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Power Transmission

Devices
Mechanical Drives
• Mechanical drives are used to transmit the power or
motion from the prime mover to the machine
element.
• The power or motion from prime mover to the
machine element is transmitted through the drives
known as power transmission devices.

• The various types of power transmission devices are:


1. Belt drives
2. Rope drives
3. Chain drives
4. Gear drives
Mechanical Drives
 Requirements of Drive:
• Drive should be efficient and reliable.
• Initial and maintenance cost of the drive should be
low.
• All the changes should be made within the machine
tool itself.
• Design of the drive should be simple.
• The drive system should be compact and should have
large power to weight ratio.
 Types of Drives:
1. Individual Drive
2. Group Drive
Mechanical Drives
 Individual Drive:
• In individual drive, each and every machine has its
own prime mover.
• Individual drives are used in machines where speed
variation is required like lathe machines, milling
machines, etc.
Mechanical Drives
 Group Drive:
• In group drive, one prime mover is used to drive
more than one machines.
• They are used in machines where same speed is
required.
Belt drive
Belt Drives
Belt Drives

• Belt Drives are used to transmit the power from one


shaft to another shaft which are at considerable
distance apart.
• A belt drive consist of three elements:
1. Driving Pulley
2. Driven Pulley
3. Belt
• The power is transmitted from driving pulley to
driven pulley because of frictional grip between the
belt and the pulley surface.
Belt Drive
Flat Belts
Flat belt
Flat belt
Flat belt
flat pulley
flat pulley
flat pulley
Stepped flat pulley
Stepped flat pulley
Flat Belts
 Flat Belts:
• Flat belts have rectangular cross-section.
• It is having joint.
• Flat belts are mostly used in factories and workshops,
where a moderate amount of power is to be transmitted.
• Flat belts are used with electric motors to drive floor
mills, pumps, stone crushers, etc.
 Advantages:
• 1) Easy maintenance 2) Very high efficiency
 Limitations:
• 1) Slip is more. 2) Larger in size and occupy more space.
• 3) Cannot transmit high power.
V-Belts
V grooved pulley
V grooved pulley
Stepped V grooved pulley
V belts

 V-Belts:
• V-belts have trapezoidal cross-section. It is endless.
• V-belts transmit large amount of power as there pulleys are relatively
close to each other.
• V-belt drive pulleys are provided with a groove and are known as grooved
pulleys.
• They are used with electric motors to drive blowers, compressors, pumps,
etc.
 Advantages:
• Transmits large amount of power
• Compact construction
• Smooth and quiet operation
 Limitations:
• Efficiency is lower than flat belt drives
• Costlier
Comparison between flat belt and V belt
S.R. Flat belt V belt
No
1 The cross section is rectangular. The cross section is trapezoidal.

2 Mounted on flat pulleys. Mounted on V grooved pulleys.


3 It is having a joint. It is endless.
4 Used to transmit power in long distance upto 15 Used to transmit power in short
mtr. distance upto 3 mtr.
5 This belt drive is not compact. This belt drive is compact.
6 These can not transmit large power. These can transmit large power.
7 Used of low speed ratio. Used for high speed ratio.
8 Used for low speed application. Used for high speed application.
9 It has high efficiency about 98%. Low efficiency 80 to 96 %.
10 Slip is more. Due to wedging slip is less.
11 Noise is more. Smooth and quit .
Timing Belts
Timing belts

 Timing Belts:
 Timing belt drive is a positive drive.
• Timing belts transmit the power by means of teeth.
• Timing belts are used in driving an engine cam-shaft from the crankshaft.
• They are also used in Stepper motor drives.

 Advantages:
• Transmit power at constant speed ratio without slip
• Light weight
• Very high efficiency

 Limitations:
• Costlier
• Cannot transmit large power
Circular or rope belt

 Circular Belts or Rope Belts:


• Circular Belts have circular cross-section.
• They are used to transmit large amount of power from one
pulley to another.
• In circular belt drives, the pulleys
are provided with groove.
Belt Materials

• The various materials used for belts are as follows:


