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A

MAJOR PROJECT REPORT


On
CFD ANALAYSIS OF FLOW THROUGH ROCKET NOZZLE
A Thesis Work Submitted to JNTUH in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Award of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

By
Y.HEMANTH 148R1A03M2
V. ARUN KUMAR 148R1A03L5
V.SAITEJA 148R1A03L6
MD.MOHINUR RAHAMAN PASHA 148R1A03M7

Under the Esteemed Guidance of


V.MUKESH REDDY
Asst. Prof.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CMR ENGINEERING COLLEGE


Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad. Approved by AICTE, New Delhi
KANDLAKOYA (V), MEDCHAL ROAD, HYDERABAD-501 401(T.S)
(2017- 18)

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CMR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that project entitled “CFD ANALAYSIS OF FLOW THROUGH


ROCKET NOZZLE ”is a bonafide work carried out by Y.HEMANTH(148R1A03M2),
V.ARUN KUMAR(148R1A0L5), V.SAITEJA(148R1A03L6), MD.MOHINUR
RAHAMAN PASHA(148R1A03M7) submitted to DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING, CMR ENGINEERING COLLEGE, HYDERABAD in partial fulfillment of
the requirement for the award of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING at JNTUH, under the guidance and supervision of V.MUKESH
REDDY(Asst.Prof), during the academic year 2017-2018.
The result embodied in this project report has not been submitted to any other
university/institute for the award of any degree.

Internal Guide External Examiner HOD


V.MUKESH REDDY Prof. N.JEEVANKUMAR
(Assistant Professor) M-Tech, (Ph.D)

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the Project work entitled “CFD ANALAYSIS OF FLOW
THROUGH ROCKET NOZZLE ", recorded in this report is my own work and
does not form of any other thesis on which a degree has been awarded earlier.
I further declare that, this Project is my IV Year B.Tech Main Project
and submitted to DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
CMR ENGINEERING COLLEGE, affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad, in
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Technology
in Mechanical Engineering.

Place: Hyderabad
Date
Y.HEMANTH 148R1A03M2
V.ARUN KUMAR 148R1A03L5
V.SAITEJA 148R1A03L6
MD.MOHINUR RAHAMAN PASHA 148R1A03M7

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction that accompanied the successful completion of any task


would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible
and whose constant encouragement and guidance has been a source of
inspiration throughout the course of completion of this project work.
I express my heartfelt thanks to Dr. A. Srinivasula Reddy, Principal,
CMREC for his encouragement and support for doing the project.
I also thank Dr. K. S. Reddy, Dean, CMREC, for his constant support
and valuable suggestions in doing the project.
My sincere thanks to Prof. N. Jeevan Kumar, Professor & Head of the
Department Mechanical Engineering, for permitting me to do the project work.
My heartfelt regards and thanks to V.MUKESH REDDY (Asst.Prof)
for the valuable guidance and encouragement in carrying out the work.
I also thank all the staff members and Lab Technicians of Mechanical
Engineering Department who guided and encouraged me throughout the
completion of this dissertation.
I express my sincere gratitude to my parents for their moral support and
love rendered during the course of my dissertation work.
At last I would like to thank all the people who are involved directly or
indirectly in the completion of my dissertation work.

Y.HEMANTH
V.ARUNKUM
V.SAI TEJA
MD.MOHINUR RAHAMAN PASHA

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CONTENTS

Abstract vi
List of figures vii
List of tables x

CHAPTER I
Introduction
1.1 Functions of nozzle 2
1.2 Components of a nozzle 2
1.3 Types of rocket nozzles 7
1.4 Objective of Present Work 10
1.5 Arrangement of Thesis 10

CHAPTER II
Literature review 11

CHAPTER III
Modeling of nozzle
3.1 Catia 13
3.2 Steps Involved in Designing 13
3.2.1 Circular Cross Section 13
3.2.2 Rectangular and Square Cross Section 17
3.3 Steps to make 2d design 18

CHAPTER IV
Methodology
4.1 Design details 21
4.1.1Assumptions for developing gas flow equation 21
4.1.2 The choice of gas 21
4.1.3 Mach number and regimes of compressible flow 22
4.1.4 Isentropic relations 23
4.1.5 Gas conditions at the nozzle throat 24
4.1.6 Nozzle area – Mach number relation and gas conditions at the
nozzle 25

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4.2 Simulation Details 27
4.3 Importing Geometry 29
4.4 Mesh 29
4.5 Setup 32

CHAPTER V
Results and Discussion

5.1 Static Pressure 36


5.1.1 Circular Cross Section (2D) 36
5.1.2 Circular Cross Section (3D) 37
5.1.3 Rectangular Cross Section (2D) 37
5.1.4 Rectangular Cross Section (3D) 38
5.1.5 Square Cross Section (2D) 38
5.1.6 Square Cross Section (3D) 39
5.2 Velocity Contour 40
5.1.1 Circular Cross Section (2D) 40
5.1.2 Circular Cross Section (3D) 41
5.1.3 Rectangular Cross Section (2D) 41
5.1.4 Rectangular Cross Section (3D) 42
5.1.5 Square Cross Section (2D) 42
5.1.6 Square Cross Section (3D) 43
5.4 Mach Number Contour 44

CONCLUSIONS 48
FUTURE SCOPE 49
REFERENCES 50

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ABSTRACT
The exhaust nozzle is an integral part of a rocket engine and critical to its overall
system performance. Challenges associated with the design and manufacturing of an
exhaust nozzle become greater as the cruise speed of the rocket increases. The
exhaust nozzle of a supersonic cruise aircraft requires additional capabilities such as
variable throat and exit area, noise suppression, and reverse thrust. The present work
is an effort to study the design and analysis of rocket nozzle.

In the present work, modeling and analysis are carried out using ANSYS DESIGN
MODELER and Fluent solver in order to understand the fluid flow characteristics.
The focus of our project is to check the exit Mach number of a convergent divergent
Supersonic nozzle reaches to greater than Mach 2.

Present simulation work is carried on different cross-sections like circle, square and
rectangle and the best cross-section will be declared.

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LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. No. Description Page No.

