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Use of Social Media among students of University of the

Punjab, Lahore
Muahammad Zahid Raza1
Senior Librarian, Department of Social Work,
University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
Dr. Shahid Soroya2
Chief Librarian, IT University, Lahore, Pakistan.
Zia-ur-Rehman3
Librarian, Department of Economics,
University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Abstract

With the invention of the internet the whole map of the


world has changed. The whole community of the world has
integrated into a globalized community. In Pakistan the users
of internet are increasing gradually. The present study has
been conducted for the objectives to expose the access to
social media by the students of University of the Punjab
Lahore, to explore the extent of use of social media by the
students and to find the purposes of the students in using
social media. The study was quantitative in nature and was
delimited to undergraduate and post graduate students of 12
faculties of University of the Punjab, Lahore. Survey
research method was used to collect the data through
questionnaire which was adopted with minor modifications.
Stratified random sampling with equal allocation technique
was used to collect data. The results of the study revealed
that 100% students of University of the Punjab have access
to internet, 94% students use social media and their favorite
social media is facebook. Majority of the students were using
social media up to 2 hours in a day. The results of the study
also indicated that majority of the students were using social
media for sharing information, academic purposes, religious
learning, preaching and entertainment purposes. Researcher
has recommended that proper facilities like IT skills, training
workshops, Wi-Fi facilities, Laptops, desktops should be
provided to the students so that they can use social media
applications in more proper way. With the help of this study
the researcher will have better understandings that what and
how much is the usage of social media by the students and
how its use can be made more effective.
Keywords: Social Media, Internet, Web 2 Technology, Face
Book, globalization

1. Introduction
The whole map of the world has been changed with
the appearance of internet in the world. It has paved the way
for globalization. This web 2 technology and its applications
has provided the facility of online sharing of ideas, texts,
experiences, videos, research findings etc to whole world.
Online interaction of the people through social networking
sites and through their applications is named as social media.
New socal networking tools have been designed to interact
the whole world. CampuServe was first one who introduced
internet in 1969. In 1993, www technology was introduced
by CERN.1
1.2 Social Media
Kaplan and Heinlein2 defined social media as "A
group of Internet-based applications that build on the
ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and
that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated
content. Social media are social software which mediates
human communication”.
According to Kerpen,3 “Social media is online text,
pictures, videos and links, shared amongst people and
organizations”.
1.3 Social Media use in Pakistan
Social Media usage expanding in the whole world
rapidly but in Pakistan its usage is not satisfactory. Major
population of Pakistan is not using it and only 11%
population of Pakistan is its user. However the use of
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internet is increasing in Pakistan day by day. It is healthy
development in Pakistani environment that business,
education and commercial organization are developing their
websites and software’s for marketing of their products.
Application of internet on mobile has also facilitated the
Pakistani people to use social media.4

