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1|F L O Y D

Every known element has conduction electrons the reverse current (assuming the A 60 V peak full-wave rectified
a unique type of atom complete model) will voltage is applied to a capacitor-
Holes in an n-type semiconductor Increase input filter. If f = 120 Hz,
An atom consists of are R load = 10 kilo ohms, and C = 10
 one nucleus and one or more minority carriers that are When a diode is forward-biased microfarad, the ripple voltage is
electrons thermally produced and the bias voltage is increased, 5.0 V
 protons, electrons, and the voltage across the diode
neutrons A pn- junction is formed by (assuming the complete model) If the load resistance of a
the boundary of a p-type and an will capacitor-filtered full-wave rectifier
The nucleus of an atom is made n-type material Increase is reduced. the ripple voltage
up of increases
protons and neutrons The depletion region is created by If the forward current in a diode is
 ionization increased, the diode voltage Line regulation is determined by
The atomic number of silicon is  diffusion (assuming the practical model) will changes in output voltage and
14  recombination not change input voltage

The atomic number of germanium The depletion region consists of If the forward current in a diode is Load regulation is determined by
is thing but minority carriers decreased, the diode voltage changes in load current and
32  positive and negative ions (assuming the complete model) output voltage
 no majority carriers will
The valence shell in a silicon atom Decrease A 10 V peak-to-peak sinusoidal
has the number designation of The term bias means voltage is applied across a silicon
3 a dc voltage is applied to If the barrier potential of a diode is diode and series resistor. The
control the operation of a exceeded. the forward current will maximum voltage across the
Valence electrons are device Increase diode is
in the most distant orbit from 10 V
the nucleus To forward-bias a diode, The average value of a half-wave
 an external voltage is applied rectified voltage with a peak value If the input voltage to a voltage
A positive ion is formed when that is positive at the anode of 200 V is tripler has an rms value of 12 V,
a valence electron breaks away and negative at the cathode 63.7 V the dc output voltage is
from the atom  an external voltage is applied approximately
that is positive at the p When a 60 Hz sinusoidal voltage 50.9 V
The most widely used semi region and negative at the n is applied to the input of a half-
conductive material in electronic region wave rectifier, the output If one of the diodes in a bridge full-
devices is frequency is wave rectifier opens, the output is
silicon When a diode is forward-biased, 60 Hz a half-wave rectified voltage
the current is produced by both
The energy band in which free holes and electrons The peak value of the input to a If you are checking a 60 H7 full-
electrons exist is the half-wave rectifier is 10 V. The wave bridge rectifier and observe
conduction band Although current is blocked in approximate peak value of the that the output has a 60 Hz ripple,
reverse bias, output is there is an open diode
Electron-hole pairs are produced there is a very small current due 9.3 V
by to minority carriers
thermal energy For the circuit in Question 3, the The cathode of a zener diode in a
For a silicon diode, the value of diode must be able to withstand a voltage regulator is normally
Recombination is when the forward-bias voltage typically reverse voltage of more positive than the anode
an electron falls into a hole must be greater than 0.7 V 10 V (b) more negative than the anode
(c) at +0.7 V
In a semiconductor crystal, the When forward-biased, a diode The average value of a full-wave (d) grounded
atoms are held together by conducts current rectified voltage with a peak value If a certain zener diode has a
 the interaction of valence of 75 V is zener voltage of 3_6 V, it operates
electrons When a voltmeter is placed across 47.8 V in
 forces of attraction a forward-biased diode, it will read
zener breakdown
covalent bonds a voltage approximately equal to When a 60 Hz sinusoidal voltage
the diode barrier potential is applied to the input of a full- For a certain 12 V zener diode, a
Each atom in a silicon crystal has wave rectifier. the output 10 mA change in zener current
eight valence electrons, four of A silicon diode is in series with a frequency is produces a 0.1 V change in zener
its own and four shared 120 Hz voltage. The zener impedance for
1.0 kilo ohms resistor and a 5 V
battery. If the anode is connected this current range is
The current in a semiconductor is to the positive battery terminal, the The total secondary voltage in a 10 ohms
produced by cathode voltage with respect to center-tapped full-wave rectifier is
both electrons and holes the negative battery terminal is 125 V rms. Neglecting the diode The data sheet for a particular
4.3 V drop, the rms output voltage is zener gives Vz = 10 V at Izt = 500
In an intrinsic semiconductor, 62.5 V mA. Zz for these conditions is
there are only holes The positive lead of an ohmmeter 20 ohms
is connected to the anode of a When the peak output voltage is
The difference between an diode and the negative lead is 100 V, the PIV for each diode in a A no-load condition means that
insulator and a semiconductor is connected to the cathode. The center-tapped full-wave rectifier is  the load has infinite
 a wider energy gap between diode is (neglecting the diode drop) resistance
the valence band and the forward-biased 200 V  the output terminals are open
conduction band
 the number of free electrons When a diode is forward-biased When the rms output voltage of a A varactor diode exhibits
 the atomic structure and the bias voltage is increased. bridge full-wave rectifier is 20 V. a variable capacitance that
the forward current will the peak inverse voltage across depends on reverse voltage
The process of adding an impurity increase the diodes is (neglecting the diode
to an intrinsic semiconductor is drop) An LED
called When a diode is forward-biased 28.3 V emits light when forward-
doping and the bias voltage is increased, biased
the voltage across the diode The ideal dc output voltage of a
A trivalent impurity is added to not change capacitor-input filter is equal to Compared to a visible red LED, an
the peak value of the rectified infrared LED
silicon to create
a p-type semiconductor voltage produces light with longer
When a diode is reverse-biased
and the bias voltage is increased, wavelengths
The purpose of a pentavalent the reverse current {assuming A certain power-supply filter
impurity is to the practical model) will produces an output with a ripple of The internal resistance of a
increase the number of free not change 100 mV peak-to-peak and a dc photodiode
electrons When a diode is reverse-biased value of 20 V. The ripple factor is decreases with light intensity
The majority carriers in an n-type and the bias voltage is increased, 0.005 when reverse-biased
Proverbs 3:5 – “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will make your paths straight.”
2|F L O Y D

