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CFD analysis is made on different cross sections of rocket nozzle and observed with which cross section best results are obtained.

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CFD ANALAYSIS OF FLOW THROUGH ROCKET NOZZLE

A Thesis Work Submitted to JNTUH in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

Award of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

By

Y.HEMANTH 148R1A03M2

V. ARUN KUMAR 148R1A03L5

V.SAITEJA 148R1A03L6

MD.MOHINUR RAHAMAN PASHA 148R1A03M7

V.MUKESH REDDY

Asst. Prof.

Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad. Approved by AICTE, New Delhi

KANDLAKOYA (V), MEDCHAL ROAD, HYDERABAD-501 401(T.S)

(2017- 18)

i

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CMR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE

ROCKET NOZZLE ”is a bonafide work carried out by Y.HEMANTH(148R1A03M2),

V.ARUN KUMAR(148R1A0L5), V.SAITEJA(148R1A03L6), MD.MOHINUR

RAHAMAN PASHA(148R1A03M7) submitted to DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING, CMR ENGINEERING COLLEGE, HYDERABAD in partial fulfillment of

the requirement for the award of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING at JNTUH, under the guidance and supervision of V.MUKESH

REDDY(Asst.Prof), during the academic year 2017-2018.

The result embodied in this project report has not been submitted to any other

university/institute for the award of any degree.

V.MUKESH REDDY Prof. N.JEEVANKUMAR

(Assistant Professor) M-Tech, (Ph.D)

ii

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the Project work entitled “CFD ANALAYSIS OF FLOW

THROUGH ROCKET NOZZLE ", recorded in this report is my own work and

does not form of any other thesis on which a degree has been awarded earlier.

I further declare that, this Project is my IV Year B.Tech Main Project

and submitted to DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,

CMR ENGINEERING COLLEGE, affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad, in

partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Technology

in Mechanical Engineering.

Place: Hyderabad

Date

Y.HEMANTH 148R1A03M2

V.ARUN KUMAR 148R1A03L5

V.SAITEJA 148R1A03L6

MD.MOHINUR RAHAMAN PASHA 148R1A03M7

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible

and whose constant encouragement and guidance has been a source of

inspiration throughout the course of completion of this project work.

I express my heartfelt thanks to Dr. A. Srinivasula Reddy, Principal,

CMREC for his encouragement and support for doing the project.

I also thank Dr. K. S. Reddy, Dean, CMREC, for his constant support

and valuable suggestions in doing the project.

My sincere thanks to Prof. N. Jeevan Kumar, Professor & Head of the

Department Mechanical Engineering, for permitting me to do the project work.

My heartfelt regards and thanks to V.MUKESH REDDY (Asst.Prof)

for the valuable guidance and encouragement in carrying out the work.

I also thank all the staff members and Lab Technicians of Mechanical

Engineering Department who guided and encouraged me throughout the

completion of this dissertation.

I express my sincere gratitude to my parents for their moral support and

love rendered during the course of my dissertation work.

At last I would like to thank all the people who are involved directly or

indirectly in the completion of my dissertation work.

Y.HEMANTH

V.ARUNKUM

V.SAI TEJA

MD.MOHINUR RAHAMAN PASHA

iv

CONTENTS

Abstract vi

List of figures vii

List of tables x

CHAPTER I

Introduction

1.1 Functions of nozzle 2

1.2 Components of a nozzle 2

1.3 Types of rocket nozzles 7

1.4 Objective of Present Work 10

1.5 Arrangement of Thesis 10

CHAPTER II

Literature review 11

CHAPTER III

Modeling of nozzle

3.1 Catia 13

3.2 Steps Involved in Designing 13

3.2.1 Circular Cross Section 13

3.2.2 Rectangular and Square Cross Section 17

3.3 Steps to make 2d design 18

CHAPTER IV

Methodology

4.1 Design details 21

4.1.1Assumptions for developing gas flow equation 21

4.1.2 The choice of gas 21

4.1.3 Mach number and regimes of compressible flow 22

4.1.4 Isentropic relations 23

4.1.5 Gas conditions at the nozzle throat 24

4.1.6 Nozzle area – Mach number relation and gas conditions at the

nozzle 25

v

4.2 Simulation Details 27

4.3 Importing Geometry 29

4.4 Mesh 29

4.5 Setup 32

CHAPTER V

Results and Discussion

5.1.1 Circular Cross Section (2D) 36

5.1.2 Circular Cross Section (3D) 37

5.1.3 Rectangular Cross Section (2D) 37

5.1.4 Rectangular Cross Section (3D) 38

5.1.5 Square Cross Section (2D) 38

5.1.6 Square Cross Section (3D) 39

5.2 Velocity Contour 40

5.1.1 Circular Cross Section (2D) 40

5.1.2 Circular Cross Section (3D) 41

5.1.3 Rectangular Cross Section (2D) 41

5.1.4 Rectangular Cross Section (3D) 42

5.1.5 Square Cross Section (2D) 42

5.1.6 Square Cross Section (3D) 43

5.4 Mach Number Contour 44

CONCLUSIONS 48

FUTURE SCOPE 49

REFERENCES 50

vi

ABSTRACT

The exhaust nozzle is an integral part of a rocket engine and critical to its overall

system performance. Challenges associated with the design and manufacturing of an

exhaust nozzle become greater as the cruise speed of the rocket increases. The

exhaust nozzle of a supersonic cruise aircraft requires additional capabilities such as

variable throat and exit area, noise suppression, and reverse thrust. The present work

is an effort to study the design and analysis of rocket nozzle.

