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The contents of this manual and the accompanying software are the copyright of WRc plc and

all rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval

system or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording or otherwise, without the prior written consent of WRc plc. The information

contained in this manual is confidential and restricted to authorised users only.

This manual and the accompanying software are supplied in good faith. While WRc plc have

taken all reasonable care to ensure that the product is error-free, WRc plc accepts no liability

for any damage, consequential or otherwise, that may be caused by the use of either this

manual or the software.

WRc plc

Frankland Road

Blagrove

Swindon

Wiltshire SN5 8YF

Great Britain

Tel: + 44 (0) 1793 865185

E-Mail: STOAT@wrcplc.co.uk

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. STORM TANKS 3

2.1 STORM TANK MODEL 1 (BOD) 3

2.2 STORM TANK MODEL 2 (COD) 5

2.3 PARAMETER ESTIMATION 6

3. PRIMARY TANKS 8

3.1 PRIMARY TANK MODEL 1 (BOD) 8

3.2 PRIMARY TANK MODEL 2 (COD) 9

3.3 PARAMETER ESTIMATION 9

4. LAMELLA SEPARATOR 12

4.1 INTRODUCTION 12

4.2 LAMELLA SETUP 12

4.3 LAMELLA SEPARATOR MODEL 1 (BOD) 12

4.4 LAMELLA SEPARATOR MODEL 2 (COD) 12

5. CHEMICALLY ASSISTED SEDIMENTATION 13

5.1 INTRODUCTION 13

5.2 COAGULATION MODEL 13

5.2.1 Choice of coagulation chemicals 13

5.2.2 Dose control 14

5.2.3 Dissolved organics removal model 14

5.2.4 Chemical equilibria 16

5.2.5 Suspended solids after coagulation 17

5.2.6 Calibration of coagulation model 18

5.3 FLOC BLANKET CLARIFIER MODEL (FBC) 21

5.3.1 Description of model 22

5.3.2 Model calibration 23

5.3.3 Start-up conditions 24

5.4 MODEL CALIBRATION 25

6. DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION (DAF) 26

6.1 MODEL DESCRIPTION 26

6.1.1 Mass balance and hydraulics 26

6.1.2 Solids removal 27

7. CHEMICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL 30

7.1 IAWQ 30

7.2 Equilibrium 30

8. ACTIVATED SLUDGE AERATION TANKS 32

8.1 ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 1 (ASAL1) 32

8.2 ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 2 (ASAL2) 35

8.3 ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 3 (ASAL3) 35

8.4 ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 4 (ASAL4) 37

8.5 ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 5 (ASAL5) 37

8.6 MODEL VARIANTS 38

8.7 IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1 39

8.8 IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2 40

9. TOWER REACTOR PROCESS 47

9.1 HYDRAULIC MODEL 47

9.1.1 Gas voidage 47

9.1.2 Frictional pressure drop 48

9.1.3 Mass transfer 50

9.1.4 Power 51

9.2 LINKING HYDRAULIC MODEL WITH REACTION KINETICS 51

9.3 PARAMETER ESTIMATION 52

10 DEGASSER 53

11 ACTIVATED SLUDGE SETTLING TANKS 54

11.1 FINAL TANK MODEL 54

11.2 PARAMETER ESTIMATION 55

12 SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR 57

12.1 COMMON FEATURES 57

12.2 WRc ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 57

12.3 IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1 57

12.4 IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2 57

13 VARIABLE VOLUME ACTIVATED SLUDGE 58

13.1 COMMON FEATURES 58

13.2 WRc ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 58

13.3 IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1 58

13.4 IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2 58

14. COMPARTMENTED SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR 59

14.1 COMMON FEATURES 59

14.2 WRc ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 59

14.3 IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1 59

14.4 IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2 59

15. BIOLOGICAL FILTERS 60

15.1 BIOLOGICAL FILTER MODEL 1 60

15.2 PARAMETER ESTIMATION 65

15.3 BIOLOGICAL FILTER MODELS 2 (BOD) & 3 (COD) 66

15.3.1Biofilm processes 66

15.3.2Bulk processes 67

15.3.3Reaction kinetics 68

16. HUMUS TANKS 69

16.1 HUMUS TANK MODEL 1 69

16.2 PARAMETER ESTIMATION 69

17. BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTERS 70

17.1 BIOFILM PROCESSES 70

17.2 REACTION KINETICS 70

18. BIOLOGICAL FLUIDISED BEDS 71

18.1 BIOFILM PROCESSES 71

18.2 REACTION KINETICS 71

18.3 BED EXPANSION 71

19. OXYGENATOR 72

19.1 STEADY STATE MODEL 72

19.2 DYNAMIC MODEL 72

20. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS 73

20.1 BIOFILM PROCESSES 73

20.2 REACTION KINETICS 73

21. SUBMERGED BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS 74

21.1 BIOFILM PROCESSES 74

21.2 REACTION KINETICS 74

22. CHEMICAL DISINFECTION 75

22.1 DISINFECTION MODEL #1 75

22.2 DISINFECTION MODEL #2 75

23. MESOPHILIC ANAEROBIC DIGESTION 76

23.1 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION MODEL 1 76

23.2 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION MODEL 2 77

24. THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION 82

24.1 TAD MODEL 1 82

25. DEWATERING 85

26. HEAT EXCHANGERS 86

26.1 Steady-state countercurrent 86

26.2 Steady-state cocurrent 86

26.3 Dynamic countercurrent 86

26.4 Dynamic cocurrent 87

27. DIRECT THERMAL SLUDGE DRYING 88

28. INDIRECT THERMAL SLUDGE DRYING 89

29 SLUDGE INCINERATION 90

30 PID CONTROLLER 91

30.1 PID MODEL 1 91

30.2 PID MODEL 2 92

30.3 PID MODEL 3 93

30.4 PID MODEL 4 93

31 LADDER LOGIC CONTROLLER 94

32 INSTRUMENT PROBE 95

32.1 FIRST-ORDER INSTRUMENT 95

32.2 SECOND-ORDER INSTRUMENT 95

33 SIMPOL 96

33.1 SEWER/CATCHMENT AREA 96

33.2 INLINE DETENTION TANK 99

33.3 OFF-LINE DETENTION TANK 99

33.4 COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW 100

34 WET WELLS 101

34.1 WET WELL MODEL 1 101

35 BALANCING TANKS 102

35.1 BALANCING TANK MODEL 1 102

36 SEPARATOR 103

36.1 SEPARATOR MODEL 1 103

37 'BLACK BOX' 104

38 PIPE DELAY 105

39 MIXERS AND SPLITTERS 106

39.1 MIXERS 106

39.2 SPLITTERS 106

39.3 OVERFLOW 106

40 COST FUNCTIONS 107

40.1 INTRODUCTION 107

40.2 GENERIC COST FUNCTIONS 107

40.2.1Capital cost 107

40.2.2Operating cost 107

40.3 DIVISION OF COSTS 108

40.3.1Capital 108

40.3.2Operating 108

40.4 DEFLATION/INFLATION OF COSTS 109

40.5 NET PRESENT COST (NPC) 109

40.6 STOAT DATA FILES 110

40.6.1Contents of file COSTS.DAT 110

40.6.2Contents of file COSTS.XLS 115

40.7 REFERENCES 121

41. STREAM COMPONENTS 122

42 CONVERTING RESULTS TO 95%iles 124

APPENDIX B TRACER TESTS 129

APPENDIX C OXYGEN MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS 131

APPENDIX D CRITERIA FOR MODEL ASSESSMENT 133

APPENDIX E MONITORING DATA 135

APPENDIX F SLUDGE SETTLING PARAMETERS 137

APPENDIX G MEASUREMENT OF SLUDGE SETTLEABILITY USING

THE SSVI TEST 138

WRc Process Model Descriptions

1. INTRODUCTION

This manual describes the mathematical models used for the various processes within STOAT and provides

guidelines for calibrating the processes. The Tutorials Guide contains additional information. We have chosen

to use IAWQ-style1 nomenclature in most of the mathematical descriptions. In this approach all soluble

components are referred to as S, followed by a subscript to identify the particular species. Particulates are

referred to as X, followed by a subscript. As examples, dissolved oxygen becomes SO and phosphate SP, while

volatile solids have the symbol XV.

STOAT has been developed as part of the UK Water Industry's Urban Pollution Management programme.

During the UPM programme STOAT was extensively validated against sewage works' data. The result of this

validation exercise is available to the UPM programme members in a series of WRc reports2. The accuracy of

the process treatment models within STOAT was found to be comparable to the accuracy of the original data

measurements. It is therefore your responsibility to ensure that the conditions you simulate represent what is

happening on your sewage works. Should you obtain an unusual set of results from STOAT we suggest that

you then turn to this description of the mathematical models to investigate how you can explain the results.

Should you decide that the problem is internal to STOAT then please contact WRc with details of the

problem.

The sections that follow describe a range of models. For some processes there may be more than one model.

The policy within STOAT is that new process models will be added to either extend the range of conditions

that current models describe, or to provide improved models. In each case the older models will be retained for

several subsequent versions of STOAT to allow you to make the transition between the old and new models.

The range of models will also include 'subset' models, where features that are not of general interest may be

excluded to simplify data entry. An example of this is the provision of separate models in activated sludge for

BOD/ammonia removal and BOD/ammonia/phosphate removal.

1 M Henze, CPL Grady, W Gujer, GvR Marais and T Matsuo, 1986, Activated Sludge Model No. 1,

Scientific Technical Report No. 1, IAWQ

2 JM Burns and CM Dickson, 1989, Dynamic Modelling of Sewage Treatment Works: Progress

Report, WRc Report ER 374E

CM Dickson, 1990, Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Dynamic Model of Sewage

Treatment Works Pollution Loading, WRc Report UM 1054

CM Dickson and D Bryan, 1991, Dynamic Modelling of Sewage Treatment Works: Development

and Evaluation of Unit Process Models, WRc Report UM 1190

J Dudley and CM Dickson, 1992, Dynamic Sewage Treatment Works Modelling, WRc Report UM

1287

Note that these reports can only be supplied to contributors to the research programme.

1

WRc Process Model Descriptions

STOAT is a modelling tool. If you want further background on the processes modelled, we suggest you look

at the following books. Note that these books are not the only ones available, and we do not recommend them

over any of the others on the market.

Metcalf and Eddy, 1991, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, McGraw Hill, Third

Edition. This book describes US practice for wastewater treatment.

SR Qasim, 1994, Wastewater Treatment Plant: Planning, Design and Operation, Technomic Publishing Co.

Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

US Water Environment Foundation, 1992, Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Two volumes.

WEF Manual of Practice No. 8. Also published by the American Society of Civil Engineers as Manual and

Report on Engineering Practice No. 76.

Chartered Institute of Water and Environmental Management (CIWEM).

Preliminary Processes

Primary Sedimentation

Activated Sludge

Biological Filtration

Tertiary Treatment and Advanced Waste Water Treatment

Sewage Sludge I: Production, Preliminary Treatment and Digestion

Sewage Sludge II: Conditioning, Dewatering and Thermal Drying

An Introduction to Sewage Treatment

These books are available from CIWEM in the UK and describe UK practice for wastewater treatment.

2

WRc Process Model Descriptions

2. STORM TANKS

The storm tank model is based on the work of Lessard and Beck3. The storm tank is in one of the following

states:

empty;

filling;

dynamic settling, when the tank is full and overflowing;

quiescent settling, when the tank is full with no inflow or outflow; and

draw-down, where the tank contents are being returned to the works.

These five states are assumed to be mutually exclusive - it should therefore not be possible for the tank to be

filling up at the same time as the tank contents are being returned back to the works. Where this happens on a

works it is better avoided than modelled.

The components within the tank are:

SNH3: Nitrogen ammonia [mg/l]

SNO3: Oxidised nitrogen [mg/l]

S O: Dissolved oxygen [mg/l]

SP: Soluble phosphorus [mg/l]

SS: Soluble BOD [mg/l]

XNV,s: Settleable non-volatile solids4 [mg/l]

XNV,n: Nonsettleable non-volatile solids [mg/l]

XNV,sl: Non-volatile solids in the settled sludge [kg]

XS,s: Settleable particulate BOD [mg/l]

XS,n: Nonsettleable particulate BOD [mg/l]

XS,sl: Particulate BOD in the settled sludge [kg]

XV,s: Settleable volatile solids [mg/l]

XV,n: Nonsettleable volatile solids [mg/l]

XV,sl: Volatile solids in the settled sludge [kg]

[Sludge]: Any of XNV,sl, XS,sl, XV,sl

Particulate BOD, volatile and non-volatile solids are divided into settleable and non-settleable fractions. The

model assumes that the ratio between settleable and non-settleable in the incoming sewage for each

component is fixed. Normally, low inlet solids concentrations would have high fractions of non-settleable

material, with the settleable fraction increasing as the solid concentration increases. This assumption may

mean that your STOAT models will need recalibration for the settleable: non-settleable ratios between

'average' and 'storm' conditions.