1.1 Nozzle 1

1.2 Combustion chamber of a rocket 4

1.3 Converging section 5

1.4 Diverging section 6

1.5 Jet Nozzles 7

1.6 High Velocity Nozzle 8

1.7 Propelling Nozzle 9

1.8 Spray Nozzle 9

3.1 Opening window of Catia 14

3.2 Window of part design 14

3.3 Planes 15

3.4 Circles on planes 15

3.5 Multi-Selection Solid Option 16

3.6 Rocket nozzle with circular cross section 16

3.7 Rectangular Cross section 17

3.8 Square cross section 17

3.9 Plane for 2d rectangle 18

3.10 Projected from 3d rectangular cross section 18

3.11 After hiding the 3d body 19

3.12 Filling the rectangular cross section 19

3.13 Rectangular cross section nozzle 20

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4.1 Ansys starting window 28

4.2 Fluent work bench 28

4.3 Successful import 29

4.4 Sizing input 30

4.5 Meshed design 30

4.7 Options for naming surface 31

4.8 Named surfaces 31

4.9 Options for setup 32

4.10 Operating conditions 33

4.11 Reference values 33

4.12 Initialization 34

4.13 Run calculation 34

5.1 Pressure for 2D nozzle of circular cross section 36

5.2 Pressure for 3D nozzle of circular cross section 37

5.3 Pressure for 2D nozzle of rectangular cross section 37

5.4 Pressure for 3D nozzle of rectangular cross section 38

5.5 Pressure for 2D nozzle of square cross section 38

5.6 Pressure for 3D nozzle of square cross section 39

5.7 Velocity for 2D nozzle of circular cross section 40

5.8 Velocity for 3D nozzle of circular cross section 41

5.9 Velocity for 2D nozzle of rectangular cross section 41

5.10 Velocity for 3D nozzle of rectangular cross section 42

5.11 Velocity for 2D nozzle of square cross section 42

5.12 Velocity for 3D nozzle of square cross section 43

5.13 Graph of Mach number for 2D nozzle of circular cross section 44

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5.14 Graph of Mach number for 3D nozzle of circular cross section 44

5.15 Graph of Mach number for 2D nozzle of rectangular cross section 45

5.16 Graph of Mach number for 3D nozzle of rectangular cross section 45

5.17 Graph of Mach number for 2D nozzle of square cross section 46

5.18 Graph of Mach number for 3D nozzle of square cross section 46

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LIST OF TABLES

Table No Description Page No


5.1 Pressure Inlet and Outlet Values 39
5.2 Pressure Inlet and Outlet Values 40
5.3 Velocity Values for Inlet and Outlet 43
5.4 Velocity Values for Inlet and Outlet 43
5.5 Mach number Values for Inlet and Outlet 47

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Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, we are giving brief details of rocket nozzle, its types, its functions, its
components and its types and the details of the type of nozzle we are going to deal
with in this project.

A nozzle is a device, which is used to give the direction to the gases coming out of
the combustion chamber. Nozzle is a tube, which has a capacity to convert the
thermo-chemical energy generated in the combustion chamber into kinetic energy.
The nozzle converts the low velocity, high pressure, high temperature gas in the
combustion chamber into high velocity gas of lower pressure and low temperature. A
convergent divergent nozzle is used if the nozzle pressure ratio is high. High
performance engines in supersonic aircrafts generally incorporate some form of a
convergent-divergent nozzle. Our analysis is carried using software’s like Ansys
Workbench for designing of the nozzle and Fluent 18.2 for analyzing the flows in the
nozzle. In the present days, there is a huge development in Aerospace Engineering for
in various prospects.

Figure 1.1. Nozzle


Extensive research is carried out in the fields like civil and defense prospects. The
virtualization is one of the major developments in the field of research, which has
revolutionized Aerospace engineering, along with all other branches. The
computational techniques are being used widely for getting better results, which are
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close to experimental techniques. The flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle is
one of the benchmark problems used for modeling the compressible flow through
computational fluid dynamics. In this paper CFD analysis of a convergent divergent
rocket nozzle is done by varying the number of divisions in Mesh and obtaining
results for various parameters like pressure, temperature, properties, wall fluxes,
Mesh, velocity and adaption.

The hot gases developed by propellant combustion are partially entrapped by the
motor aft closure and the convergent section of the nozzle, thus causing them to
compress. A curious fact of gas behavior is that under compression, if an escape route
is provided, pressure drops as potential (pressure) energy is converted to kinetic
energy (velocity)

1.1 FUNCTIONS OF NOZZLE


A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow
(especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe. A
nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area and it can be used to
direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas).

The purpose of the nozzle is to promote the isentropic (constant entropy) expansion
of the exhaust gas. As the gas expands, its pressure drops, but since there is no change
in total energy, its velocity (kinetic energy) increases to compensate for the reduction
in pressure energy.

1.2 COMPONENTS OF A NOZZLE


Based on its shape it is differentiated into the following types

 Combustion chamber
 Converging section
 Throat
 Diverging section

Combustion chamber: The purpose of the rocket engine is to generate a continuous


net force in the direction that one desires the rocket to travel. For main rocket engines
(in contrast to smaller directional-thrust engines), this is a net force with a directional
vector that is parallel to the long axis of the rocket. The chemical reaction of the
rocket propellant molecules releases chemical potential energy that is (largely)
distributed as kinetic energy of the gas molecules within the reaction chamber.

Within the reaction chamber, a certain percentage of these molecules collide with the
inner walls of the reaction chamber per unit time. If there is no opening in the walls of
the reaction chamber, these collisions cannot produce a net force that will result in
acceleration of the rocket.

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In any completely sealed container, there is always an equivalent inner surface area
directly opposite of any other surface area. Any force per unit time that occurs at one
point on the inner surface of the container due to collisions of gas molecules is
cancelled out by equal force per unit time occurring one at a point on the inner
surface that is located directly opposite of that point by collisions of other gas
molecules. All of the forces within the container are cancelled out and there is no net
force, so the container will not change its velocity. If it has no velocity, it will not
acquire a velocity.

In order to create a net force within the container - and as a consequence generate a
net acceleration to the container - there must be an opening in the walls of the
container.

The surface area of the container that is removed to create this opening is no longer
present to provide collisions of gas molecules that would cancel out the force of
collisions of gas molecules on the surface area that is directly opposite of the opening.
The result is that there is a net force on the inner wall of the container that is directed
180 degrees away from the opening in the container.

Enlarging the opening in the container increases this net force since this removes
additional surface area that was cancelling out force on the opposite area of the
container.

Therefore - for a rocket engine - one wishes to maximize the size of the opening in
the wall of the reaction chamber that is directly opposite of the direction that one
wishes the rocket accelerate. If many other factors did not effect the performance of
the rocket engine there would be no need to construct a nozzle. Alternatively, one
could simply call the hole in the reaction chamber "the nozzle".