In the present work, modeling and analysis are carried out using ANSYS DESIGN

MODELER and Fluent solver in order to understand the fluid flow characteristics.

The focus of our project is to check the exit Mach number of a convergent divergent

Supersonic nozzle reaches to greater than Mach 2.

Present simulation work is carried on different cross-sections like circle, square and

rectangle and the best cross-section will be declared.

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

1.1 Nozzle 1

3.3 Planes 15

viii

4.1 Ansys starting window 28

4.12 Initialization 34

ix

5.14 Graph of Mach number for 3D nozzle of circular cross section 44

x

LIST OF TABLES

5.1 Pressure Inlet and Outlet Values 39

5.2 Pressure Inlet and Outlet Values 40

5.3 Velocity Values for Inlet and Outlet 43

5.4 Velocity Values for Inlet and Outlet 43

5.5 Mach number Values for Inlet and Outlet 47

xi

Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, we are giving brief details of rocket nozzle, its types, its functions, its

components and its types and the details of the type of nozzle we are going to deal

with in this project.

A nozzle is a device, which is used to give the direction to the gases coming out of

the combustion chamber. Nozzle is a tube, which has a capacity to convert the

thermo-chemical energy generated in the combustion chamber into kinetic energy.

The nozzle converts the low velocity, high pressure, high temperature gas in the

combustion chamber into high velocity gas of lower pressure and low temperature. A

convergent divergent nozzle is used if the nozzle pressure ratio is high. High

performance engines in supersonic aircrafts generally incorporate some form of a

convergent-divergent nozzle. Our analysis is carried using software’s like Ansys

Workbench for designing of the nozzle and Fluent 18.2 for analyzing the flows in the

nozzle. In the present days, there is a huge development in Aerospace Engineering for

in various prospects.

Extensive research is carried out in the fields like civil and defense prospects. The

virtualization is one of the major developments in the field of research, which has

revolutionized Aerospace engineering, along with all other branches. The

computational techniques are being used widely for getting better results, which are

1

close to experimental techniques. The flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle is

one of the benchmark problems used for modeling the compressible flow through

computational fluid dynamics. In this paper CFD analysis of a convergent divergent

rocket nozzle is done by varying the number of divisions in Mesh and obtaining

results for various parameters like pressure, temperature, properties, wall fluxes,

Mesh, velocity and adaption.

The hot gases developed by propellant combustion are partially entrapped by the

motor aft closure and the convergent section of the nozzle, thus causing them to

compress. A curious fact of gas behavior is that under compression, if an escape route

is provided, pressure drops as potential (pressure) energy is converted to kinetic

energy (velocity)

A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow

(especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe. A

nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area and it can be used to

direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas).

The purpose of the nozzle is to promote the isentropic (constant entropy) expansion

of the exhaust gas. As the gas expands, its pressure drops, but since there is no change

in total energy, its velocity (kinetic energy) increases to compensate for the reduction

in pressure energy.

Based on its shape it is differentiated into the following types

Combustion chamber

Converging section

Throat

Diverging section

net force in the direction that one desires the rocket to travel. For main rocket engines

(in contrast to smaller directional-thrust engines), this is a net force with a directional

vector that is parallel to the long axis of the rocket. The chemical reaction of the

rocket propellant molecules releases chemical potential energy that is (largely)

distributed as kinetic energy of the gas molecules within the reaction chamber.

Within the reaction chamber, a certain percentage of these molecules collide with the

inner walls of the reaction chamber per unit time. If there is no opening in the walls of

the reaction chamber, these collisions cannot produce a net force that will result in

acceleration of the rocket.

2

In any completely sealed container, there is always an equivalent inner surface area

directly opposite of any other surface area. Any force per unit time that occurs at one

point on the inner surface of the container due to collisions of gas molecules is

cancelled out by equal force per unit time occurring one at a point on the inner

surface that is located directly opposite of that point by collisions of other gas

molecules. All of the forces within the container are cancelled out and there is no net

force, so the container will not change its velocity. If it has no velocity, it will not

acquire a velocity.

In order to create a net force within the container - and as a consequence generate a

net acceleration to the container - there must be an opening in the walls of the

container.

The surface area of the container that is removed to create this opening is no longer

present to provide collisions of gas molecules that would cancel out the force of

collisions of gas molecules on the surface area that is directly opposite of the opening.

The result is that there is a net force on the inner wall of the container that is directed

180 degrees away from the opening in the container.

Enlarging the opening in the container increases this net force since this removes

additional surface area that was cancelling out force on the opposite area of the

container.

Therefore - for a rocket engine - one wishes to maximize the size of the opening in

the wall of the reaction chamber that is directly opposite of the direction that one

wishes the rocket accelerate. If many other factors did not effect the performance of

the rocket engine there would be no need to construct a nozzle. Alternatively, one

could simply call the hole in the reaction chamber "the nozzle".

Other factors do effect the performance of the rocket. For instance, one wishes to

create the highest possible temperature within the reaction chamber. Many of these

other factors affecting rocket engine performance can be optimized by constructing a

well-designed nozzle rather than a simple hole in the reaction chamber.

So the role of the reaction chamber is not simply to create a volume where the

chemical reaction of the rocket propellant can occur, but to create the largest surface

area that gas molecules can collide with in the direction one wishes the rocket to

accelerate and to create the largest hole in the chamber in the opposite direction that

one wishes the rocket to accelerate. If combustion occurs within the nozzle, there is a

much smaller inner surface area for collisions to occur in the desired direction.

