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# SLOPE-DEFLECTION METHOD

The slope-deflection method uses displacements as unknowns and is referred to as a displacement method. In the
slope-deflection method, the moments at the ends of the members are expressed in terms of displacements and end
rotations of these ends.
An important characteristic of the slope-deflection method is that it does not become increasingly complicated to
apply as the number of unknowns in the problem increases. In the slope-deflection method the individual equations
are relatively easy to construct regardless of the number of unknowns.
DERIVATION OF THE SLOPE-DEFLECTION EQUATION
When the loads are applied to a frame or to a continuous beam, the member will develop end moments and become
deformed as indicated. The notation used in the figure will be followed.

## M ij 1- The moments at the ends of the member are

designated as Mij and Mji indicating that they act at
θi φ ends I and j of member ij.
2- Rotations of ends I and j of the member are
∆ij denoted by Θi and Θj. Since the rotations of all
members of a rigid frame meeting at a common
θj joint are equal, it is customary to refer to each of
them as the joint rotation.
L M ji 3-The term ∆ij represents the translation of one
end of the member relative to the other end in a
direction normal to the axis of the member.
Sometimes the rotation of the axis of the member
Φij=∆ij/L is used in place of ∆ij .
The moments, the rotations at the ends of the
member and the rotation of the axis of the member
are positive when clockwise.
∆i M ji L L M ij L 2 L q L2 2L L
∆j = − + +
2EI 3 2EI 3 8EI 3 2
M ij M ji L 2 L M ij L L q L2 2L L
θi ∆i = − + +
φ 2EI 3 2EI 3 8EI 3 2
∆ ∆
θi − φ = j
θj L

θj −φ = i
M ji L

∆j θi − φ =
M ij

L M ji
+
L
q L3
3EI 6EI 24 EI
M ij
+ θ j −φ = −
M ij L
+
M ji L

q L3
6EI 3EI 24 EI
− M ji 2EI q L2
q L2
M ij =
L
( 2 θ i + θ j − 3φ ) − 1 2
8
2EI q L2
+ M ji =
L
(θ i + 2 θ j − 3 φ ) + 1 2

Now we wrote Mij and Mji in terms of the deformations Θi , Θj Φij and the external load q acting on the member.
These equations are referred to as SLOPE-DEFLECTION EQATIONS. Slope-deflection equations consider only
bending deformations. Deformations due to shear forces and axial forces in bending members are ignored.

2EI  ∆ 
=  2θ n + θ − 3 ± M
FEM
M nf f nf
L  L 
Example: It is required to determine the support moments for the continuous beam.

## 100 kN 20 kN/m 100*5

− M 12F = M 21F = = 62.5kNm
1 2 3 8
20*7.52
I 3I − M 23 = M 32 =
F F
= 93.75kNm
12
2x2.5m 7.50
S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s
46.875 100 93.75 20 kN/m 2EI
M 12 = θ 2 − 6 2 .5 =
5
2EI
M 21 = 2 θ 2 + 6 2 .5 =
87.5 62.5 5
59.375 6EI
40.625 M 23 = ( 2 θ 2 + θ 3 ) − 9 3 .7 5 =
7 .5
6EI
M 32 = (θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 9 3 .7 5 =
7 .5
M 12 M 21 M 23 M 32
1 2 3

## Equilibrium .equations.of . joınts 2 .4 E I θ 2 + 0 .8 E I θ 3 = 3 1 .2 5

3 9 .0 6 2 5 − 7 8 .1 2 5
M 21 + M 23 = 0 0 .8 E I θ 2 + 1 .6 E I θ 3 = − 9 3 .7 5 → θ 2 = → θ3 =
EI EI
M 32 = 0 S u b stitu d e .th ese .resu lts . in . slo p e .d eflectio n .eq u a tio n s
M 1 2 = − 4 6 .8 7 5 kN m , → M 21 = 9 3 .7 5 kN m
M 23 = − 9 3 .7 5 kN m , → M 3 2 = 0 kN m
100
46.875
20 kN/m