Youth in Pakistan is very interested to use social


media applications as Facebook, You tube, My Space,
Linked In, Twitter etc. Social media have impacts in the
lives of youth as the result of information sharing. In the age
of globalization, the importance of social media has
increased for the whole world. Youth of Pakistan have new
opportunities to share their voices, messages, videos,
writings, photographs etc in the world of social networking
sites.5
1.4 Social Media Websites
Hussain6 described the following internet based applications
of social media which are used to share, read, retrieve
purposes of information.
• Blogs are used to publish or post their work for information
sharing and for comments.
• Wikis are used to post information of common production
thorough common academic forums.
• Social bookmarking facilitated to collecting, arranging and
sharing their favorite websites.
• Media sharing spaces provide spaces and opportunities to
the user community of posting and sharing pictures, podcasts
and videos.
• RSS is a standard system of information distribution to its
users from internet publishers.
• Collaborative editing tools provide facility of documents
sharing and its editing to a variety of its users.
• Micro-blogging sites such as twitter is used to post your
short messages.
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• Social networking sites or SNS's (face book, LinkedIn,
etc.) is also the form of social media which is used to share
information in the form of photos, videos, messaging,
chatting etc.
2. Research Objectives
This study will meet the following objectives.
 To expose the access of students to social media.
 To find the extent of social media usage by the
students.
 To expose the purposes of the students in using
social media.
3. Literature Review
Bashir, Mahmood & Shafique7 conducted
quantitative study to find the attitude of students of
University of the Punjab, Lahore. The findings of the study
revealed that students use social media for educational use as
well. The usage of internet is being availed in Department
and in home by the students, but it was revealed that no
trainings or workshops are being organized for the students
that can educate them about the use of internet. It was also
concluded that Yahoo for e-mail purposes and Google as
searching activities are used by the students.
Shaheen8 revealed that students of Islamabad and
Rawalpindi Universities used social media for awareness
campaign in 3 November 2007. In this quantitative study it
was concluded that social media usage has enhanced the
awareness level of students regarding, human rights,
freedom of expression, importance of democracy. Results of
the study concluded that awareness through social media
weakened dictatorial rule. Students were rightly aware of
the political situation of Pakistan.
Shafique, Anwer & Bushra9 exposed the social
media usage of the students of Islamiya University of
Bahawalpur in quantitative approach. The findings of the
study concluded that students were using social media sites
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like Facebook, Twitter, Cite U Like, Blogger etc. The
purpose of the students for using social media was to make
social relationship, learning and information sharing
activities. The students had good command on IT skills and
didn’t feel any problem for using social media.
Madhusudhan10 explored the usage of Social
Networking Sites by research scholars of University of
Delhi for research purposes. In this quantitative study he
designed questionnaire and completed his research through
self administered survey. Results of the study concluded that
majority of the research scholars used social media sites for
enjoyment purpose and few students used for promoting
each others research. Most of the researchers responded that
Facebook and Research gate were best for academic
purposes. Study revealed that contemporary learning and
sharing was the main advantage of SNSs. Results of the
study found that some specialized academic SNSs were also
being used by majority of the research scholars for their
research.
Zabed & Jahan11 explored in his quantitative study
that students have positive approach towards academic use
of SNSs. Study concluded that on academic applications of
SNSs, there are some differences between students, all
students don’t use it for academic purpose because its usage
is not well defined. The Study indicated that 97% students
use internet and out of which 95% student use SNSs. They
use SNSs to communicate with their friends as well as
academic sharing and learning experiences as well. SNSs
usage capable the students to develop their learning
activities in the world of globalization beyond the
environment of class rooms. The results of the study also
revealed that most of the students were interested to use
SNSs for their educational purposes as well.

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4. Research Methodology

A quantitative study using survey research method


has been used in this study. A questionnaire was the main
source for collecting data. The questionnaire for the study
was adopted with minor modifications with the consent of
the author S. M Zabed, Professor, of Library and Information
Science, Dhaka University, Bangladesh. The instrument
employs a five-point Likert response scale. The population
of this study was the post graduate and undergraduate
students of University of the Punjab, Lahore. The targeted
population was post graduate and undergraduate students
studying in different departments / faculties of University of
the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam campus and Allama Iqbal
Campus Lahore. One department was selected at random
from each faculty. From the selected departments 50
students (25 Post graduate and 25 undergraduate students)
were selected at random for the purpose of obtaining data.
Sample size was 600 postgraduate and undergraduate
students of University of the Punjab, Lahore. Stratified
random sampling with equal allocation technique has been
used in this study. The researcher adopted self-administered
survey method to collect data through questionnaire.

5. Data Analysis and Research Findings

(SPSS) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences


Software Version 20.0. was used to analyze the data. Every
effort was made to make data error free and then at the end it
was analyzed.

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Table 1

Frequency and percentage results of students according to


Gender and age groups

Gender f %

Male 192 39.1

Female 299 60.9

Age Groups

17-20 180 36.7

21-24 266 54.2

25-29 39 7.9

Table 2 indicated that 192(39.1%) male students as


well as 299(60.9%) female students of University of the
Punjab, Lahore used social media. The table also explained
that 180(36.7%) having 17-20 age gourp, 266(54.2%) having
21-24 age group as well as 39(7.9%) having 25-29 age group
used social media.

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Figure 2-a: Percentage of gender in usage of Social Media

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Figure 2-b : Percentage of age group in usage of Social
Media

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Table No.2

Frequency and percentage of students of according to


Computer skills, access to internet and internet connection.

Computer skills f %

Beginner 114 23.2

Middle level 327 66.6

Advance level 50 10.2

Access to Internet

Library 109 22.2

Home 319 65.0

Residential Hall 52 10.6

Internet Connection

Dial up 32 6.5

Don’t know 64 13.0

Wireless 215 43.8

Broadband 180 36.7

Table 4.3 indicated that 114(23.2%) students have


the beginner level of Computer skills, 327(66.6%) students
have the middle level of computer skills as well as

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50(10.2%) students have the advance level of computer
skills.