A diode that has a negative Vce(cutoff) and Ic sat For a common-collector amplifier, A JFET always operates with
resistance characteristic is the R e = 100 ohms, r e prime; = 10 the gate-to-source pn junction
tunnel diode If a sinusoidal voltage is applied to ohms, and Beta ac = 150. The ac reverse-biased
the base of a biased npn transistor input resistance at the base is
An infrared LED is optically and the resulting sinusoidal 16.5 kilo ohms For V GS = 0 V, the drain current
coupled to a photodiode. When collector voltage is clipped near becomes constant when V DS
the LED is turned off, the reading zero volts. the transistor is If a 10 mV signal is applied to the exceeds
on an ammeter in series with the  being driven into saturation base of the emitter-follower circuit Vp
reverse-biased photodiode will  operating nonlinearly in Question 5, the output signal is
decrease approximately The constant-current area of a
The input resistance at the base of 10 mV FET lies between
In order for a system to function a biased transistor depends pinch-off and breakdown
properly, the various types of mainly on For a common-emitter amplifier, R
circuits that make up the system n Beta dc and R e c = 1 kilo ohms, R e = 390 ohms, r ldss is
must be e prime; = 15 ohms, and Beta ac = the maximum possible drain
 properly biased In a voltage-divider biased 75. Assuming that Re is current
 properly connected transistor circuit such as in Figure completely bypassed at the
 properly interfaced 5-13, R in(base) can generally be operating frequency, the voltage Drain current in the constant-
neglected in calculations when gain is current area increases when
The three terminals of a bipolar R in(base) > 10 * R2 66.7 the gate-to-source bias voltage
junction transistor are called decreases
base, emitter, collector In a certain voltage-divider biased In the circuit of Question 7, if the
npn transistor, VB is 2.95 V. The frequency is reduced to the point In a certain FET circuit. V GS = 0
In a PNP transistor, the p regions dc emitter voltage is approximately where Xc bypass = Re , the V, V DD = 15 Vo ldss = 15 mA and
are 2.25 V voltage gain Rd = 470 ohms. If Rd is decreased
emitter and collector is less to 330 ohms, ldss is
Voltage-divider bias 15 mA
For operation as an amplifier, the can be essentially independent In a certain emitter-follower circuit,
base of an npn transistor must be of beta dc the current gain is 50. The power At cutoff, the JFET channel is
positive with respect to the gain is approximately completely closed by the
emitter The disadvantage of base bias is  50 * Av depletion region
that  50
The emitter current is always it is too beta dependent A certain JFET data sheet gives
 greater than the base current In a Darlington pair configuration, VGS(off) = -4 V. The pinch-off
 greater than the collector Emitter bias is each transistor has an ac beta of voltage V p ,
current  essentially independent of 125. If Re is 560 ohms, the input is +4 V
beta dc resistance is
The {3DC of a transistor is its  provides a stable bias point 8.75 Mega ohms The JFET in Question 10
current gain The input resistance of a common- is an n channel
In an emitter bias circuit, R E = 2.7 base amplifier is
If Ic is 50 times larger than Ib then kilo ohms and V ee = 15 V. The very low For a certain JFET, I GSS = 10 nA
Beta dc is emitter current at V GS = 10 V. The input
50 is 5.3 mA In a common-emitter amplifier with resistance is
voltage-divider bias, R int (base) = 1000 Mega ohms
The approximate voltage across Collector-feedback bias is 68 kilo ohms, R 1 = 33 kilo ohms,
the forward-biased base-emitter based on the principle of and R 2 = 15 kilo ohms. The total For a certain p-channel JFET.
junction of a silicon BIT is negative feedback input resistance is VGS(off) = 8 V. The value of V GS
0.7 V 8.95 kilo ohms for an approximate midpoint bias
In a voltage-divider biased npn is
The bias condition for a transistor transistor. if the upper voltage- A CE amplifier is driving a 10 kilo 2.34 V
to be used as a linear amplifier is divider resistor (the one connected ohms load. If Re = 2.2 kilo ohms
called to V cc ) opens, and r e prime = 10 ohms, the A MOSFET differs from a JFET
forward-reverse the transistor goes into cutoff voltage gain is approximately mainly because
180 the JFET has a pn junction
If the output of a transistor In a voltage-divider biased npn
amplifier is 5 V rms and the input transistor. if the lower voltage- Each stage of a four-stage A certain D-MOSFET is biased at
is 100 m V rms, the voltage gain is divider resistor (the one amplifier has a voltage gain of 15. V GS = 0 V. Its data sheet
50 connected to ground) opens, The overall voltage gain is specifies loss = 20 mA and VGS
the transistor may be driven 50,625 (off) = -5 V. The value of the drain
When operated in cutoff and into saturation current
saturation, the transistor acts like The overall gain found in Question is 20 mA
a In a voltage-divider biased pnp 14 can be expressed in decibels a
switch transistor, there is no base 94. 1 dB An n-channel D-MOSFET with a
current. but the base voltage is positive V GS is operating in
In cutoff, Vce is approximately correct. The most A differential amplifier the enhancement mode
equal to Vcc likely problem(s) is  is used in op-amps
 the base-emitter junction is  has two outputs A certain p-channel E-MOSFET
In saturation, Vce is open has a V GS th = -2 V. If V GS = 0
minimum  the emitter resistor is open When a differential amplifier is V, the drain current is
operated single-ended. 0A
To saturate a BIT, A small-signal amplifier one input is grounded and a
Ib > lc sat/Beta Dc uses only a small portion of its signal is applied to the other A TMOSFET is a special type of
load line E-MOSFET
Once in saturation, a further In the differential mode,
increase in base current will The parameter hfe corresponds to opposite polarity signals are
not affect the collector current Beta ac applied to the inputs In a common-source amplifier, the
output voltage is
If the base-emitter junction is If the dc emitter current in a In the common mode,  180 0 out of phase with the
open, the collector voltage is certain transistor amplifier is 3 mA, an identical signal appears on input
V cc the approximate value of r e both inputs  taken at the drain
prime: is
The maximum value of collector 8.33 ohms The JFET is In a certain common-source (CS)
current in a biased transistor is  a unipolar device amplifier. V ds = 3.2 V rms and V
Ic sat A certain common-emitter  a voltage-controlled device gs = 280 mV rms. The voltage
amplifier has a voltage gain of gain is
Ideally, a de load line is a straight 100. If the emitter bypass The channel of a JFET is between 11.4
line drawn on the collector capacitor is removed, the
characteristic curves between the voltage gain will decrease drain and source
Proverbs 3:5 – “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will make your paths straight.”
3|F L O Y D