Interestingly, the most powerful rocket - by far - that we could begin building today

has no reaction chamber and no nozzle.

3

Figure 1.2 Combustion chamber of a rocket

A rocket that has a large supply of small thermonuclear bombs ("hydrogen" bombs)

could eject these bombs, one at a time, from the back of the rocket. The bomb could

then be detonated a short distance behind the rocket. If a large plate (a pusher-plate) is

located at the end of the rocket, then a significant fraction of the force of the

thermonuclear explosion can be applied to the surface area of the plate and the rocket

will accelerate away from the explosion. This process can be continued as long as the

supply of thermonuclear bombs lasts.

4

Converging section: A typical converging section of a nozzle is shown in the Figure.

In the converging section of a nozzle, the cross sectional area decreases continuously

from its entrance to exit. It is used in a case where the back pressure is equal to or

greater than the critical pressure ratio.

Throat: The whole point to the throat is to increase the exhaust velocity. But not just

increase it a little bit -- a rocket nozzle is designed so that the nozzle chokes. This is

another way of saying that the flow accelerates so much that it reaches sonic

conditions at the throat. This choking is important. Because it means the flow is sonic

at the throat, no information can travel upstream from the throat into the chamber. So

the outside pressure no longer has an effect on the combustion chamber properties.

Once it is sonic at the throat, and assuming the nozzle is properly designed, some

interesting things happen. When we look at subsonic flow, the gas speeds up as the

area decreases and slows down as the area increases. This is the traditional Venturi

effect. However, when the flow is supersonic, the opposite happens. The flow

accelerates as the area increases and slows as it decreases.

So, once the flow is sonic at the throat, the flow then continues to accelerate through

the expanding nozzle. This all works together to increase the exhaust velocity to very

high values.

From a nomenclature standpoint, the throat of a nozzle is the location where the area

is the smallest. So a "U-shaped chamber with a nozzle" will still have a throat -- it's

defined as wherever the area is the smallest. In the above paragraph, we have focused

on the fluid dynamics angle. However, you can also view it from a purely

thermodynamic angle, viewing the rocket engine as a heat engine.

In order to get useful work (accelerated exhaust gases), you need some form of

thermodynamic cycle with combustion followed by expansion. Due to conservation

of energy, the amount of kinetic energy acquired by the gas will then be proportional

5

to the amount of enthalpy (heat + pressure energy) that disappears as the exhaust gas

expands and cools.

This means you want to maximize the temperature in the combustion chamber and

minimize the temperature of the exhaust to maximize your Carnot efficiency. You

ensure this by making sure that combustion happens before expansion, with a

separate combustion chamber and expansion nozzle.

minimize the exhaust temperature - and the expansion ratio is proportional to the area

of the nozzle exit divided by the area of the nozzle throat. This means that from

thermodynamic considerations alone, we can see that it is preferable to have a very

tight throat and a very large exit area.

Fluid dynamics determine the exact details of nozzle shapes (de Laval nozzles etc)

that get the thermodynamic efficiency as close to the Carnot efficiency as possible,

and whether the exhaust will actually expand or instead separate from the nozzle

walls. But the need for a separate combustion chamber and nozzle is much simpler

and can be understood without any knowledge of subsonic/supersonic flow.

Diverging section:

The cross sectional area of divergent nozzle increases continuously from its entrance

to exit. It is used in a case where the back pressure is less than the critical pressure

ratio.

6

1.3 TYPES OF ROCKET NOZZLES

Jet nozzles

High velocity nozzle

Propelling nozzle

Spray nozzles

Jet Nozzle: A gas jet, or liquid jet or hydro jet is a nozzle intended to eject gas or

fluid in a coherent stream into a surrounding medium. Gas jets are commonly found

in gas stoves, ovens, or barbecues. Gas jets were commonly used for light before the

development of electric light. Other types of fluid jets are found in carburetors, where

smooth calibrated orifices are used to regulate the flow of fuel into an engine.

Jet nozzles are also used in large rooms where the distribution of air via ceiling

diffusers is not possible or not practical. Diffusers that uses jet nozzles are called jet

diffuser where it will be arranged in the side wall areas in order to distribute air.

When the temperature difference between the supply air and the room air changes, the

supply air stream is deflected upwards, to supply warm air, or downwards, to supply

cold air.

High velocity Nozzle: Frequently, the goal of a nozzle is to increase the kinetic

energy of the flowing medium at the expense of its pressure and internal energy.

Nozzles can be described as convergent (narrowing down from a wide diameter to a

smaller diameter in the direction of the flow) or divergent (expanding from a smaller

diameter to a larger one). A de Laval nozzle has a convergent section followed by a

divergent section and is often called a convergent-divergent nozzle ("con-di nozzle").

Convergent nozzles accelerate subsonic fluids. If the nozzle pressure ratio is high

enough, then the flow will reach sonic velocity at the narrowest point (i.e. the nozzle

7

throat). In this situation, the nozzle is said to be choked. Increasing the nozzle

pressure ratio further will not increase the throat Mach number above one.

Downstream (i.e. external to the nozzle) the flow is free to expand to supersonic

velocities; however, Mach 1 can be a very high speed for a hot gas because the speed

of sound varies as the square root of absolute temperature. This fact is used

extensively in rocketry where hypersonic flows are required and where propellant

mixtures are deliberately chosen to further increase the sonic speed. Divergent

nozzles slow fluids if the flow is subsonic, but they accelerate sonic or supersonic

fluids.