The table also explained that 109(22%) students use


internet at library, 319(65%) students use internet at home,
52(10.6%) students use internet at residential hall, 32(6.5%)
students use dial up connection, 64(13%) don’t know their
connection, 215(43.8%) students use wireless internet
connection as well as 180(36.7%) students use broadband
internet connection.

Figure 3 Difference of Computer skills of the students

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Table 4

Frequency and percentage of students according to use of


social media, tools of social media ,most use of social media
and favorite social media.

Use social media f %

Yes 458 93.3


No 33 6.7
Tools for social media
Desktop 120 22.4
Laptop 265 54
Cell phone 73 14.9
Most use social media
Cite u like 2 .4
Google Buzz 35 7.1
Research Gate 4 .8
Blogs 2 .4
Wikis 8 1.6
Link din 3 .6
Library thing 9 1.8
Face book 297 60.5
YouTube 51 10.4
Twitter 24 4.9
Medley 1 .2
Academia 21 4.3
Sci Blog 1 .2
Favorite social media
Face book 290 59.1
YouTube 41 8.4
Twitter 12 2.4
Academia 19 3.9
Medley 1 .2

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Friendster 7 1.4
Google Buzz 66 13.4
Research Gate 5 1.0
Blogs 3 .6
Wikis 12 2.4
Library thing 2 .4

Table 4 explored that 458 (99.3%)students were


using social media, 33(6.7%) students were not using social
media, 120 (22.4%) students were using desktop as a tool of
social media, 265 (54%) students were using laptop as a tool
of social media and 73(14.9%)students were using cell
phone as a tool of social media.

Table also indicated that 2 (.4%) students were using


Cite u Like social media, 35(7.1%) students were using
Google Buzz social media, 4(.8%) students were using
Research Gate, 2(.4%) students were using Blogs, 8(1.6%)
students were using Wikis, 3(.6%) students were using Link
din, 9(1.8%) students were using Library Thing, 297 (60.5%)
students were using Face book, 51(10.4%) students were
using YouTube, 24(4.9%) students were using Twitter,
1(.2%) students were using Medley, 21(4.9%) students were
using Academia and 1(.2%) students were using Sci Blog.

The table also revealed that 290( 59.1%) students


were using facebook as their favorite social media, 41(8.4%)
students were using YouTube as their favorite social media,
12(2.4%) students were using twitter as their favorite social
media,19(3.9%) students were using academia as their
favorite social media, 1(.2%) students were using Medley as
their favorite social media, 7(1.4%) students were using
Friendster as their favorite social media, 66(13.4%) students
were using Google Buzz, 5(1%) students were using

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Research Gate, 3(.6%) students were using blogs, 12(2.4%)
students were using Wikis, 2(0.4%) students used Library
Thing as their favorite social media.

Figure 4 Favorite social media of the students

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Table 5

Frequency and percentage of University students about


usage of social media and friends.

How long usage f %


Less than 1 month 49 10.0
1-6 months 62 12.6
6-12 months 27 5.5
1-2 years 88 17.9
2-3 years 87 17.7
More than 3 years 145 29.5
Daily Use of Social Media
Less 1 hour 166 33.8
More 1 hour 145 29.5
2-3 hours 109 22.2
More than 3 hours 37 7.5
Timing of Social Media Usage
Daytime 125 25.5
At night 199 40.5
Weekends 71 14.5
Twice a week 18 3.7
Fortnightly 12 2.4
Monthly 8 1.6
Occasionally 24 4.9
Friends/Colleagues connected through
Social Media
Less than 10 102 20.8
10-49 134 27.3
50-99 116 23.6
100-200 66 13.4
>201 38 7.7
The above table 4.5 revealed that 49(10%) students
used social media from less than one month, 62(12.6%)
students were using social media from 1-6 months, 27(5.5
15
%) were using social media from 6-12 months, 88(17.9%)
students were using social media from 1-2 years, 87(17.7%)
students were using social media from 2-3 years and
145(29.5%) students were using social media from more
than 3 years.

Table 4.5 shows that 166(33.8%) students were


using social media less than one hour in a day, 145(29.5%)
students were using social media more than 1 hour daily,
109(22.2%) students were using social media 2-3 hours in a
day and 37(7.5%) students were using social media more
than 3 hours in a day.

Table 4.5 also indicated that 125(25.5%) students


were using social media at daytime, 199(40.5%) students
were using social media at night, 71(14.5%) students were
using social media at weekends, 18(3.7%) students were
using social media twice a week, 12(2.4%) students were
using social media at fortnightly, 8 (1.6%) students were
using social media monthly and 24(4.9%) were using social
media occasionally.