1 2 3

## 40.625 59.375 87.5 62.5

59.375 62.5
+ +
Shear Force Diagram
3.125 m
-
40.62
5 87.5

97.66

54.69
+
+ Bending Moment Diagram

-
46.875
93.75
Example: A continuous beam is supported and loaded as shown in the figure. During loading support 2 sinks by 10 mm.
Analyze the beam for support moments and reactions.
E = 200 *10 6... mkN2
40 kN 10 kN/m 20 40* 4 I = 100 *10 − 6...m 4
−M = M =
F F
= 20kNm
1 2
12 21
8 EI = 20000...kNm 2
3
10*62
− M 23 = M 32 =
F F
= 30kNm
12
2 2m 6m 2
S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s
1 2EI  0 .0 1 
3 M 12 = θ2 − 3  − 20 =
4  4 
φ12 = 0.01 2
φ23 = −0.01
6 2EI  0 .0 1 
4 M 21 =  2θ 2 − 3  + 20 =
4  4 
M 23 2EI  0 .0 1 
M 21 M 32 20*2 = 40.kNm M 23 =  2θ 2 + θ 3 + 3  − 30 =
6  6 
2 3 2EI  0 .0 1 
M 32 = θ
 2 + 2 θ 3 + 3  + 30 =
6  6 

5 1 .6 6 7
1 .6 6 7 θ 2 + 0 .3 3 3 3θ 3 =
M 21 + M 23 = 0 EI
M 32 − 40 = 0 2 3 .3 3 3
0 .3 3 3 3θ 2 + 0 .6 6 6 7 θ 3 = − S u b stitu d e .th ese .resu lts
EI
4 2 .2 2 2 in . slo p e .d eflectio n .eq u a tio n s
θ2 = = 2 .1 1 1 .1 0 − 3 ra d
EI M 1 2 = − 7 3 .8 8 9 kN m , → M 2 1 = − 1 2 .7 7 8 kN m
− 5 6 .1 1 1 M = 1 2 .7 7 8 kN m , → M 3 2 = 4 0 kN m
θ3 = = − 2 .8 0 5 5 .1 0 − 3 ra d 23
EI
40
73.889
10 kN/m
12.778 40 20
1 3

20 30 20

21.67 8.8

38.8

+
Shear Force
− - 3.125 m − Diagram
1.67
41.67
21.2

35.25
9.45 12.778
+ Bending Moment
+ Diagram
- −

40
73.889
ANALYSIS OF FRAMES WITH NO SIDESWAY

A frame will not side sway, or be displaced to the left or right, provided it is properly restrained. Also no side sway will
occur in an unrestrained frame provided it is symmetric with respect to both loading and geometry.

Example: It is required to analyze the frame for moments at the ends of members. EI is constant for all members.

20.kN / m 40kN
Fixed-End Moments
3
1 2
20* 42
2 −M = M =
F
12
F
21 = 26.67 kNm
20kN 12
40* 4
2 − M 23F = M 32F = = 20kNm
4 8
20* 4
− M 42F = M 24F = = 10kNm
8
4m 2 2
S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s
2EI
M 12 = θ 2 − 2 6 .6 7 = −27.88 M 21 M 23 M 32
4
2EI 2 3
M 21 = 2 θ 2 + 2 6 .6 7 = 24.245
4
2EI
M 23 = ( 2 θ 2 + θ 3 ) − 2 0 = −31.82 M 24
4
2EI
M 32 = (θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 2 0 = 0 Equilibrium .equations.of . joınts
4
M 21 + M 23 + M 24 = 0
2EI
M 42 = (θ 2 ) − 1 0 = −11.21 M 32 = 0
4
2EI 2EI
M 24 = ( 2 θ 2 ) + 1 0 = 7.575 ( 6θ 2 + θ 3 ) + 1 6 .6 7 = 0
4 4
2EI − 2 .4 2 5 − 1 8 .7 8 7
(θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 2 0 = 0 → θ 2 = → θ3 =
4 EI EI
20 24.25 31.82 40 S u b stitu d e .th ese .resu lts . in . slo p e .d eflectio n .eq u a tio n s

