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2018 PMO National Stage Oral Round

Easy

E1 A line passes through (k, 9) and (7, 3k) and has slope 2k. Find the possible values of k.

[9 2 or 1]

E2 Let ABC be a right triangle with legs AB = 6 and BC = 8. Let R and r be the circumradius and the

inradius of ABC, respectively. Find the sum of R and r.

[7]

E3 In how many ways can the letters of the word CHIEF be arranged such that I appears in some position

after E?

[60]

E4 We say that the constant a is a fixed point of a function f if f (a) = a. Find all values of c such that

[3 and 6]

E5 How many pairs of positive integers (a, b) are there, both not exceeding 10, such that a gcd(a, b) b,

[27]

f(x)=x 2 2 and g(x)= 2x 2 c share a common fixed point.

and a lcm(a, b) b?

E6 Suppose that log a 125 = log 5 3 and log b 16 = log 7 4. Find the value of a (log 5 3) 2 b (log 4 7) 2 .

, 50. What is the

[ 175 46 ]

E8 A triangle with lengths 24, 70, 74 is inscribed in a circle. Find the difference between the numerical values

[1295π]

[22]

E7 Two cards are chosen without replacement from a deck of 50 cards numbered 1, 2, 3, probability that the product of the numbers on these cards is divisible by 7?

of the area and the circumference of the circle in terms of π.

E9 Find the smallest positive real numbers x and y such that x 2 3x + 2.5 = sin(y) 0.75.

[x = 3

2 ,y= π ]

2

E10 A standard deck of 52 cards has the usual 4 suits and 13 denominations. What is the probability that two cards selected at random and without replacement from this deck will have the same denomination or the

same suit?

E11 Let a and b be integers such that

a

2 +

b

1

1009 =

2018 . Find the smallest possible value of ab.

E12 Let x

be a real number satisfying x 2 6x + 1 = 0. Find the numerical value of x 4 1 4 .

x

[ 17 5 ]

[504]

[8 3]

E13 Factor (a + 1)(a + 2)(a + 3)(a + 4) 120 completely into factors with integer coefficients. [(a 2 + 5a + 16)(a 1)(a + 6)]

E14 Suppose there are 3 distinct green balls, 4 distinct red balls, and 5 distinct blue balls. The balls are to be grouped in pairs such that the balls in every pair have different colors. How many sets of six pairs can be

formed?

[1440]

E15 This year, our country will be participating in the 59th International Mathematics Olympiad, to be held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The IMO, which was first held in 1959 also in Romania, has been held annually except in 1980, when it was cancelled due to internal strife in its host country. Which East Asian country

was supposed to host the 1980 IMO?

[Mongolia]

Average

A1 A regular hexagon is inscribed in another hexagon such that each vertex of the inscribed hexagon divides

a side of the original hexagon into two parts in the ratio 2 1. Find the ratio of the area of the inscribed

A2

hexagon to the area of the larger hexagon.

[7 9]

The number 49 + 6 6 +12 14 + 4 21 cann be expressed as a 2+b 3+c 7 for some integers a, b, c.

Find a + b + c.

[6]

2018 PMO National Stage Oral Round

A3 The letters of the word MAT HEMAT ICS are rearranged to form distinct strings of the same 11 letters.

 What proportion of these strings do not contain the string MAT H? [491 495 ] A4 Determine a and b in the following: (5!) 8 + (5!) 7 = 4a 356 487 b80 000 000. [a = 3, b = 6]

A5 Given the square ABCD with side length 2, AEF is constructed so that AE bisects side BC, and AF

bisects side CD. Moreover, EF is parallel to the diagonal BD and passes through the point C. Find the

area of AEF.

[8 3 ]

B

2

A

E
C
D

F

A6 A semiprime is a number that is a product of two prime numbers. How many semiprime numbers less

 than 2018 can be expressed as x 3 − 1, for some real number x? [4] A7 Find the remainder when 53! is divided by 59. [30]

A8 Suppose that {a n } n1 is an increasing arithmetic sequence of integers such that a a 20 = 17 (where the sub-

[4013]

script is a 20 ). Determine the value of a 2017 .

A9 Let N be the smallest positive integer such that 15 N is a perfect square, 10 N is a perfect square, and N 6 is a

N

perfect fifth power. Find the number of positive divisors of 30 .

[8400]

A10 How many ordered quadruples (a, b, c, d) of positive odd integers are there that satisfy the equation a +

[34]

b+c+ 2d =15?

Difficult

D1 In ABC, AB = 6, BC = 10, and CA = 14. If D, E and F are the midpoints of sides BC, CA, and AB

[249]

D2 How many ways are there to arrange 5 identical red balls and 5 identical blue balls in a line if there cannot

respectively, find AD 2 + BE 2 + CF 2 .

be three or more consecutive blue balls in the arrangement?

[126]

D3 Let x, y, and z be real numbers that satisfy the system x + 3y + 6z = 1, x y + 2xz + 6xz = 8, x yz = 2. Find

[8 3 ]

D4 In a right triangle ABC with C = 90 , BC = 10, and AC = 15. Two squares are inscribed in ABC as

[36]

the smallest possible value of x + y + z.

shown in the figure. Find the minimum sum of the area of the squares.

C

B
A

D5

Let P(x) be the polynomial of minimum degree such that P(k) = 720k

ofP(6).

1 for k {2, 3, 4, 5}. Find the value

k

2

[48]