For STOAT we have made one change to Lessard and Beck's approach. In quiescent settling Lessard and

Beck assumed that all settleable material settled out immediately. With the modelling approach we use this

would mean that if for one second there was no flow into or out of the tank then everything settles out. We

have therefore treated quiescent settling as a special case of dynamic settling.

3 P Lessard and MB Beck, 1991, "Dynamic simulation of storm tanks", Water Research 25(4)375-

391. In addition to this paper Beck has provided WRc with several unpublished manuscripts

describing developments to the model.

4 Nonvolatile solids are frequently treated as a surrogate for non-biodegradable solids, and volatile

solids as a surrogate for biodegradable solids.

3

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Filling:-

Tank volume as storm tank fills up:

dV

=Q

dt

Change in soluble and non-settleable particulate concentrations:

dS Q

= ( Si − S )

dt V

Change in settleable particulate concentrations:

dX Q

= ( Xi − X) − K R ⋅ X

dt V

Accumulation of sludge solids: (This equation is only used where the volume within the tank is less than a

fraction α multiplied by the total volume.)

d[ Sludge]

= KR ⋅ X ⋅V

dt

Q is the flowrate entering the tank, and subscript i refers to concentrations in the influent.

There is one explicit parameter, KR, the removal rate. The removal rate can be different for each particulate

component. There is also an implicit parameter, α, the fraction of volume above which settling will take place.

The rationale behind this parameter is that when the tank volume is low and sewage is splashing into the tank

there is a lot of turbulence - this prevents solids from settling out, keeping them in suspension. Eventually the

sewage volume within the tank becomes large enough so that the effect of the incoming sewage does not

inhibit solid settlement. α can range in value from 0 to 1. A value of 0 implies little turbulence during filling,

while a value of 1 would mean that turbulence affected all the tank, so that during filling there was no solids

settlement. A typical value would be 0.1, being closer to 0 if sewage enters the tank near the base, and

increasing where the feed point is high in the tank and the tank volume is small in comparison with the

entering flow.

Dynamic settling:-

In dynamic settling the tank is full, so that the volume V has reached Vmax. The equations to model the

process become:-

Soluble and non-settleable particulates:

dS Q

= ( Si − S )

dt V

Settleable particulates:

dX Q

= ( Xi − X ) − VS (1 − λ ) X

dt Vmax

Sludge accumulation:

d[ Sludge]

= VS (1 − λ ) X ⋅ V

dt

There are two parameters, the solids settling velocity VS and the scouring parameter λ. The solids settling

velocity can be different for each particulate component, but the scouring parameter is the same for all. The

settling velocity is assumed to be constant, independent of the solids' concentration in the tank. The scouring

parameter reflects solids being resuspended from the sludge blanket, caused by high-speed currents close to

the sludge blanket. During quiescent settling the scouring parameter is zero - if there is no bulk flow within

the tank, there are no scouring currents.

Looking at the particulate settling equation, the effect of the scouring parameter is closely associated with the

settling velocity. The 'standard' approach with calibrating the storm tank model has been to adjust the settling

velocity until model predictions match measurements. With this approach it is difficult to assign unique values

4

WRc Process Model Descriptions

to the scouring parameter and the settling velocity, so the scouring parameter is given a value of 0. This is

reasonable because storm tanks are designed to be large, so that the velocities in the tank are low. When there

are data on the tank contents during dynamic and quiescent settling it may be possible to separate the settling

velocity from the scouring parameter.

Blind storm tanks are designed so that, when they are full, flow is diverted into other storm tanks, or to carry

on to an outfall.

Although in real life the storm tanks are intended never to return tank contents at the same time as sewage is

entering the tanks the model will permit this to happen.

Draw down:-

Draw-down is when the storm tank contents are being returned to the sewage works for further treatment. You

decide where to return the storm tank contents - common points are back into the inlet for primary settlement

or immediately after primary settlement.

The equations are:

Change in the tank volume:

dV

= −Q

dt

Soluble, settleable and non-settleable particulates:

dS

=0

dt

Sludge mass:

d[ Sludge] Q

= − [ Sludge]

dt V

Sludge removal is assumed to take place only when the volume in the tank falls below a fraction β of the

maximum volume. This assumes that sewage flows out of the tank first, and only at low volumes is the settled

sludge disturbed. β normally has a low value, around 0 - 0.1. A value for β of 1 would imply that all the

sludge was re-suspended in the storm tank prior to discharge. A value of 0 implies no removal of sludge: the

sludge mass will continue to build up, but is assumed to have zero volume. The model cannot currently

represent the removal of sludge before sewage, as may occur when scrapers push sludge into the discharge

hoppers at the start of draw-down. One of Beck's developments to the model has been to allow sludge to be

removed before the main sewage flow. This approach has not been implemented in STOAT as it does not

reflect operational practice at the sewage works where STOAT has been evaluated. Because the equations

assume that sludge is transferred directly to the outlet, rather than resuspended within the storm tank itself, if

further sewage enters the tank the effect will be as if the ‘suspended sludge’ had settled out instantaneously.

This is a feature of Beck’s model.

Although there is no change in the sewage concentration within the tank during draw-down, the effect of

sludge removal may lead to changes in the withdrawn sewage quality, as sludge is mixed into the sewage.

Storm tank model 2 is an extension of model 1, including the components volatile fatty acids, soluble organic

nitrogen and particulate organic nitrogen. This model allows you to track total nitrogen through the works, and

to include volatile fatty acids for use with biological P-removal and anaerobic digestion models.

5

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The parameters required for the storm tank can be arranged in several groups:

(i) Physical arrangement: maximum volume, settling area, stream to be used to control storm tank returns,

flow in that stream below which the storm tank contents are pumped back, and the pumping rate. A

typical flow scheme is illustrated below.

only returned when

Overflow

the flow in the control

stream drops below

a specified value

Storm tank

Storm tank return flow

Overflow

Influent

Control stream

AND CONTROL STREAM

The Settleable fraction of particulate BOD can be estimated by taking a sample of the sewage. Measure

the BOD. Filter. Measure the filtered BOD and take the particulate BOD as the difference. Take a

sample of sewage, leave it to settle for 24 hours, remove supernatant and measure its BOD, the

difference between the Total BOD and filtered BOD of the supernatant is the settleable particulate

BOD. Now you can calculate the settleable fraction.

The Settleable fraction of the volatile and non-volatile solids can be measured by taking a sample of

sewage and measuring the total volatile and nonvolatile solids. This includes the dissolved solids,

which is not a parameter that we include in STOAT. Filter a sample of the sewage. On the filtrate

measure the volatile and nonvolatile solids. This estimates the dissolved solids concentration.

Subtracting the dissolved solids from the total solids gives the filterable solids. The total solids test is

normally applied with sewage sludges, where the solids concentration is much greater than in sewage.

You may therefore need to use larger sample volumes to ensure that the accuracy of this test method

approaches that of the filterable solids test. Leave another sample to stand for 24 hours. The

recommended apparatus is an Imhoff cone, but any similar container should do. Repeat the volatile and

non-volatile solids measurements on the supernatant. The difference in suspended solids between the

fresh sewage and that left to stand for 24 hours is an estimate of the settleable fractions of these

components.

(iii) Removal rates during filling. These are difficult to measure, as it would require taking samples at the

same time as filling whatever vessel is being used to measure the removal rates. The standard method

has been to use the default values and to adjust these should the model predictions indicate that this is

necessary.

(iv) Settling velocities. Leave 24 samples of the sewage standing in 500 ml or larger settling cylinders. At

quarter-hourly intervals take any of the vessels and measure the suspended solids left in the

supernatant.

6

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The settling equation for the storm tank can be written as:

C = C 0 e − VS ⋅t /δ

where C0 is the initial concentration of settleable solids, VS is the settling velocity, t the elapsed time

and δ the depth of the settling tank. This equation assumes that the settling container is a cylinder,

rather than a cone.

The equation can be written as Y = a + b X, where Y = ln C and X = t. The parameters a and b are

calculated by standard linear regression methods, such as are found in most modern spreadsheets. From

a and b, C0 and VS are calculated as C0 = exp(a) and VS = - b δ.

(v) Scouring parameter and mixing fractions. These are normally estimated by comparing the model

predictions with works data. Typical default values are given in the description of filling and emptying

the tank, along with an explanation of the physical significance of these parameters.

7

WRc Process Model Descriptions

3. PRIMARY TANKS

The primary tank model, like the storm tank model, has also been developed from the work of Lessard and

Beck5. The primary tank is modelled as several well-mixed tanks in series, each tank having the same volume

and settling area, and is assumed to operate at constant volume.

The components within the primary tank are the same as for the storm tank. Particulate BOD, volatile and

non-volatile solids are divided into settleable and non-settleable fractions. The model assumes that the ratio

between settleable and non-settleable in the incoming sewage is fixed for each component. Normally, low

inlet total solids concentrations would have high fractions of non-settleable material, with the settleable

fraction increasing as the total solids concentration increases. This assumption may mean that your STOAT

models will need recalibration for the settleable: non-settleable ratios between 'average' and 'storm' conditions.

The equations describing the primary tank performance are:

Soluble and non-settleable particulates:

dS Q

= ( Si − S )

dt V

Settleable particulate components:

dX Q A

= ( Xi − X ) − VS (1 − λ ) X

dt V V

The sludge is specified as being produced at a fixed total solids percentage. The flowrate of sludge is

calculated from the solids settling out in the primary tank and the required sludge concentration.

The volume and area V and A are calculated as the total volume and area divided by the number of tanks-in-

series (stages) used to represent the primary tank. The concentrations Si and Xifor each component are those

for the sewage when calculating the first stage, and the concentration in the preceding stage for subsequent

stages. The number of stages required should be calculated from actual tracer tests carried out in the primary

tank. However, the value can be estimated using the output from STOAT by varying the number of stages and

using ammonia as a pseudo-tracer component. Starting with a single stage and increasing the number of stages

to 2, 3, ... there should be an increasing agreement between the predicted and measured ammonia

concentrations leaving the primary tank as the number of stages increases. This agreement will then get worse

as the number of stages increases above the 'correct' value. The best value for the number of stages is typically

in the range 2 - 5. As can be seen in the schematic diagram the 'tanks in series' are assumed to be horizontal

with crossflow rather than vertical with upflow.

Environmental Engineering 114(4)753-769. In addition to this paper Beck has supplied WRc with

several unpublished manuscripts describing enhancements to the model.

8

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Settled Sewage

Inflow

Sludge

The tank volume, and sometimes the tank area, required to model the primary tank performance may be less

than that actually installed. This represents short-circuiting within the primary tank. For many tanks the

difference in effluent quality between using the installed volume or a fine-tuned effective volume will not

affect the performance of further processes. We suggest that the installed volume and area be used and a

coarse agreement between STOAT predictions and measurements accepted. Unless there are large mismatches

between the final effluent quality predictions and any measurements we would not further fine-tune the

primary tanks. If the works is primary-treatment only then we advise you to ignore this suggestion.

Our experience with primary tanks is that under average flow conditions effluent quality is insensitive to the

values assigned to the settling velocity. This is because the overflow rates are typically low, so that

performance is affected more by the settleable fraction than the settling velocity. This is not the case during

storm flows or where there are large diurnal differences in flow. Under these conditions the settling velocity

becomes an important parameter to estimate.

The solids settling velocity is assumed to take the form:

VS = K ⋅ C h

where K and h are empirical constants and C is the total concentration of settleable solids. The parameters K

and h can be estimated by trying different values until the output from STOAT matches measured data.

Alternatively a settling column test can be carried out and values for K and h fitted to the results of the settling

test. The settling test will also provide information on the ratio of settleable to non-settleable solids.

The scouring parameter λ is normally assigned a value of 0. If the parameters K and h are estimated by

matching STOAT predictions to measured data then the scouring parameter can be taken as having been

subsumed into the value for K. Where K has been estimated from settling tests there may then be a need to

assign a value to the scouring parameter to match STOAT predictions to works data.

Sludge production is calculated from the rate at which solids settle. You specify the solids concentration in the

sludge, and this is then used to calculate the sludge flowrate. The sludge is assumed to be removed

continuously, and so there is no allowance for sludge build-up within the primary tank. This means that should

there be zero flow into the tank solids will continue to settle, but the produced sludge will vanish. Additional

primary settlement models are planned for STOAT that will correct this problem.

The second primary tank model is a simple extension of model 1, including the components volatile fatty

acids, soluble organic nitrogen and particulate organic nitrogen. It is intended for use when the works is being

modelled using COD and for use with the anaerobic digestion model 2.

The parameters required for the primary tank are:

9

WRc Process Model Descriptions

(ii) The mixing characteristics, specified as the number of completely mixed tanks in series. As suggested

above, we advise using ammonia as a 'tracer' and selecting the number of completely mixed tanks that

produces model predictions that best match the measured ammonia in the primary tank effluent.