Convergent-divergent nozzles can therefore accelerate fluids that have choked in the

convergent section to supersonic speeds. This CD process is more efficient than

allowing a convergent nozzle to expand supersonically externally. The shape of the

divergent section also ensures that the direction of the escaping gases is directly

backwards, as any sideways component would not contribute to thrust.

Propelling Nozzle: A propelling nozzle is a nozzle that converts a gas turbine or gas

generator into a jet engine. Energy available in the gas turbine exhaust is converted

into a high speed propelling jet by the nozzle. Turbofan engines may have an

additional and separate propelling with negative nozzle, which produces a high speed

propelling jet from the energy in the air that has passed through the fan. In addition,

the nozzle helps to determine how the gas generator and fan operate as it acts as a

downstream restrictor.

Propelling nozzles accelerate the available gas to subsonic, transonic, or supersonic

velocities depending on the power setting of the engine, their internal shape and the

pressures at entry to, and exit from, the nozzle. The internal shape may be convergent

or convergent-divergent (C-D). C-D nozzles can accelerate the jet to supersonic

velocities within the divergent section, whereas a convergent nozzle cannot accelerate

the jet beyond sonic speed. Propelling nozzles may have a fixed geometry, or they

8

may have variable geometry to give different exit areas to control the operation of the

engine when equipped with an afterburner or a reheat system. When afterburning

engines are equipped with a C-D nozzle the throat, area is variable. Nozzles for

supersonic flight speeds, at which high nozzle pressure ratios are generated, also have

variable area divergent sections.

Spray nozzle: A spray nozzle is a precision device that facilitates dispersion of liquid

into a spray. Nozzles are used for three purposes: to distribute a liquid over an area, to

increase liquid surface area, and create impact force on a solid surface. [1] A wide

variety of spray nozzle applications use a number of spray characteristics to describe

the spray.

Spray nozzles can be categorized based on the energy input used to

cause atomization, the breakup of the fluid into drops. Spray nozzles can have one or

more outlets a multiple outlet nozzle is known as a compound nozzle.

Shaping Nozzle: Some nozzles are shaped to produce a stream that is of a particular

shape. For example, extrusion molding is a way of producing lengths of metals or

9

plastics or other materials with a particular cross-section. This nozzle is typically

referred to as a die.

The modeling and simulation of the rocket nozzle design is done using ansys

design modeler.

Rocket nozzle is made for three different cross sections like Circe, Rectangle

and Square and chosen the best cross section for rocket nozzle among these three

cross sections.

objective of this project.

papers.

modeling using ANSYS.

simulation using ANSYS.

conclusion.

10

Chapter-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

PARASHRAM V. PATIL et al [1] The flow through C-D nozzle had been studied

through various literature review. It was found that for smaller exit diameter more

thrust could be achieved. For smaller diameters there are low chances of flow

separation hence thrust exerted on the body is larger in case of C-D nozzle with

smaller diameter than the larger diameter. Hence introducing a set of nozzle and

allowing flow to pass through it can possibly give more thrust than the single nozzle.

nozzles of different cross sections like rectangular, square and circular. It is found

that rectangular nozzle gives a velocity of 1475 m/s where as square nozzle gives a

velocity of 1122 m/s and circular nozzle gives a velocity of 1114 m/s. Thus,

rectangular nozzle gives an increased velocity of about 23.93% compared to square

nozzle and about 24.47% compared to circular nozzle.

Velocity increases when pressure drops. It has been found that rectangular nozzle

gives a pressure drop of 73.392 bar where as square nozzle gives a pressure drop of

56.56 bar and circular nozzle gives a pressure drop of 55.8 bar. Thus, rectangular

nozzle gives an increased pressure drop of about 22.93% compared to square

exit parameters. When sonic velocity is reached at the throat, it is not possible to

increase the throat velocity or the flow rate in the nozzle by further lowering the exit

pressure (choking the flow). Choking is a compressible flow effect that obstructs the

flow, setting a limit to fluid velocity because the flow becomes supersonic and

perturbations cannot move upstream; in gas flow, choking takes place when a

subsonic 1flow reaches M

WU-YUN – SHU [4] Presently there are about four types of materials that can be

used to make exhaust nozzles. They are metal, porcelain, graphite, and Bakelite.

In metallic materials, only Molybdenum (m.p. 2160°C), Tantalum (m.p. 2996 ± 500),

Rhenium (m.p. 3180 ± 200), Tungsten (m.p. 34100), and a few other metals can

withstand temperatures above 20000C.

VENKATESH et al[5]It can be observed that the Contour nozzle gives a greater

expansion ratio comparatively to a conical nozzle. Thus a Conical nozzle has to be

used at sea-level and a Contour nozzle has to be used at a higher altitude since greater

expansion ratio is required at a higher altitude for a given length.

11

ARJUN KUNDU et al [6] Computational fluid dynamics analysis has been carried

out for convergent-divergent annular nozzle with two different exit diameter. In the

first nozzle with exit diameter 60 cm, the increase in velocity from inlet to outlet is

137.3 m/s, the decrease in pressure is 1959.31 Pa and the decrease in temperature is 7

K. But in the second nozzle with exit diameter of 53 cm the increase in velocity from

inlet to outlet is 152.6 m/s, the decrease in pressure is 2799.43 Pa and the decrease in

temperature is 16 K. It has been found that in first nozzle the increase in velocity is

almost 5 times and whereas in second then there is a 6 fold increase in the velocity.

