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Dr G.INDUMATHI,

C.PRABHABATHI DEVI, V.PRIYADHARSHINI,

Department of ECE,

Department of ECE, Department of ECE,

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College,

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College,

Sivakasi.

Sivakasi. Sivakasi.

gindhu@mepcoeng.ac.in

prabhabathichandrasekaran@gmail.com dharshinimsec@gmail.com

Abstract—This paper in downlink channel estimation difficult task and it also II. SYSTEM MODEL AND

proposes a unified channel because the no of training leads to Eigen value CHANNEL

estimation scheme for sequences should be equal to decomposition (EVD) CHARACTERISTICS

multiuser massive multiple the no of transmit antennas and problem for high As shown in figure.1

input multiple output (MIMO) length of the training stream dimensional covariance multiuser massive MIMO

systems in time-varying should be greater than the no of matrices. In this paper, system is considered where the

Base station (BS) is equipped

environment. In this paper, a transmit antennas based on using antenna array

with M (>>1) antennas in the

new discrete Fourier orthogonal training strategy. In theory and array signal form of uniform linear array

transform (DFT) based uplink if the no of users or no of processing we propose (ULA) and K single antenna

spatial-temporal basis antennas of each user increases, an alternate low rank users are spread over the

expansion model (ST-BEM) is then pilot overhead problem model for massive coverage area. The propagation

introduced to mitigate the occurs. If the training sequences Uniform linear array from user k to BS is composed

of Pr-rays (Pr>>1) due to

training overhead and are Non-orthogonal, then so (ULA). This model is

scattering, reflection and

feedback cost by reducing the called pilot contamination based on mean direction refraction. The channel is

dimensions of uplink and problem occurs. These problems of arrivals and angular considered to be time selective

downlink channel. This model are diminishing the system spread (AS) of incident flat fading and it will change

is suitable for both time performance. In [10] and signals of each user. This symbol level. It’s safe to assume

division duplex (TDD) and [11], the closed-loop model is known as that the physical position of

users seen by the BS is

frequency division duplex training schemes were Spatial Basis Expansion

unchanged within a single block

(FDD) systems. A new greedy applied to sequentially Model (SBEM). The N. The corresponding M x 1

user scheduling algorithm is design the optimal pilot proposed unified uplink channel can be expressed

also introduced to improve the beam patterns. The transmission strategy for as,

Spectral efficiency. Various Compressive sensing the multiuser TDD/FDD Pr

1

simulation results are provided (CS)-based feedback massive MIMO systems hk kp e kp a( kp ) (1)

to demonstrate the reduction in [12] and the includes Uplink (UL) pr p 1

effectiveness of the proposed distributed compressive channel estimation and

method. channel estimation in [3] user scheduling for data

extracted the channel transmission. It is shown kp CN (0, p2 ) [Complex

gain of

the pth ray] and

kp j ( 2f d nTs cos kp kp )

Keywords— Massive MIMO, sparsity to reduce large that the Uplink channel

Discrete Fourier Transform amount of measurements estimation of multi users

(DFT), ST-BEM, FDD, TDD feeding back to the Base can be carried out with

station. This Method very few training

I. INTRODUCTION requires knowledge of resources, and thus, the

One of the most important the sparsity level in overhead of training and

physical layer techniques in 5G channel matrices but it’s feedback can be also

communication is massive not an easy task to reduced significantly.

MIMO or large scale multiple accurately acquire such Meanwhile, the pilot

input and multiple output [8]. It information. After these contamination in UL

can simultaneously serve tens of types of attempts low training can be

terminals in the same rank channel estimation immediately relieved. To

frequency-time with the help of approaches are enhance the spectral

hundreds of antennas located in introduced. These efficiency during the data

Base Station (BS) side that approaches reduce the transmission, a greedy

provides robustness, high effective channel user scheduling Fig.1 System model. Users are

Energy efficiency and Spectral dimensions. In [1], algorithm is proposed surrounded by pr local scatterers and

efficiency [9]. To utilize the Covariance aware pilot where users with the mean DOA and AS f user-k are

benefits of massive MIMO Assignment Strategy is orthogonal spatial k and k respectively.

effectively, the perfect channel used. Here uplink pilot information are allowed When users are move around in a

state information (CSI) for both contamination, downlink to transmit circle, the spatial AS seen by BS is

