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MODERN CLASSIFICATION

 Linnaeus
 Binomial nomenclature
 Taxon (taxa)
 Phylogenetics- the tracing of evolutionary relationships

BACTERIA
 Domain: Bacteria
 Domain: Archaea
 Prokaryotic- no membrane-bound organelles, microscopic
EARLY HISTORY OF LIFE  Shape
 Solar system~ 12 billion years ago (bya) 1. Cocci (sphere)
 Earth~ 4.5 bya 2. Bacilli (rod)
3. Helical (spiral)
 Life~ 3.5
 Prokaryotes~ 3.5 to 2.0 bya
Archaea Vs. Eubacteria
 Oxygen accumulation~ 2.7 bya
photosynthetic cyanobacteria DOMAIN ARCHAEA
 Eukaryotic life~ 2.1 bya  No peptidoglycan
 Muticelluar eukaryotes~ 1.2 bya  Do not respond to antibiotics
 Animal diversity~ 543 mya  Extremophiles
 Land colonization~ 500 mya  3 main groups: methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme
thermophiles

DOMAIN EUBACTERIA
 Peptidoglycan in cell walls
 Growth inhibited by antibiotics
 5 main groups: spirochetes, chlamydias, gram+, cyanobacteria,
proteobacteria

Prokaryotes
Decomposers
Unlock organics from corpses and waste products
Symbiosis
 Symbiont/host
 mutualism (+, +)
 parasitism (+, -)
 commensalism (+, 0)
Disease
 Opportunistic: Normal residents of host; cause illness when
defenses are weakened
 Exotoxins: Bacterial proteins that can produce disease w/o the
prokaryote present (botulism)
 Endotoxins: Components of gram - membranes (Salmonella)
DOMAIN EUKARYA  Monocots: 1 embryonic seed leaf (lilies, palms, grasses, grain
 Nucleus crops)
 Membrane-bound organelles  Dicots: 2 embryonic seed leaves (roses, peas, sunflowers, oaks,
 Larger in size than prokaryotic cells maples)
 Fungus, plant, and animal cells  Vascular tissue refinement: vessel elements/fiber cells

Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi


Ingestive: (animal-like); protozoa Heterotrophic by absorption (exoenzymes)
Absorptive: (fungus-like) Decomposers (saprobes), parasites, mutualistic symbionts (lichens)
Photosynthetic: (plant-like);alga Hyphae: body filaments
Mycelium: network of hyphae
Kingdom Plantae Chitin cell walls (polysaccharide)
Bryophytes (mosses),
Pteridophytes (ferns), Phy: Chytridiomycota
Gymnosperms (pines and conifers) aquatic fungi; chytrids
Angiosperms (flowering plants) lineage closest to protists (flagella)
Phy: Zygomycota
Plants: multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic autotrophs •Rhizopus (food mold)
Terrestrial colonization: •Mycorrhizae: mutualistic with plant roots
Vascular tissue •Zygosporangia: resistant structure (freezing and drying)
The seed Phy.: Ascomycota
The flower •sac fungi
• yeasts, truffles, morels,
•asci: sexual spores
•conidia: asexual spores
Phy.: Basidiomycota
• club fungus •mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungus, rusts
•basidiocarps: produce sexual spores

Kingdom Animalia
Heterotrophic
Most are mobile
Ingestion followed by digestion
Multicellular (most have tissues)
Lack cell walls
Sexual reproduction
35 phyla- most are marine

Gymnosperms
 Cone-bearing plants
 Lack enclosed chambers (ovaries) for seeds
 Ovules and seeds develop on specialized leaves called
sporophylls
 Ginkgo, cycads, and conifers
 All are “evergreens”
 Needle-shaped leaves
 Vascular tissue refinement: tracheids~ water conducting and
supportive element of xylem

Angiosperms
 Most diverse and geographically widespread of all plants
 “Flowering plants”(Phy: Anthophyta)

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