• Materials used for Flat belts are leather, cotton
fabric, rubber, rubber impregnated fabric, synthetic
materials, etc.
• Materials used for V-belts are fabric, vulcanized
rubber with a cotton cord tension element.
• Materials used for Rope belts are cotton, steel, etc.
Types of Flat Belt Drives
 Open Belt Drive:
• Open belt drive is used when the driven pulley and the driving
pulley rotates in the same direction.
• The driver pulley pulls the belt on one side and drives to other
side. Thus, the tension is more on the pulled side than the
other side. Pulled side is known as tight side and other side is
known as slack side.
• Angle of lap is different for driver and driven pulley.
• Application: used when the driving and driven shafts are
parallel to each other
Types of Flat Belt Drives
 Crossed Belt Drive:
• Crossed Belt Drive is used when shafts are parallel and center
distance is short and pulleys rotate in opposite direction.
• In crossed belt drive, the belts bend in two different planes
and thus there is excessive wear and tear.
• Application: used when the driving and driven shafts are
parallel to each other and shorter center distance
Types of Flat Belt Drives (contd)
 Open Belt Drive with Idler Pulley:
• Open belt drive with idler pulley is used when an open belt
drive cannot be used due to small angle of contact on the
smaller pulley.
Types of Flat Belt Drives (contd)
 Multiple Belt Drive:
• Multiple belt drive is used when power is transmitted from
one shaft to number of parallel shafts.
Types of Flat Belt Drives (contd)
 Quarter Turn Belt Drive:
• This belt drive is used when the axes of the two shafts are
perpendicular and non-intersecting to each other.
• The quarter turn belt drive with guide pulley is used when the
axes of the two shafts are perpendicular and intersecting.
Types of Flat Belt Drives (contd)

 Compound Belt Drive:


• This type of belt drive is used to transmit the power from one shaft to
another through number of intermediate pulleys.
Types of Flat Belt Drives (contd)

 Stepped or Cone Pulley Drive:


• In this drive, the speed of the driven shaft is changed and the driving shaft
runs at constant speed.
• This drive is used in lathes to achieve the various spindle speeds.
Types of Flat Belt Drives (contd)

 fast and loose pulley.mp4


Types of Flat Belt Drives (contd)
 Fast and Loose Pulley Drive:
• In this drive, the driven shaft is started or stopped whenever desired
without stopping the driving shaft.
• Here, one pulley is mounted on the driving shaft and two pulleys are
mounted on the driven shaft.
Advantages of Belt Drives

• Flat Belts can used for long center distances.


• Belts can absorb shocks and vibrations due to slipping action.
• Easy maintenance.
• Do not require lubrication.
• Operates with less noise.
• Can be used at high speeds.
Limitations of Belt Drives

• Cannot be used in applications where, constant speed ratio is


required.
• Occupies more space.
• Short life cycle.
• Low power transmitting capacity.
Rope Drives
• Rope Drives are used where large amount of power is
transmitted from one shaft to another shaft at considerable
distance.
• Rope drives are used in elevators, mine hoists, cranes,
conveyors, etc.

• Types of Rope Drives:


1. Fiber ropes: Fiber ropes are made from fibrous material like
hemp, manila and cotton. They are used when shafts are 60
m apart.
2. Wire ropes: They are made of metallic wires. Wire ropes are
used when shafts are 150 m apart.
Rope Drives

 Advantages:
• It can be used for transmitting power over long distance.
• Operation is noiseless.
• Cost is less.
• Can transmit large amount of power.

 Disadvantages:
• Requires more space.
• Less flexible.
• Less Efficiency.
• Constant velocity ratio is not obtained.
Chain Drives
Chain Drives
 A chain drive consists of driving sprocket, driven sprocket and
an endless chain wrapped around the sprockets.

 The chain drive provides a positive transmission and gives a


constant velocity ratio.

 It is used in bicycles, motor cycles, agricultural machinery,


textile machinery and material handling equipments, etc.
Types of Chains

 The chains are classified into three groups:


1. Hoisting and Hauling chains
2. Conveyor chains
3. Power transmission chains

 Hoisting and Hauling Chains:


They are further classified as:
• Chain with oval links: In this type, the links are oval shaped.
These chains are used only at low speed.