Other factors do effect the performance of the rocket. For instance, one wishes to
create the highest possible temperature within the reaction chamber. Many of these
other factors affecting rocket engine performance can be optimized by constructing a
well-designed nozzle rather than a simple hole in the reaction chamber.

So the role of the reaction chamber is not simply to create a volume where the
chemical reaction of the rocket propellant can occur, but to create the largest surface
area that gas molecules can collide with in the direction one wishes the rocket to
accelerate and to create the largest hole in the chamber in the opposite direction that
one wishes the rocket to accelerate. If combustion occurs within the nozzle, there is a
much smaller inner surface area for collisions to occur in the desired direction.

Interestingly, the most powerful rocket - by far - that we could begin building today
has no reaction chamber and no nozzle.

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Figure 1.2 Combustion chamber of a rocket

A rocket that has a large supply of small thermonuclear bombs ("hydrogen" bombs)
could eject these bombs, one at a time, from the back of the rocket. The bomb could
then be detonated a short distance behind the rocket. If a large plate (a pusher-plate) is
located at the end of the rocket, then a significant fraction of the force of the
thermonuclear explosion can be applied to the surface area of the plate and the rocket
will accelerate away from the explosion. This process can be continued as long as the
supply of thermonuclear bombs lasts.

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Converging section: A typical converging section of a nozzle is shown in the Figure.
In the converging section of a nozzle, the cross sectional area decreases continuously
from its entrance to exit. It is used in a case where the back pressure is equal to or
greater than the critical pressure ratio.

Figure 1.3 Converging section

Throat: The whole point to the throat is to increase the exhaust velocity. But not just
increase it a little bit -- a rocket nozzle is designed so that the nozzle chokes. This is
another way of saying that the flow accelerates so much that it reaches sonic
conditions at the throat. This choking is important. Because it means the flow is sonic
at the throat, no information can travel upstream from the throat into the chamber. So
the outside pressure no longer has an effect on the combustion chamber properties.

Once it is sonic at the throat, and assuming the nozzle is properly designed, some
interesting things happen. When we look at subsonic flow, the gas speeds up as the
area decreases and slows down as the area increases. This is the traditional Venturi
effect. However, when the flow is supersonic, the opposite happens. The flow
accelerates as the area increases and slows as it decreases.

So, once the flow is sonic at the throat, the flow then continues to accelerate through
the expanding nozzle. This all works together to increase the exhaust velocity to very
high values.

From a nomenclature standpoint, the throat of a nozzle is the location where the area
is the smallest. So a "U-shaped chamber with a nozzle" will still have a throat -- it's
defined as wherever the area is the smallest. In the above paragraph, we have focused
on the fluid dynamics angle. However, you can also view it from a purely
thermodynamic angle, viewing the rocket engine as a heat engine.

In order to get useful work (accelerated exhaust gases), you need some form of
thermodynamic cycle with combustion followed by expansion. Due to conservation
of energy, the amount of kinetic energy acquired by the gas will then be proportional

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to the amount of enthalpy (heat + pressure energy) that disappears as the exhaust gas
expands and cools.

This means you want to maximize the temperature in the combustion chamber and
minimize the temperature of the exhaust to maximize your Carnot efficiency. You
ensure this by making sure that combustion happens before expansion, with a
separate combustion chamber and expansion nozzle.

Furthermore, you want the gas to expand by as large of a factor as possible to


minimize the exhaust temperature - and the expansion ratio is proportional to the area
of the nozzle exit divided by the area of the nozzle throat. This means that from
thermodynamic considerations alone, we can see that it is preferable to have a very
tight throat and a very large exit area.

Fluid dynamics determine the exact details of nozzle shapes (de Laval nozzles etc)
that get the thermodynamic efficiency as close to the Carnot efficiency as possible,
and whether the exhaust will actually expand or instead separate from the nozzle
walls. But the need for a separate combustion chamber and nozzle is much simpler
and can be understood without any knowledge of subsonic/supersonic flow.

Diverging section:

The cross sectional area of divergent nozzle increases continuously from its entrance
to exit. It is used in a case where the back pressure is less than the critical pressure
ratio.

Figure1.4 Diverging section

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1.3 TYPES OF ROCKET NOZZLES

Rocket nozzles are classified into the following types

 Jet nozzles
 High velocity nozzle
 Propelling nozzle
 Spray nozzles

Jet Nozzle: A gas jet, or liquid jet or hydro jet is a nozzle intended to eject gas or
fluid in a coherent stream into a surrounding medium. Gas jets are commonly found
in gas stoves, ovens, or barbecues. Gas jets were commonly used for light before the
development of electric light. Other types of fluid jets are found in carburetors, where
smooth calibrated orifices are used to regulate the flow of fuel into an engine.

Jet nozzles are also used in large rooms where the distribution of air via ceiling
diffusers is not possible or not practical. Diffusers that uses jet nozzles are called jet
diffuser where it will be arranged in the side wall areas in order to distribute air.
When the temperature difference between the supply air and the room air changes, the
supply air stream is deflected upwards, to supply warm air, or downwards, to supply
cold air.

Figure 1.5 Jet Nozzles

High velocity Nozzle: Frequently, the goal of a nozzle is to increase the kinetic
energy of the flowing medium at the expense of its pressure and internal energy.
Nozzles can be described as convergent (narrowing down from a wide diameter to a
smaller diameter in the direction of the flow) or divergent (expanding from a smaller
diameter to a larger one). A de Laval nozzle has a convergent section followed by a
divergent section and is often called a convergent-divergent nozzle ("con-di nozzle").
Convergent nozzles accelerate subsonic fluids. If the nozzle pressure ratio is high
enough, then the flow will reach sonic velocity at the narrowest point (i.e. the nozzle
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throat). In this situation, the nozzle is said to be choked. Increasing the nozzle
pressure ratio further will not increase the throat Mach number above one.
Downstream (i.e. external to the nozzle) the flow is free to expand to supersonic
velocities; however, Mach 1 can be a very high speed for a hot gas because the speed
of sound varies as the square root of absolute temperature. This fact is used
extensively in rocketry where hypersonic flows are required and where propellant
mixtures are deliberately chosen to further increase the sonic speed. Divergent
nozzles slow fluids if the flow is subsonic, but they accelerate sonic or supersonic
fluids.
Convergent-divergent nozzles can therefore accelerate fluids that have choked in the
convergent section to supersonic speeds. This CD process is more efficient than
allowing a convergent nozzle to expand supersonically externally. The shape of the
divergent section also ensures that the direction of the escaping gases is directly
backwards, as any sideways component would not contribute to thrust.