Table 4.5 found that 102(20.8%) students have less


than 10 friends in social media. 134(27.3%) students have
10-49 friends, 116(23.6%) students have 50-99 friends in
social media,66(13.4%) students have 100-200 friends in
social media and 38(7.7%) Students have greater than 201
friends

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Table 6
University students Response Regarding purposes to use the
Social Media.
Sr Statement Stron Agr Neutr Disagr Strongly
# s gly ee al ee Disagree
Agree (%) (%) (%) (%)
(%)
24 Purposes, 18.4 21.7 27.1 21.4 11.4
make
friends
25 Writing 12.3 28.7 28.2 23.9 7
blogs
26 Buildings 14.3 38.4 20.7 17.5 9.4
new
communit
ies
27 Informatio 35.4 46.4 11.6 4.6 2
n wd
friends
28 Passing 19.5 32.2 22.1 18.4 7.9
time
29 Academic 33 39.2 18.4 6.3 3.1
purposes
30 Looking 21.4 33.7 22.5 14.7 7.7
for job
31 Network 9.6 28.9 27.8 20.8 12.9
business
32 Religious 26 46 17.7 6.6 3.7
learning
33 Political 22.3 37.6 24.9 11.2 3.9
awareness
34 Entertain 29.1 35 23.4 7 5.5
ment
purpose

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Table 5 indicated that (40.5%) students are agreed or
strongly agree to use social media for making friends and
32.8% students are disagree and strongly disagree to use
social media for making friends. 41% student s are agreed or
strongly agreed to use social media for writing blogs and
30.9% students are disagree or strongly disagreed to use
social media for writing blogs.52.7% students are agreed or
strongly agreed to use social media for building new
communities and 26.9% students are disagree or strongly
disagree to use social media for building new
communities.81.8% students are agreed or strongly agree to
use social media for sharing information with friends and
8.6% students are disagree or strongly disagree to use social
media for sharing information with friends.51.7% students
are agree or strongly agree to use social media for passing
time and 26.3% students are disagree or strongly disagree to
use social media for passing time. 72% students are agree or
strongly agree to use social media for academic purposes and
9.4% students are disagree or strongly disagree to use social
media for academic purpose. 55.1% students are agree or
strongly agree to sue social media for looking for job and
22.4% students are disagree or strongly disagree to use social
media for looking for job. 38.5% students are agree or
strongly agree to use social media for network business and
33.7% students are disagree or strongly disagree to use social
media for network business. 72% students agree or strongly
agree to use social media for religious learning or preaching
and 10.3% students are disagree or strongly disagree to use
social media for religious learning or preaching. 59.9%
students are agree or strongly agree to use social media for
political awareness and 15.1% students are disagree or
strongly disagree to use social media for political awareness.
64% students are agree or strongly agree to use social media
for entertainment purposes and 12.5% students are disagree

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or strongly disagree to use social medial for entertainment
purposes.

Table No.7
Respondents of students who don’t use social media.
Sr. Statement Not Don’t No Don’t Wastage No
No Interested enjoy time know of time Access

62 Reasons 37.1 17.1 17.1 22.9 5.8 0


to not use
Social
Media

Table 7 revealed that 37.1% students are not


interested to use social media, 17.1% students don’t enjoy in
using social media, 17.1% have no time to use social media,
22.9% students don’t know how to use social media, 5.8%
students thinks its wastage of time.

6. Conclusion and Recommendations of the Study

The results of the study revealed that (100%) post


graduate and undergraduate students have access to internet
in the premises of University of the Punjab, Lahore. Majority
of the students use internet at home, but at the same time
students use internet facility at campus and residential halls
as well. The results also revealed that most of the students
used internet. Facebook was their favorite social media of
the students. Majority of the students used Facebook as their
favorite social media. Majority of the students were using
social media up to 2 hours in a day. The results of the study
represented that the purpose of using social media of
students was for sharing information, academic purposes,
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religious learning, preaching purposes as well as
entertainment.

On the basis of the findings, It is recommended that


proper facilities like IT skills, training workshops, Wi-Fi
facilities, Laptops, desktops etc. should be provided to
students so that they can use social media applications in
more proper way in this age of globalization. IT skills of the
students should be enhanced through different programs and
workshops. It is also recommended that more training
workshops should be organized to aware of the numerous
applications of social media so that their focus from
Facebook to other applications could also be viewed. Social
media applications in learning activities should be
appreciated by the teaching faculty.

7-References

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