(iii) The settleable fractions of solids and particulate BOD. A method for this has been given in the section

discussing storm tanks.

(iv) Settling velocity parameters K and h. The settling test method described above can use several designs

of settling column. Here we describe two. The first uses a 2 m column of 0.15 m internal diameter.

There are six sampling taps attached to the column at 0.3 m intervals from the top. The column is filled

with sewage and samples taken at quarter-hourly intervals for at least 4 hours. The suspended solids

concentrations of the samples are measured. The results can be used in fitting the settling model against

the data, producing values for K and h. This requires solving the following equation for each zone,

where A is the column cross-sectional area and ∆V is the volume between each sampling port.

∆C A ⋅ K h +1

= (Cupper zone − C h +1 )

∆t ∆V

This equation is the discrete form of the partial differential equation

∂C ∂VS ⋅ C

=

∂t ∂Z

A simpler method is to use the same settling column but take samples only from the top section. (A

series of settling cylinders could be used instead of the settling column, as described with the storm

tank calibration.) Samples are again taken and measured for suspended solids. Assuming that the solids

concentration within the sewage is uniform, then the equation relating settling velocity to suspended

solids is

1 −h K ⋅t

(C − C0− h ) =

N δ

This can be written as Y = a X, where Y is the entire left-hand side, a is K/δ and X is t. The time, t,

should be in hours, and the concentration of solids, C, in kg/m3.

Here C0 is the initial settleable solids concentration, t the sampling time and δ the depth of the settling

cylinder or the distance in the settling column between the top of the column and the sampling tap. The

settleable solids concentration, C, is given as the total solids concentration of the supernatant less the

nonsettleable solids concentration. The nonsettleable solids concentration is the solids concentration of

the supernatant after approximately 6 hours settlement.

This equation can be solved on a spreadsheet by adopting the following procedure:

Calculate numerical differences ∆C/∆t. (You could also plot C against t and from the plot draw

tangents to calculate dC/dt. The dC/dt values should then be used in the following procedure in place of

∆C/∆t.)

10

WRc Process Model Descriptions

dC K

= − ⋅ C h +1

dt δ

Therefore linear regression can be used on the equation

ln(-∆C/∆t) = ln(K/δ) + (h+1) ln C

as Y = a + b X

where Y = ln(-∆C/∆t) and X = ln C

From the linear regression results the slope b and intercept a provide

h=b-1

K = δ exp(a)

h and K therefore depend on the assumed concentration of nonsettleable solids. This value can be taken

as the final value of solids left in suspension.

Alternatively, you could choose to solve the equation using numerical methods such as are available in the

NAG library6 or a variety of books7 on mathematical methods. This approach will allow you to automatically

calculate a value for the initial settleable solids concentration, C0.

Although we recommend a default value for the scouring parameter of zero there is a correlation available8 to

estimate its value. This correlation is:

where g is gravitational acceleration [m/s2]

H is the depth of the tank [m]

W is the width of the tank [m]

U is the velocity of flow through the tank [m/s]

U = Q / (W x H) ; rectangular tanks

U = Q / (π x R x H / 2) ; circular tanks

WRc has not used this correlation, and so does not guarantee its use. We propose it as a first estimate should

you choose to include a non-zero scouring parameter. Should the calculated value exceed 1, then the scouring

parameter should be set to 1. In most circumstances the scouring parameter calculated by this correlation will

be close to 0.

6 Numerical Algorithm Group, Oxford. NAG publish a FORTRAN Library that contains a wide range

of mathematical subroutines, including a selection for optimisation and regression. The NAG

library is available on a wide range of computers, including IBM-PC compatibles.

7 See WH Press, SA Tekolsky, WT Vetterling and BP Flannery, 1992, Numerical Recipes in

FORTRAN, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press. This book is also available as Numerical

Recipes in C, Second edition; Numerical Recipes in Pascal, First edition; and Numerical Recipes in

BASIC, First Edition. We recommend Press et al. as a good starting point, containing ready-to-use

subroutines covering a wide range of topics, of which optimisation and regression are just two.

There are many other books on the market containing programs to solve nonlinear regression

problems, and a wide range of computer programs.

8 T Takamatsu, M Naito, S Shiba and Y Ueda, 1974, "Effects of deposit resuspension on settling

basin", Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division of ASCE 100(EE4) 883-903

11

WRc Process Model Descriptions

4. LAMELLA SEPARATOR

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The lamella separator is an extended version of the primary tank models which predicts the effect of using

lamella plates in a primary tank to aid settlement. The underlying settling equations are the same as the

primary tank models with a different setup to allow the extended surface area available to be modelled.

If the settler is L meters long, W metres wide and has N plates each with a submergence of Ls and an angle of

θ, then the total settling area is:

LW +LsWN tan θ.

The number of plates can be approximately calculated if the plate spacing s is known as:

N = int(L cos θ / s).

The following figure shows how the submergence, plate angle and spacing are specified. If the lamella settler

uses tubes rather than plates then the supplier should be consulted for the projected settling area.

θ

LS

The mathematical description is identical to the primary tank model 1 as described in Section 3.1.

The mathematical description is identical to the primary tank model 1 as described in Section 3.1.

12

WRc Process Model Descriptions

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The chemical treatment model incorporates two components: chemical coagulation and upflow (floc blanket)

clarification. The chemical coagulation component performs the following functions:

• Calculation of the degree of removal of dissolved organic components as a function of coagulant dose

and pH.

• Calculation of the effect on pH of the coagulant and any pH control agent dosed.

• Calculation of residual dissolved coagulant metal concentration.

• Calculation of the degree of precipitation of dissolved phosphorus.

• Calculation of the solids concentration after coagulation, which is passed to the clarification process.

The floc blanket clarification component calculates the degree of solids removal achieved in the floc blanket

clarifier (FBC) after coagulation.

The coagulation model was originally developed by WRc for potable water treatment applications. The

version in STOAT uses the same correlation to determine removal of dissolved organics, but has been

modified to accept the different components of relevance to waste water treatment. The chemical equilibria

governing the residual coagulant have been extended to include phosphorus. The model is essentially steady

state, the only time-dependent function being associated with pH control as noted below.

Five coagulants are supported in the current version:

• aluminium sulphate

• polyaluminium chloride

• ferric sulphate

• ferric chloride

• polymer ferric

• lime

• sodium hydroxide

• sodium carbonate

• sodium bicarbonate

• carbon dioxide

• hydrochloric acid

• sulphuric acid

The impact of the coagulant dose on pH is calculated assuming an equivalent acid dose for a given coagulant

dose:

• for aluminium sulphate, 2 moles aluminium are equivalent to 3 moles sulphuric acid

• for polyaluminium chloride, 1 mole aluminium is equivalent to 1 mole hydrochloric acid

• for ferric sulphate and polymer ferric, 2 moles iron are equivalent to 3 moles sulphuric acid

• for ferric chloride, 1 mole iron is equivalent to 3 moles hydrochloric acid

13

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Polyelectrolyte dosing can be specified and the dose is taken into account when calculating solids production.

However, apart from solids production, any influence a polyelectrolyte may have on the effectiveness of

treatment can only be accounted for by adjusting model calibration parameters. The model cannot be used to

predict the influence a polyelectrolyte may have, nor can it distinguish between different types of

polyelectrolyte.

Coagulant

The applied coagulant dose must be set manually, but is flow proportional. Changes in dose at set times can be

programmed at the start of a run. The dose is the concentration of coagulant to be attained in sewage.

Polyelectrolyte

The applied polyelectrolyte dose must be set manually, but is flow proportional. Changes in dose at set times

can be programmed at the start of a run.

pH control

Control of pH can be either manual or automatic. For manual control, the applied dose of the pH control agent

is specified and the model calculates the resultant pH. Changes in dose at set times can be programmed at the

start of a run.

There are two forms of automatic control. For both, the target pH is specified and the model calculates the

dose of pH control agent required. Changes in target pH at set times can be programmed at the start of a run.

The controller can be either a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type or ‘ideal’. The PID controller is the

more realistic in that it simulates the action of a real controller; however, care is required in the selection of

suitable values for the time constants to avoid instability. The PID controller is the only dynamic function

within the coagulation model. The ‘ideal’ controller works by simply adjusting the dose of the pH control

agent by fixed increments until the target pH is attained.

An empirical correlation, developed from analysis of jar test data, is used to model the removal of dissolved

organic components. Calibration of the model requires jar test data for the waste water under consideration; a

methodology for calibration is given in section 2.6. The model accounts for the effects of dissolved organic

carbon (DOC) concentration, coagulant dose and pH, but in this version any effect of temperature is ignored.

The DOC removal model is described by the following equation:

Craw

Ccoag = 5.1

1 + k c ( D − Dmin )

where

Ccoag = concentration of DOC (mg/l) after coagulation

Craw = concentration of DOC (mg/l) in influent

D = coagulant dose (mg M3+/l) (M = Al or Fe)

Dmin = minimum coagulant dose required to achieve removal (mg M3+/l)

kc = coagulation factor (1/mg M3+)

14

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The minimum dose required for removal is a function of pH and raw water concentration:

where

α , β = constants

The coagulation factor is a function of both pH and the concentration of DOC in the raw water:

where

a, b, c = constants

The removal of soluble BOD and COD is assumed to be in proportion to that of DOC:

Ccoag BOD( aq ) coag COD( aq ) coag

= = 5.4

Craw BOD( aq ) raw COD( aq ) raw

Ccoag

∆DOC = Craw 1 − 5.5

Craw

Ccoag

∆BOD = BOD( aq ) raw 1 − 5.6

Craw

Ccoag

∆COD = COD( aq ) raw 1 − 5.7

Craw

where

BOD( aq) caog , COD( aq ) coag = concentration of soluble BOD, COD (mg/l) after coagulation

BOD( aq) raw , COD( aq ) raw = concentration of soluble BOD, COD (mg/l) in influent

∆DOC = reduction in DOC as a consequence of coagulation

∆BOD, ∆COD = reduction in soluble BOD, COD as a consequence of coagulation

The BOD and COD removed from the aqueous phase is transferred to the solid phase:

BOD( s) coag = BOD( s) raw + ∆BOD 5.8

COD( s) coag = COD(s) raw + ∆COD 5.9

where

BOD( s) caog , COD( s) coag = concentration of solid BOD, COD (mg/l) after coagulation

BOD( s) raw , COD( s) raw = concentration of solid BOD, COD (mg/l) in influent

15

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The following reactions are assumed9 in determining how the coagulant metal and phosphorus are divided

between the solid and aqueous phases after coagulation.

MeOOH ( s ) + 3 H + = Me 3+ + 2 H 2 O 5.11

Me 3+ + H 2 O = MeOH 2 + + H + 5.12

Me 3+ + 2 H 2 O = Me(OH ) 2+ + 2 H + 5.13

Me 3+ + 3 H 2 O = Me(OH ) 3( aq ) + 3H + 5.14

Me 3+ + 4 H 2 O = Me(OH ) −4 + 4 H + 5.15

Me 3+ + H 2 PO4− = MeH 2 PO42 + 5.16

Me 3+ + HPO42 − = MeHPO4+ 5.17

H 3 PO4 = H + + H 2 PO4− 5.18

− + 2−

H 2 PO = H + HPO

4 4 5.19

HPO = H + + PO43−

2−

4 5.20

where

Me = Al or Fe

r = 1.6 if Me = Fe

r = 0.8 if Me = Al

Equilibrium constants and heats of reaction for the above are shown below.

Reaction pK (25oC) ∆H

Al Fe Al Fe

5.11 -9.1 0.5 16.0 19.8

5.12 5.0 2.2 12.0 10.4

5.13 9.3 5.7 22.0 17.0

5.14 15.0 12.0 34.9 26.5

5.15 23.0 21.6 30.0 34.8

5.16 NA -21.8 - -

5.17 -12.1 -9 - -

5.18 2.1 1.9

5.19 7.2 -0.8

5.20 12.2 -3.5

NA: not applicable

- : not available

9 Jenkins D and Hermanowicz SW, (1993). ‘Principles of Chemical Phosphate Removal’, Two day

Workshop of Design and Operational Experience of Treatment Plants for Nutrient Removal from

Wastewater, 28-29 June, Centro ”Luigi Bazzucchi”, Ponte della Pietra, Perugia, Italy.

16

WRc Process Model Descriptions

∆H 1 1

pK T2 = pK T1 + −

2.303 R T2 T1

where

pK = equilibrium constant

∆H = heat of reaction (kcal/mol)

R = universal gas constant (1.987 x 10-3 kcal/mol K)

T1 = reference temperature (K)

T2 = temperature (K)

This temperature dependency is ignored where heats of reaction are not available.