In a certain CS amplifier, R D = The peak current a class A power - 3 dB/decade In the forward-blocking region, the
1.0 kilo ohms. Rs = 560 ohms, V amplifier can deliver to a load SCR is
DD = 10 V. and gm = 4500 depends on the The gain of a particular amplifier at in the off state
microSeimens. If the source quiescent current a given frequency decreases by 6
resistor is completely bypassed, dB when the frequency is doubled. The specified value of holding
the voltage gain is For maximum output, a class A The roll-off is current for an SCR means that
4.5 power amplifier must maintain a  -20 dB/decade the device will turn off when the
value of quiescent current that is  -6 dB/octave anode current falls below this
Ideally, the equivalent circuit of a one-half the peak load current value
FET contain The Miller input capacitance of an
a current source between drain A certain class A power amplifier amplifier is dependent, in part, on The diac is
and source terminals has V CEQ = 12 V and ICQ = 1 A. the voltage gain  a thyristor
The maximum signal power output  a bilateral. two-terminal
The value of the current source in is An amplifier has the following device
Question 4 is dependent on the 12 W critical frequencies: 1.2 kHz, 950  like two parallel 4-layer
transconductance and gate-to- Hz, 8 kHz. and 8.5 kHz. The diodes in reverse directions
source voltage The efficiency of a power amplifier bandwidth is
is the ratio of the power delivered 6800 Hz The triac is
A certain common-source to the load to the like a bidirectional SCR
amplifier has a voltage gain of 10. power from the dc power supply Ideally, the midrange gain of an
If the source bypass capacitor is amplifier The SCS differs from the SCR
removed. The maximum efficiency of a class remains constant with because
the voltage gain will decrease A power amplifier is frequency it has two gate terminals
25%
A CS amplifier has a load The frequency at which an The SCS can be turned on by
resistance of 10 kilo ohms and R The transistors in a class B amplifier's gain is I is called the  a positive pulse on the
D = 820 ohms. If gm = 5 mS and amplifier are biased unity-gain frequency cathode gate
Vin = 500 mV, the output signal at midpoint of the load line  a negative pulse on the
voltage is When the voltage gain of an anode gate
1.89 V Crossover distortion is a problem amplifier is increased, the
for bandwidth The SCS can be turned off by
If the load resistance in Question 7 class B amplifiers decreases  a negative pulse on the
is removed, the output voltage will cathode gate and a positive
increase A BJT class B push-pull amplifier If the f t of the transistor used in a pulse on the anode gate
with no transformer coupling uses certain amplifier is 75 MHz and the  reducing the anode current
A certain common-drain (CD) complementary symmetry bandwidth is 10 MHz, the voltage to below the holding value
amplifier with Rs = 1.0 kilo ohms transistors gain must be
has a transconductance of 6000 7.5 Which of the following is /lot a
microSeimens. The voltage gain is A current mirror in a push-pull characteristic of the UJT?
0.86 amplifier should give an I cq that is In the midrange of an amplifier's bilateral conduction
equal to the current in the bias bandwidth, the peak output
The data sheet for the transistor resistors and diodes voltage is 6 V. At the lower critical The PUT is
used in a CD amplifier specifies l frequency, the peak output voltage triggered on and off by the gate-
gss = 5 nA at Vas = 10 V. If the The maximum efficiency of a class is to-anode voltage
resistor from gate to ground. Ra, is B push-pull amplifier is 4.24 V
50 Mega ohms, the total input 79% An IGBT is generally used in
resistance is approximately At the upper critical frequency, high-voltage applications
50 Mega ohms The output of a certain two-supply the peak output voltage of a
class B push-pull amplifier has a V certain amplifier is 10 V. The peak In a phototransistor, base current
The common-gate (CG) amplifier cc of 20 V If the load resistance is voltage in the midrange of the is
differs from both the CS and CD 50 ohms, the value of Ic(sat) is amplifier is directly proportional to light
configurations in that it has a 0.4 A 14.14 V
much lower input resistance
In a fiber-optic cable, the light
The maximum efficiency of a class In the step response of a non- travels through the
If you are looking for both good AB amplifier is inverting amplifier, a longer rise core
voltage gain and high input slightly less than a class B time means
resistance, you must use a a narrower bandwidth If the angle of incidence of a light
CS amplifier The power dissipation of a class C ray is greater than the critical
amplifier is normally The lower critical frequency of a angle, the light will be
For small-signal operation, an n- very low direct-coupled amplifier with no reflected
channel JFET must be biased at bypass capacitor is
- Vgs(off) < Vgs < 0 V The efficiency of a class C 0 Hz The critical angle of a reflective
amplifier is material is determined by the
Two FET amplifiers are cascaded. greater than classes A, B, or AB A thyristor has index of refraction
The first stage has a voltage gain three pn junctions
of 5 and the second stage has a The transistor in a class C An integrated circuit (IC) op-amp
voltage gain of 7. The overall amplifier conducts for Common types of thyristors has
voltage gain is a very small percentage of the include two inputs and one output
35 input cycle diacs and triacs
Which of the following
If there is an internal open The low-frequency response of an A 4-layer diode turns on when the characteristics does not
between the drain and source in a amplifier is determined in part by anode to cathode voltage exceeds necessarily apply to an op-amp?
CS amplifier, the drain voltage is the coupling capacitors the forward-breakover voltage Low power
equal to
V dd The high-frequency response of Once it is conducting, a 4-layer A differential amplifier
an amplifier is determined in part diode can be turned off by  is part of an op-amp
An amplifier that operates in the by  reducing the current below a  has two outputs
linear region at all times is the internal transistor certain value When an op-amp is operated in
Class A capacitances  disconnecting the anode the single-ended mode,
voltage one input is grounded and a
A certain class A power amplifier The bandwidth of an amplifier is
signal is applied to the other
delivers 5 W to a load with an determined by An SCR differs from the 4-layer
input signal power of 100 m W. the input capacitance diode because In the differential mode.
The power gain is it has a gate terminal opposite polarity signals are
50 The gain of a certain amplifier
applied to the inputs
decreases by 6 dB when the An SCR can be turned off by
frequency is reduced from 1 kHz  forced commutation In the common mode.
to 10 Hz. The roll-off is  anode current interruption
Proverbs 3:5 – “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will make your paths straight.”
4|F L O Y D