Uplink and downlink should be training and feedback simultaneously. generally unchanged.

acquired by Base station. overhead are significantly

Usually channel is estimated via reduced. But acquisition where, fd is the Doppler

pilot sequences. But in massive of channel covariance

frequency

kp and Ts is the

MIMO it leads to pilot overhead matrix becomes a sampling frequency,

fhkro F ( )hk

is the angle between the zero point is not an integer and introduced. So the new channel

uplink transmittedsignal

kp and the channel power will leak vector can be formulated as,

a ( kp )

the motion direction of user-k. from the ([M(d/λ)sinθk])th DFT fhkro F ( )hk ( 4)

signifies the initial phase, which point to other DFT points. The

is uniformly distributed in DFT outputs are discrete where,

[0,2 ] and is the samples of DTFT of a(θ k).i.e., a ( ) diag{[1, e j ,.............e j ( M 1) ]}

array manifold vector and it sinc function, at the points of

varies based on antenna 2πq/M, q=0,1 ….M-1. Hence The Spatial Rotation operation,

structure. the degree of leakage in fhk fhkro

further concentrate the channel

For ULA case, array manifold is inversely proportional to the power within the fewer entries

vector can be represented as, M. When M is large but not of for a certain value of ϕ. For

2d

infinite, the2d

power leakage is one-ray case, When DOA of the fhkro F ( )hk .

j sin kp j ( M 1) sin kp

not a problem because most incident signal is not

a ( kp ) [1, e ,.........e ] ( 2)

power of fhk is still arcsin(qM/λd) for some integer Fig.3 Comparison of single

concentrates around this Non- q i.e., mismatched with DFT ray channels with/without

where, d is the antenna spacing, spatial rotation

zero point as shown in Fig.2. points, then power leakage will

λ denotes the signal carrier The preceding optimization can

For the Multi-ray case, let D k is happen. Formulate a new

wavelength, θkp represents DOA

the index set of continuous DFT channel vector as, (fhkro

be achieved by sliding a window

,

).

of the p-th ray. The incident of size τ over the elements in

points that contains % of the 2q 2d together by a 1-D search over

M M

angular spread of user k with

channel power [7]. Ifk ( )( sin k ),

mean DOA ( k ) is assumed to

M one Non-zero

then has only III. CHANNEL ESTIMATION

be limited in a narrow region,

i.e., [ k k , k k ] ro WITH SBEM

element and so fhk , q at q, with

and this angular spread (AS) of A unified transmission

the power leakage is eliminated, strategy for a TDD/FDD

each user is normally unaltered fhk

where ϕ is the shift parameter. massive MIMO system is

when the user moves within the

For example in Fig.3, Spatial introduced that utilizes the

circular region as shown in

rotationDwith

k

ro

ϕk= 0.34375 radian [ fhkro ]D roto,: realize

spatial signatures

Fig.1. orthogonal training and data

k

can help to strengthen the

The normalized DFT of channel

channel sparsity of . . For the

ro

transmission

| Dk | . among to

different

vector exhibits some specific users. As shown in M Fig.4, M this

Multi-ray cases, a new channel

properties in massive ULA case. framework always starts with

vectors is formulated and define preamble period. The preamble

This property used to minimize

as the continuous index set such period is used to obtain the

the complexity of transceiver spatial signature of each user.

that contains at least

design. After tracking spatial

ŋ% of the channel power and

The normalized DFT can be information of each user the

search ϕ from and

represented as, users are grouped based on their

Fig.2 fhk of single incident ray select the optimal ϕk that

fhk Fhk (3)with k =90, M=128 spatial signature for further

minimizes the process.

where, F=>MxM DFT matrix The standards are normally

whose (p,q)th element is, regulated by considering

It can be represented as,

j(

2

) pq

channel parameters to be

ro

[ F ] pq e M |/DkM d

estimated as Bfixed but here a

| 2M | cos k | kdynamically

1 Cmax k

changing parameter

The propagation from user to

is considered. Define the set

BS is assumed to be composed containing continuous τ

where, θk ,Δθk are DOA and AS

of p rays. While considering integers as where τ is the

respectively. Cmax is the qnumber of channel parameters

single ray i.e.,

maximum no of k arcsin(

leakage points. ). system could handle. Then

that

hk k a ( k ) and M is

These indices can be viewed as Md select the spatial signature set

infinite, the normalized DFT and corresponding shift Bkro

spatial signature of each user.