24.08
27.88
7.57 39.09 + 7.57 +
20 12.04 − − −−
+ + 24.25
31.82
11.21 − − 27.88 10.61 +
+
9.09 27.96
40.91

− 11.21
10.91
Example: Find Member end moments and draw shear and moment diagrams

60.kN / m M 21 + M 23 = 0
Equilibrium equations of joints M 32 + M 34 = 0
2 3 1 .5 E I θ 2 + 0 .2 5 E I θ 3 = 3 2 0
EI is constant 4 0 .2 5 E I θ 2 + 1 .5 E I θ 3 = − 3 2 0 → θ 2 =
256
→ θ3 =
−256
EI EI
1 4 S u b stitu d e .th ese .resu lts . in . slo p e .d eflectio n .eq u a tio n s
M 1 2 = 1 2 8 kN m , → M 2 1 = 2 5 6 kN m
8 M 23 = − 2 5 6 kN m , → M 3 2 = 2 5 6 kN m
60*82 M 3 4 = − 2 5 6 kN m , → M 43 = − 1 2 8 kN m
−M = M =
F
23
F
32= 320.kNm
12 240

## S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s 256 256 +

2EI −
M 12 = θ2 = 240
4
96 + Shear 96 −
2EI
M 21 = 2θ 2 = 128 128 (kN)
4
2EI
M 23 = ( 2θ 2 + θ 3 ) − 3 2 0 = 224
8
2EI 256 + 256
M 32 = (θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 3 2 0 = − − −
8
96
2EI − −
M 34 = ( 2θ 3 ) = − −
Moment
4 Normal (kN.m)
240 240
2EI + 128
M 43 = (θ 3 ) = Force 128 +
4
Example: Find member end moments and draw the diagrams of the frame
q0 * L2 12*52
50 − M 12F = = = 15
20 20
q0 * L2 12*52
2 2EI 3 M 21 =
F
= = 10kNm
30 30
Pab 2 50*3*7 2
EI 5 − M 23 = 2 =
F
= 73.5kNm
L 102
kN
12 1 Pa 2b 50*32 *7
m M 32 = 2 =
F
= 31.5kNm
L 102
3 7.m

## S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s

9.47
2EI 22.59
M 12 = θ 2 − 15 = +
5

2EI + 66.3
M 21 = 2θ 2 + 1 0 =
5 40.53
+
4EI Shear 55.29
M 23 = ( 2θ 2 + θ 3 ) − 7 3 .5 = − −
10 −
4EI 7.41
M 32 = (θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 3 1 .5 =
10
Moment
+
5 6 .6 1 − 6 7 .6 8
θ2 = → θ3 = 7.64
EI EI
M 21 + M 23 = 0
S u b stitu d e .th ese .resu lts . in . slo p e .d eflectio n .eq u a tio n s
M 32 = 0 M 1 2 = 7 .6 4 kN m , → M 2 1 = 5 5 .2 9 kN m
M 23 = − 5 5 .2 9 kN m , → M 3 2 = 0 kN m
ANALYSIS OF FRAMES WITH SIDESWAY

A frame will side sway or be displaced to the side when the frame or loading acting on it is non-symmetric. In the
analysis of frames with side sway it is necessary to consider the shear forces at the base of the columns and the
horizontal external load must be in equilibrium (force equilibrium equation) in addition to the equilibrium of joints.

Example: Using the slope-deflection method determine the end moments of the members and draw the shear force and
bending moment diagrams of the frame. EI is constant throughout the frame.