an identical signal appears on The frequency at which the open- The rate of change of an e^x
both inputs loop gain is equal to I is called integrator's output voltage in
the unity-gain frequency response to a step input is set by The term pole in filter terminology
Common-mode gain is  the RC time constant refers to
very low Phase shift through an op-amp is  the amplitude of the step a single RC circuit
caused by input
If Av(d) = 3500 and Acm = 0.35, the internal RC circuits  the current through the A single resistor and a single
the CMRR is capacitor capacitor can he connected to
 10,000 Each RC circuit in an op-amp form a filter with a roll-off rate of
 80 dB  causes the gain to roll off at - In a differentiator, the feedback  -20 dB/decade
6 dB/octave element is a  -6 dB/octave
With zero volts on both inputs, an  causes the gain to roll off at - resistor
op-amp ideally should have an 20 dB/decade A band-pass response has
output equal to The output of a differentiator is two critical frequencies
zero When negative feedback is used, proportional to
the gain-bandwidth product of an  the RC time constant The lowest frequency passed by a
Of the values listed, the most op-amp  the rate at which the input is low-pass filter is
realistic value for open-loop gain stays the same changing 0 Hz
of an op-amp is
100,000 If a certain op-amp has a When you apply a triangular The quality factor (Q) of a band-
midrange open-loop gain of waveform to the input of a pass filter depends on
A certain op-amp has bias 200,000 and a unity-gain differentiator, the output is the center frequency and the
currents of 50 microA and 49.3 frequency of 5 MHz, the gain- a square waveform bandwidth
microA. The input offset current is bandwidth product is
700 nA 5,000.000 Hz To make a basic instrumentation The damping factor of an active
amplifier, it takes filter determines
The output of a particular op-amp If a certain op-amp has a closed- three op-amps and seven the response characteristic
increases 8 V in 12 microseconds. loop gain of 20 and an upper resistors
The slew rate is critical frequency of 10 MHz, the A maximally flat frequency
0.67 V/ microseconds gain-bandwidth product is Typically. an instrumentation response is known as
 200 MHz amplifier has an external resistor Butterworth
The purpose of offset nulling is to  the unity-gain frequency used for
zero the output error voltage setting the voltage gain The damping factor of a filter is set
In a zero-level detector, the output by
For an op-amp with negative changes state when the input Instrumentation amplifiers are the negative feedback circuit
feedback, the output is crosses zero used primarily in
fed back to the inverting input high-noise environments The number of poles in a filter
The zero-level detector is one affect the
The use of negative feedback application of a Isolation amplifiers are used roll-off rate
 reduces the voltage gain of comparator primarily in
an op-amp  applications where there are Sallen- Key filters are
 makes linear operation Noise on the input of a comparator high voltages and sensitive second-order filters
possible can cause the output to equipment
change back and forth  applications where human When filters are cascaded, the
Negative feedback erratically between two states safety is a concern roll-off rate
increases the input impedance increases
and the bandwidth The effects of noise can be The two parts of a basic isolation
reduced by amplifier are When a low-pass and a high-pass
A certain non inverting amplifier  using positive feedback input stage and output stage filter are cascaded to get a band-
has an R input of 1.0 kilo ohms  using hysteresis pass filter, the critical frequency of
and an Rf of 100 kilo ohms. The The stages of many isolation the low-pass filter must be
closed-loop gain is A comparator with hysteresis amplifiers are connected by greater than the critical
101 has two trigger points a capacitor frequency of the high-pass filter