Figure 1.6 High Velocity Nozzles

Propelling Nozzle: A propelling nozzle is a nozzle that converts a gas turbine or gas
generator into a jet engine. Energy available in the gas turbine exhaust is converted
into a high speed propelling jet by the nozzle. Turbofan engines may have an
additional and separate propelling with negative nozzle, which produces a high speed
propelling jet from the energy in the air that has passed through the fan. In addition,
the nozzle helps to determine how the gas generator and fan operate as it acts as a
downstream restrictor.
Propelling nozzles accelerate the available gas to subsonic, transonic, or supersonic
velocities depending on the power setting of the engine, their internal shape and the
pressures at entry to, and exit from, the nozzle. The internal shape may be convergent
or convergent-divergent (C-D). C-D nozzles can accelerate the jet to supersonic
velocities within the divergent section, whereas a convergent nozzle cannot accelerate
the jet beyond sonic speed. Propelling nozzles may have a fixed geometry, or they

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may have variable geometry to give different exit areas to control the operation of the
engine when equipped with an afterburner or a reheat system. When afterburning
engines are equipped with a C-D nozzle the throat, area is variable. Nozzles for
supersonic flight speeds, at which high nozzle pressure ratios are generated, also have
variable area divergent sections.

Figure 1.7 Propelling Nozzle

Spray nozzle: A spray nozzle is a precision device that facilitates dispersion of liquid
into a spray. Nozzles are used for three purposes: to distribute a liquid over an area, to
increase liquid surface area, and create impact force on a solid surface. [1] A wide
variety of spray nozzle applications use a number of spray characteristics to describe
the spray.
Spray nozzles can be categorized based on the energy input used to
cause atomization, the breakup of the fluid into drops. Spray nozzles can have one or
more outlets a multiple outlet nozzle is known as a compound nozzle.

Figure 1.8 Spray Nozzle


Shaping Nozzle: Some nozzles are shaped to produce a stream that is of a particular
shape. For example, extrusion molding is a way of producing lengths of metals or
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plastics or other materials with a particular cross-section. This nozzle is typically
referred to as a die.

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF PRESENT WORK

 Objective of present work is to make CFD analysis of rocket nozzle design.


 The modeling and simulation of the rocket nozzle design is done using ansys
design modeler.
 Rocket nozzle is made for three different cross sections like Circe, Rectangle
and Square and chosen the best cross section for rocket nozzle among these three
cross sections.

1.5 ARRANGEMENT OF THESIS

In chapter 1, It is discussed about introduction, types, components of the nozzle,


objective of this project.

In chapter 2, It is discussed about literature review that is made by referring different


papers.

In chapter 3, It is discussed about modeling of this project and steps involved in


modeling using ANSYS.

In chapter 4, It is discussed about simulation of this project and steps involved in


simulation using ANSYS.

In chapter 5, It is discussed about result which is obtained from ANSYS and


conclusion.

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Chapter-2

LITERATURE REVIEW
PARASHRAM V. PATIL et al [1] The flow through C-D nozzle had been studied
through various literature review. It was found that for smaller exit diameter more
thrust could be achieved. For smaller diameters there are low chances of flow
separation hence thrust exerted on the body is larger in case of C-D nozzle with
smaller diameter than the larger diameter. Hence introducing a set of nozzle and
allowing flow to pass through it can possibly give more thrust than the single nozzle.

G. SATYANARAYANA [2] CFD analysis has been done on Convergent Divergent


nozzles of different cross sections like rectangular, square and circular. It is found
that rectangular nozzle gives a velocity of 1475 m/s where as square nozzle gives a
velocity of 1122 m/s and circular nozzle gives a velocity of 1114 m/s. Thus,
rectangular nozzle gives an increased velocity of about 23.93% compared to square
nozzle and about 24.47% compared to circular nozzle.

Velocity increases when pressure drops. It has been found that rectangular nozzle
gives a pressure drop of 73.392 bar where as square nozzle gives a pressure drop of
56.56 bar and circular nozzle gives a pressure drop of 55.8 bar. Thus, rectangular
nozzle gives an increased pressure drop of about 22.93% compared to square

BOGDAN-ALEXANDRU et al [3] It is clearly observed that nozzle created based on


exit parameters. When sonic velocity is reached at the throat, it is not possible to
increase the throat velocity or the flow rate in the nozzle by further lowering the exit
pressure (choking the flow). Choking is a compressible flow effect that obstructs the
flow, setting a limit to fluid velocity because the flow becomes supersonic and
perturbations cannot move upstream; in gas flow, choking takes place when a
subsonic 1flow reaches M

WU-YUN – SHU [4] Presently there are about four types of materials that can be
used to make exhaust nozzles. They are metal, porcelain, graphite, and Bakelite.

In metallic materials, only Molybdenum (m.p. 2160°C), Tantalum (m.p. 2996 ± 500),
Rhenium (m.p. 3180 ± 200), Tungsten (m.p. 34100), and a few other metals can
withstand temperatures above 20000C.

VENKATESH et al[5]It can be observed that the Contour nozzle gives a greater
expansion ratio comparatively to a conical nozzle. Thus a Conical nozzle has to be
used at sea-level and a Contour nozzle has to be used at a higher altitude since greater
expansion ratio is required at a higher altitude for a given length.

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ARJUN KUNDU et al [6] Computational fluid dynamics analysis has been carried
out for convergent-divergent annular nozzle with two different exit diameter. In the
first nozzle with exit diameter 60 cm, the increase in velocity from inlet to outlet is
137.3 m/s, the decrease in pressure is 1959.31 Pa and the decrease in temperature is 7
K. But in the second nozzle with exit diameter of 53 cm the increase in velocity from
inlet to outlet is 152.6 m/s, the decrease in pressure is 2799.43 Pa and the decrease in
temperature is 16 K. It has been found that in first nozzle the increase in velocity is
almost 5 times and whereas in second then there is a 6 fold increase in the velocity.
Therefore, by decreasing the exit diameter there is a gain in velocity and decrease in
pressure.

