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# A NEW APPROACH TO SPECIAL

FACTORIAL FUNCTIONS

## Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

Email: ejiswonders@gmail.com

## KEWORDS: Subfactorial, superfactorial, gamma, hyperfactorial, exponential, k –

function, G – Function.

## ABSTRACT: The special factorial functions is an extension of the general factorial

notation which is the concept of this paper. This paper provides the relationship between
the subfactorial, superfactorial, hyperfactorial, G – function, K – function, and the
gamma function. In combination of these functions, formulas were derived for finding
each of the special factorial functions listed. Also, in an extension, the Exponential
factorial function and the fractional hyperfactorial and root function was introduced.

1. Introduction
When we talk about factorials, it is easily recognized by students in higher
schools. Factorials have many functions in combinatorics. It can be used in binomial
distribution, special functions and many more. In this study, we shall see that factorial
has special types, instead of just an integer. We shall see them one after the other, and
relate them with existing theories.

1.1. Subfactorials
The subfactorial of an integer 𝑛 is the number of permutations of the set
{1,2, … , 𝑛} that fix no element [3]. It is given as
𝑛
(−1)𝑖
! 𝑛 = 𝑛! ∑ . (1.1)
𝑖!
𝑖=0
The proof of this formula is given in [10]. It is also termed derangement used by Euler
[10].
1.2. Superfactorials
The superfactorial of 𝑛 [3] is given by
𝑛

𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) = ∏ 𝑘! . (1.2)
𝑘=1
1.3. The Barnes G – Function
The Barnes G – function [2] is defined as
𝑛−1

𝐺 (𝑛 + 1) = ∏ 𝑘! . (1.3)
𝑘=1
1.4. The Hyperfactorials
For a positive integer 𝑛, the Hyperfactorial 𝐻(𝑛) is the number [1]
𝑛

𝐻 (𝑛 ) = ∏ 𝑘 𝑘 (1.4)
𝑘=1

## 1.5. The K – Function

The K – function of a natural number [2] 𝑛 is given by
𝑛−1

𝐾 (𝑛 ) = ∏ 𝑘 𝑘 . (1.5)
𝑘=1
2. Methodology
In this session we see how we can related the special factorial functions defined
above.
2.1. Relationship between the K-Function and Hyperfactorial

## 𝐻 (𝑛) = 𝑛𝑛 𝐾(𝑛) or 𝐾 (𝑛) = 𝑛−𝑛 𝐻(𝑛). (2.1)

2.2. Relationship between the K – Function, Barnes G – Function, Hyperfactorial
and Gamma function.
In terms of gamma and the barnes G – function, the K – function can be given as
below.
𝑛−1
(Γ(n))
𝐾 (𝑛 ) = . (2.2)
𝐺 (𝑛 )
or
𝑛−1
(Γ(n))
𝐺 (𝑛 ) = . (2.3)
𝐾 (𝑛 )
or
𝑛−1
(Γ(n)) = 𝑛−𝑛 𝐻 (𝑛)𝐺 (𝑛) . (2.4)
Thus,
𝑛−1 𝑛−1
𝛤 (𝑛 ) = √𝐾(𝑛)𝐺(𝑛) = √𝑛−𝑛 𝐻(𝑛)𝐺(𝑛) . (2.5)

## 2.3. Relationship between the Superfactorial, and Barnes G – Function.

Using (1.2), (1.3) to find the superfactorial function, we have
𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) = 𝑛! 𝐺 (𝑛 + 1), (2.6)
𝑆𝑓 (𝑛)
𝐺 (𝑛 + 1) = . (2.7)
𝑛!