If the feedback resistor in In a comparator with hysteresis, The characteristic that allows an A state-variable filter consists of
Question 17 is open. the voltage a portion of the output is fed isolation amplifier to amplify small a summing amplifier and two
gain back to the noninverting input signal voltages in the presence of integrators
increases much greater noise voltages is its
Using output bounding in a CMRR When the gain of a filter is
A certain inverting amplifier has a comparator minimum at its center frequency. it
closed-loop gain of 25. The op- limits the output levels The term OTA means is
amp has an open-loop gain of operational transconductance  a band-stop filter
100,000. If another op-amp with A summing amplifier can have amplifier  a notch filter
an open-loop gain of 200,000 is any number of inputs
substituted in the configuration, In an OTA, the transconductance If the critical frequency of a low-
the closed-loop gain If the voltage gain for each input of is controlled by pass filter is increased, the
remains at 25 a summing amplifier with a 4.7 kilo a bias current bandwidth will
ohms feedback resistor is unity, increase
A voltage-follower the input resistors must have a The voltage gain of an OTA circuit
 has a gain of 1 value of is set by If the critical frequency of a high-
 is noninverting 4.7 kilo ohms the transconductance and the pass filter is increased, the
 has no feedback resistor An averaging amplifier has five load resistor bandwidth will
inputs. The ratio Rf /Ri must be decrease
The bandwidth of an ac amplifier 0.2 An OTA is basically a
having a lower critical flequency of voltage-to-current amplifier If the Q of a band-pass filter is
I kHz and an upper In a scaling adder, the input increased, the bandwidth will
critical frequency of 10 kHz is resistors are The operation of a logarithmic decrease
9 kHz each proportional to the weight amplifier is based on
of its input the logarithmic characteristic of An oscillator differs from an
The bandwidth of a dc amplifier a pn junction amplifier because
having an upper critical frequency In an integrator, the feedback it requires no input signal
of 100 kHz is element is a If the input to a log amplifier is x,
100 kHz capacitor the output is proportional to Wien-bridge oscillators are based
 In x on
The midrange open-loop gain of For a step input, the output of an  2.3 log x positive feedback
an op-amp integrator is
extends from 0 Hz to the upper a ramp If the input to an antilog amplifier One condition for oscillation is
critical frequency is x, the output is proportional to
Proverbs 3:5 – “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will make your paths straight.”
5|F L O Y D