Therefore, by decreasing the exit diameter there is a gain in velocity and decrease in

pressure.

a relatively simple device, just a specially shaped tube through which hot gases flow. Rockets

typically use a fixed convergent section followed by a fixed divergent section for the design

of the nozzle. This nozzle configuration is called a convergent-divergent, or CD, nozzle. In a

CD rocket nozzle, the hot exhaust leaves the combustion chamber and converges down to the

minimum area, or throat, of the nozzle. The throat size is chosen to choke the flow and set

the mass flow rate through the system. The flow in the throat is sonic which means the Mach

number is equal to one in the throat. Downstream of the throat, the geometry diverges and the

flow is isentropically expanded to a supersonic Mach number that depends on the area ratio of

the exit to the throat. The expansion of a supersonic flow causes the static pressure and

temperature to decrease from the throat to the exit, so the amount of the expansion also

determines the exit pressure and temperature. The exit temperature determines the exit speed

of sound, which determines the exit velocity. The exit velocity, pressure, and mass flow

through the nozzle determines the amount of thrust produced by the nozzle.

12

Chapter-3

MODELING OF NOZZLE

The rocket nozzle which we used in this project is C-D Nozzle is designed using the Catia

designing software.

3.1 CATIA

generation family of CAD/CAM/CAE software solutions for product Lifecycle

Management. Through its exceptionally easy-to-use and state-of-the-art face, Catia delis

innovative technologies for maximum productivity and creativity, from the inception

concept to the final product.

There are many workbenches in this designing software some of them are listed below

Assembly Design Workbench

Wire Frame and Surface Design Workbench

Drafting Workbench

The work bench used to design the rocket nozzle is Part design workbench. The below is

the detailed designing process of the rocket nozzle using part design workbench.

we are going to design rocket nozzle with same dimensions for different cross sections

namely

Rectangular Cross Section

Square Cross Section

After opening the catia the window opened will be as shown in figure 3.1.

Click on the start and in Mechanical module select mechanical workbench. The

dimensions used for designing the nozzle is as follows.

Make a note that all the dimensions in designing the nozzle is taken as mm.

Diameter of the throat of the nozzle is taken as 178.412

Diameter of the outlet of the nozzle is taken as 666.66

13

Figure 3.1 Opening window of catia

After opening the catia click on the start go to mechanical module and click on part design

14

Select the plane option in reference tool bar and make 2 planes one on right and other on

left of the vertical plane as shown in figure 3.3

On first and last plane draw a circle with diameter 666.666 and circle with radius

178.4123 on middle plane (reference plane) as shown below

15

Now select multi-selections solid option in Sketch-Based Features tool bar as shown

below

Click on ok button, after doing that we get the rocket nozzle of circular cross section

as shown below

The rocket nozzle with circular cross section is obtained successfully.

16

3.2.2 Rectangular and Square Cross Section

The procedure for all other different cross sections will be the same butwith slight

changes. The changes that should be made in the procedure of designing other cross

sections are show below.

Instead of drawing circle on the three planes we must draw square or rectangle on

each plane with same dimensions, after drawing required cross section the procedure

will be the same.After getting the Rectangular and square cross section nozzles, it

looks as shown below.

The 3 dimension designs of different cross sections are completed, now we shall

design 2 dimensions of these cross sections are to be designed. When compared with

3 dimension designs, 2 dimensions’ designs are very easily designed.

Now we shall design 2 dimension, the following steps should be followed to

17

3.3 STEPS TO MAKE 2D DESIGN

1. Open catia software

2. Click on open in file and open the 3 dimensional design to get 2-dimension

design

3. Suppose we want to draw 2d design of rectangular cross section the open 3d

design of rectangular design.

5. Select the plane and click on sketch option

6. Now you will have sketch option on left of the window

7. Click on the 3d body and click on the project option on operation tool bar.

8. Now the 2d body of the rectangular cross section is created as shown in the

figure 3.10.

18

9. Right click on the 3d body and click on hide option so that the 3d body will be

hided as shown in figure 3.11

10. Now go to wire frame workbench in mechanical module.

11. Select fill option in surface tool bar as shown in figure 3.12

12. After clicking on ok the 2d design for rocket nozzle of rectangular cross

section will be generated as shown in figure 3.13.

13. Same procedure must be followed for all other cross sections, only the change

is to select the appropriate cross section that is required.

If we select the cross section with square we will be getting the square 2d design

and if we select circle cross section we will be getting circle cross section 2d

design.

19

Figure 3.13 Rectangular cross section nozzle

20

Chapter-4

METHODOLOGY

4.1.1 Assumptions for developing gas flow equations

In order to develop the flow equations that will allow the design of a CGDS nozzle,

the following assumptions and simplifications are considered

the cross sectional area ‘A’ of the nozzle, the gas pressure Pg, the velocity of

gas vg, and the gas density ρg are varying along one direction, say x, and a

linear nozzle geometry is used.

The model assumes an isentropic flow. This refers to an adiabatic flow (no

heat transfer) which is frictionless (ideal or reversible). With the isentropic

approach, the presence of the boundary layer in the region adjacent to the

nozzle wall is not considered; consequently, the calculated velocity of the gas

flow is slightly higher than if obtained in practice.

The gas is treated as a perfect (ideal) gas, which is expressed by the

equation of state:

Pg = ρgRTg

where Pg is the fluid absolute pressure, Tg is the absolute temperature,

and R is the gas constant. For an ideal gas Cv and Cp are constant, so

R = Cp − Cv and γ = Cp Cv. Therefore, considering that the gas flows

from a state 1 to a state 2, the following important simplification for

the isentropic flow is obtained:

continuous and shock–free.