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [7] A nozzle is


a relatively simple device, just a specially shaped tube through which hot gases flow. Rockets
typically use a fixed convergent section followed by a fixed divergent section for the design
of the nozzle. This nozzle configuration is called a convergent-divergent, or CD, nozzle. In a
CD rocket nozzle, the hot exhaust leaves the combustion chamber and converges down to the
minimum area, or throat, of the nozzle. The throat size is chosen to choke the flow and set
the mass flow rate through the system. The flow in the throat is sonic which means the Mach
number is equal to one in the throat. Downstream of the throat, the geometry diverges and the
flow is isentropically expanded to a supersonic Mach number that depends on the area ratio of
the exit to the throat. The expansion of a supersonic flow causes the static pressure and
temperature to decrease from the throat to the exit, so the amount of the expansion also
determines the exit pressure and temperature. The exit temperature determines the exit speed
of sound, which determines the exit velocity. The exit velocity, pressure, and mass flow
through the nozzle determines the amount of thrust produced by the nozzle.

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Chapter-3

MODELING OF NOZZLE
The rocket nozzle which we used in this project is C-D Nozzle is designed using the Catia
designing software.

3.1 CATIA

Catia was developed by Dassault Systems, France, is a completely re-engineered, next


generation family of CAD/CAM/CAE software solutions for product Lifecycle
Management. Through its exceptionally easy-to-use and state-of-the-art face, Catia delis
innovative technologies for maximum productivity and creativity, from the inception
concept to the final product.

There are many workbenches in this designing software some of them are listed below

 Part Design Workbench


 Assembly Design Workbench
 Wire Frame and Surface Design Workbench
 Drafting Workbench

The work bench used to design the rocket nozzle is Part design workbench. The below is
the detailed designing process of the rocket nozzle using part design workbench.

we are going to design rocket nozzle with same dimensions for different cross sections
namely

 Circular Cross Section


 Rectangular Cross Section
 Square Cross Section

3.2 STEPS INVOLVED IN DESIGNING

3.2.1 Circular Cross Section

After opening the catia the window opened will be as shown in figure 3.1.

Click on the start and in Mechanical module select mechanical workbench. The
dimensions used for designing the nozzle is as follows.

Make a note that all the dimensions in designing the nozzle is taken as mm.

 Diameter of the inlet of the nozzle is taken as 666.66


 Diameter of the throat of the nozzle is taken as 178.412
 Diameter of the outlet of the nozzle is taken as 666.66

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Figure 3.1 Opening window of catia

After opening the catia click on the start go to mechanical module and click on part design

Start> Mechanical > Part Design

After opening part design, it appears like below shown figure

Figure 3.2 Window of part design


14
Select the plane option in reference tool bar and make 2 planes one on right and other on
left of the vertical plane as shown in figure 3.3

Figure 3.3 Planes

On first and last plane draw a circle with diameter 666.666 and circle with radius
178.4123 on middle plane (reference plane) as shown below

Figure 3.4 Circles on planes

15
Now select multi-selections solid option in Sketch-Based Features tool bar as shown
below

Figure 3.5 Multi-Selection Solid Option

Click on ok button, after doing that we get the rocket nozzle of circular cross section
as shown below

Figure 3.6 Rocket nozzle with circular cross section


The rocket nozzle with circular cross section is obtained successfully.

16
3.2.2 Rectangular and Square Cross Section
The procedure for all other different cross sections will be the same butwith slight
changes. The changes that should be made in the procedure of designing other cross
sections are show below.
Instead of drawing circle on the three planes we must draw square or rectangle on
each plane with same dimensions, after drawing required cross section the procedure
will be the same.After getting the Rectangular and square cross section nozzles, it
looks as shown below.

Figure 3.7 Rectangular Cross section

Figure 3.8 Square cross section

The 3 dimension designs of different cross sections are completed, now we shall
design 2 dimensions of these cross sections are to be designed. When compared with
3 dimension designs, 2 dimensions’ designs are very easily designed.
Now we shall design 2 dimension, the following steps should be followed to

17
3.3 STEPS TO MAKE 2D DESIGN
1. Open catia software
2. Click on open in file and open the 3 dimensional design to get 2-dimension
design
3. Suppose we want to draw 2d design of rectangular cross section the open 3d
design of rectangular design.

Figure 3.9 Plane for 2d rectangle

4. Make a plane that is of at some distance as shown in figure 3.9


5. Select the plane and click on sketch option
6. Now you will have sketch option on left of the window
7. Click on the 3d body and click on the project option on operation tool bar.
8. Now the 2d body of the rectangular cross section is created as shown in the
figure 3.10.

Figure 3.10 Projected from 3d rectangular cross section


18
9. Right click on the 3d body and click on hide option so that the 3d body will be
hided as shown in figure 3.11

Figure 3.11 After hiding the 3d body


10. Now go to wire frame workbench in mechanical module.
11. Select fill option in surface tool bar as shown in figure 3.12

Figure 3.12 Filling the rectangular cross section

12. After clicking on ok the 2d design for rocket nozzle of rectangular cross
section will be generated as shown in figure 3.13.
13. Same procedure must be followed for all other cross sections, only the change
is to select the appropriate cross section that is required.
If we select the cross section with square we will be getting the square 2d design
and if we select circle cross section we will be getting circle cross section 2d
design.

19
Figure 3.13 Rectangular cross section nozzle

20
Chapter-4

METHODOLOGY

4.1 DESIGN DETAILS


4.1.1 Assumptions for developing gas flow equations

In order to develop the flow equations that will allow the design of a CGDS nozzle,
the following assumptions and simplifications are considered

 The gas flow is assumed quasi–one–dimensional. This refers to a flow where


the cross sectional area ‘A’ of the nozzle, the gas pressure Pg, the velocity of
gas vg, and the gas density ρg are varying along one direction, say x, and a
linear nozzle geometry is used.
 The model assumes an isentropic flow. This refers to an adiabatic flow (no
heat transfer) which is frictionless (ideal or reversible). With the isentropic
approach, the presence of the boundary layer in the region adjacent to the
nozzle wall is not considered; consequently, the calculated velocity of the gas
flow is slightly higher than if obtained in practice.
 The gas is treated as a perfect (ideal) gas, which is expressed by the
equation of state:

Pg = ρgRTg
 where Pg is the fluid absolute pressure, Tg is the absolute temperature,
and R is the gas constant. For an ideal gas Cv and Cp are constant, so
R = Cp − Cv and γ = Cp Cv. Therefore, considering that the gas flows
from a state 1 to a state 2, the following important simplification for
the isentropic flow is obtained:

 Expansion of the gas occurs in a uniform manner, thus the flow is


continuous and shock–free.
 The gas conditions are not influenced by the condition of gas–particle
two–phase flow.
 The one–dimensional analysis is limited to the application of the model
to regions away from the jet impingement on the substrate.

