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 The People from ABB


 Characteristics of Power Systems
 Voltage Stability
 Corrective Measures
 The ABB Platform for Corrective Control
 What do we need from CC ?

 The ABB Power Grid Test Case


 Conclusion

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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 2
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
People Involved From ABB

 Eduardo Gallestey  Mats Larsson

 PhD in Mathemathics 1998  PhD Industrial Automation 2001


 University of Bremen  Lund University
 Optimal and robust control,  Control and stability of power
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optimization etc.
Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 3
systems
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, ABB
Baden, Switzerland
Characteristics of Power Systems
 Large-scale
 Substantial nonlinearity
 Wide span of time-scales
 Uncertainty
 Changing operating point
 Mix of continuous and discrete
control variables
 Embedded Controllers
 System model has differential-
algebraic structure

 A good example of a
”complex” system !

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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 4
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Control of Power Systems

 Global control problem extremely difficult


 Decomposition, Controller hierarchies

 Some stability concerns in PS


 Frequency stability – Simple linear decentralized control
 Transient stability -- Energy functions, Lyapunov
 Small-disturbance stability – Linear analysis, H_inf etc.
 Voltage stability – Model Predictive Control etc.

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 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
System collapse due to Voltage Instability
Date Location Time to Collapse
860413 Winnipeg, Canada, Nelson River HVDC link 1s
861130 SE Brazil, Paraguay, Itaipu HVDC link 2s
850517 S Florida, USA 4s
870822 W Tennessee, USA 10 s
960702 Western USA 35 s
831227 Sweden 55 s
820902 Florida, USA 1-3 min
821126 Florida, USA 1-3 min
821228 Florida, USA 1-3 min
821230 Florida, USA 1-3 min
770922 Jacksonville, Florida minutes
820804 Belgium 4-5 min
870112 Western France 6-7 min
651209 Bretagne, France minutes
761110 Bretagne, France minutes
870723 Tokyo, Japan 20 min
ABB Corporate
781219 France Research
Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 6
26Switzerland
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, min ABB
700822 Japan 30 min
Voltage Stability
1 p.u
j1
j1 p.u. I
v = load voltage
=>
+ p = load power
1
VL R
− g = load admittance

1 R 1
I= ⇒ VL = RI = = v g↑
R + j1 R + j1 1 + jg 1
1 vcrit
v = VL =
1+ g 2

p = gv 2
p
pmax

 Maximum transfer: p = pmax at v = vcrit


ABB Corporate Research  2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland
Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 7
ABB
Stability analyis
 Load constant power behavior:
 dg dg 1 g
 dt = − 2
=> f (g) = = ( p0 − )

T p gv (increase g if consumption too low)
0
dt T 1+ g 2

v =
1
 1+ g 2

Stationary points given by: p0 < 0.5 - two equilibrium points


1 1 p0 = 0.5 - the two equilibrium points
f ( g ) = 0 => g * = ± 2
−1
2 p0 4 p0 coalesce
v g↑ p0 > 0.5 - no equilibrium points

vcrit

p Unstable if: p0 > pmax or v < vcrit


p0 Research
ABB Corporate pmax
Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 8
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Simulation Results

 Small Step in p0 (a) – stable case, (b) unstable case

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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 9
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Tap Changer Control

generation transmission 130/50 kV R R


50/20 kV 20/10 kV

130 kV Voltage 50 kV Voltage  Used to control customer


voltage
1.08
 Relay control
1.04  Time delay + Deadband


1
Uses a local viewpoint
0.96  Bad for System Stability !
0 6 12 18 24 hours

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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 10
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Generator Overload Limits

 Generators normally under terminal voltage control


 If the generator is overloaded, voltage control is lost

Tap Controlled Load Generator Voltage


1.05 Overload limit
reached

0.95
Tap Changer
Control
0.9
0 100
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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 11
200 300 400
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Typical Instability Scenario

1. Line or generator outage reduces the voltage in an area


2. Temporary load reduction
3. Transfer capacity to the area is reduced
4. Load demand recovers (distribution voltage control, inherent
dynamics)
5. Voltage is further reduced
6. Generator overload protection activated
7. Collapse !

Time scale: seconds to several minutes

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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 12
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Countermeasures against Voltage Instability

Time (seconds)

 Load shedding
 Tap locking
 Capacitor switching
 Generator voltage setpoints
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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 13
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Countermeasures (ctd.)

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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 14
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Wide-area Protection
GPS
Satellite
SPC
PMU

WAN

Transmission Network

PMU
PMU
PMU PMU

 Snapshot of power system topology and state every 50-250 ms


 Sophisticated control possible
ABB Corporate Research  2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland
Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 15
ABB
The ABB Power Grid Test Case

 Small-scale example

 Discrete Step Controls


 Tap locking
 Load Shedding
 Capacitor Switching

 Hybrid Behaviour
 Generator overload
protection
 Transformer Relay
Control

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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 16
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Collapse Scenario
 Line tripping (L3) after 100 s
 Inherent Load Recovery
 Tap Changer Tries to Restore Voltage
 Generator field limit activated at 286 s
 Collapse

Tap Controlled Load Generator Voltage


1.05 Overload limit
reached

0.95
Tap Changer
Control
0.9
0 100
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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 17
200 300 400
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
What Do We Need from CC ?

 Optimal Control Problem


 Find optimal switching sequences for our controls

 Observability Analysis
 Select a minimum but sufficient number of measurement points

 Controllability
 Select a minimum but sufficient number of control points

 Reachability Analysis
 Which are the safe operating regions ?
 When is the last time to stabilize the system, given some set of
available controls ?

 .... and other things ?


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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 18
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB
Conclusion
 Industrially highly relevant problem

 We are dealing with transmission – not distribution

 A challenging test case:


 Nonlinearity
 Load behaviour is uncertain
 Hybrid behaviour
 Embedded relay controls
 Limiter logic
 Large Scale

 Present Status
 Now available in Modelica language, SIMULINK SimStruc
 T. Geyer at ETH currently works on a PWA model

 Later on, medium and large scale examples will be available

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Mats Larsson / 07.10.2001 / 19
 2001 ABB Corporate Research Ltd, Baden, Switzerland ABB