[ ][

K W = H + OH − ]

4470.99

log K W = 6.0875 − − 0.01706T

T

pH = − log H + [ ]

where:

K W = partition coefficient, water

+

−

T = temperature (K)

5.2.5 Suspended solids after coagulation

Total suspended solids is the sum of volatile and non-volatile solids. After coagulation, the non-volatile solids

concentration is increased by the addition of precipitated coagulant metal and phosphorus species as

determined by the equilibria. The volatile solids concentration is increased by an amount equivalent to the

DOC removed from the aqueous phase and, if polyelectrolyte is used, by the polyelectrolyte dose:

XVScoag = XVSraw + k DOC . ∆DOC + C poly 5.21

where

XVScoag = volatile solids (mg/l) after coagulation

XVSraw = volatile solids (mg/l) in influent

k DOC = (total mass / mass of carbon) in dissolved organics

C poly = dose of polyelectrolyte (mg/l)

A value for k DOC of 2 is assumed.

17

WRc Process Model Descriptions

To calibrate the coagulation model, jar test data are required for the waste water and coagulant of interest.

Ideally, results are required for the anticipated range of influent DOC concentrations, a range of different

coagulant doses and a range of pH values.

With suitable jar test data, the steps required to determine the model constants are:

• Determine the relationship between Dmin and pH

• For each Craw, determine kc for different pH values, and determine the polynomial constants for the

relationship between kc and pH

• Determine the relationship between Craw and the polynomial constants for calculating kc

Determination of Dmin

By re-arrangement of Equation 2.1 into a linear form, it is possible to find Dmin for a particular pair of values

of pH and Craw. The linear form is:

Craw

= (1 − k c Dmin ) + k c D

Ccoag

A plot of Craw/Ccoag versus D yields a straight line from which Dmin can be calculated:

Intercept − 1

Dmin =

− Slope

An example is shown in Figure 5.1.

9.0

Coagulation pH = 6.4

7.0 Raw water DOC = 13

mg/l

DOCraw/DOCcoag

Slope = 1.61

3.0

1.0

-1.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-5.0

Coagulant dose (mgAl/l)

Figure 5.1 Determination of the minimum coagulant dose required for colour removal

18

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Determination of α and β

Once Dmin has been found for each Craw and pH, the relationship between Dmin and pH can be found. Equation

5.2 describes a linear relationship between Dmin and pH. By plotting Dmin/Craw against pH and performing a

linear regression, a and b can be found:

a = slope of regression line

b = intercept of regression line

An example is shown in Figure 5.2.

0.5

DOCraw

0.45 8 - 8.5

12.5 - 13

0.4

13.5 - 14

0.35 14.5 - 15.5

16.5 - 17

0.3

Dmin/DOCraw

Regression line

0.25

Dmin = DOCraw(0.136 pH -

0.606)

0.2

α = 0.136

β = -0 606

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8

pH

Figure 5.2 An example dataset showing the relationship between Dmin and pH for an upland water

with different raw water colours

Once the relationship for Dmin has been found the coagulation factor (kc) is determined for each pH and value

of Craw. This can be found by re-arrangement of Equation 5.1 into another linear form and performing a linear

regression. A plot of (Craw/Ccoag - 1) against (D - Dmin) yields a straight line for which:

kc = slope of regression line through the origin

An example dataset is shown by Figure 5.3.

19

WRc Process Model Descriptions

12

DOCraw = 14 mg/l

pH = 6.4

10 Dmin = 3.68 mg/l

8

(DOCraw/DOCcoag)-1

Slope of regression

line = kc = 2.14

4

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

D-Dmin

For a given value of Craw, a plot of kc against pH should give a second order polynomial, as shown by Figure

5.4.

3.5

8 - 8.5

3 16.5 - 17

Poly. (16.5 - 17)

2.5 Poly. (8 - 8.5)

2

polynomial regression

kc

kc = -a + b pH - c pH2

1.5

0.5

0

5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5

pH

Figure 5.4 Example of the variation of coagulation factor with pH for an upland water at two

different raw water colours

Once the polynomial constants (a, b, c) have been found for a particular value of Craw, the relationships

between each polynomial constant and Craw, are evaluated. These relationships are all of the form:

a2

a = a1 C raw

The coefficients a 1, a 2 are found from a regression of ln( a ) against ln( Craw ); an example is shown in

Figure 5.5.

20

WRc Process Model Descriptions

100

a = 2.2993 DOCraw0.8257

b = 0.6986 DOCraw0.8667

10

Polynomial constant

c = 0.037 DOCraw0.9975

1

10 100

0.1

DOCraw

Figure 5.5 Variation in the polynomial constants required for determining kc with raw water

colour for an upland water

The model included to simulate the dynamic performance of an FBC was developed by WRc. It assumes that

the flow is ideal (i.e. plug flow) and divides the blanket into a number of layers for which the mass balance

equations are solved using a finite difference approach.

The following assumptions are made:

• There are two types of particle within the FBC: primary particles, which are small particles formed by

coagulation and which are present in the influent; and secondary particles, which are the fully grown floc

particles which form the blanket.

• Desludging of the FBC, whether continuous or intermittent, is specified by the flow rate of the sludge

stream. The concentration of solids in the sludge stream is calculated by mass balance. There is no

facility to simulate desludging by gravimetric cone.

• All particles are equally well removed.

In the context of this model, blanket concentration is defined as the settled volume of sludge, expressed

as the percentage of the sample volume (%v/v), in a sample that has been allowed to stand for 30 minutes

in a measuring cylinder11.

21

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The model is based on the solids flux theory12,13, which has been successfully used in wastewater treatment

to simulate the performance of secondary clarifiers. The fundamental continuity equation can be written as:

∂X ∂ ( D∂X ) ∂ ( vX )

= 2

− − Rx 5.22

∂t ∂z ∂z

where

X = mass concentration of solids (g/m3)

t = time (h)

D = dispersion coefficient (m2/h)

v = upflow velocity (m/h)

z = vertical distance (m)

Rx = the ‘reaction’ rate affecting solids concentration (g/m3/h)

A number of assumptions must be made to enable this equation to be solved. It is assumed that the FBC

exhibits no vertical dispersion, i.e. D = 0

It is also assumed that the concentration of solids is uniform within any horizontal layer of the FBC and that

the settling velocity of the suspension is a function of its concentration only.

The clarifier is divided into a number of horizontal layers, N (default = 50), with layer 1 being the bottom

layer.

The floc particles are assumed to have a bimodal size distribution, after Hudson14. The two types of particle

are the primary particles formed due to chemical coagulation, and the fully grown secondary particles which

make up the floc blanket. The influent water is assumed to contain only primary particles, which have very

little water entrained with them. A large proportion of a fully grown floc is entrained water, and the floc

density is therefore close to the density of water.

The solids flux is a balance of opposing velocities. Particles are carried upwards due to the bulk flow of water

through the FBC, but also have a tendency to settle due to gravity.

For each layer, a mass balance is written for each particle type. Flocculation due to collisions between primary

and secondary particles in the blanket is described using the reaction rate term in Equation 5.22.

The dependence of the settling velocity on the blanket concentration is due to the effect of hindered settling.

Due to the fact that there is a suspension of particles, the individual particle settling velocity is reduced.

and Expert Systems in Wastewater Engineering’ (Ed: Patry, G G & Chapman, D), Lewis Publishers

Inc.

13 Takacs I, Patry G G, Nolasco D, (1991). ‘A Dynamic Model of the Clarification-Thickening

Process’, Water Research 25 (10), 1263-1271.

14 Hudson H E, (1972). ‘Density Considerations in Sedimentation’, JAWWA, 62 (6), 382-386.

22

WRc Process Model Descriptions

A modified version of the Richardson-Zaki equation has been used to simulate this effect, relating the settling

velocity to the blanket concentration:

[

v h = v max 1 − s(C − Cmin ) ]

n

5.23

where

v h = hindered settling velocity (m/h)

v max = maximum settling velocity (m/h)

s = shape factor to account for the non-sphericity of floc particles

C = volumetric concentration of blanket (%v/v)

Cmin = minimum volumetric concentration of blanket (%v/v)

n = exponent

Patry and Takacs15 noted that below a certain concentration, the settling velocity of the suspension was

constant. Below this concentration hindered settling no longer applies and the blanket settles at the rate of

individual particles. This point is defined in Equation 5.23 by the minimum volumetric concentration

Cmin and the maximum settling velocity v max .

The reaction rate term in Equation 5.22 has been modelled as a proportion of the primary particles in the layer.

For the primary particles, this term will be negative, as they are enmeshed by fully-grown floc particles, but

for the secondary particles it will be positive. The rate at which collisions occur is dependent on the

concentration of secondary particles:

kX1 X 2

Rx =

ρ2

where

k = flocculation factor (h-1)

X1 = concentration of primary particles (g/m3)

X 2 = concentration of secondary particles (g/m3)

ρ 2 = density of secondary particles (g/m3)

There are three boundary conditions which must be examined: the influent water; the clarified water; and the

waste sludge stream. The influent water is assumed to comprise only primary particles. There can be no

settling from the bottom layer of the blanket, due to the physical boundary of the clarifier floor. Likewise,

there can be no settling into the top layer of the clarifier. Desludging, when it occurs, is assumed to be a

continuous process, sludge being wasted at a constant rate into a sludge cone. The flow in the upper layers of

the clarifier above the sludge take-off point is reduced to take into account the waste flow.

The hindered settling equation (5.23) has three constants which must be defined. To do this, a curve of the

settling velocity against the blanket concentration is plotted. Figure 5.6 shows an example of such a curve.

The blanket concentrations have been measured by taking samples from within the blanket using a suction

pump. The ‘30 minute settled volume’ is measured by leaving the sample to stand in a graduated measuring

cylinder for 30 minutes and measuring the volume the floc takes up after this time. This gives a good

approximation to the volumetric concentration of the blanket. The clarifier is assumed to operating in a steady

state, so that the settling velocity of the blanket is equal to the upflow rate in the clarifier. This upflow rate can

usually be calculated using plant data. Samples should be taken for a range of upflow rates, though with the

same, or at least very similar, raw water and chemical dosing conditions.

The constants can then be calculated by fitting a curve of the form of Equation 5.23 to the data.

15 Patry G G and Takacs I, (1992). ‘Settling of Flocculent Suspensions in Secondary Clarifiers’, Water

Research 26 (4), 473-479.

23

WRc Process Model Descriptions

10

9

V h = V max [ 1 - s (C - C min) ]n

8

V max = 7 m/h

C min = 5 % v/v

Settling velocity v h (m/h)

7

s = 1.2

n = 5.5

6

v max

C min

3

2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

The flocculation factor can be estimated by comparing real plant data with the data generated by running the

model.

For each set of steady state operating conditions, there is an initial blanket concentration which will give a

steady blanket within 5 hours of simulation time. However, this initial condition varies with changes in the

influent solids concentration and the flocculation factor. Figure 5.7 shows an example of such variations. Even

small changes in these variables can result in long run times to achieve steady state conditions.

14.00

Optimum Initial Blanke

Concentration (%)

13.50

13.00

12.50

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

F loc F actor

The optimum initial blanket concentration can be found by trial and error. Figure 5.8 illustrates the technique.

A chemical treatment model is set up in STOAT. All the variables should be given steady-state values for the

operating conditions which will be used. The works should be run for about 100 hours, with different initial

blanket concentrations. After the run is completed for each concentration, the average blanket concentration is

studied. If this concentration is increasing, then the initial blanket concentration needs to be increased. If it is

decreasing, then the initial concentration should be decreased. The optimum condition can usually be obtained

in 4 or 5 iterations.

24

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Ave. Blanket Concentratio

13.70

13.60 C oncentration Steady

InitialC onc.= 13.35%

13.50

(%)

C oncentration Increasing

13.30

13.20 InitialC onc.= 13%

13.10

13.00

0 20 40 60 80 100

T im e (hrs)

The user specifies:

• The initial blanket concentration. The model requires there to be a blanket in the FBC at the start of a run

(2 to 20 %v/v).

• The flocculation factor (1 to 100 h-1).

• The maximum settling velocity (1 to 20 m/h).

• The minimum blanket concentration (0 to 15 %v/v).

• Reference temperature. This is the temperature at which the maximum settling velocity and minimum

blanket concentration were determined. The model takes into account any difference between the

reference and operating temperatures by calculating the respective viscosities (5 to 20oC).

• Shape factor. A coefficient in the hindered settling equation (0 to 3).

• Exponent factor. A coefficient in the hindered settling equation (1 to 15).

• Floc density. The density of secondary particles (fully grown flocs) (1000 to 1200 g/l).

• Ratio of wet to dry solids. The ratio of blanket concentration (%v/v) to the concentration of dry solids

(mg/l) in the blanket (1 to 1000).

25

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The DAF tank is modelled as a series of CSTRs of equal volume. Solids removal by flotation is assumed to

follow a first-order relationship with respect to solids concentration.

In deriving the mass balance the solids concentration in the recycle stream is equal to that at the tank outlet.