4.1.2 The choice of gas


The gas used in the CGDS process is assumed to come from a chamber with a
stagnation condition. The stagnation state is defined as a state that would be
attained by the fluid if it is conveyed to rest in isentropic state and without
work. The properties at the stagnation state are referred to as stagnation
properties or total properties. Thus, the gas condition is defined by the gas

21
stagnation pressure (Po), the gas stagnation temperature (To) and the mass
flow rate of the gas (˙m). All these parameters are set by the user.

Generally, the cost and safety of the CGDS process are affected by the choice
of the gas used. Ideally, in order to transfer sufficient momentum to the
powder, the gas must have a high sonic velocity and mass.

Typical operating gases used in CGDS process are

1. Helium,
2. Nitrogen (N2),
3. air, or
4.A mixture of the above.

The two main gases used in cold spray are Helium with a specific heat ratio of γ =
1.66 and Nitrogen with γ = 1.4. Both Helium and Nitrogen are inert gases. Helium has
a high sonic velocity that is approximately three times that of the Nitrogen, but it is
more expensive. However, this penalty can be overcome by using a gas recycling
system but which also increases the price of the CGDS system. Finally, the sonic
velocity of air (a diatomic gas) is slightly less than that of pure Nitrogen, but this
option remains the cheapest CGDS process gas available.

4.1.3 Mach Number and regimes of compressible flow


The most important parameter in the analysis of the compressible flow is the
Mach Number defined by:

Where ‘v’ is the local flow velocity and 0 c 0 is the local speed of sound.
Considering an ideal gas, the speed of sound is given by

where ‘γ’ is the specific heat ratio and 0T 0 is the absolute fluid temperature

The Mach Number can be used to characterize the different regimes of flow. These
include:

 Incompressible flow, where the Mach Number is very small compared to the
unit (M<0.3)
 Subsonic flow, where the Mach Number is less than unity, but large enough so
that compressible flow properties are present (0.3<M<1)
 Sonic flow, where the Mach Number is at unity (M = 1)
 Transonic flow, the Mach Number is very close to the unity (0.8<M<1.2).
 Supersonic flow, where the Mach Number is larger than the unity (M > 1)
22
 Hypersonic flow, where the Mach Number is larger than five (M > 5).

4.1.4 Isentropic relations


Let’s consider the stagnation point with vo equal zero and Po equal to the total
pressure in the flow. At a point in the duct where the flow is undisturbed, and
considering the basic fluid dynamics and thermodynamic relations for compressible
flow, the energy equation is given by:

Furthermore, because R = Cp − Cv and γ = Cp Cv , these can be developed to get Cp


as

Therefore, by combining the two preceding equations, the following equation is


achieved:

Substituting (2.3) and (2.4) into the above expression, the new equation can be
expressed as function of gas local Mach Number:

Furthemore, by using the isentropic simplifications, the following relations can be


deducted:

23
Finally, using the equations above, Anderson [34] produced plots for P Po and T To
as a function of position along the nozzle (Figure 2.2). At the throat condition, the
values of P Po = 0.528 and T To = 0.833 where obtained by replacing M with 1.

4.1.5 Gas conditions at the nozzle throat


At the nozzle throat sonic conditions exist, so the Mach Number M = 1. At
this point, an asterisk denotes all symbols, so the isentropic relations become:

24
Where

• m˙ is mass flow rate as the flux per unit throat area,

• c ∗ is the speed of sound,

• ρ ∗ is gas density (kg/m3 ) at the throat of the nozzle,

• A∗ is nozzle throat cross-sectional area (m2),

• R is the gas constant.

Finally, when the conditions at the throat are known, it is possible to determine gas
conditions along the diverging section of the nozzle.

4.1.6 Nozzle area–Mach number relation and gas conditions at the nozzle exit

When the quantities change at the nozzle throat, the Mach number or the
nozzle cross sectional area must be determined along the divergent section.
Therefore, the continuity relation of Fluid Mechanics is involved that gives the
following relation:

m˙ = ρvA = ρ ∗ v ∗A ∗

Furthermore, the perfect-gas and isentropic–flow relations are used to convert


the relation above into an algebraic expression that only involves area and
Mach number:

Also, using the isentropic relations and after some algebra, the area-Mach
number relation is obtained as follows:

However, it must be noted that the above equations reflect the gas conditions
at the nozzle exit only if a normal shock does not take place inside the nozzle.
In addition, the nozzle exit condition needs to be specified in order to
complete the gas dynamic calculation.

25
so calculate the inverse of area–Mach number relation. In this respect a non–linear
least squares procedure is used to accommodate the value of Mach number versus
area–ratio data for different values of specific heat ratio. As a result, the following
relation is presented:

Where k1 and k2 are functions of the specific heat ratio and with values given by a
non-linear polynomial regression analysis as

k1 = 218.0629 − 243.5764γ + 71.7925γ 2

k2 = −0.122450 + 0.281300γ

26
4.2 SIMULATION

Conventional analytical methods at solving for stresses and strains become very complex
and almost impossible when the part geometry in intricate. In such cases, Finite Element
Modeling becomes a very convenient means to carry out the analysis. The Finite Element
Analysis is very powerful analysis tool, which can be applied to a range of engineering
problems.

The FEM process allows for discrediting the intricate geometries into small fundamental
volumes called finite elements. It is then possible to write the governing equations and
material properties for these elements. These equations are then assembled by taking
proper care of the constraints and loading, which results in a set of equations. These
equations when solved give the results that describe the behavior of the original complex
body being analyzed.

Application of FEM is not limited to mechanical systems alone but to a range of


engineering problems such as

 Stress Analysis
 Dynamic Analysis
 Deformation Studies
 Fluid-Flow Analysis
 Heat-Flow Analysis
 Seepage Analysis
 Magnetic-Flux Studies
 Acoustic Analysis

The flow through rocket nozzle is analyzed by Fluid-Flow Analysis (Fluent).

Open ANSYS Workbench to do a simulation in ANSYS Workbench! Open ANSYS


Workbench by going to Start > ANSYS > Workbench.

This will open the startup screen as shown in figure 4.1. After opening this window,
we will find all the analysis systems on left side, as it is discussed before we are going
to make analysis with Fluent.

To make analysis in Fluid – Flow Analysis (Fluent) click on fluent on left side, hold it
and drag it to right side empty space.

After dragging the fluent the fluent workbench is visible on the empty space as shown
in figure 4.2

27
Figure 4.1Ansys starting window.

Figure 4.2 Fluent work bench

In fluent workbench it has 6 different stages to complete the simulation as listed below

 Importing Geometry
 Mesh
 Setup
 Solution
 Result

Further discussion will give the clarification of above stages to complete the simulation of
flow through rocket nozzle

28
4.3 IMPORTING GEOMETRY

To start simulation, we must first import geometry that is made in catia, so follow these
steps to import the geometry.

