustion engine Electric motor


Components

Gear box (6 gear) Gear box (1 gear)


Converter
Inverter
Energy storage system Tank ~70l Battery pack ~ 350l
Onboard charger
Range >1000 km Up to 500 km

Max. speed >180 >180 @ 1 shift


Functions

Refuel/charging 3 min Fast charge <20min

Energy recovery No 25-40%

CO2 emissions 140g/km 0g/km

Energy efficiency <30% ~70%

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Daily Driving Range

Germany
• 90% of all trips are
16 100
90 shorter than 130km

in %, kumuliert
14
in %[%]

accumulated [%]
80

Daily activities,
12
70
• 70% of all Germans
activities

10 60
Tagesleistung

8 50
drive less than

Tagesleistung
6 40 35km per day
30
Daily

4
20
2
• PHEV allows pure
10
0 0
electric drive up to
0 2,6 5,2 7,8 13 20,8 26 39 52 78 130 260 >260 50km + full
PKW-Tagesfahrleistungen
Daily driving range [km] in km conventional range
Source: Bundesministerium für Verkehr,
Bau- und Wohnungswesen (BMVBW), 2002

At present average electrical Batterysolution


range of electric vehicles will increase
120  150 km costs & weight
13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Development
MAGNA STEYR Battery Systems
Development Process

Mechanical integration Thermal concept


• Customer tailored housing • Thermal simulation
DESIGN
• Modular concept •  Cooling concept for cell
• Functional integrated thermal management
(Cooler + Housing) •  Liquid or air cooled

Electrical integration
• Low cost and high Cell Selection
integrated cell to cell • Tailored cell chemistry
connection • All cell housing types
• Battery disconnect and chemistries
unit feasible
• Interfaces
• Wiring of measure-
ment circuits
Costumized Pack Validation Mass Production
• Performance
• Transportation
• Mechanical
Software / Battery Management • Thermal and
Climatic
• Functional Safety Concept • Safety
• Balancing + Supervision of cells • Life Cycle
• State Monitoring (State of Charge, • other
State of Power, State of Health)
• Communication/ CAN
• Usage Logging over life

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Cell Selection - overview

• “Cell”? Battery weight distribution


– (Galvanic) Cells are Accumulators (Secondary
Batteries or Rechargeable Cells)
• the electrochemical process is reversible
– In an Energy Storage System (ESS), several cells
are connected in series and parallel configuration

• Selection Topics:
– Mechanical design
– Performance design
– Chemical components
– Safety features

Cylindric Cells Prismatic Cells Pouch Bag Cells

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Cell Technology

10.000
Lithium-Air
Specific Energy [Wh/kg]

R&D stage 
serial after 2030 Lithium-Sulfur
1.000
Solid State R&D stage 
R&D stage  serial after 2025
serial after 2020
Lithium-Ion
NiMH 300 €/kWh 170
100 (2013) (2020)
220 €/kWh 200
(2013) (2020)
Lithium-Ion-Capacitors
R&D stage 
serial after 2018
10
Super-Capacitors
>10.000 €/kWh ~8000
(2013) (2020)

1
10 100 1.000 10.000
Specific Power [W/kg]
* Cost indication based on cell level
** Source: Magna-internal information based on 10 market studies as well as cost indications from serial production requests
*** Specification based on reachable energies

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Tailored cell technologies to specific applications

PHEV HEV 48V 12V

Cell capacity 22 - 40 Ah 6 – 10 Ah 6 – 10 Ah 10 - 20 Ah

Peak Power / Cell 1000 W 700 W 800 W 1200 W (crank)

Grav. Energy > 170 Wh/kg > 80 Wh/kg > 80 Wh/kg >100 Wh/kg

Reduced thermal
Thermal Active cooling Active cooling passive cooling
control

Life 10 years of service life

Graphite Graphite, HC SC, HC, LTO


Anode material
Reduced particle size, thinner electrodes, high surface area

NMC, NCA, LMO, LFP NMC,LFP


Cathode material
Reduced particle size, thinner electrodes, high surface area, coatings

voltage stability   thermal stability, low T performance


Electrolyte Solvent mix, functional additives, salt concentration

+ thermal stability, no shrinkage  ceramic modified PE/PP


Separator
Low transport resistance  tailored to mod. electrolyte

Mechanical Metal can    pouch type cells


design
13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Thermal integration concepts - overview

Energy Plug-In Hybrid 48V 12V

Energy Content 16-36 kWh 6-18 kWh 0,2-3 kWh 0,6 -1 kWh 0,25 -1 kWh

Power 50-120 kW 50-120 kW 10-50 kW 10-2 kW 3 kW

Heat generated 200-300 W 200-300 W 200-300 W < 60 W < 15W


passive cooling should
be sufficient for low passive cooling should be sufficient for
Passive cooling limited performance.
C-rates applications.