has only one non-zero point and parameter for user k by using

This model is known as Spatial

this point reflects the DOA of following optimization,

Basis Expansion Model

the impinging signal, namely

(SBEM). To deduce this, a max ro

[ fhkro ] B ro ,: s.t Bkro (5)

perfect DOA is to be acquired. k , B k

k

Fig.4 Communication

When M is large but not Framework

For this purpose, a Spatial

infinite, the power leakage may

Rotation operation is Here we consider the users are

happen. For most cases, Non-

present within a cell and τ (< K)

orthogonal training sequences should be re estimated. The V. SIMULATIONS

with length L (< T) are available Non-overlapping properties of

If R (U g {m} | P ' ) R (U g In U gtheeffectiveness

U g {m' },

dd dd dd dd

and the corresponding different spatial signatures are | Pthis

) section

orthogonal training set will be used to overcome the , set of the proposed strategy is

P P ' ,U U \ {m'}

S=[s1,s2,.....sτ] € CLxτ with insufficient problem of a demonstrated using numerical

SiHSj=Lσp2δ(i-j) where σp2 is the orthogonal training sequences. nd go to step 4;Else go to examples. We select M=128,

signal training power. After obtaining of spatial step 6.

r r K=32,d=λ/2. The channel

signature of each user we may vectors of different users are

Tracking of Spatial schedule them using Non- U r , using (1) and we

formulated

STEP-6: Store Ug dd and R(Ugdd |

information through preamble overlapping property of spatial consider Pr=100, fd=200 Hz and

P).If let g=g+1, go to

Assume K=Gτ. Since we do signatures and also throughput is

step 3; Else, go to Step 7. Ts=1μs and kp is randomly

not have any prior spatial considered to improve the

information about users, we will performance of each group. taken from CN(0,1) for all rays

STEP-7: When the algorithm is

have to divide the users into G and all users, kp is

stopped, the minimum number

groups each containing τ users distributed inside

IV. DATA TRANSMISSION of user group Gdd is set as the

such that τ orthogonal training [ k k , k k ] .

WITH USER current g, and the optimal user

sequences are enough for each

SECHEDULING scheduling result is accordingly And AS = 2 degree for all users.

group and conventional

given by U1,…….UGdd. The system coherence interval

estimation methods are applied A greedy user scheduling 2

h k ehk

K

is set as T=128 and1τ =16. The

and length of the preamble is Gτ.

The received signals at the BS is

algorithm is considered where To maximize the Throughput of MSE

length of the pilot K k 1 symbol 2

given by,

the strongest channel gain first each group the following should satisfy 16≤L≤128. Lhk

join the empty group and then constraint is adopted.

1 may be 16, 32 and 64. The

G other users with non-

Y HD 2 S H N d i hk siH spatial

overlapping N (6signatures

) max R (U dd | P ) g (1 to noise

logsignal ) ratio

2 (8)defined as,

k

{ k }

i 1 i 1 can join the same group only if k U gdd 2p

. The channel

the achievable sum rate

hk can be estimated using Least increases afterwards. s.t k P n2

Square as, k U gdd estimation performance metric

1 User scheduling Algorithm in terms Mean square

ehk YS k (7 )

d k L p2 where, k is the Equivalent error(MSE) is represented as,

STEP-1:Calculate the Euclidean Signal to Noise ratio, P is the

norm of the estimated channel total power constraint of each

where, H=[h1,h2,…….hτ] € CMxτ ,

S=[s1,s2,.....sτ] € CLxτ and

ro

vectors, i.e., [ fhk ]B ro ,: for group. It will vary dynamically

D=diag[d1,……dτ] and

k based on no of users in that

all users. group. Fig.5 shows comparison of

P ut MSE performances with

d k k2 is used to satisfy STEP-2:Initialize g=1, P=0, U dd

k can be represented as,

p = NULL, R(Ugdd|P)= 0 and the

g different L values. It is observed

that

2 when L increases the MSE

the uplink training energy remaining user set Ur={1, k [hkro ]Bkro ,:decreases. The total power for

constraint for user-k, N is the …….K}. k uplink training (9considered

) is

2 2

additive white Gaussian noise. 1 ( l hkH hlPkut/= h Lρl for all users.