The gas conditions are not influenced by the condition of gas–particle

two–phase flow.

The one–dimensional analysis is limited to the application of the model

to regions away from the jet impingement on the substrate.

The gas used in the CGDS process is assumed to come from a chamber with a

stagnation condition. The stagnation state is defined as a state that would be

attained by the fluid if it is conveyed to rest in isentropic state and without

work. The properties at the stagnation state are referred to as stagnation

properties or total properties. Thus, the gas condition is defined by the gas

21

stagnation pressure (Po), the gas stagnation temperature (To) and the mass

flow rate of the gas (˙m). All these parameters are set by the user.

Generally, the cost and safety of the CGDS process are affected by the choice

of the gas used. Ideally, in order to transfer sufficient momentum to the

powder, the gas must have a high sonic velocity and mass.

1. Helium,

2. Nitrogen (N2),

3. air, or

4.A mixture of the above.

The two main gases used in cold spray are Helium with a specific heat ratio of γ =

1.66 and Nitrogen with γ = 1.4. Both Helium and Nitrogen are inert gases. Helium has

a high sonic velocity that is approximately three times that of the Nitrogen, but it is

more expensive. However, this penalty can be overcome by using a gas recycling

system but which also increases the price of the CGDS system. Finally, the sonic

velocity of air (a diatomic gas) is slightly less than that of pure Nitrogen, but this

option remains the cheapest CGDS process gas available.

The most important parameter in the analysis of the compressible flow is the

Mach Number defined by:

Where ‘v’ is the local flow velocity and 0 c 0 is the local speed of sound.

Considering an ideal gas, the speed of sound is given by

where ‘γ’ is the specific heat ratio and 0T 0 is the absolute fluid temperature

The Mach Number can be used to characterize the different regimes of flow. These

include:

Incompressible flow, where the Mach Number is very small compared to the

unit (M<0.3)

Subsonic flow, where the Mach Number is less than unity, but large enough so

that compressible flow properties are present (0.3<M<1)

Sonic flow, where the Mach Number is at unity (M = 1)

Transonic flow, the Mach Number is very close to the unity (0.8<M<1.2).

Supersonic flow, where the Mach Number is larger than the unity (M > 1)

22

Hypersonic flow, where the Mach Number is larger than five (M > 5).

Let’s consider the stagnation point with vo equal zero and Po equal to the total

pressure in the flow. At a point in the duct where the flow is undisturbed, and

considering the basic fluid dynamics and thermodynamic relations for compressible

flow, the energy equation is given by:

as

achieved:

Substituting (2.3) and (2.4) into the above expression, the new equation can be

expressed as function of gas local Mach Number:

deducted:

23

Finally, using the equations above, Anderson [34] produced plots for P Po and T To

as a function of position along the nozzle (Figure 2.2). At the throat condition, the

values of P Po = 0.528 and T To = 0.833 where obtained by replacing M with 1.

At the nozzle throat sonic conditions exist, so the Mach Number M = 1. At

this point, an asterisk denotes all symbols, so the isentropic relations become:

24

Where

Finally, when the conditions at the throat are known, it is possible to determine gas

conditions along the diverging section of the nozzle.

4.1.6 Nozzle area–Mach number relation and gas conditions at the nozzle exit

When the quantities change at the nozzle throat, the Mach number or the

nozzle cross sectional area must be determined along the divergent section.

Therefore, the continuity relation of Fluid Mechanics is involved that gives the

following relation:

m˙ = ρvA = ρ ∗ v ∗A ∗

the relation above into an algebraic expression that only involves area and

Mach number:

Also, using the isentropic relations and after some algebra, the area-Mach

number relation is obtained as follows:

However, it must be noted that the above equations reflect the gas conditions

at the nozzle exit only if a normal shock does not take place inside the nozzle.

In addition, the nozzle exit condition needs to be specified in order to

complete the gas dynamic calculation.

25

so calculate the inverse of area–Mach number relation. In this respect a non–linear

least squares procedure is used to accommodate the value of Mach number versus

area–ratio data for different values of specific heat ratio. As a result, the following

relation is presented:

Where k1 and k2 are functions of the specific heat ratio and with values given by a

non-linear polynomial regression analysis as

k2 = −0.122450 + 0.281300γ

26

4.2 SIMULATION

Conventional analytical methods at solving for stresses and strains become very complex

and almost impossible when the part geometry in intricate. In such cases, Finite Element

Modeling becomes a very convenient means to carry out the analysis. The Finite Element

Analysis is very powerful analysis tool, which can be applied to a range of engineering

problems.

The FEM process allows for discrediting the intricate geometries into small fundamental

volumes called finite elements. It is then possible to write the governing equations and

material properties for these elements. These equations are then assembled by taking

proper care of the constraints and loading, which results in a set of equations. These

equations when solved give the results that describe the behavior of the original complex

body being analyzed.

engineering problems such as

Stress Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Deformation Studies

Fluid-Flow Analysis

Heat-Flow Analysis

Seepage Analysis

Magnetic-Flux Studies

Acoustic Analysis

Workbench by going to Start > ANSYS > Workbench.

This will open the startup screen as shown in figure 4.1. After opening this window,

we will find all the analysis systems on left side, as it is discussed before we are going

to make analysis with Fluent.

To make analysis in Fluid – Flow Analysis (Fluent) click on fluent on left side, hold it

and drag it to right side empty space.

After dragging the fluent the fluent workbench is visible on the empty space as shown

in figure 4.2

27

Figure 4.1Ansys starting window.