1. Right click on the geometry


2. Click on import
3. Click on browse
4. Select to geometry
5. Click on open

After successful importing of geometry,it must able show the tick mark on right side of
geometry as shown in figure 4.3.

Figure 4.3 Successful import

4.4 MESH

Meshing is the process of dividing the whole component into number of elements so that
whenever the load is applied on the component it distributes the load uniformly.

To start meshing double click on mesh option that is below the geometry option as shown
in the figure 4.3.

After opening the meshing, you will find project tree in which there is an option called
mesh.

Click on the mesh so that you will find details of mesh at the bottom as shown in figure 4.4
in which the sizing values can be inputted.

29
Figure 4.4 Sizing input

In sizing give following inputs

Size function : Off or Adaptive

Relevance Center : Fine

Min size : 2e-002 (0.02)

After giving above inputs click on generate mesh which available on top of window.
After generating the mesh, you will find the nozzle divided into many elements as
shown in figure 4.5

Figure 4.5 Meshed design

Each surface must be named, i.e they should be named to continue the simulation
process, naming is done as follows

30
Select the surfaces and right click so that you will find option to give name to that
surface as shown in figure 4.6.

Figure 4.7 Options for naming surface

Here three surfaces to be named, they are

1. Input
2. Output
3. Walls

After naming each and every surfaces we can check the named surfaces which is
clearly showed in figure 4.8

Click on update option, which is on the top left corner of the window.

Figure 4.8 Named surfaces

Up to now importing of geometry and meshing of the geometry which are basic steps
of the simulation are completed.

31
4.5 SETUP

This is the most important step to make the simulation, in this step properties of fluid,
boundary conditions and the calculation part takes place.

Now go to the first window and double click on setup so that another window where
we can input above discussed properties.

Figure 4.9 Options for setup

Below is the general condition to input

Solver type: Density-Based

 Velocity : Absolute
 Material : Air

Below are the boundary conditions

 Pressure inlet : 101325 pa


 Pressure exit : 3738.9
 Gauge pressure: 99348
 Temperature :300k

Click on operating conditions option in boundary conditions and assign operating


pressure as zero as shown in figure 4.10

32
Figure 4.10 Operating conditions

After inputting boundary conditions, click on reference values option and assign inlet
to compute from drop down as shown in figure 4.11

Figure 4.11 Reference values

33
Now double click on Initialization option under solution where we can initialize the
assigned values for further calculations. Click on standard initialization to assign
compute from to inlet and click on initialize as shown in figure 4.12.

Figure 4.12Initialization

After initialization of values is completed click on run calculation so that the options
showed in figure 4.13 will appear on the screen.

Figure 4.13 Run calculation

34
In run calculations the number of iterations given is 150

After giving number of iterations click on calculate

Same procedure must be followed for all other cross sections to make flow through
analysis for rocket nozzle.

Simulation process is completed; result will be discussed in the chapter 5

35
Chapter-5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


In this chapter we are going to see the results and have brief discussions about the results
we got, the results for pressure, velocity, temperature and the mach number that are
obtained by testing different cross sections like circle, rectangle, square are discussed in
this chapter will be in the format of contours, graphs and table format.

The results provided in this chapter are not assumed, they are obtained by design and
simulation of the design in Ansys Fluent.

5.1 STATIC PRESSURE:

5.1.1 Circular Cross Section (2D)

Figure 5.1 Pressure for 2D nozzle of circular cross section

The above image is the pressure contour, which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and
all through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 7480498 and the pressure at
outlet is 348547, the 95% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet
pressure.

Since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when compared with inlet and outlet
we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the
paper [7].

36
5.1.2 Circular Cross Section (3D)

Figure 5.2 Pressure for 3D nozzle of circular cross section

The above image is the pressure contour which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and all
through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 7955413.5 and the pressure at
outlet is 100074.5, the 98% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet
pressure.

Since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when compared with inlet and outlet
we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the
paper [7].

5.1.3 Rectangular Cross Section (2D)

Figure 5.3 Pressure for 2D nozzle of rectangular cross section

The above image is the pressure contour which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and all
through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 6675406 and the pressure at

37
outlet is 640311.8, the 90% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet
pressure.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when
compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the
supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.4 Rectangular Cross Section (3D)

Figure 5.4 Pressure for 3D nozzle of rectangular cross section

The above image is the pressure contour, which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and
all through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 7554516 and the pressure at
outlet is 24788.84, the 99% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet
pressure.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when
compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the
supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.5 Square Cross Section(2D)

Figure 5.5 Pressure for 2D nozzle of square cross section

38
In figure 5.5 is the pressure contour which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and all
through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 6681423 and the pressure at
outlet is 634975.56, the 90% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with
inlet pressure.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when
compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the
supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.6 Square Cross Section (3D)

Figure 5.6 Pressure for 3D nozzle of square cross section

The above image is the pressure contour which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and all
through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 7274957.5 and the pressure at
outlet is 111932, the 98% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet
pressure.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when
compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the
supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

Now we shall tabulate the pressure values of inlet and outlet of different cross sections

Cross Section Two Dimensional Percent of Decrease

Inlet Outlet
Circle 7480498 342547 95%
Rectangle 6675406 640311.88 90%
Square 6681423 634975.56 90%

Table 5.1 Pressure Inlet and Outlet Values

39
If the values in the above table are absorbed the circular cross section is having this highest
percentage of decrease in the pressure.

Cross Section Three Dimensional Percent of Decrease

Inlet Outlet
Circle 7955413.5 100074.5 98%
Rectangle 7554516 24788.84 99%
Square 7274957.5 111932 98%
Table 5.2 Pressure Inlet and Outlet Values

If the values in the above table are absorbed the rectangular cross section is having this
highest percentage of decrease in the pressure.

5.2 VELOCITY CONTOUR

5.1.1 Circular Cross Section (2D)

Figure 5.7Velocityfor 2D nozzle of circular cross section

The above image is the Velocity contour, which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and
all through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 304.4 and the velocity at
outlet is 11582, the 97% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet
velocity.

Since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when compared with inlet and outlet we
can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the
paper [7].

40
5.1.2 Circular Cross Section(3D)

Figure 5.8Velocity for 3D nozzle of circular cross section

The above image is the velocity contour which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and all
through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 63.8m/s and the velocity at
outlet is 752m/s, the 91% of the velocity is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet
velocity.