The total waste stream flow rate is divided equally between stages, the solids concentration in the waste

stream from a stage being equal to the solids concentration in the stage. For the general case of a tank

modelled as n CSTR stages, the mass balance for a stage m becomes:

= X m −1 − + k float X m

dt ( V n) ( V n)

where

k float = flotation constant (h-1)

Qin = inlet flow rate (m3/h)

t = time (h)

X in = inlet solids concentration (kg/m3)

X out = outlet solids concentration (= concentration in tank) (kg/m3)

n = number of CSTR stages

Qr = recycle flow rate (m3/h)

Qw = total waste flow rate (m3/h)

V = total tank volume (m3)

For n = 1 the equation simplifies to:

= − + k float X1

dt ( V n) ( V n )

where

X n = X out = outlet solids concentration (kg/m3)

For convenience, in the above equations the liquid wasted is considered separately from the solids removed.

Having determined the solids removal across the tank, the solids concentration in the waste stream is

calculated from an overall mass balance.

The inlet solids concentration is the sum of volatile and non-volatile solids. All solid components are assumed

to be equally well removed.

For dissolved components, which are unaffected by DAF, the tank is assumed to behave as a single CSTR:

dCout Qin

= (C − Cout )

dt V in

where

Cout = outlet concentration of a dissolved component (kg/m3)

Cin = inlet concentration of a dissolved component (kg/m3)

The hydraulic retention time in a DAF tank is short compared with other processes, so this simplification is

unlikely to result in any discernible error.

26

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The DAF model applies the concept of the single-collector collision efficiency to determine the flotation

constant, as described by Malley and Edzwald16 . This concept had previously been applied to particle

removal by filtration, but was extended to flotation by Malley and Edzwald by considering individual air

bubbles as collectors rather than filter medium particles. In flotation, solids removal is effected by the

adherence of air bubbles to particles, which requires contact to be made between bubble and particle. The

collision efficiency is a measure of the extent to which collisions occur.

Collisions can arise from three mechanisms, for which the collision efficiency relationships are:

Brownian diffusion:

2

k T 3

η b = 6.18 Boltz 3

gρ l d fp d b

Interception:

2

3 d fp

ηi =

2 db

Gravity settling:

2

ρ fp − ρ l d fp

ηg =

ρ l db

The total single-collector collision efficiency is the sum of the three components:

ηt = ηb + ηi + ηg

where

d b = bubble diameter (m)

d fp = floc particle diameter (m)

g = gravitational acceleration (m/s2)

k Boltz = Boltzman constant, 1.3807x10-23 (J/K)

T = absolute temperature (K)

η b = single-collector collision efficiency, Brownian diffusion (-)

η i = single-collector collision efficiency, interception (-)

η g = single-collector collision efficiency, gravity settling (-)

η t = single-collector collision efficiency, total (-)

ρ fp = density of floc particle (kg/m3)

ρ l = density of liquid (kg/m3)

In practice, the interception term is dominant for particle diameters greater than 1 µm.

waters”, J Water SRT-Aqua 40(1)7-17.

27

WRc Process Model Descriptions

3α pb η t φ b U b

k float =

2db

where

U b = bubble rise velocity (m/h)

α pb = attachment efficiency (-)

φ b = bubble volume concentration (-)

The attachment efficiency allows for the fact that not all collisions result in adhesion between bubble and

particle. The bubble volume concentration is dependent on the amount of air released into the tank, and thus

on the recycle flow rate and saturator characteristics:

Cr

φb =

ρ air

Cr =

( Cs − Ca ) R

1+ R

Psat (ε sat 100)

Cs =

H air

1

Ca =

H air

where

Ca = concentration of dissolved air remaining in DAF tank assuming it is at atmospheric

pressure (kg/m3)

Cr = concentration of air released into DAF tank (kg/m3)

Cs = concentration of air in saturated recycle stream (kg/m3)

H air = Henry’s constant for air (atm/(kg/m3))

Psat = Saturator pressure (atm abs)

R = Recycle ratio, Qr Qin , (-)

ε sat = Saturator efficiency (%)

ρ air = density of air, at mid-depth in tank (kg/m3)

The density of a floc particle is a function of size and is estimated using relationships reported by Lagvankar

and Gemmell17 :

( )

−0 .698

ρ fp = ρ l + 3.92 1000 d fp = ρ l + 0.03157d −fp0.698

diameter < 1.4 x 10-3 m

( )

−0 . 216

ρ fp = ρ l + 3.33 1000 d fp = ρ l + 0.7489d −fp0.216

diameter ≥ 1.4 x 10-3 m

17 AL Lagvankar and RS Gemmell, 1968,”A size-density relationship for flocs”, JAWWA 60(9)1040-

1046.

28

WRc Process Model Descriptions

where

d fp = floc particle diameter (m)

ρ fp = density of floc particle (kg/m3)

ρ l = density of liquid (kg/m3)

29

WRc Process Model Descriptions

There are two chemical phosphorus removal models, IAWQ and Equilibrium.

7.1 IAWQ

The IAWQ model implements the model published in the IAWQ Technical Report #318.

The model equations are

Process SPO4 SALK XMeOH XMeP XTSS Equation

Precipitation -1 v19,ALK -3.45 4.87 1.42 kPRE.SPO4.XMeOH

Redissolution 1 v20,ALK 3.45 -4.87 -1.42 KRED .XMeP

The numerical values in the table assume that FeCl3 is used to precipitate SPO4 in the form of FePO4 +

Fe(OH)3.

7.2 EQUILIBRIUM

The following reactions are assumed19 in determining how the coagulant metal and phosphorus are divided

between the solid and aqueous phases after coagulation.

MeOOH ( s ) + 3 H + = Me 3+ + 2 H 2 O 7.2

Me 3+ + H 2 O = MeOH 2 + + H + 7.3

Me 3+ + 2 H 2 O = Me(OH ) 2+ + 2 H + 7.4

Me 3+ + 3 H 2 O = Me(OH ) 3( aq ) + 3H + 7.5

Me 3+ + 4 H 2 O = Me(OH ) −4 + 4 H + 7.6

Me 3+ + H 2 PO4− = MeH 2 PO42 + 7.7

Me 3+ + HPO42 − = MeHPO4+ 7.8

H 3 PO4 = H + + H 2 PO4− 7.9

− + 2−

H 2 PO = H + HPO

4 4 7.10

HPO = H + + PO43−

2−

4 7.11

where

Me = Al or Fe

r = 1.6 if Me = Fe

r = 0.8 if Me = Al

18 Henze, M, W Gujer, T Mino, T Matsuo, MC Wentezel and GvR Marais, 1995, Activated Sludge

Model No. 2, IAWQ Scientific and Technical Report No. 3

19 Jenkins D and Hermanowicz SW, (1993). ‘Principles of Chemical Phosphate Removal’, Two day

Workshop of Design and Operational Experience of Treatment Plants for Nutrient Removal from

Wastewater, 28-29 June, Centro ”Luigi Bazzucchi”, Ponte della Pietra, Perugia, Italy.

30

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Equilibrium constants and heats of reaction for the above are shown in Table 7.1.

Reaction pK (25oC) ∆H

Al Fe Al Fe

7.4 9.3 5.7 22.0 17.0

7.5 15.0 12.0 34.9 26.5

7.6 23.0 21.6 30.0 34.8

7.7 NA -21.8 - -

7.8 -12.1 -9 - -

7.9 2.1 1.9

7.10 7.2 -0.8

7.11 12.2 -3.5

NA: not applicable

- : not available

∆H 1 1

pK T2 = pK T1 + −

2.303 R T2 T1

where

pK = equilibrium constant

∆H = heat of reaction (kcal/mol)

R = universal gas constant (1.987 x 10-3 kcal/mol K)

T1 = reference temperature (K)

T2 = temperature (K)

This temperature dependency is ignored where heats of reaction are not available.

[ ][

K W = H + OH − ]

4470.99

log K W = 6.0875 − − 0.01706T

T

pH = − log H + [ ]

where:

K W = partition coefficient, water

[ H ] = molar concentration of hydrogen ions

+

−

T = temperature (K)

31

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The activated sludge models are based around WRc's Activated Sludge Model21 and the IAWQ COD models.

The basic model is described here as Model 1 and is intended for normal activated sludge modelling. This

model ignores the breakdown of particulate BOD to soluble BOD, and this simplification can affect the

predictions of detailed spatial oxygen demand within the aeration basin, and also the effluent BOD under

storm conditions. Model 2 therefore includes the effects of solids hydrolysis to soluble products. Although

Model 2 is therefore more accurate than Model 1 it does require that you have some data on solids breakdown;

where this is lacking Model 1 should be used. Model 3 gives the user full access to all the kinetic constants

within the model. Model 5 is a simple biological phosphorus removal model, based on an extension of Model

1.

This model was first published by Jones22. Work carried out at the Water Pollution Research Laboratories,

which later became WRc, had demonstrated the difficulty of reconciling the biochemical activity of activated

sludge with the numbers of viable bacteria present. In some cases the observable potential biochemical activity

was an order of magnitude greater than could be accounted for by the concentration of viable cells in the

sludge. Further, in considering the energetics of the process, calculation showed that for a typical settled

sewage the quantity of biologically available carbon could support no more than 20% of the sludge as viable

bacteria.

Downing23 had developed a model based on Monod kinetics that accurately described the nitrification

performance of the activated sludge process. In the years that followed several other models applied the same,

or similar, equations to protozoa and heterotrophic bacteria. While these models were often adequate when

applied to completely mixed aeration systems, problems arose with the degree of treatment predicted as

longitudinal mixing was decreased (i.e. as plug-flow behaviour was increased) and also as the predicted

bacteria concentration within the system increased. As an example, unrealistically large numbers, in the range

100-200 mg/l, were sometimes used for the value of the half-rate saturation constant, to overcome the

prediction of a vanishingly small concentration of substrate (BOD or ammonia) in the final effluent.

Monod developed his kinetic equations on the basis of bacterial growth in laboratory fermenters, in which the

viability of the population was almost 100%. The conditions in an activated sludge plant are markedly

different from most laboratory fermenters. First, the concentration of the feed stock entering the plant is much

lower and second, the object of the treatment process is to reduce the concentration of metabolisable substrate

to as low a level as possible. This makes the conditions in a treatment plant more akin to those in a spent batch

culture, where the viability of the culture is beginning to decline. Although a bacterium may be 'nonviable', in

that it is no longer capable of cell division, this does not necessarily mean that it is no longer capable of

biochemical activity. The activity may even be enhanced for specific compounds24, although this should not

be expected for most compounds.

21 GL Jones, 1977, "A mathematical model for bacterial growth and substrate utilisation in the

activated sludge process", in A James (ed.) Mathematical Models in Water Pollution Control, pp.

265-280, Wiley-Interscience, Chichester

22 GL Jones, 1973, "Bacterial growth kinetics: Measurement and significance in the activated sludge

process", Water Research 7, 1475-1492

23 AL Downing, HA Painter and G Knowles, 1964, "Nitrification in the activated sludge process",

Journal of the Institute of Sewage Purification, Part 2, 120-158

24 M Stephenson, 1928, "On lactic dehydrogenase. A cell-free enzyme preparation obtained from

bacteria", Biochemical Journal 22, 605-614

32

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Wooldridge25 recognised that the majority of the bacterial population in activated sludge was nonviable. His

experiments showed that nonviable bacteria were quite capable of removing BOD from a reaction mixture in

the absence of viable cells. They concluded that because there was a large proportion of nonviable cells in

activated sludge that these cells would need to retain only a part of their original activity for them to be

responsible for the majority of the biochemical activity observed in the sludge. Results from more recent

chemostat studies have supported this.

The WRc model thus comprises a number of differential equations written as a mass balance around a

completely mixed reactor. Increasing the number of reactors in series increases the model's approach to plug-

flow. Twelve tanks in series provide an excellent approximation to a true plug-flow reactor.

Each tank contains an identical number of components with a differential equation for each. The components

are listed below. Autotrophs are ammonia users and heterotrophs BOD users.

SNH3: Ammonia [mg/l]

SNO3: Nitrate [mg/l]

SO : Dissolved oxygen [mg/l]

SP: Soluble phosphate [mg/l]

SS: Soluble BOD [mg/l]

XA,V: Viable autotrophs [mg/l]

XA,NV: Nonviable autotrophs [mg/l]

XH,V: Viable heterotrophs [mg/l]

XH,NV: Nonviable heterotrophs [mg/l]

XT: Mixed liquor suspended solids [mg/l]

The model recognises that utilisation of substrate can occur without this consumption being coupled to

growth. Thus a more accurate description of the removal of substrate from a wastewater treatment system

would include in the mass balance equation a Monod term for the conversion of substrate to new biomass and

a Michaelis-Menten term for non-growth substrate removal. The equations below represent how this is done

within the WRc model:

Removal of BOD:

dSS µ

= Q ⋅ ( SS,in − S ) − H X H ,V ⋅ V − ψ ⋅ X H , NV ⋅ V

dt YH

The inlet term Q Ss,in includes the effects of sewage, return activated sludge, mixed liquor recycles and the

normal flow of mixed liquor through the activated sludge tank.