a phase shift around the When the two inputs of a multiplier memory into which reconfiguration
feedback loop of 0 degree are connected together, the device data are stored is the
A second condition for oscillation operates as a shadow RAM
is squaring circuit
a gain of 1 around the feedback Amplitude modulation is basically A circuit technology commonly
loop a used to implement designs in
multiplication of two signals FPAAs is
In a certain oscillator, Av = 50. The switched-capacitor circuits
attenuation of the feedback circuit The frequency spectrum of a
must be balanced modulator contains A typical setup for programming
0.02  a sum frequency an FPAA must include
 a difference frequency a computer, an FPAA chip on a
For an oscillator to properly start, development board,
the gain around the feedback loop The IF in a receiver is the development software, and a
must initially be difference of the local oscillator standard
greater than 1 frequency and the carrier RF interface to connect the
frequency computer and development
In a Wien-bridge oscillator, if the board
resistances in the positive When a receiver is tuned from one
feedback circuit are decreased, RF frequency to another. The dynamic reconfiguration of an
the frequency the IF stays the same FPAA is the same as
increases on-the-fly reprogramming
The output of the AM detector
The Wien-bridge oscillator's goes directly to the A CAM is
positive feedback circuit is audio amplifier a configurable analog module
a lead-Iag circuit
If the control voltage to a VCO For best results, you should
A phase-shift oscillator has increases, the output frequency implement the software design of
three RC circuits increases an analog circuit in an FPAA by
 selecting appropriate CABs
Colpitts, Clapp, and Hartley are A PLL maintains lock by  interconnecting them to each
names that refer to comparing other and to inputs and
types of LC oscillators the phase of two signals outputs, running a
simulation.
An oscillator whose frequency is In the case of line regulation.  downloading to the FPAA if
changed by a variable dc voltage when the input voltage the simulation is successful,
is known as changes, the output voltage and testing the FPAA
a VCO stays constant