• Chain with square links: The links are square in shape in this
chain. They are used in hoists, cranes, etc.
Hoisting and Hauling Chains
Conveyor Chains
Types of Chains (contd)

 Conveyor Chains:
• These chains are used in elevators and conveyors.
• They are usually made of malleable cast iron.
• They run at low speeds.
Power Transmission Chains

Roller Chains

Block Chains
Types of Chains (contd)

 Power Transmission Chains:


• These chains are used for transmitting the power from one
shaft to another shaft. They operate at maximum speed of 15
m/sec.

Power Transmission Chains are classified as follows:


• Block Chain: It is used for transmitting the power at low
speed. In this chain, rubbing takes place between teeth and
the links.
Types of Chains (contd)

• Roller Chains: It consists of outer and inner link plates, pins,


bushings and rollers. Rollers and bushings are held between
the link plates. The pins are press-fitted to the outer link plate
and passed through the bushings.
Gear drive
Gear Drive

 Gears are the toothed wheels which transmit power and


motion from one shaft to another shaft by means of
successive engagement of teeth.
 Gears operate in pairs, the smaller in pair is called the pinion
and larger is called the gear.
 If the pinion rotates in clockwise direction, the gear will rotate
in anti-clockwise direction and vice-versa.
Spur Gears
Classification of Gear Drive (contd)

 Spur Gears:
• Spur gears are used when the axis of two shafts are parallel to each other.
• The teeth of these gears are parallel to the axis of the shaft.
• There is a sudden contact between the teeth of spur gears.
• They are used in automobile gearboxes, machine tools, etc.

 Advantages:
• Manufacturing is simple.
• Interchangeability is possible.

 Disadvantages:
• Load carrying capacity is low.
• Transmission efficiency is low.
Helical Gear
Classification of Gear Drive (contd)

 Helical Gears
• In helical gears, the teeth are cut at an angle with respect to the axis of
the shaft and is known as helix angle. Helix angle is upto 30°.
• There is a gradual contact between the teeth of the helical gears.
• Helical gears are used in high speed applications like automobiles and
turbines.

 Advantages:
• Operation is smooth and simple.
• Power transmitting capacity is higher than spur gears.
• Efficiency is high.
 Disadvantages:
• Difficult to manufacture.
• Cost is high.
Rack and pinion
Classification of Gear Drive (contd)

 Rack and Pinion


• In this type, the gear which have an infinite diameter is called as “Rack”.
• Rack and Pinion is used to transmit the rotary motion into reciprocating
motion or vice-versa.
• It is used in machine tools like Lathe, Drilling machines, Milling machines,
etc.
Bevel Gear
Classification of Gear Drive (contd)

 Bevel Gears come under Intersecting Axes Gears.


 Bevel Gears:
• Bevel gears used for transmitting the power from one shaft to another
shaft which intersects with each other.
• The angle between the shaft should be 90°.
• They are used in differential gear box of automobiles.

 Advantages:
• Load carrying capacity is high.
• Efficiency is high

 Disadvantages:
• Difficult to manufacture
• Cost is high.
Worm and worm wheel
Classification of Gear Drive (contd)

 Non-intersecting and Perpendicular Axes Gears:


 Worm Gears:
• Worm gears are used for transmitting the power from one shaft to
another which are non-intersecting and perpendicular to each other.
• Worm gears are used in material handling equipments, lifting devices,
cranes, milling machine index head etc.

 Advantages:
• Operation is smooth and silent.
• Self-locking is possible

 Disadvantages:
• Difficult to manufacture
• Cost is high.
Spiral gears
Classification of Gear Drive (contd)

 Non-intersecting and Non-Parallel Axes Gears:


 Spiral Gears:
• Spiral gears transmit the power from one shaft to another which are non-
intersecting and non-parallel to each other.
• Spiral gears are also known as skew gears or crossed helical gears.
• They are used for low load transmission only since they have point
contact.
• Spiral gears are used in feed mechanisms of machine tools, various
measuring instruments, and all light load applications.
Internal gear
Internal gears

• An internal gear has teeth which are cut on the inside of the
rim.
• It is also called annular gear or ring gear.
Gear Drive

• Advantages:
• It transmits exact velocity ratio from one shaft to another
shaft .
• It transmits very large power.
• It has high transmission efficiency
• It requires less space.

• Disadvantages:
• Manufacturing cost is high.
• Maintenance cost is high.
• Noise during operation.
• It requires precise alignment of shafts.
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