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INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

- Manjot Kaur
REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Awad, EM: System Analysis and


Design, second edition
2. James .A. Senn : Analysis and
Design of information systems,
second edition
3. Jeffery L. Whitten: System
Analysis & Design Methods, fifth
edition
DEFINITION OF A SYSTEM

•‘A system is an orderly grouping of


interdependent components linked together
according to a plan to achieve a specific
objective.’
•Basically there are three major components
in every system, namely input, processing
and output.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A SYSTEM

• Organization
• Interaction
• Interdependence
• Integration
• Central Objective
ELEMENTS OF A SYSTEM

• Outputs and Inputs


• Processors
• Control
• Feedback
• Environment
•Boundaries and Interface
Example: A fast food restaurant as a system
Environment: customers, food distribution, banks, etc.

Storage Office

Inputs: Kitchens Outputs:


Dining
Food, labor, Room Prepared
Cash, etc. food

Counter

Boundary
Interrelationship
ELEMENTS OF A SYSTEM - AN EXAMPLE

• Describe your college as a system


– What is the input?
– What is output?
– What is the boundary?
– What are the components and their
relationship?
– The environment?
TYPES OF SYSTEMS

• Physical or Abstract Systems


• Open or Closed Systems
•Formal or Informal systems (Man-made
Information Systems)
• Manual or Automated
TYPES OF SYSTEMS

Physical Systems
• Tangible entities that maybe static or dynamic in
application
•Eg: Computer Systems, Vehicles, Companies,etc.

Abstract Systems
• Conceptual or non physical entities
•Eg: Online Reservation system, library management system,
etc.
TYPES OF SYSTEMS

Open Systems
• Has many interfaces with its environment
• Permits interaction across its boundary

Closed Systems
• It is isolated from environmental influences
TYPES OF SYSTEMS

Formal Systems
• Planned in advance & used according to a schedule
•System Policies & Procedures are documented well in
advance

•Informal Systems
• It is not described by procedures
•Works on as need basis
TYPES OF SYSTEMS

Automated Systems
•Does not require human intervention
•The whole process is automatic
•Eg: Traffic control systems, Information kiosks

Manual Systems
• Requires human intervention
• eg: College Admission system
APPROACHES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEMS
• Structured Analysis & Design (Model Driven)
– Emphasizes the drawing of pictorial system models that
become the blueprint for designing & constructing an
improved system

• Prototyping (Accelerated)
– Building a scaled-down working version of the system

• Joint Application Design (JAD)


— Users, Managers and Analysts work together
— System requirements are reviewed
MODEL DRIVEN APPROACH
• Structured Analysis :
• Organize tasks associated with requirements
determination
• Process centered technique
• Uses DFD & ERD as tools

• Structured Design
• Utilizes graphic description(output of system analysis)
• Focuses on development of programs consisting of
functionally independent modules
• Uses modeling tool Structure Chart
DESIGN PRINCIPLES

• Modularity & Partitioning


• Cohesion
• Coupling
• Span of Control
• Shared use of functions
PROTOTYPE APPROACH
JOINT APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

• Participants in a JAD meeting are:


• JAD session leader
• Users
• Managers
• Sponsors
• System analysts
• Other staff such as programmers, database
analysts, etc.
SYSTEM ANALYST
SYSTEM ANALYST

• Study problems and needs of an organization

• Determine best approach to improving organization


through use of:
•People
•Methods
•Information technology

• Help system users and managers define their


requirements for new or enhanced systems
ROLES OF A SYSTEM ANALYST

 Change Agent
 Investigator & Monitor
 Architect
 Psychologist
 Motivator
 Intermediary
SKILLS OF A SYSTEM ANALYST

 Analytical Skills
 Technical skills
 Management skills
 Interpersonal skills
ANALYTICAL SKILLS

There are four sets of Analytical skills:

System Study
Organizational Knowledge
Problem Identification
Problem Analyzing and Solving
System Study

 The first step in systems study is to be able to


identify something as a system.
Identify where the boundary lies and all of the
relevant inputs & outputs
Visualizing a set of things and their relationship as a
system to translate the physical design into a logical
design
Organizational Knowledge

How organizations work


Policies
Terminologies, abbreviations, and acronyms
Short/long term strategy and plans
Role of technology
How the department operates,
its purpose,
its relationship with other department
its relationship with customers and suppliers
Problem Identification

 Problem is the difference between an existing


(current) situation and desired (output) situation

The process of identifying problems is the


process of defining differences, so problem
solving is the process of finding a way to reduce
differences

Analyst should able to compare the current in


an organization to the desired situation.
Problem Analysis & Solving

 Once the Problem has been identified, analyse


the problem & determine how to solve it

Analyst should able to formulate alternative


solutions to the problem & choose the best one
TECHNICAL SKILLS
 Many aspects of the job as a system analyst are
technically oriented.