Air Cooling Cost efficient air cooling option

For EV and PHEV applications best compromise in matter of packaging,


Liquid cooling cooling and heating performance, safety and comfort

For HEV refrigerant cooling is an


Refrigerant
option to avoid a own liquid cooling
Cooling circuit for the battery pack.

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited 21
Trends in liquid cooling design

Housing-integrated cooling: Thermal management

• Bottom cooling via cooling tubes • Bottom cooling via double-wall housing
• Impact on:
Performance, Life, Safety

• Design criteria
• Cell operation T of ~ 35°C
• Homogeneous
temperature distribution on
Cooling plate designs: cell and module level

• Thin sheet cooling plates


• Cooling plates with structural function
• Methods:
• Simulation (0d, 1d, 3d)
• Functional integration
• Verification

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Thermal cooling design
3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Velocities

3D – Temperature distribution

Temperatures

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Mechanical integration - Overview

EV PHEV / REX Hybrid (HEV) 12V / 48V Bus / Truck

Serial Production Serial Production Serial Production Serial Production

Steel deep drawn Concept Serial Concept PT Concept


Steel welded Serial PT PT - Serial
AL-deep drawn - Serial (cover) Concept (cover) Concept PT (Cover)
Al Casting - Serial PT Concept PT
Al extrusion profile - Concept - Concept -
Polymer Serial (Cover) Concept (Cover) - Serial -

Serial Production Program, fully qualified battery pack


Prototype build-up, concept validated
Feasibility study, concept simulated and analyzed

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Trends in PHEV housing design

PHEV die-cast housing Mechanical design

Material: Aluminum crash alloy


• Package arrangement
• Integration of Cooling
+) Complex geometry possibilities • Crash performance
+) Low cost at high volume • Mechanical endurance (life
+) crash & shock requirements
time)
• Vibration and shock durability
- ) Limitation in size
• Temperature / humidity
durability
• Design for manufactoring

Al-Extrusion housing

Material: Extruded aluminum profiles

+) High mechanical strength


+) crash
+) For low and high volume, all sizes

- ) Not suitable for complex installation space shapes

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Electrical design - examples

Integrated cell connection unit for battery module Electrical design

• Automated HV connection • HV-Path


• Automated wiring to PCB • LV-wiring
• Integrated temperature sensor • Interconnections
• Insulation / HV Protection
• Battery Disconnect Units
• EMC Filters
Compact EMC Filter:

• Compact design
• Easy assembly
• Highly effective

Compact high-voltage connection board:

• Designed for automated


assembly
fuse
sensor

2 relais

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Battery Management System Overview

Implemented Functionality

BMU/ CSC functions

Cell measurement
Wake up
Power limit calculation Wake up / Stop
-Cell voltage
-cell temperature Cooling control

Pack measurement Crash Signal


Wake up/ Stop control
-pack voltage
SOC („Range“)
-pack temperature
Cell balacing control
System measurement Available power
-Cooling media inlet and HV Isolation Monitoring
outlet temperature State of health
Diagnostics
Warning
SOC Estimation
messages

SOH Estimation CAN Communication Diagnostics


CAN
Communication
Vehicle

Cell HV HV
Cooling
balancing contactors Interlock

Battery
13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Electronics / Battery Management

Hardware architecture Battery management controller

Service Lid

CSC CSC

+
Cooling

Vehicle HV
Relay V+ HV Fuse
+

Supply
Lion Lion Lion
Cell Cell Cell

- Current Sensor
(redundant)
Relay V- -
Pre-Charge Relay
CSC CSC

BMU
KL 30c
KL 30

Cell voltage monitoring


HVIL
CAN

• Main components:
– Battery Management Controller (also unit)
• Data treatment/analysis
• Functional/safety algorithms
• Vehicle communication
– Cell Voltage Monitoring
• LV measurement of cells
• Temperature measurement
• Balancing components
– HV components:
• Relais
• Fuse
13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Software / Battery Management  Cell model
Requirements Development Acceptance Tests

System Integration Test


(System Testbench)
SYSTEM LEVEL System Design

Onboard Diagnostic OBD-2 Subsystem Integration Test


(System Testbench)

target: monitor emission relevant faults Design

n (DV)
Electri hanics &
System Functions SW Test

Design anics
(HiL)

Electro Verificatio
Mech
detection: defective sub-component

Mec
cs
Electric

nics,
SW Integration

n
Desig
Design Design

s&
Test
HW SW (HiL)

SUBSYSTEM LEVEL SW HW

Detaita
De

st SW
Safety System

Create

st

Modu ation, HW
led

ule te
iled De

dule Te

nics
Desigsig

t
Tooling

produc

le tes

st
Mod

Mecha
Electri ponent te
SWMo

o oper
n n
target: monitor safety relevant faults

tion da

SW
constru

Set int
Software

cs &
SW Implementation

Com
Implementation

ta
ction
detection: hazard / non-hazard Electronics Production

Component Production

monitoring of system COMPONENT LEVEL (Electrics & Mechanics)

current

monitoring of cell monitoring of cell


temperature voltage

advanced diagnostics

monitoring of cell monitoring of system monitoring of cell


temperature voltage voltage
• Cell characterization
monitoring of high Cell Modeling • Battery algorithm
monitoring of high monitoring of high
voltage plugs and
voltage fuses voltage relay
service lid

monitoring of system battery management monitoring of coolant


Application
current functionality temperature Software

cell voltage balancing insulation monitor • AUTOSAR configuration


Basic Software • Driver development
• System functions
• Application software
13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Safe Operation of Li-Ion Batteries
4 Level Concept
Safety Risk minimization by a 4 Level Safety Concept

