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Chapter 2: Groups

Section 1: The Definition of a Group


Alec Mouri
June 9, 2018

Exercises
(1) (a)      
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
1= 0
 1 0 ,x = 0
  0 1 , y = 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
     
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
2
x = 1 0 0 , xy = 0
  0 1 , x2 y = 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
     
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
x3 = 0 1 0 , y 2 = 0 1 0 , yx = 0 1 0 = x2 y
0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

1 x x2 y xy x2 y
1 1 x x2 y xy x2 y
x x x2 1 xy x2 y y
(b) x2 x2 1 x x2 y y xy
y y x2 y xy 1 x2 x
xy xy y x2 y x 1 x2
x2 y x2 y xy y x2 x x3

(2) (a) Let A, B, C ∈ GL(R).


Note that det(AB) = det(A) det(B) 6= 0, so AB ∈ GL(R), so
multiplication is a law of composition of GL(R).

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Further for 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n,
n n n
!
X X X
((AB)C)ij = (AB)ik ckj = aim bmk ckj
k=1 k=1 m=1

n X
n n n
!
X X X
= aim bmk ckj = aim bmk ckj
k=1 m=1 m=1 k=1
n
X
= aim (BC)mj = (A(BC))ij
m=1

So multiplication is associative on GL(R).


Note that I ∈ GL(R), and AI = IA = A, so GL(R) contains the
identity matrix.
Since det A 6= 0, then A is invertible. Necessarily, det A−1 6= 0,
and AA−1 = A−1 A = I, so A has an inverse.
Thus, GL(R) is a group.
(b) Let X, Y, Z ∈ Sn . Then for some a, b, c ∈ 1...n, (XY )(a) =
X(Y (a)) = X(b) = c. So we have a law of composition of Sn .
Further,

((XY )Z)(a) = (XY Z)(a) = (X(Y Z))(a)

So the law of composition is associative.


Note that i ∈ Sn , and (Xi)(a) = X(i(a)) = X(a) = b, and
(iX)(a) = i(X(a)) = i(b) = b. so Sn contains the identity permu-
tation.
Suppose X is a permutation such that X(a) = b, X(b) = c. Then
there exists a permutation Y such that Y (b) = a, Y (c) = b. So
then (XY )(b) = X(Y (b)) = X(a) = b, and (Y X)(b) = Y (X(b)) =
Y (c) = b. Thus X is invertible, and its inverse is Y .

(3) Let T = {s ∈ S|s is invertible}. Note that I ∈ T , since II = I. Let


t ∈ T . t is invertible, and has inverse w. Since tw = I, and wt = I,
then w is also invertible with inverse t. Thus, w ∈ T . Thus, since T has
an associative law of composition and the identity, then T is a group.

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(4)

xyz −1 w = 1 → yz −1 w = x−1 → yz −1 = x−1 w−1 → y = x−1 w−1 z

(5)
xyz = 1 → yz = x−1 → yzx = 1
It does not follow that yxz = 1. Let a = x, b = y, c = xy. Then
abc = 1. But bac = yxxy = yx2 y = yyx = y 2 x = x 6= 1.
(6)
(abcd), a(bcd), (abc)d, (ab)(cd), (ab)cd, a(bc)d, ab(cd), abcd

(7) Let a, b, c ∈ S. Then

(ab)c = ac = a = ab = a(bc)

Thus, the law of composition is associative.


(8) Let    
0 1 1 1
A= ,B =
1 0 0 0
Note that  
−1 0 1
A =
1 0
So  
0 0
−1
A B=
1 1
But  
−1 1 1
BA =
0 0
So A−1 B 6= BA−1
(9)
ab = a → a−1 ab = a−1 a → b = 1
ab = 1 → a−1 ab = a−1 → b = a−1

(10)
ax = b → x = a−1 b
Since a, b are distinct elements, then x is unique.

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(11) Let a, b, c ∈ G◦ . Since a ◦ b = ba ∈ G, then ◦ is a law of composition in
G. And,

(a ◦ b) ◦ c = (ba) ◦ c = cba = (cb)a = a ◦ (cb) = a ◦ (b ◦ c)

So ◦ is associative.
Since I ∈ G, then a ◦ I = Ia = a = aI = I ◦ a, so I ∈ G◦ .
Let a−1 be the inverse of a in G. Then

a ◦ a−1 = a−1 a = I = aa−1 = a−1 ◦ a

So therefore a has an inverse in G◦ , namely a−1 . Thus G◦ is a group.