40. kN ∆ ∆
m
Axial deformation is neglected (no change
in length of the members) so the lateral
θ2 θ3 displacement of joint2 and 3 are equal.
2 3
2
60.kN S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s
1 2EI  ∆ 
4 M 12 = θ 2 − 3  − 30 =
4  4 
1 1 60* 4
− M 12F = M 21F = = 30kNm 2EI  ∆ 
8 M 21 =  2θ 2 − 3  + 3 0 =
4.m 40* 42 4  4 
− M 23 = M 32 =
F F
= 53.33kNm 2EI
12 M 23 = ( 2θ 2 + θ 3 ) − 5 3 .3 3 =
4
2EI
Equilibrium Equations M 32 = (θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 5 3 .3 3 =
4
M 21 + M 23 = 0 2EI  ∆ 
60 M 34 =  2θ 3 − 3  =
M 32 + M 34 = 0 3  3 
Q43 2EI  ∆ 
Q12 Q12 + Q 43 + 60 = 0 M 43 = θ
 3 − 3 =
3  3 
Shear forces at the base of columns
3 5 .3 3 3 − 5 .0 6   θ 2   −240 
   1  
4 1 − 0 .7 5   θ 3  = EI  4 6 .6 7 
M 21 M 34  − 1 .3 3   ∆   − 1 0 6 .6 7 
2 3 1 4 .6 6 7   
2 3 .9 6 − 1 4 .8 5 7 4 5 .9 8
θ2 = → θ3 = → ∆ =
60 EI EI EI
M 43 S u b s titu d e .th e s e . r e s u lts . in
Q43
4 s lo p e . d e fle c tio n .e q u a tio n s
1 Q12
M 12 M 1 2 = − 3 5 .2 6 k N m , → M 21 = 3 6 .7 2 k N m
M = − 3 6 .7 9 k N m , → M = 5 0 .4 5 k N m
∑ M 2 = 0 → M 21 + M 12 − 4Q12 − 2 * 60 = 0
23 32

M 34 = − 5 0 .4 6 k N m , → M 43 = − 4 0 .5 6 k N m
∑M 3 = 0 → M 34 + M 43 − 3Q 43 = 0
M 21 + M 12 83.43
Q12 = − 30
4
M + M 43
+
Q 43 = 34 −
3 30.37 +
76.57
Shear 30.34 −
40 − (kN)

## 36.75 50.45 29.63 36.53

+ 50.45
36.75
− −
60 Moment −
40.56 24 + (kN.m)
36.26
− 35.26 40.56 +
Example: Determine the member end moments of the frame and draw the shear and moment diagrams.
∆ ∆
∆ 3′
2 sin β
50kN ∆
tan β
∆ ∆ 3
sin α tan α
3
2′ β
sin α = 0.8 sin β = 0.8 4
α
1 tan α = 4 / 3 tan β = 4 / 3 1

3m 5 2.25

## S lo p e − D e fle c tio n .E q u a tio n s

2EI  ∆  2EI
M = θ2 − 3  = (θ 2 − 0 . 7 5 ∆ ) =
5 s in α 
12
5  5
2EI  ∆  2EI
M =  2θ 2 − 3  = (2θ 2 − 0 .7 5 ∆ ) =
5 s in α 
21
5  5
2EI  ∆  1 1  2EI
M =  2θ 2 + θ 3 + 3  +  = ( 2θ 2 + θ 3 + 0 .9 ∆ )=
5  ta n α ta n β  
23
5  5
2EI  ∆  1 1  2EI
M =  θ 2 + 2θ 3 + 3  +  = (θ 2 + 2 θ 3 + 0 . 9 ∆ )=
5  ta n α ta n β  
32
5  5
2EI  ∆  2EI
M =  2θ 3 − 3  = ( 2θ 3 − ∆ ) =
3 .7 5 s in β 
34
3 .7 5  3 .7 5
2EI  ∆  2EI
M = θ3 − 3  = (θ 3 − ∆ )=
3 .7 5 s in β 
43
3 .7 5  3 .7 5
M 23 M 32 M 23 + M 32
∑M 2 = 0 → 4Q12 +
5
* 3 − ( M 12 + M 21 ) = 0

M +M
M 23 + M 32
5
∑ M 3 = 0 → 3Q43 + 23 5 32 * 2.25 − ( M 43 + M 34 ) = 0
M 21 M 34 ∑ F x = 0 → Q12 + Q43 + 50 = 0
2 3

Equilibrium Equations
Q43
M 12 M 21 + M 23 = 0
Q12 M 43 4
M 32 + M 34 = 0
1
11.02 M 23 + M 32 Q12 + Q 43 + 50 = 0
M 23 + M 32 5
5 +