• Cell Design Qualified to Hazard Level <= 3


• Robust and qualified mechanic and electric pack design
• Safe Battery Management Electronics and SW
• Integration into vehicle safety concept
• Extensive Validation

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4

Cells Pack Design Pack Functions Application


• Qualified to Hazard • Robust and qualified • Safe Battery Mgmt. • Thermal management
Level <= 3 mechanic and electric Electronics and SW • Integration area
• coated separator design • Monitoring of all safety • Vent gas management
• Pure and safe cathode • Usage of self- relevant operation • Crash reaction
and anode material extinguishing materials parameters
• integrated safety • Safe gas release to • Safe shutdown
devices ambient

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Production
Serial Production of Lithium Ion Batteries

4
PHEV serial production line
3
2 Module
1. Check / Preparation
2. Glueing
1
3. Welding
Pack
4. Assembly/Wiring
5. EOL Testing

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Process: Check / Preparation / Glueing
Plasma Cleaning of Cooler
• Plasma cleaning of the cooling plates

• Adhesive application on the cooling plates

• Adhesive needs to be thermally conductive, electrically


insulating, providing highest strength, process friendly
Glue application to cooler
• Laser cleaning of the cells electrically isolated stacked
together

• Glueing of cell stack to cooler

Laser Cleaning of Cell stack

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Process: Welding

Module Connector board • Connector board for cell connection is pre


assembled

• Aluminium busbars are cliped into a


polymer carrier

• Welding of busbars to the cell measuring


system

• Connector board is attached on top of the


Assembled modules cell stack which is glued on the cooling plate

• Aluminium busbars are laser welded onto


the cell terminals.

• All weld beads are controlled optically by


a surface scanner

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Process: Assembly / Wiring / EOL Test

Assembly of 3 modules in bottom housing • Assembly and screwing of the cell


modules in pack housing.

• Wiring of module electronics to battery


management unit

• Wiring of modules and conectors

• Mounting the cover and end of line test.

Wiring of modules
• High Voltage End of Line Test performing
Safety, Capacity
Tests and Charging Operation

• Battery complies with an absolute contact


protection

3/13/2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited


Future Trends
Mechanical Design & Integration

Wh/kg on cell level

160
Gravimetric Energy / Wh/kg

140

120

100

80

60

40

liquid
liquid

liquid

liquid
liquid

air
air

air

20
~79 ~88 ~80 65,5 78,7 88,7 95 110
0
Ford M GM Volt Mitsubishi Magna E- Magna E- Magna E- Magna Magna
C346 i-MiEV Car Car Car Steyr Steyr
serial concept concept concept concept
program 2010 2011 2013 2014
2010
Weight: 110 kg (10,5 kg/ kWh)
Dimensions: 1000 x 250 x 600mm (b x h x t) mm
Pouch housing Steel metal can housing Al can housing
Pouch housing

Self supporting module structure Package based on Standard Modules


2015
2011

Cell is used as mechanical structural part Functionally combined Housing and cooling
Reduced weight of cooling  air cooled system Crash resistent Al housing

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Battery price* development / kWh – estimation**

100%

80%

-60%
-30%
60%
€ 450
€ 315 -15%
40% -10%
€ 250
-5%
price in %

€ 200 € 180

2009 optimization of new materials cell standard


standardization material price
productions (mass
production, cell power)

2018
* supplier to OEM
** source: Continental AG
13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Cost target  Standardization is the Enabler

Standardization potential
Standardization on sub module/component level is a feasible approach to fulfill OEM
requests and shows quality & economy of scale effects on component level.

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited
Battery Systems Product Roadmap

From 12V systems up to high energy BEV applications


Product diversification driven by matching market needs Innovation Fields

PHEV/EV
New Products Systems based on:
• Improved Battery management
• Integrated sub components
• Next generation cell technologies
PHEV / HEV PHEV Battery
Truck Gen IV Pack Gen II

Current Products
48 V System
12V Light Gen II (specific cells)
12V Light Weight Weight Li-Ion
Li-Ion Battery Battery Gen II
PHEV
HEV Truck BEV HEV Truck High Power
HEV Truck Battery Pack 48 V System HEV Battery
Gen I Battery Pack Gen II
Gen III Gen I

Diversification of product portfolio


beyond vehicle industry

 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2020

13 March 2015 Author: Klaus Grieshofer Disclosure or duplication without consent is prohibited

Оценить