Repeating the similar operations STEP-3:For the gth group, select l K g

in (7) for all G groups is used to the user with the l ' maximum

arg max lU ehl

r

obtain the estimates of all K norm of channel in user set

users. The next step is to obtain and remove the user

the optimal shift parameter ϕk This optimization problem can

and spatial signature set of size τ from user set and add the user in be solved by Water filling

for each user, as described in (5). Ugdd. algorithm [6].

The obtained channel

information from preamble may STEP-4:Select all users Ur

only last for a short period for whose spatial signatures are

example one coherent time while Non-overlapping with users in

it needs to be re estimated or Ugdd and denote them by, Ug’. For

tracked for later transmission. Eg.,

When a user and its surrounding

obstacles does not change the u ' g {mu r Bmro Blro , l U gdd }

position within the comparable

STEP-5: IfU g

'

time then no need to track the set

spatial information for few P’=P+ρ and find a user m’ in Ug’

channel coherent times and only such that

[ fhkro ] B ro ,:

the accompanied k m' arg max R (U gdd {m} P ' )

mU g'

Fig.7 AASR of the proposed technology, vol. 66, no. 4, Apr [12] P. H. Kuo, H. Kung, and P.

scheme and conventional LS 2017. A. Ting, “Compressive sensing

From Fig.7, it is observed that the based channel feedback

AASR of proposed SBEM is

[5] G. B. Giannakis and C. protocols for spatially-

providing better performance than

correlated massive antenna

conventional Least square (LS) Tepedelenlioglu, “Basis

method. arrays,” in Proc. IEEE WCNC,

expansion models and diversity Shanghai, China, Apr. 2012, pp.

techniques for blind 492–497.

identification and equalization of

VI. CONCLUSIONS time-varying channels,” Proc.

In this paper we exploited the IEEE, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 1969–

characteristics of ULA and 1986,Oct. 1998.

proposed a simple DFT based

ST-BEM to represent the [6] S. P. Boyd and L.

channel vectors with reduced Vandenberghe, Convex

parameters which helps to

reduce the pilot overhead and Optimization. Cambridge,MA,

feedback cost. The Uplink USA: Cambridge Univ. Press,

Fig.5 MSE performances spatial signatures can be used for 2004.

for different L values Downlink also based on the

property angle reciprocity. This [7] Hongxiang Xie, Feifei Gao,

method applicable for both Shun Zhang, and Shi Jin, “A

Fig.6 explains about MSE

TDD/FDD massive-MIMO Simple DFT-aided Spatial Basis

performance improvement with

systems. Various numerical Expansion Model and Channel

and without spatial rotation

results are provided to Estimation Strategy for

operation.

demonstrate the effectiveness of TDD/FDD Massive MIMO

the proposed approach. Systems,” arXiv:1511.04841v6

[cs.IT] 9 Jan 20.

REFERENCES

[1] A.Adhikary, J. Nam, J.-Y. [8] F. Rusek et al., “Scaling up

Ahn, and G. Caire, “Joint spatial MIMO: Opportunities and

division and multiplexing— challenges with very large

the large-scale array regime,” arrays,” IEEE Signal Process.

IEEE Trans. Inf.Theory,vol. 59, Mag., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 40–60,

no. 10, pp. 6441–6463, Oct. Jan. 2013.

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[9] E. Larsson, O. Edfors, F.

[2] H. Yin, D. Gesbert, M. Tufvesson, and T. Marzetta,

Filippou, and Y. Liu, “A “Massive MIMO for next

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Fig.6 MSE performances for

with and without spatial rotation vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 264–273, Feb. no. 5, pp. 802–814, Oct. 2014.

2013.

[10] J. Choi, D. J. Love, and P.

[3] X. Rao and V. K. Lau, Bidigare, “Downlink training

“Distributed compressive CSIT techniques for FDD massive

estimation and feedback for MIMO systems: Open-loop and

FDD multi-user massive MIMO closed-loop training with

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Shun Zhang, and Shi Jin, “A and J. Krogmeier, “Closed-loop

Unified Transmission Strategy beam alignment for massive

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