3. Main Results
We have seen various relationships between the special factorial functions. Next is
to see how we can derive new functions through the relationships.
3.1. Expressions for the Superfactorial, subfactorial, hyperfactorial, K – Function,
Barnes G – Function, and the gamma Function.
We start from (2.5), we have
1
𝐻 (𝑛 + 1)𝐺(𝑛 + 1) 𝑛 !𝑛
( )
𝛤 𝑛+1 = [ ] = . (3.1)
(𝑛 + 1)(𝑛+1) (−1)𝑖
∑𝑛𝑖=1
𝑖!
From (3.1) we have the subfactorial function as

1 𝑛
𝐻 (𝑛 + 1)𝐺(𝑛 + 1) 𝑛 (−1)𝑖
!𝑛 = [ ] ∑ . (3.2)
(𝑛 + 1)(𝑛+1) 𝑖!
𝑖=1

## From (2.7), we have

1
𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) 𝐻 (𝑛 + 1)𝐺(𝑛 + 1) 𝑛
𝛤 (𝑛 + 1 ) = = [ ] . (3.3)
𝐺(𝑛 + 1) (𝑛 + 1)(𝑛+1)
1
𝐻 (𝑛 + 1)𝐺 (𝑛 + 1) 𝑛
𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) = 𝐺 (𝑛 + 1) [ ] . (3.4)
(𝑛 + 1)(𝑛+1)
Taking 𝑙𝑜𝑔 to both sides we have
1
𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) = 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝐺 (𝑛 + 1) + (𝑙𝑜𝑔𝐻 (𝑛 + 1) + 𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝐺 (𝑛 + 1)
𝑛
− (𝑛 + 1) 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)).

## From (1.4) and (1.3) we have

𝑛+1 𝑛−1 𝑘
1 1
𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) = [∑ 𝑘𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑘 + ∑ ∑ 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑥 ] − 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1) . (3.5)
𝑛 𝑛
𝑘=0 𝑘=0 𝑥=0

Let,
𝑛+1 𝑛−1 𝑘

## ΦH = ∑ 𝑘𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑘 and ΦG = ∑ ∑ 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑥

𝑘=0 𝑘=0 𝑥=0

(3.5) becomes

[ΦH + ΦF ] − 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)
𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) = (3.6)
𝑛
Taking exponential to both sides, (3.6) becomes (3.7) given as

[ΦH + ΦG ] − 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1) .
𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 [ ] . (3.7)
𝑛
Let’s denote 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑆𝑓 (𝑛) by ΦSf , then we can get ΦH from (2.15), as

## ΦH = 𝑛ΦSf − ΦG + 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1) (3.8)

(3.8) is the log form of the hyperfactorial function. And we can get the hyperfactorial
function by taking exponential to both sides. This is given as

## (3.9) is an expression of the hyperfactorial function of 𝑛 + 1. But knowing a recursion for

the hyperfactorial function as

𝐻 (𝑛 + 1) = (𝑛 + 1)𝑛+1 𝐻 (𝑛)

we have
𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑛ΦSf − ΦG + 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1))
𝐻 (𝑛 ) = (3.10)
(𝑛 + 1)𝑛+1

(3.10) is an expression for the hyperfactorial function of 𝑛. We can as well find the 𝐾
function from equation (2.1), which is

## 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑛ΦSf − ΦG + 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1))

𝐾 (𝑛 ) = . (3.11)
𝑛𝑛 (𝑛 + 1)𝑛+1

Also, in the same way, we look for the Barnes 𝐺 – function of 𝑛. Solving (3.8)
algebraically we have

## ΦG = 𝑛ΦSf − ΦH + 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1) (3.12)

This is the log expression of the Barnes G – Function. To get the expression for the
Barnes G – Function, we take exponential to both side of equation (3.12). Thus,

## 𝐺(𝑛 + 1) = exp(𝑛ΦSf − ΦH + 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)). (3.13)

In relation to the special factorial functions, we can now get the gamma function using
equation (3.3), (3.9), and (3.12) we have

ΦH + ΦG − 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)
𝑒𝑥𝑝 [ ]
𝑛
Γ (𝑛 + 1) = .
exp(𝑛ΦSf − ΦH + 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1))

ΦH + ΦG − 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)
= 𝑒𝑥𝑝 [ – (exp(𝑛ΦSf − ΦH + 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)) ]
𝑛

## (𝑛 + 1)[ΦH − 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)] + ΦG − 𝑛2 ΦSf

= 𝑒𝑥𝑝 [ ] = 𝑛! (3.14)
𝑛

(3.14) helps us the know that the gamma function can be expressed as the exponential
function of the special factorial (Hyperfactorial, superfactorial, and the banes G –
function). But, Γ(𝑛 + 1) = 𝑛Γ(𝑛).