Viable heterotrophs:

dX H ,V

= Q ⋅ ( X H ,V ,in − X H ,V ) + µ H ⋅ X H ,V ⋅ V

dt

Nonviable heterotrophs:

dX H , NV

= Q ⋅ ( X H , NV ,in − X H , NV ) − K D ⋅ X H , NV ⋅ V

dt

The same equations are repeated for autotrophs, with ammonia and autotrophic bacteria replacing BOD and

heterotrophic bacteria.

The uptake of oxygen uses the following equation, allowing for oxygen uptake by both BOD and ammonia

oxidation and the transfer of oxygen into the sewage through aeration:

25 WR Wooldrige, 1933, "The 'stability test' of sewage and its relation to enzyme activity",

Biochemical Journal 27(1) 193-201

WR Wooldrige and AFB Standfast, 1936, "The role of enzymes in activated sludge and sewage

oxidation", Biochemical Journal 30(9) 1542-1543

33

WRc Process Model Descriptions

dSO Q µ

= ⋅ ( SO,in − SO ) + K L a ⋅ ( SO∗ − SO ) − H ⋅ X H ,V − ψ H ⋅ X H , NV

dt V YH

µA So

−YO, NH 3 ⋅ ( ⋅ X A,V − ψ A ⋅ X A, NV ) − M o 2 ⋅ ⋅ XT

YA Ko + So

Monod term - growth kinetics:

µ max ⋅ S SO

µ= ⋅

K S + S KO + SO

Michaelis-Menten term - enzyme kinetics:

ψ max ⋅ S SO

ψ= ⋅

K S + S KO + SO

The model allows the use of nitrate as an oxidising agent when this would favour bacterial growth. Only

heterotrophic bacteria are capable of utilising nitrate. The decision as to which to use is made by calculating

the growth rate on oxygen and nitrate and selecting whichever is the larger of the two.

An essential part of the model is the transition from viable to nonviable cells. Heterotrophic bacteria isolated

from sewage treatment plants have been found to have maximum specific growth rates of about 0.3 h-1 at 15-

20°C. This compares with specific growth rates of 0.008 h-1 or less for typical activated sludge plants. At

such low proportions of their maximum specific growth rate bacterial cultures are known to lose viability, and

the probability of cell division resulting in the production of nonviable cells increases26. Experiments at the

Water Pollution Research Laboratory showed that at 10% of the maximum specific growth rate of the culture

there was a marked decline in the viability of that culture. Because of this the WRc model assumes that the

bacteria remain fully viable while the growth rate exceeds 10% of the maximum, and then decreases at lower

growth rates. The conversion of viable to nonviable biomass is made within the final tank. The form of the

equation is:

∆ = max( Vmin , min(1, 10 ⋅ µ / µ max ))

where ∆ is the fractional change to be made in the viable: nonviable ratio and Vmin is the minimum permitted

viability ratio.

The parameters that you can alter with this model are:

(i) The nitrification rate, set as High, Average or Low. 'High' increases the nitrification rate by 20% from

the 'average' value, while low reduces the nitrification rate by 20%. For most domestic sewages the

average value is required. The low value corresponds to moderate inhibition of nitrification by

industrial effluent.

(ii) Oxygen transfer rate, KLa. Most users set the dissolved oxygen levels to the concentration that they

wish to use, and then set the KLa value in the range 10-20 per hour. The dissolved oxygen controller

will calculate the required KLa value to produce the dissolved oxygen concentration. Most aerator

suppliers specify their equipment on standard oxygen transfer rates (SOTR), defined as kg of oxygen

per hour when the dissolved oxygen concentration is zero27. The actual oxygen transfer rate is

calculated by STOAT and this can be compared with the aerator performance curves. KLa values are

being specified in recent activated sludge commissioning and acceptance trials. KLa values can be

estimated using the methods described in Appendix C.

26 DW Tempest, D Herbert and PKJ Phipps, 1967, "Studies on the growth of Aerobacter aerogenes at

low dilution rates in a chemostat", Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Microbial

Physiology and Continuous Culture, HMSO

27 SOTR = KLa x V x CS, with SOTR in kg/h, KLa in per hour, V in m3 and CS in kg/m3. CS is the

saturation oxygen concentration, and V is the aeration tank volume.

34

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Activated sludge model 1 assumes that all particulate BOD is solubilised immediately. This approximation is

acceptable when the sewage retention time is long, greater than 4 hours. For shorter sewage retention times

hydrolysis is incomplete and Model 1 is likely to over-predict the effluent BOD. Under these circumstances

we recommend the use of model 2. Activated sludge model 2 includes the effect of solids hydrolysis and

makes the following changes and additions to the system of equations:

Increase in soluble BOD from hydrolysis of particulate BOD:

dSS Q µ RX ⋅ X S

= ( SS,in − SS ) − H ⋅ X H ,V − ψ H ⋅ X H , NV + ⋅ X H ,V

dt V YH K X ⋅ XT + X S

Reduction in particulate BOD from hydrolysis:

dX S Q RX ⋅ X S

= ( X S,in − X S ) − ⋅ X H ,V

dt V K X ⋅ XT + X S

Reduction in total solids from hydrolysis of particulate BOD:

dXT Q

= ( XT ,in − XT ) + µ H ⋅ X H ,V + µ A ⋅ X A,V

dt V

1 RX ⋅ X S

− ⋅ X H ,V

YS, X K X ⋅ XT + X S

One additional variable is added to the ten used in model 1. This additional variable is the particulate BOD,

XS. The hydrolysis model has been taken from the work of the IAWQ28. Note that although much of the

IAWQ modelling literature describes the hydrolysis half-rate constant KX as having the units of mg/l, this is

not so - it is 'dimensionless', with the units of mg/l (BOD) per mg/l (solids).

You must specify the degradation rate, RX, the half-rate constant KX and the BOD content of volatile solids

YS,X. The parameters can be evaluated by adjusting them to give a good fit between the STOAT predictions

and measured data. At long sewage retention times (greater than about two hours) hydrolysis is nearly

complete and it will be difficult to find a unique set of parameter values without extensive data on the BOD or

DO profile within the aeration tank. Calibration is therefore recommended with storm flows only, when the

sewage retention time is as low as possible. Alternatively laboratory-scale activated sludge units can be

operated to acquire this data. The IAWQ29 recommends the use of laboratory-scale units and optimisation

techniques to fit the hydrolysis parameters to the data.

This model has been evaluated at a UK sewage works on storm flows and found to predict the correct effluent

BOD. The activated sludge unit at this works had a hydraulic retention time during the storm of less than one

hour.

This model is equivalent to Model 2 but with all the kinetic and stoichiometric parameters accessible to you

and should be restricted to ‘expert’ use especially when treating industrial effluents.

The principal differences between this model and model 2 are

1. Viability changes are calculated using a differential equation, rather than a difference equation. This

change means that you should not use the settler models SSED1, SSED2 or SSED5, as these settler

models implement the difference equation required for loss of viability in the models ASAL1, ASAL2

and ASAL5.

2. The nitrogen mass balance has been adjusted to permit the uptake of nitrogen into growing biomass.

3. All kinetic and stoichiometric parameters used by the model are made available to the user.

29 Henze et al., op. cit., pp. 17-18

35

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Removal of BOD:

dSS Q µ RX ⋅ X S

= ( SS,in − SS ) − H ⋅ X H ,V − ψ H ⋅ X H , NV + ⋅ X H ,V

dt V YH K X ⋅ XT + X S

The inlet term Q Ss,in includes the effects of sewage, return activated sludge, mixed liquor recycles and the

normal flow of mixed liquor through the activated sludge tank.

Reduction in particulate BOD from hydrolysis:

dX S Q RX ⋅ X S

= ( X S,in − X S ) − ⋅ X H ,V

dt V K X ⋅ XT + X S

where Xs is the particulate BOD

Viable heterotrophs:

dX H ,V Q ⋅ ( X H ,V ,in − X H ,V )

= + µ H ⋅ X H ,V − ϕ ⋅ X H ,V

dt V

Nonviable heterotrophs:

dX H , NV Q ⋅ ( X H , NV ,in − X H , NV )

= − K D ⋅ X H , NV + ϕ ⋅ X H ,V

dt V

The same equations are repeated for autotrophs, with ammonia and autotrophic bacteria replacing BOD and

heterotrophic bacteria.

Total solids:

dXT Q

= ( XT ,in − XT ) + µ H ⋅ X H ,V + µ A ⋅ X A,V

dt V

1 RX ⋅ X S

− ⋅ X H ,V

YS, X K X ⋅ XT + X S

The uptake of oxygen uses the following equation, allowing for oxygen uptake by both BOD and ammonia

oxidation and the transfer of oxygen into the sewage through aeration:

dSO Q µ

= ⋅ ( SO,in − SO ) + K L a ⋅ ( SO∗ − SO ) − H ⋅ X H ,V − ψ H ⋅ X H , NV

dt V YH

µA So

−YO, NH 3 ⋅ ( ⋅ X A,V − ψ A ⋅ X A, NV ) − M o ⋅ ⋅ XT

YA K o + So

Monod term - growth kinetics:

µ max ⋅ S SO

µ= ⋅

K S + S KO + SO

Michaelis-Menten term - enzyme kinetics:

ψ max ⋅ S SO

ψ= ⋅

K S + S KO + SO

The model allows the use of nitrate as an oxidising agent when this would favour bacterial growth. Only

heterotrophic bacteria are capable of utilising nitrate. The decision as to which to use is made by calculating

the growth rate on oxygen and nitrate and selecting whichever is the larger of the two.

An essential part of the model is the transition from viable to nonviable cells. Heterotrophic bacteria isolated

from sewage treatment plants have been found to have maximum specific growth rates of about 0.3 h-1 at 15-

20°C. This compares with specific growth rates of 0.008 h-1 or less for typical activated sludge plants. At

such low proportions of their maximum specific growth rate bacterial cultures are known to lose viability, and

36

WRc Process Model Descriptions

the probability of cell division resulting in the production of nonviable cells increases30. Experiments at the

Water Pollution Research Laboratory showed that at 10% of the maximum specific growth rate of the culture

there was a marked decline in the viability of that culture. Because of this the WRc model assumes that the

bacteria remain fully viable while the growth rate exceeds 10% of the maximum, and that the viability will

decrease at lower growth rates.

Loss of viability:

µ

ϕ = µ ⋅ max ϕ min , min 1 −

f ⋅ µ max

where ϕmin is the minimum viability and

f is the fractional growth rate below which biomass begin to lose viability.

SYMBOLS USED

Symbol Definition Units

µ Bacterial growth rate [1/h]

ψ Enzyme removal rate of substrate [1/h]

KD Death rate [1/h]

KLa Oxygen mass transfer rate [1/h]

KO Monod half-rate constant for oxygen [mg/l]

KS Monod half-rate constant for BOD [mg/l]

KX 'Half-rate' constant for particulate BOD [-]

m Maintenance rate [1/h]

PX Phosphorus content of heterotrophic biomass [-]

Q Flowrate [m3/h]

RX Hydrolisation rate for particulate BOD [1/h]

V Volume [m3]

YA Yield of autotrophs on ammonia nitrogen [-]

YH Yield of heterotrophs on BOD [-]

YO,NH3 Oxygen required to oxidise unit mass of NH3-N [-]

YS,X BOD content of unit mass of volatile solids [-]

This model will be introduced in a later version of STOAT. It is equivalent to the IAWQ Activated Sludge

Model #2 for biological phosphorus removal, modified to work with BOD rather than COD and to include the

concept of nonviable bacteria having biological activity.

Activated sludge model 5 is the same as model 1 but includes a simple model of biological P-removal. The

equation for P-uptake is:

Removal of soluble phosphorus through biological uptake:

dSP Q

= ( SP,in − SP ) − µ H ⋅ X H ,V ⋅ PX

dt V

Increase in phosphorus stored in biomass:

dX P

= Q( X P,in − X P ) + µ H ⋅ X H ,V ⋅ PX

dt

One additional variable to the ten in model 1 is required. This is XP, the concentration of phosphorus within

the sludge biomass.

30 DW Tempest, D Herbert and PKJ Phipps, 1967, "Studies on the growth of Aerobacter aerogenes at

low dilution rates in a chemostat", Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Microbial

Physiology and Continuous Culture, HMSO

37

WRc Process Model Descriptions

PX is the phosphorus content of the heterotrophic bacteria, typically in the range 1-5%. Phosphorus uptake is

only permitted if at least one zone within the aeration tank is anaerobic, taken to be dissolved oxygen less than

0.1 mg/l and nitrate less than 0.5 mg/l.

This model is a simplification of the biological processes taking place in P-removal. A more complete model

is being prepared as Model 4, and Model 4 will be similar to the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No. 2. The

WRc version will differ from the IAWQ model in two areas. The first is using BOD rather than COD and the

second is the inclusion of biochemical activity in the nonviable biomass.