 The System Analyst should be familiar as possible with


information technologies such as:
•Microcomputer, micro station, workstation, mainframe
computers
•Programming languages
•Operating systems
•Database and file management systems
•Data communication standards
•Software for local and wide networks
•Web developing tools
•Decision support system generators
•Data analysis tools
•Data design tools
MANAGEMENT SKILLS
System analysts are almost always members of
project teams and are frequently asked to lead team

Management skills are very useful for anyone in a


leadership role

There are four class of management skills:


1- Resource Management
2- Project Management
3- Risk Management
4- Change management
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
Communication skills

Interviewing, Listening, and questionnaires

Written and oral presentations


•Meeting agenda
•Meeting minutes
•Interview summaries
•Requests for proposal from contractors and vendors

Working alone and with a team

Facilitating groups

Managing expectations
ASSIGNMENT

• Describe yourself in terms of your abilities at


each of the following interpersonal skills:
• Working alone v/s working with a team
• Interviewing, Listening, Writing, Presenting
• Facilitating a group and Meeting expectations
• Where are your strengths and weakness? Why?
• What can you do to capitalize on your strengths
and strengthen areas where you are weak?
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE
 An information system is
“born” when a problem is
recognized
 After the system is
developed, it grows until
it reaches maturity
 Eventually, a change in
the nature of the problem
or increasing
maintenance costs
degrade the value of the
system, so it “dies” and a
new or replacement
system is born to take its
place.
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)

System Development Life Cycle is an


organizational process of developing and
maintaining systems

It helps in establishing a system project plan,


because it gives overall list of processes and sub-
processes required developing a system.
SDLC PHASES
SDLC PHASES
SDLC consists of mainly seven steps:

Problem Identification & Selection


Project Initiation & Planning
Analysis
Logical Design
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Problem Identification & Selection

The first step is problem identification

The intent is to identify the problem, determine


its cause, and outline a strategy for solving it.

Includes a detailed and in-depth study in which


the identification of user’s requirement and the
limitations and problems of the present system
are studied.
Project Initiation & Planning

The second step is project planning

The problems that are identified are


investigated

Includes determination of scope of the


proposed system
Analysis

Analysis is a detailed study of various operations


performed by a system and their relationships within
and outside the system

The objective of analysis is to determine


exactly what must be done to solve the problem.
Typically, the system’s logical elements (its boundaries,
processes, and data) are defined during analysis.

Feasibility Study of the proposed system is also


performed
Types of Feasibility

Operational Feasibility
Technical Feasibility
Economic Feasibility
Schedule Feasibility
Operational Feasibility

Operational Feasibility means that a proposed


system will be used effectively after it has been
developed.
– Does management or do users support the projects?
Do users see the need for change?
– Will the system result in a work force reduction?
– Will the system require training for users?
– Will customers experience adverse effect in anyway,
either temporarily or permanently.
Technical Feasibility

The technical resources needed to develop,


purchase, install, or operate the system.
– Does the company have the necessary hardware,
software, and network resources?
– Does the company have the needed technical
expertise?
– Will the hardware and software environment be
reliable?
– Will the system be able to handle future transaction
volume and company growth?
Economic Feasibility

Economic Feasibility means that the projected


benefits of the proposed system outweigh the
estimated costs usually considered the total cost
of ownership (TCO).
– People, including IT staff and users
– Hardware and equipment
– Software
– Formal and informal training
– Licenses and fees
– Consulting expenses
– Facility costs
– The estimated cost of not developing the system or
postponing the project
Schedule Feasibility

Schedule Feasibility means that a project


can be implemented in an acceptable time.
– Can the company or the IT team control the
factor that effect schedule feasibility?
– What condition must be satisfied during the
development of the system?
– Will an accelerated schedule pose any risk?
– Will the project manager be appointed?
System Design
The objective of design is to determine how the
problem will be solved
Based on the user requirements and the detailed
analysis of a new system, the new system must be
designed
 It is a most crucial phase in the development of a
system
Normally, the design proceeds in two stages :
Logical : concentrates on the business aspects of
the system(functionality)
Physical: concentrates on the technical aspects of
the system(programming language, databases, etc.)
Implementation
Implementation includes Coding , Testing &
Installation
Coding is also called the programming phase in
which the programmer converts the system
specifications into computer instructions
Before actually implementing the new system
into operations, a test run of the system is
done removing all the bugs, if any
During installation phase, all the programs of
the system are loaded onto the user's
computer
After loading the system, training of the users
starts
Maintenance
Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the
system during its working life and to tune the system to any
variations in its working environment

It is the review of the system from time to time

 Maintenance is of three types:


Corrective
Adaptive
Perfective
THANK YOU