In fluent workbench it has 6 different stages to complete the simulation as listed below

Importing Geometry

Mesh

Setup

Solution

Result

Further discussion will give the clarification of above stages to complete the simulation of

flow through rocket nozzle

28

4.3 IMPORTING GEOMETRY

To start simulation, we must first import geometry that is made in catia, so follow these

steps to import the geometry.

2. Click on import

3. Click on browse

4. Select to geometry

5. Click on open

After successful importing of geometry,it must able show the tick mark on right side of

geometry as shown in figure 4.3.

4.4 MESH

Meshing is the process of dividing the whole component into number of elements so that

whenever the load is applied on the component it distributes the load uniformly.

To start meshing double click on mesh option that is below the geometry option as shown

in the figure 4.3.

After opening the meshing, you will find project tree in which there is an option called

mesh.

Click on the mesh so that you will find details of mesh at the bottom as shown in figure 4.4

in which the sizing values can be inputted.

29

Figure 4.4 Sizing input

After giving above inputs click on generate mesh which available on top of window.

After generating the mesh, you will find the nozzle divided into many elements as

shown in figure 4.5

Each surface must be named, i.e they should be named to continue the simulation

process, naming is done as follows

30

Select the surfaces and right click so that you will find option to give name to that

surface as shown in figure 4.6.

1. Input

2. Output

3. Walls

After naming each and every surfaces we can check the named surfaces which is

clearly showed in figure 4.8

Click on update option, which is on the top left corner of the window.

Up to now importing of geometry and meshing of the geometry which are basic steps

of the simulation are completed.

31

4.5 SETUP

This is the most important step to make the simulation, in this step properties of fluid,

boundary conditions and the calculation part takes place.

Now go to the first window and double click on setup so that another window where

we can input above discussed properties.

Velocity : Absolute

Material : Air

Pressure exit : 3738.9

Gauge pressure: 99348

Temperature :300k

pressure as zero as shown in figure 4.10

32

Figure 4.10 Operating conditions

After inputting boundary conditions, click on reference values option and assign inlet

to compute from drop down as shown in figure 4.11

33

Now double click on Initialization option under solution where we can initialize the

assigned values for further calculations. Click on standard initialization to assign

compute from to inlet and click on initialize as shown in figure 4.12.

Figure 4.12Initialization

After initialization of values is completed click on run calculation so that the options

showed in figure 4.13 will appear on the screen.

34

In run calculations the number of iterations given is 150

Same procedure must be followed for all other cross sections to make flow through

analysis for rocket nozzle.

35

Chapter-5

In this chapter we are going to see the results and have brief discussions about the results

we got, the results for pressure, velocity, temperature and the mach number that are

obtained by testing different cross sections like circle, rectangle, square are discussed in

this chapter will be in the format of contours, graphs and table format.

The results provided in this chapter are not assumed, they are obtained by design and

simulation of the design in Ansys Fluent.

The above image is the pressure contour, which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and

all through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 7480498 and the pressure at

outlet is 348547, the 95% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet

pressure.

Since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when compared with inlet and outlet

we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the

paper [7].

36

5.1.2 Circular Cross Section (3D)

The above image is the pressure contour which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and all

through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 7955413.5 and the pressure at

outlet is 100074.5, the 98% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet

pressure.

Since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when compared with inlet and outlet

we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the

paper [7].

The above image is the pressure contour which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and all

through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 6675406 and the pressure at

37

outlet is 640311.8, the 90% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet

pressure.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when

compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the

supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

The above image is the pressure contour, which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and

all through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 7554516 and the pressure at

outlet is 24788.84, the 99% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet

pressure.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when

compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the

supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

38

In figure 5.5 is the pressure contour which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and all

through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 6681423 and the pressure at

outlet is 634975.56, the 90% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with

inlet pressure.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the pressure decreased throughout the nozzle when

compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the

supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

The above image is the pressure contour which represent the pressure at inlet, outlet and all

through the nozzle. The pressure at the inlet of the nozzle is 7274957.5 and the pressure at

outlet is 111932, the 98% of the pressure is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet

pressure.

compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the

supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

Now we shall tabulate the pressure values of inlet and outlet of different cross sections

Inlet Outlet

Circle 7480498 342547 95%

Rectangle 6675406 640311.88 90%

Square 6681423 634975.56 90%

39

If the values in the above table are absorbed the circular cross section is having this highest

percentage of decrease in the pressure.

Inlet Outlet

Circle 7955413.5 100074.5 98%

Rectangle 7554516 24788.84 99%

Square 7274957.5 111932 98%

Table 5.2 Pressure Inlet and Outlet Values

If the values in the above table are absorbed the rectangular cross section is having this

highest percentage of decrease in the pressure.

The above image is the Velocity contour, which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and

all through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 304.4 and the velocity at

outlet is 11582, the 97% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet

velocity.

Since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when compared with inlet and outlet we

can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the

paper [7].

40

5.1.2 Circular Cross Section(3D)

The above image is the velocity contour which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and all

through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 63.8m/s and the velocity at

outlet is 752m/s, the 91% of the velocity is decreased at outlet when compared with inlet

velocity.

Since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when compared with inlet and outlet we

can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the

paper [7].

The above image is the Velocity contour, which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and

all through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 465.6 and the velocity at

outlet is 1460, the 68% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet

velocity.