Since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when compared with inlet and outlet we
can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the
paper [7].

5.1.3 Rectangular Cross Section (2D)

Figure 5.9Velocity for 2D nozzle of rectangular cross section

The above image is the Velocity contour, which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and
all through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 465.6 and the velocity at
outlet is 1460, the 68% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet
velocity.

41
As previous nozzle cross section, since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when
compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the
supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.4 Rectangular Cross Section (3D)

Figure 5.10Velocity for 3D nozzle of rectangular cross section

The above image is the velocity contour, which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and all
through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 282.4 and the velocity at outlet
is 1781.2, the 84% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet velocity.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when
compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the
supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.5 Square Cross Section (2D)

Figure 5.11Velocity for 2D nozzle of square cross section

The above image is the velocity contour, which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and all
through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 464.5 and the velocity at outlet
is 1464.4, the 68% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet velocity.

42
As previous nozzle cross section, since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when
compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the
supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.6 Square Cross Section (3D)

Figure 5.12Velocity for 3D nozzle of square cross section

The above image is the velocity contour which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and all
through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 349.5 and the velocity at outlet
is 1709.2, the 79% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet velocity.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when
compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the
supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

Now we shall tabulate the velocity values of inlet and outlet of different cross sections

Cross Section Two Dimensional Percent of Increase


Inlet Outlet
Circle 304.4 11582 97%
Rectangle 465.6 1460 68%
Square 464.5 1464.4 68%
Table 5.3 Velocity Values for Inlet and Outlet

If the values in the above table are absorbed the circular cross section is having this highest
percentage of increase in the velocity.

Cross Section Three Dimensional Percent of Increase


Inlet Outlet
Circle 63.8 752 91%
Rectangle 282.4 1781.2 84%
Square 349.5 1709.2 79%
Table 5.4 Velocity Values for Inlet and Outlet

If the values in the above table are absorbed the circular cross section is having this highest
percentage of increase in the velocity.

43
5.4 MACH NUMBER CONTOUR

5.1.1 Circular Cross Section (2D):

Figure 5.13 Graph of mach number for 2D nozzle of circular cross section

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,
outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.36 and
the mach number at outlet is 1.7.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say that
the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.2 Circular Cross Section(3D):

Figure 5.14 Graph of mach number for 3D nozzle of circular cross section

The above image is the mach numbergraph which represent the mach number at inlet,
outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.17 and
the mach number at outlet is 2.8.Since it is observed thatmach at the outlet crossed 1 we
can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper
[7].

44
5.1.3 Rectangular Cross Section(2D):

Figure 5.15 Graph of mach number for 2D nozzle of rectangular cross section

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,
outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.5 and the
mach number at outlet is 2.14.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say that
the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.4 Rectangular Cross Section(3D):

Figure 5.16Graph of mach number for 3D nozzle of rectangular cross section

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,
outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.34 and
the mach number at outlet is 2.99.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say
that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

45
5.1.5 Square Cross Section(2D):

Figure 5.17Graph of mach number for 2D nozzle of square cross section

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,
outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.5 and the
mach number at outlet is 2.15.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say that
the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

5.1.6 Square Cross Section(3D):

Figure 5.18 Graph of mach number for 3D nozzle of square cross section

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,
outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.4 and the
mach number at outlet is 2.3.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say that the
nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

46
Now we shall tabulate the mach number values of inlet and outlet of different cross
sections

Cross Section Two Dimensional Three Dimensional


Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet
Circle 0.36 1.7 0.17 2.8
Rectangle 0.5 2.14 0.34 2.99
Square 0.5 2.15 0.4 2.3
Table 5.5Mach number Values for Inlet and Outlet

If the values in the above table are absorbed the rectangle cross section is having this
highest percentage of increase in the mach number.

47
CONCLUSIONS
Analysis of the flow through Rocket nozzle is simulated using ANSYS Fluent solver in
order to find the fluid flow properties like Mach number, velocity, pressure, temperature.

The focus of the present work is to obtain the exit Mach number greater than 1 and
identifying the best cross section that is to be used among circular, rectangle and square.

From the simulation results, in order to achieve high speeds, it is clearly observed that for
the given input conditions, the Mach number for the rocket nozzle reached to 2.96 at the
exit section.

It is observed from chapter 5 that the circular cross section is having highest percentage of
increase in velocity, so circular cross section rocket nozzle is said to be the best rocket
nozzle when compared with rectangular and square cross sectional nozzles

48
FUTURE SCOPE
In future work if the Mach number is reached to greater than 3 or if it lies between 3
and 5 i.e 3<M<5, it is known as high supersonic speed. If the Mach number is reached
to greater than 5 then the flow is said to be hypersonic flow If the flow is said to be
hypersonic flow then the Compressibility effects become more important with higher
Mach numbers.

That is if the Mach number is increased the velocity of the nozzle increases that is the
speed of the rocket can be increased if the velocity is increased.

49
REFERENCE
[1] Parashram V. Patil Optimization in DE-Laval Nozzle Design to Increase Thrust,
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 8, Issue 3, March-2017
ISSN 2229-5518

[2] G. Satyanarayana, Ch. Varun And S.S. Naidu Cfd Analysis Of Convergent-Divergent
Nozzle, ActaTechnicaCorviniensis – Bulletin Of Engineering, University Politehnica
Timisoara, Faculty Of Engineering Hunedoara, 5, Revolutiei, 331128, Hunedoara, Romania.

[3] Bogdan-Alexandru Belega and Trung Duc Nguyen Analysis Of Flow In Convergent-
Divergent Rocket Engine Nozzle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,
International Conference Of Scientific Paper Afases 2015 Brasov, 28-30 May 2015

[4] Wu-Yun-Shu Rockets and Materials, Foreign Technology Division, FTD-HT-23-302-7026


Jun 1970

[5] Venkatesh and Jaya pal Reddy Modeling and Simulation of Supersonic Nozzle
Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, International Journal of Novel Research in
Interdisciplinary Studies Vol. 2, Month: November-December 2015

[6] Arjun Kundu, Devyanshu Prasad, Sarfraj Ahmed Effect of Exit Diameter on the
Performance of Converging – Diverging Annular Nozzle Using CFD,
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol. 5, Issue 6, June 2016.

[7] A paper from National Aeronautics and Space Administration website, below is
the link for that website

https://spaceflightsystems.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/nozzle.html

[8] Fundamentals of Rocket Propulsion by DP Mishra

[9] Rocket Propulsion Elements by George P. Sutton

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