The main feature of a crystal In the case of load regulation,


oscillator is when the load changes, the
stability output voltage stays constant

The operation of a relaxation All of the following are parts of a


oscillator is based on basic voltage regulator except
the charging and discharging of voltage-follower
a capacitor
The basic difference between a
Which one of the following is /101 series regulator and a shunt
an input or output of the 555 regulator is
timer? the position of the control
Clock element

In amplitude modulation. the In a basic series regulator V OUT


pattern produced by the peaks of is determined by
the carrier signal is called the  the sample circuit
envelope  the reference voltage

Which of the following is not a part The main purpose of current


of an AM superheterodyne limiting in a regulator is
receiver? protection of the regulator from
DC restorer excessive current

In an AM receiver, the local In a linear regulator, the control


oscillator always produces a transistor is conducting
frequency that is above the all of the time
incoming RF by
455 kHz In a switching regulator, the
control transistor is conducting
An FM receiver has an part of the time
intermediate frequency that is
greater than the IF in an AM The LM317 is an example of an IC
receiver  switching regulator
 linear regulator
The detector or discriminator in an
AM or an FM receiver An external pass transistor is used
recovers the audio signal for
increasing the current that the
In order to handle all combinations regulator can handle
of input voltage polarities, a
multiplier must have The acronym FPAA stands for
four-quadrant capability fast-programmable analog array
The internal attenuation of a FPAAs contain CABs, which are
multiplier is called the configuration analog blocks
scale factor
During reprogramming of an FPAA
running in a system, the first
Proverbs 3:5 – “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will make your paths straight.”