Thus,

## 1 (𝑛 + 1)[ΦH − 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)] + ΦG − 𝑛2 ΦSf

Γ (𝑛 ) = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 [ ] (3.15)
𝑛 𝑛
We can now get an expression for the subfactorial function from equation (3.2) using
(3.14), we obtain
𝑛
(𝑛 + 1)[ΦH − 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑛 + 1)] + ΦG − 𝑛2 ΦSf (−1)𝑖
! 𝑛 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 [ ]∑ . (3.16)
𝑛 𝑖!
𝑖=0

## 3.2. Exponential Factorial function.

Another form of the special factorial function can be termed as the exponential
factorial function. For example we can get the product of exponentials as
𝑒 1 𝑒 2 𝑒 3 … 𝑒 𝑛 . This can be generally given as
𝑛

𝐸𝑘 (𝑛) = ∏ 𝑒 𝑘 . (3.17)
𝑘=1
Taking natural log to both sides of (3.17), we then have
𝑛
𝑛(𝑛 + 1)
𝑙𝑜𝑔𝐸𝑘 (𝑛) = ∑ 𝑘 = = Φ Ek . (3.18)
2
𝑘=1
(3.18) is the log form of the exponential factorial (3.17). Thus, the sum of the first 𝑛
natural numbers can be expressed as the log of the exponential factorials.

## There may be a situation where we have product of the form

1 1 1 1
1 2 1 3 1 4 1 𝑛
( ) ( ) ( ) … ( ) . This can be written generally as in equation (1.4) as
2 3 4 𝑛

1
𝑛 𝑘
1
𝐻𝐹 (𝑛) = ∏ ( ) . (3.19)
𝑘
𝑘=1

## Taking log to both sides, we have

𝑛
1
𝑙𝑜𝑔𝐻𝐹 (𝑛) = − ∑ 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑘 = ΦHF . (3.20)
𝑘
𝑘=1

Thus,
𝑛
1
𝐻𝐹 (𝑛) = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 [− ∑ 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑘 ] = exp(ΦH ). (3.21)
𝑘 F
𝑘=1

The fractional hyperfactorial function can also be written as the root factorial function
given as
𝑛

𝑘=1

## Taking log to both side, we have

𝑛
1
𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑅𝑡 = ∑ 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑘. (3.23)
𝑘
𝑘=1

Thus we have
𝑛
1
𝑅𝑡 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 ∑ 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑘. (3.24)
𝑘
𝑘=1

Hence, we say that the fractional hyperfactorial function is also a root function. But in
the case of equation (3.21) and (3.34), the reciprocal of the root function is the fractional
hyperfactorial function.

4. Conclusion

We have seen so far that the formulas obtained from the relationship between some
special factorial function. And we noticed that they are most in an exponential form. We
have seen that factorial does not end in an integer type. Also, there are more to come. The
formulas created should be tested further, moderated and be used by Mathematicians,
researchers and scientists.

REFERENCES

## [1] Ibrahim A.M. (2013) Extension of factorial concept to negative numbers.

Department of Mathenatics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
[2] Mohammad K. A (2007) On the hyperfactorial function, hypertriangular
function, and the discriminants of certain polynomials. Department of
Mathematics University of Evansville.

[3] Christian A., Grant C. (2013) Wilson Theorems for double-, hyper-, sub- and
super – factorials.

[4] Florian C (1929) History of mathematical notations vol. 2, The open Court
Publishing company, 1929.

[5] Elan S. (2006) An exploration of the Riemann Zeta function and its
application to the number theory of prime number distribution.

[6] Arkady A. (2014) Limits of Lalescu kind sequences with p-Hyperfactorial and
Superfactorial.

[7] Percy A.M. (2005) Combinatory Analysis, vol. 2, Cambridge University press,
1916; reprinted by Chelsea, New York, 1960.

1985.

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