The simple model 5 is not redundant. WRc pilot-scale experience suggests that providing there are sufficient

volatile fatty acids then model 5 is as accurate as any of the more comprehensive models. Like these more

comprehensive models it requires a knowledge of the phosphorus content of the biomass; if this parameter is

over- or under-estimated then much of the sophistication of the IAWQ Model #2-type models is wasted.

Each version of the activated sludge models described above comes in three variants. These are, for Model 1:

Model 1, Model 1A and Oxidation ditch model 1. These models are related in the following way:

Model 1 only examines the use of nitrate as an alternative to oxygen in tanks where there is no oxygen, that is,

where the value of KLa is zero. This approach speeds up the calculations by ignoring the competition between

denitrification and oxygen usage in aerated tanks where the dissolved oxygen value is low, typically less than

0.2 mg/l. Model 1A should be used if you wish to deliberately have regions of low DO (less than 0.5 mg/l), if

you have high nitrate concentrations (greater than 40 mg/l) or if you are creating 'special' forms of oxidation

ditches31. Model 1 is the default, chosen to maximise computing speed for typical activated sludge designs.

The oxidation ditch model is a special case of an activated sludge tank with mixed liquor recycles, where the

recycle is designed to encompass the entire tank. The oxidation ditch model is the same as Model 1A with the

mixed liquor recycle automatically set up for the user.

SYMBOLS USED

µ Bacterial growth rate [1/h]

ψ Enzyme removal rate of substrate [1/h]

KD Death rate [1/h]

KLa Oxygen mass transfer rate [1/h]

KO Monod half-rate constant for oxygen [mg/l]

KS Monod half-rate constant for BOD [mg/l]

KX 'Half-rate' constant for particulate BOD [-]

PX Phosphorus content of heterotrophic biomass [-]

Q Flowrate [m3/h]

RX Hydrolisation rate for particulate BOD [1/h]

V Volume [m3]

YA Yield of autotrophs on ammonia nitrogen [-]

YH Yield of heterotrophs on BOD [-]

YO,NH3 Oxygen required to oxidise unit mass of NH3-N [-]

YS,X BOD content of unit mass of volatile solids [-]

31 One such special form that WRc have investigated involved the effect of poor mixing within an

oxidation ditch, so that the entering sewage and RAS were effectively flowing in separate lanes

until the end of the straight leg of the oxidation ditch. For this we modelled the feed section of the

oxidation ditch as three Model 1 tanks in parallel, then had a mixer followed by a single Model 1

tank, and then a splitter to divide the sewage back to the three parallel Model 1 tanks.

38

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The definitive reference for the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model #1 is Activated Sludge Model No. 1,

International Association on Water Quality (IAWQ - formerly IAWPRC, International Association on Water

Pollution Research and Control) Scientific and Technical Reports No. 1, ISSN 1010-707X. The WRc

implementation of the model has two changes:

1. Alkalinity is ignored. In the IAWQ model a charge balance was carried out on alkalinity, but alkalinity

was not directly used in the model. The recommendation was that a warning message be issued should

the alkalinity drop below 50 mg/l as calcium carbonate, as below this level the pH in the system

becomes unstable.

2. The production of particulate COD from biomass decay has been lumped into the inert particulate

COD. This approach was taken because the biomass decay particulate COD is assumed to be

nondegradable within the local environment. It may be degradable by bacteria under different

conditions, but in modelling terms these bacteria would also have to assume that such COD was inert,

to prevent them from (incorrectly) consuming their own COD by-products as well as (correctly) those

from bacteria under different conditions.

The IAWQ model does not directly include nitrogen in inert organic forms, soluble or particulate, nor

nitrogen tied up in the biomass. Because of this within the aeration basin there will be appear to be a

loss of nitrogen (through biomass uptake) and the reported total nitrogen will be less than the true total

nitrogen, because of the omission of nondegradable nitrogen forms.

The IAWQ Activated Sludge Model uses the same hydraulics as all the other activated sludge models.

The distinguishing feature is the reaction kinetics. This is defined in the following table.

Kinetics and stoichiometry matrix for the STOAT implementation of the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model #1

39

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Component i

j Process 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Process rate, ρj

SI SS XI XS XB,H XB,A SO SNO SNH SND XND

1 Aerobic growth of -1/YH 1 YH-1 -iXB SS SO

heterotrophs YH µ$ H X B, H

K S + SS KO, H + SO

2 Anoxic growth of -1/YH 1 YH-1 -iXB SS SNO KO, H

heterotrophs 2.86 YH η g µ$ H X B, H

K S + SS K NO + SNO KO, H + SO

autotrophs YA YA YA µ$ A X B, A

K NH + SNH KO, A + SO

4 ‘Decay’ of fp 1-fp -1 iXB-fpiXP bH X B, H

heterotrophs

5 ‘Decay’ of fp 1-fp -1 iXB-fpiXP bA X B, A

autotrophs

6 Ammonification of 1 -1 ka SND X B, H

soluble organic

nitrogen

7 ‘Hydrolysis’ of 1 -1

entrapped XS SO KOH SNO

XBH,

,

kh +ηb

organics

KXXT + XS KOH

, +SO , +SO KNO +SNO

KOH

8 ‘Hydrolysis’ of 1 -1 X ND

entrapped organic ρ7

SS

nitrogen

Stoichiometric Kinetic parameters:

parameters: Heterotrophic growth and decay:

Heterotrophic yield YH µH, KS, KO,H, KNO, bH

Autotrophic yield: YA Autotrophic growth and decay:

Fraction of biomass µA, KNH, KO,A, bA

yielding particulate Correction factor for anoxic growth of

products: fp heterotrophs: ηg

Mass N/mass COD in Ammonification: ka

biomass: iXB Hydrolysis: kh, KX

Mass N/mass COD in Correction factor for anoxic hydrolysis: ηh

products from

biomass: iXP

The definitive reference to the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model #2 is Activated Sludge Model No. 2, IAWQ

Scientific and Technical Report No. 3, ISBN 1 900222 00 0.

The WRc implementation of this model has two main changes to the IAWQ model:

1. The production of nitrogen gas through denitrification is not explicitly modelled.

2. Alkalinity is not modelled. Unlike the IAWQ Model #1, where alkalinity conservation was modelled

but not otherwise used, Model #2 uses alkalinity as part of the switching functions. The WRc

implementation of this model therefore assumes that alkalinity will never be limiting.

This model comes with a ‘health warning’ from the IAWQ - because it has only recently been released they

are recommending that it only be used where there is ample data to calibrate the model. The default values for

the kinetics should be used to investigate trends, rather than absolute effluent values.

40

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The following series of tables have been abstracted from the IAWQ technical report for the model. They

describe the kinetics of the model, as appropriate to the WRc implementation. Although nitrogen gas is not a

modelled component in STOAT we have left the table entries for this component.

Conversion factors to be applied in the continuity equations. Missing values are equal to 0.

COD N P Mass

Factor I Component c iCOD,I iN,i iP,i iTSS,i

1 SO2 -1

2 SF 1 iN1SF iPSF

3 SA 1

4 SNH4 1

5 SNO3 -64/14 1

6 SPO4 1

7 SI 1 iNSI iPSI

8 SN2 -24/14 1

9 XI 1 iNXI iPXI iTSSXI

10 XS 1 iNXS iPXS iTSSXS

11 XH 1 iNBM iPBM iTSSBM

12 XPAO 1 iNBM iPBM iTSSBM

13 XPP 1 3.23

14 XPHA 1 0.60

15 XAUT 1 iNBM iPBM iTSSBM

16 XTSS -1

17 XMeOH 1

18 XMeP 0.205 1

Stoichiometry of hydrolysis processes.

Process SF SPO4 SI XS XTSS

1 Aerobic hydrolysis 1-fSI ν1,NH4 fSI -1 ν1,TSS

2 Anoxic hydrolysis 1-fSI ν2,NH4 fSI -1 ν2,TSS

3 Anaerobic hydrolysis 1-fSI ν13,NH4 fSI -1 ν3,TSS

Stoichiometry of the growth and decay processes of facultative heterotrophic organisms XH.

Stoichiometry for oxygen (and nitrate in denitrification), ammonia, phosphate and total solids

may be computed from continuity

4 Aerobic growth on SF 1-1/YH -1/YH 1

5 Aerobic growth on SA 1-1/YH -1/YH 1

6 Anoxic growth on SF - denitrification -1/YH -1-YH -1-YH 1

2.86 YH 2.86 YH

7 Anoxic growth on SA - denitrification -1/YH -1-YH -1-YH 1

2.86 YH 2.86 YH

8 Fermentation -1 1 1

9 Lysis fXI 1-fXI -1

41

WRc Process Model Descriptions

for oxygen, ammonia, phosphate and total solids may be computed from continuity.

Process SO2 SA SPO4 XI XS XPAO XPP XPHA

10 Storage of XPHA -1 YPO4 -YPO4 1

11 Storage of XPP -YPHA -1 1 -YPHA

12 Aerobic growth of XPAO 1-1/YH -iPBM 1 -1/YH

13 Lysis of XPAO ν13,P fXI 1-fXI -1

14 Lysis of XPP 1 -1

15 Lysis of XPHA 1 -1

Stoichiometry of the growth and decay processes of nitrifying organisms Stoichiometry for

oxygen, ammonia, phosphate and total solids may be computed from continuity.

Processes SO2 SNH4 SNO3 SPO4 XI XS XAUT

16 Aerobic growth of XAUT 1-4.57/YA -iNBM/YA 1/YA -iPBM 1

17 Lysis ν17,NH4 ν17,P fXI 1-fXI -1

absolute values for stoichiometry and kinetics are based on the assumption that FeCl3 is used

to precipitate SPO4 in the form of FePO4 + Fe(OH)3. Stoichiometry for total solids may be

computed from continuity.

Process SPO4 XMeOh XMeP XTSS

Stoichiometry

18 Precipitation -1 -3.45 4.87 1.42

19 Redissolution 1 3.45 -4.87 -1.42

Kinetics

18 Precipitation kPRE⋅SPO4⋅XMeOH kPRE = 1 m3/g Fe(OH)3 d

19 Redissolution kRED⋅ XMeP kRED = 0.6 /d

42

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Process Rate equation

Hydrolysis processes

1 Aerobic hydrolysis Kh ⋅

SO 2

⋅

XS / X H

⋅ XH

KO 2 + SO 2 K X + XS / X H

KO 2

⋅

SNO3

⋅

XS / X H

⋅ XH

KO 2 + SO 2 K NO3 + SNO3 K X + XS / X H

3 Anaerobic hydrolysis η fe ⋅ K h ⋅

KO 2

⋅

K NO3

⋅

XS / X H

⋅ XH

KO 2 + SO 2 K NO3 + SNO3 K X + X S / X H

Heterotrophic organisms: XH

4 Growth on fermentable substrate SF µH ⋅

SO 2

⋅

SF

⋅

SF

⋅

SNH 4

⋅

SPO 4

⋅ XH

KO 2 + SO 2 K F + SF SF + SA K NH 4 + SNH 4 K P + SPO 4

5 Growth on fermentation products SA µH ⋅

SO 2

⋅

SA

⋅

SF

⋅

SNH 4

⋅

SPO 4

⋅ XH

KO 2 + SO 2 K A + SA SF + SA K NH 4 + SNH 4 K P + SPO 4

6 Denitrification on fermentable substrates SF η NO3 ⋅ µ H ⋅

KO 2

⋅

SF

⋅

SF

⋅

SNO3

⋅

SNH 4

⋅

SPO 4

⋅ XH

KO 2 + SO 2 K F + SF SF + SA K NO3 + SNO3 K NH 4 + SNH 4 K P + SPO 4

KO 2

⋅

SA

⋅

SF

⋅

SNO3

⋅

SNH 4

⋅

SPO 4

⋅ XH

KO 2 + SO 2 K A + SA SF + SA K NO3 + SNO3 K NH 4 + SNH 4 K P + SPO 4

8 Fermentation q fe ⋅

KO2

⋅

K NO3

⋅

SF

⋅ XH

KO 2 + SO 2 K NO3 + SNO3 K fe + SF

9 Lysis bH ⋅ X H

Phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAO): XPAO

10 Storage of XPHA qPHA ⋅

AA

⋅

X PP / X PAO

⋅ X PAO

K A + SA K PP + X PP / X PAO

11 Storage of XPP SO 2 SPO 4 X PHA / X PAO K MAX − X PP / X PAO

qPP ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ X PAO

KO 2 + SO 2 K PO 4 + SPO 4 K PHA + X PHA / X PAO K IPP + K MAX − X PP / X PAO

SO 2

⋅

SNH 4

⋅

SPO 4

⋅

X PHA / X PAO

⋅ X PAO

KO 2 + SO 2 K NH 4 + SNH 4 K PO 4 + SPO 4 K PHA + X PHA / X PAO

13 Lysis of XPAO bPAO ⋅ X PAO

14 Lysis of XPP bPP ⋅ X PP

15 Lysis of XPHA bPHA ⋅ X PHA

Nitrifying organisms (autotrophic organisms) XAUT

16 Growth µ ⋅

SO 2

⋅

SNH 4

⋅

SPO 4

⋅ X AUT

AUT

KO 2 + SO 2 K NH 4 + SNH 4 K PO 4 + SPO 4

17 Lysis bAUT ⋅ X AUT

Simultaneous precipitation of phosphorus with ferric hydroxide Fe(OH)3

18 Precipitation kPRE ⋅ SPO4 ⋅ XMeOH

19 Redissolution kRED⋅ XMeP

43

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Nomenclature: Components

Symbol Definition

Dissolved components

SO2 Dissolved oxygen

SF Readily biodegradable substrate

SA Fermentation products (acetate)

