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Culture refers to the language, values, beliefs, 2.


behavior, and material objects that constitute a
people’s way of life. It is a defining element of  Ideas – are non-material aspects of culture
society. and embody man’s conception of his
physical, social and cultural world.
Culture is derived from the Latin word “ Cultura”  Beliefs – refers to a person’s conviction
or “Cultus” which means care or cultivation. about a certain idea; it embodies people’s
perception of reality and includes the
Culture is the widening of the mind and of the primitive ideas of the universe as well as
spirit. the scientist’s empirical view of the world.
 Values – are abstract concepts of what is
Culture is a system of building identity. important and worthwhile. They are the
general ideas that individuals share about
what is good or bad, right or wrong,
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE: desirable and undesirable.

1. Culture is learned 3. MATERIAL CULTURE – It refers to the

2. Culture is socially transmitted through concrete and tangible objects produced and
language used by man to satisfy his varied needs and
3. Culture is a social product wants. It ranges from prehistoric stone
4. Culture is a source of gratification tools and weapons to sophisticated and
5. Culture is adaptive modern spaceships and weapons of mass
6. Culture is the distinctive way of life of a destructions,
group of people
7. Culture is material and non-material Artifacts – refer to a simple man
8. Culture has sanctions and controls made tools and objects such as a
9. Culture is stable yet dynamic knapped flint, which presents
10. Culture is an established pattern of evidence of an ancient culture.
4. SYMBOLS – It refers to an object, gesture,
FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE sounds, color or design that represent
something” other than itself”
1. Culture provides behavioural pattern
2. Culture maintains the biologic functioning DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES ON CULTURE
of the group
3. Culture gives meaning and direction to a) Cultural Relativism – The concept states
one’s existence that cultures differ, so that a cultural traits,
4. Culture offers a ready- made solutions to act or idea has no meaning or function by
man’s material and immaterial problems. itself but has a meaning only within its
5. Culture develops man’s values and gives cultural setting… Culture is relative, and no
him conscience cultural practice is good or bad by itself.

b) Culture Shock – It refers to the feeling of

COMPONENTS OF CULTURE disbelief, disorganization, and frustration
one experiences when he encounters
1. NORMS – rules which guide behaviour cultural patterns or practices which are
a. Folkways –these are everyday different from his.
habits, customs, traditions and
conventions people obey without c) Ethnocentrism – It refers to the tendency
giving much thought to the matter. to see the behaviours, beliefs, values, and
b. MORES-These are the norms norms of one’s own group as the only right
people consider vital to their way of living and to judge others by those
wellbeing and most cherished standards.
values ; they are special customs
with moral and ethical significance, d) Xenocentrism - This refers to the idea that
which are strongly held and what is foreign is best and that one’s
emphasized. lifestyle, products or ideas are inferior to
Two kinds of Mores: those of others.
1) Positives mores or duty or the “
Thou shall behaviour” e) Noble savage mentality –It refers to the
2) Negative mores or taboo or the evaluation of one’s culture and that of
“Thou shall not behaviour” others based on the romantic notion that
the culture and way of life of the primitives
c. Laws – These are formalized norms or other simple cultures is better, more
enacted by people vested with legitimate authority. acceptable, and more orderly.
f) Subculture – This refers to smaller groups Social Process of Diffusion
which develop norms, values, beliefs and
special languages which make them distinct  Acculturation – Cultural
from the broader society, borrowing and cultural
g) Counterculture or contra culture – It refers  Assimilation- Blending or
to subgroups whose standards come in fusion of two distinct
conflict with and oppose the conventional
cultures through long
standards of the dominant culture. These
periods of interactions.
subgroups become a threat to the
dominant society and are considered social  Amalgamation- Biological
problems. or hereditary fusion of
members of different
h) Culture lag – It refers to the gap between societies
the material and non-material culture.  Enculturation – Deliberate
Material culture advances more rapidly and infusion of a new culture to
is more readily accepted by people such another.
that the non-material culture lags behind.
 Colonization – It refers to the political,
social and political policy establishing a
colony which would be subject to the rule
1) Based on Nationality or governance of the colonizing state. It is
2) Based on Ethno Linguistic Group politically termed as IMPERIALISM. Once
3) Based on Historical Epochs of the economy of a more technologically
Philippine Culture advanced country dominates the economy
4) Based on Economic means of a less developed state, such condition is
5) Based on Geographical Location
6) Based on Religion
7) Based on Technology IMPERIALISM. Generally, the superior
8) Based on Age culture of the colonizer is diffused into the
9) Based on Economic Status colonized territory although there could be
10) Based on Response to Colonialism an interpretation of cultures.


1) Culture of poverty  Rebellion and Revolutionary Movements –

2) Culture of opulence These aims to change the whole social
3) Culture of Corruption order and replace the leadership. They
4) Culture of Silence and culture of Sabotage challenge the existing folkways and mores
5) Pop culture and propose a new scheme of norms,
6) Culture of apathy values, and organization.
7) Culture of conspicuous consumption
8) Culture of exploitation and dehumanization -----------------------end------------------------


 Discovery – It refers to the process of

finding a new place or an object, artefact,
or anything that previously existed.

 Invention – It implies a creative mental

process of devising, creating, and
producing something new, novel or
original’. It also implies the utilization and
combination of previously known elements
to produce and original or novel product.

 Diffusion- It refers to the spread of cultural

traits or social practices from a society or
group to another belonging to the same
society or to another through direct contact
with each other and exposure to new