41

As previous nozzle cross section, since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when

compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the

supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

The above image is the velocity contour, which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and all

through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 282.4 and the velocity at outlet

is 1781.2, the 84% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet velocity.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when

compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the

supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

The above image is the velocity contour, which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and all

through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 464.5 and the velocity at outlet

is 1464.4, the 68% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet velocity.

42

As previous nozzle cross section, since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when

compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the

supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

The above image is the velocity contour which represent the velocity at inlet, outlet and all

through the nozzle. The velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is 349.5 and the velocity at outlet

is 1709.2, the 79% of the velocity is increased at outlet when compared with inlet velocity.

As previous nozzle cross section, since the velocity increased throughout the nozzle when

compared with inlet and outlet we can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the

supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

Now we shall tabulate the velocity values of inlet and outlet of different cross sections

Inlet Outlet

Circle 304.4 11582 97%

Rectangle 465.6 1460 68%

Square 464.5 1464.4 68%

Table 5.3 Velocity Values for Inlet and Outlet

If the values in the above table are absorbed the circular cross section is having this highest

percentage of increase in the velocity.

Inlet Outlet

Circle 63.8 752 91%

Rectangle 282.4 1781.2 84%

Square 349.5 1709.2 79%

Table 5.4 Velocity Values for Inlet and Outlet

If the values in the above table are absorbed the circular cross section is having this highest

percentage of increase in the velocity.

43

5.4 MACH NUMBER CONTOUR

Figure 5.13 Graph of mach number for 2D nozzle of circular cross section

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,

outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.36 and

the mach number at outlet is 1.7.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say that

the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

Figure 5.14 Graph of mach number for 3D nozzle of circular cross section

The above image is the mach numbergraph which represent the mach number at inlet,

outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.17 and

the mach number at outlet is 2.8.Since it is observed thatmach at the outlet crossed 1 we

can say that the nozzle designed is satisfied the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper

[7].

44

5.1.3 Rectangular Cross Section(2D):

Figure 5.15 Graph of mach number for 2D nozzle of rectangular cross section

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,

outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.5 and the

mach number at outlet is 2.14.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say that

the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,

outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.34 and

the mach number at outlet is 2.99.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say

that the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

45

5.1.5 Square Cross Section(2D):

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,

outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.5 and the

mach number at outlet is 2.15.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say that

the nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

Figure 5.18 Graph of mach number for 3D nozzle of square cross section

The above graph is the mach number graph which represent the mach number at inlet,

outlet and all through the nozzle. The mach number at the inlet of the nozzle is 0.4 and the

mach number at outlet is 2.3.Since the mach number at outlet crossed 1 we can say that the

nozzle designed is satisfied to the supersonic nozzle as referred in the paper [7].

46

Now we shall tabulate the mach number values of inlet and outlet of different cross

sections

Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet

Circle 0.36 1.7 0.17 2.8

Rectangle 0.5 2.14 0.34 2.99

Square 0.5 2.15 0.4 2.3

Table 5.5Mach number Values for Inlet and Outlet

If the values in the above table are absorbed the rectangle cross section is having this

highest percentage of increase in the mach number.

47

CONCLUSIONS

Analysis of the flow through Rocket nozzle is simulated using ANSYS Fluent solver in

order to find the fluid flow properties like Mach number, velocity, pressure, temperature.

The focus of the present work is to obtain the exit Mach number greater than 1 and

identifying the best cross section that is to be used among circular, rectangle and square.

From the simulation results, in order to achieve high speeds, it is clearly observed that for

the given input conditions, the Mach number for the rocket nozzle reached to 2.96 at the

exit section.

It is observed from chapter 5 that the circular cross section is having highest percentage of

increase in velocity, so circular cross section rocket nozzle is said to be the best rocket

nozzle when compared with rectangular and square cross sectional nozzles

48

FUTURE SCOPE

In future work if the Mach number is reached to greater than 3 or if it lies between 3

and 5 i.e 3<M<5, it is known as high supersonic speed. If the Mach number is reached

to greater than 5 then the flow is said to be hypersonic flow If the flow is said to be

hypersonic flow then the Compressibility effects become more important with higher

Mach numbers.

That is if the Mach number is increased the velocity of the nozzle increases that is the

speed of the rocket can be increased if the velocity is increased.

49

REFERENCE

[1] Parashram V. Patil Optimization in DE-Laval Nozzle Design to Increase Thrust,

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 8, Issue 3, March-2017

ISSN 2229-5518

[2] G. Satyanarayana, Ch. Varun And S.S. Naidu Cfd Analysis Of Convergent-Divergent

Nozzle, ActaTechnicaCorviniensis – Bulletin Of Engineering, University Politehnica

Timisoara, Faculty Of Engineering Hunedoara, 5, Revolutiei, 331128, Hunedoara, Romania.

[3] Bogdan-Alexandru Belega and Trung Duc Nguyen Analysis Of Flow In Convergent-

Divergent Rocket Engine Nozzle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,

International Conference Of Scientific Paper Afases 2015 Brasov, 28-30 May 2015

Jun 1970

[5] Venkatesh and Jaya pal Reddy Modeling and Simulation of Supersonic Nozzle

Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, International Journal of Novel Research in

Interdisciplinary Studies Vol. 2, Month: November-December 2015

[6] Arjun Kundu, Devyanshu Prasad, Sarfraj Ahmed Effect of Exit Diameter on the

Performance of Converging – Diverging Annular Nozzle Using CFD,

International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol. 5, Issue 6, June 2016.

[7] A paper from National Aeronautics and Space Administration website, below is

the link for that website

https://spaceflightsystems.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/nozzle.html

50

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