17.06  4 1 0 .1 5   θ 2  0 
   1  
−  0 .2 0 .9 3 3 − 0 .0 8 7  θ  = 0
E I  
3
−  − 0 .0 3 0 .0 8 6 7 − 0 .3 6 1   ∆  
9.67 − 2 5
    
− 4 .5 9 7 .6 4 6 7 1 .4 1
θ2 = → θ3 = → ∆ =
25.1 EI EI EI
+
S u b s titu d e .th e s e . r e s u lts . in
+ s lo p e . d e fle c tio n .e q u a tio n s
− −
M 1 2 = − 2 3 .2 6 k N m , → M 2 1 = − 2 5 .1 k N m
30 +
34 M 23 = 2 5 .1 0 k N m , → M 32 = 30 kN m
− M = − 30 kN m , → M = − 34 kN m
34 43
23.26
Example: Determine the member end moments and draw the shear and moment diagrams of given continuous beam.

## 3 kNm 2 kNm Rotations at the left

12 and right side of the
internal hinges are
1 2 hinge 3 4 different from each
hinge
other
10 5 5 10

## 2EI  L ∆  M 34 = 0 → θ3R = 41.667

M 12 = θ
 2 − 3  − 25 = EI
10  10 
M 21 = 0
2EI  ∆ 
M 21 =  2θ 2 − 3
L
 + 25 = M 23 = 0
10  10 
M 32 = 0
2EI  ∆ 
=  2θ 2 + θ 3 + 3  − 15 =
R L
M 23
10  10  M 12 3 kNm M 21 M 23 M 32
12
2EI  R ∆ 
M 32 = θ
 2 + 2 θ 3
L
+ 3  + 15 =
10  10 
2EI
M 34 =
10
( 2 θ 3R ) − 1 6 .6 6 7 = M 12 + M 21 + 150 M 23 + M 32 − 12*5
10 10
2EI
M 43 =
10
( θ 3R ) + 1 6 .6 6 7 =
Shear forces at each side of the hinge must be equal to each other

## M 12 + M 21 M + M 32 Force Eq. Equation

+ 15 = 23 −6
10 10
3 −3 −3 − 1.2   θ 2L   − 1050 
2  
 0 0 − 0.3   θ 2R  1  − 125 
=
0 2 1 0.3   θ 3L  EI  75 
    
0 1 2 0.3   ∆   − 75 
θ 2L = 800 EI → θ 2R = − 500 → θ 3L = − 650
EI EI
∆ = 5750
EI

3 kNm 2 kNm
12

1 2 hinge 3 hinge 4
10 5 5 10

6 12.5
+ + Shear
− Force
− Diagram
36 6
7.5

30 39.06
+ +
Bending

− 25 Moment
Diagram
210
Example: Find the member end moments and draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams of the given frame.

20. kN m
20. kN
m

2 3 2 3

3
1 4 1 geometry. Half of the frame can be analyzed

4 10 4 M 23 20 kN M 32
m

## S lo p e − D e fle c tio n .E q u a tio n s

Equilibrium Equations 2 3
2EI
M = θ2 =
12
5 Q32
M 21 + M 23 = 0
M 21 =
2EI
5
2θ 2 =
Q32 = 0
∑M 2 = 0 → Q32 = 0
2EI  ∆  M 23 + M 32 + 250 = 0
M 23 =  2θ 2 − 3  − 4 1 .6 6 7 =
5  5 
θ 2 = 166.667 EI M 12 = 66.66 → M 21 = 133.33
2EI  ∆ 
M 32 = θ 2 − 3  + 4 1 .6 6 7 = ∆ = 937.5 M 23 = − 133.33 → M 32 = − 116.67
5  5  EI
116.66
100
2 + 3
2 + 3
40 − − −
+ −

100 133.33
Shear − 66.67 133.33
1 Force
40
4 + 1 Bending 4 +
66.67

Diagram Moment
Diagram