SNH4 Ammonium

SNO3 Nitrate (plus nitrite)

SPO4 Phosphate

SI Inert, non-biodegradable organics

SN2 Dinitrogen (nitrogen gas)

Particulate components

XI Inert, nonbiodegradable organics

XS Slowly biodegradable substrate

XH Heterotrophic biomass

XPAO Phosphorus-accumulating organisms

XPP Stored poly-phosphate of PAO

XPHA Organic storage products of PAO

XAUT Autotrophic, nitrifying biomass

XMeOH ‘Ferric hydroxide’ (Fe(OH)3+)

XFeP ‘Ferric phosphate’ (FePO4)

XTSS Particulate material as a model component32

Symbol Definition

Nitrogen

Soluble material

iNSI N content of inert soluble COD SI

iNSF N content of soluble substrate SF

Particulate material

iNXI N content of inert particulate COD XI

iNXS N content of particulate substrate XS

iNBM N content of biomass XH, XPAO, XAUT

Phosphorus

Soluble material

iPSI P content of inert soluble COD SI

iPSF P content of soluble substrate SF

Particulate material

iPXI P content of inert particulate COD XI

iPXS P content of particulate substrate XS

iPBM P content of biomass XH, XPAO, XAUT

Total suspended solids

iTSSXI TSS to XI ratio

iTSSXS TSS to XS ratio

iTSSBM TSS to biomass ratio for XH, XPAO, XAUT

32 This value is larger than the TSS which may be measured analytically since it includes the fraction

of XS which would pass through the filter in the TSS analysis. XTSS may also include some inert

materials which are contained in the influent but not accounted for by other components. If this is

the case XTSS in the influent may be larger than predicted from the continuity equation.

44

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Nomenclature: Stoichiometry

Symbol Definition

fSI Fraction of inert COD in particulate substrate

Heterotrophic organisms XH

YH Yield coefficient

fXI Fraction of inert COD generated in biomass lysis

Phosphorus-accumulating organisms XPAO

YPAO Yield coefficient (biomass/PHA)

YPO4 PP requirement (SPO4, release) for PHA storage

YPHA PHA requirement for PP storage

fXI Fraction of inert COD generated in biomass lysis

Nitrifying organisms XAUT

YAUT Yield coefficient (biomass/nitrate)

fXI Fraction of inert COD generated in biomass lysis

45

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Nomenclature: Kinetics

Symbol Definition

Hydrolysis

Kh Hydrolysis rate constant

ηNO3 Anoxic hydrolysis reduction factor

ηfe Anaerobic hydrolysis reduction factor

KO2 Saturation/inhibition coefficient for oxygen

KNO3 Saturation/inhibition coefficient for nitrate

KX Saturation coefficient for particulate COD

Heterotrophic organisms

µH Maximum growth rate on substrate

qfe Maximum rate for fermentation

ηNO3 Reduction factor for denitrification

bH Rate constant for lysis

KO2 Saturation/inhibition coefficient for oxygen

KF Saturation coefficient for growth on SF

Kfe Saturation coefficient for fermentation of SF

KA Saturation coefficient for SA (acetate)

KNO3 Saturation/inhibition coefficient for nitrate

KNH4 Saturation coefficient for ammonium (nutrient)

KP Saturation coefficient for phosphorus (nutrient)

Phosphorus-accumulating organisms

qPHA Rate constant for storage of PHA (base: XPP)

qPP Rate constant for storage of PP

µPAO Maximum growth rate

bPAO Rate constant for lysis of XPAO

bPP Rate constant for lysis of XPP

bPHA Rate constant for lysis of XPHA

KO2 Saturation coefficient for SO2

KA Saturation coefficient for SA (acetate)

KNH4 Saturation coefficient for ammonium

KPS Saturation coefficient for phosphorus in PP

storage

KP Saturation coefficient for phosphorus in growth

KPP Saturation coefficient for poly-phosphate

KMAX Maximum ratio of XPP/XPAO

KIPP Inhibition coefficient for XPP storage

KPHA Saturation coefficient for PHA

Nitrifiers

µAUT Maximum growth rate

bAUT Decay rate

kO2 Saturation coefficient for oxygen

KNH4 Saturation coefficient for ammonium

KP Saturation coefficient for phosphorus

Precipitation

kPRE Rate constant for P precipitation

kRED Rate constant for redissolution

46

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The tower reactor process model33 has two elements: reaction kinetics and hydraulics. The reaction kinetic

models developed for activated sludge apply equally to the tower reactor. An hydraulic model is required to

predict the rate of circulation within the reactor. Strictly speaking the hydraulic model equations should be

solved simultaneously with the reaction kinetic equations, but it is mathematically convenient to handle the

two sets of equations separately, and the assumptions made which enable this simplification do not appear to

introduce any appreciable error in the predicted performance. This section concentrates on the hydraulic

model. The kinetic models implemented are the WRc BOD model and the IAWQ activated sludge models #1

and #2. Details of these models can be found in the section describing the activated sludge models. The WRc

model referred to is model ASAL3.

The procedure for the determination of liquid circulation rate is adapted from that of Joshi et al34. Circulation

in a tower reactor is induced by a difference in hydrostatic head between the two limbs. The difference in

hydrostatic head arises from the gas voidage being greater in one limb than in the other. Opposing this driving

force is a resisting force, the frictional pressure drop around the system. Joshi et al presented relationships for

gas voidage and two-phase pressure drop which together form the basis of an iterative procedure for

predicting circulation rate.

The iterative procedure commences with an initial estimate of the circulation rate. Each limb is divided into a

number of increments of uniform depth, and profiles of pressure, gas voidage and gas-phase composition are

generated. The boundary condition is that the calculated pressure at the top of the riser must equal the

atmospheric pressure. The estimate of the circulation rate is adjusted until this boundary condition is met.

The procedure outlined above is steady-state, which is consistent with the general approach to flow rates

within STOAT. Joshi et al noted that the hydraulics of this type of reactor respond quickly to changes in

operating conditions. In the context of the tower reactor model, the variable that most affects circulation rate

for a given reactor configuration is the rate at which air is sparged into the reactor. This provides the principal

means of control. Tower reactors are normally constructed with a number of sparge points, at different depths,

which provides a second, coarser control option.

Joshi et al differentiated between the two-phase flow regimes likely to prevail in the two limbs of the reactor.

The flow regime determines which relationships are applicable for gas voidage and frictional pressure drop.

They concluded that for large diameter (that is, greater than laboratory scale) reactors, in the downcomer there

would be homogeneous bubbly flow, characterised by a narrow range of bubble size and a uniform radial

bubble distribution; and in the riser there would be heterogeneous bubbly flow, characterised by internal liquid

recirculation, a wider range of bubble size and a non-uniform radial bubble distribution.

The downcomer gas voidage is found from the implicit correlation:

VG VL

= Vb∞ (1 − ε G ) (1 + 2.55ε 3G )

1.39

− +

ε G (1 − ε G )

where

VG , VL = superficial gas, liquid velocity (m/s)

ε G = fractional volumetric gas hold-up (voidage)

Vb∞ = single bubble terminal rise velocity (m/s)

The riser gas voidage is found from the explicit correlation:

33 The most common example of a tower reactor system is the Deep Shaft process available in the UK

from Kvaerner Ltd. Other tower reactors include the Bayer tower.

34 JB Joshi, VV Ranade, SD Gharat and SS Lele, 1990, “Sparged loop reactors”, The Canadian Journal

of Chemical Engineering 68, 705-741.

47

WRc Process Model Descriptions

VG

= C0 (VG + VL ) + C1

εG

C0 = 2 − 1.263VL + 0.547VL2 − 0.073VL3 VL < 115

.

C0 = 116

. VL ≥ 115

.

C1 = 0.3

where

C0 , C1 = correlation parameters

The local frictional pressure drop is calculated from the equation:

2 fρ L VL2 L 2

∆Pf = ΦL

D

where

∆Pf = frictional pressure drop (N/m2)

L = distance (m)

f = friction factor

D = diameter of reactor limb (m)

Φ 2L = two-phase friction multiplier

0.0626

f = 2

( e D) 5.74

log 10 +

3.7 Re 0.9

where

e = surface roughness (m)

Re = Reynolds number

The two-phase friction multiplier is dependent on the prevailing flow regime:

1 2k 2

Φ 2L = +

ε 2L fVL

where, in the downcomer

k = 1.5ε G Vb∞ (1 − ε G )

1.39

(1 + 2.55ε )

3

G

1

ε

3

1.39

1 − ε G

where

g = gravitational acceleration (ms-2)

48

WRc Process Model Descriptions

In addition there will be a pressure drop across the 180o bend at the base of the reactor. The bend is modelled

as being equivalent to a length of straight pipe equal to a number of pipe diameters. Additionally, Joshi et al

reported that a standing gas bubble forms on the inner radius of the bend, and included a contraction loss term

to account for the reduction in cross-sectional area. Total pressure drop at the base is therefore given by:

2 fρ L VL2 nDb A

∆Pfb = + ρ L VL2 b − 1

Db ab

where

∆Pfb = pressure drop across base (N/m2)

n = number of diameters (equivalent length)

Db = diameter of base (m)

Ab = cross-sectional area of base (m2)

a b = cross-sectional area of base available for liquid flow (m2)

Joshi et al used the following values:

n = 75

ab

= 0.75

Ab

Notwithstanding the allowance for the standing bubble, it is assumed that, at the base of a tower reactor the

gas voidage is sufficiently small, because of the pressure, to treat the flow as single phase.

At steady state, the difference between the pressures at the base of each limb equals the pressure drop across

the base:

p db − p rb = ∆Pfb

where

p db = local pressure at bottom of downcomer (N/m2)

p rb = local pressure at bottom of riser (N/m2)

To determine values of p db and p rb the pressure profiles down each limb are calculated. The local pressure

at any depth z in the downcomer is given by:

d∆Pf

z z

p dz = p atm + ∫ gρ L (1 − ε G )dz − ∫ dz

0 0

dz

and in the riser by:

d∆Pf

z z

p rz = p atm + ∫ gρ L (1 − ε G )dz + ∫ dz

0 0

dz

where

p dz , prz = local pressure at a depth z from the surface in downcomer, riser (N/m2)

p atm = pressure at surface of reactor (taken to be atmospheric pressure) (N/m2)

0 represents the surface of the reactor

49

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The dissolution of gas is one of the factors which determines the gas voidage at any point in the reactor and

hence the circulation rate. Joshi et al considered the gas to be a mixture of an insoluble carrier and a solute,

corresponding, in the given application, to nitrogen and oxygen respectively. However, nitrogen dissolution

appears to have an increasing effect on circulation in deeper reactors, and so has been incorporated in the

STOAT model.

It is assumed that the resistance to mass transfer is on the liquid side, and that Henry’s Law applies. Thus at

any point in the reactor, the liquid phase concentrations of oxygen and nitrogen at the gas/liquid interface in

equilibrium with the local partial pressures of the respective gases. In the case of nitrogen, it is assumed that

the liquid at the top of the downcomer is saturated at atmospheric pressure and that no nitrogen is produced by

biological activity within the reactor. For oxygen, it is assumed that the consumption of dissolved oxygen by

biological activity is immediate, so the bulk liquid dissolved oxygen concentration is zero.

Mass transfer of gas component i at any depth z is given by:

6ε

a= G

d bz

1.39

DABi

kli = 113

.

d bz

Czi∗ = H ci yi p z

where

Gi = gas flow rate (mol/s)

kli = mass transfer coefficient (m/s)

a = gas-liquid interfacial area (m2/m3)

Czi∗ = equilibrium liquid phase concentration (mol/m3)

Czi = liquid phase concentration (mol/m3)

A = cross-sectional area of reactor limb (m2)

z = vertical distance (m)

d bz = local bubble diameter (m)

DABi = diffusivity of gas in liquid (water) (m2/s)

H ci = Henry’s law constant (mol/[m3.(N/m2)])

yi = gas phase mole fraction

p z = local pressure (N/m2)

The gas flow rate entering the next increment n + 1 is derived from that in the current increment n from the

equation

dGi

Gi n +1

= Gi n

− ∆z

dz n

where

∆z = depth of an increment (m)

The derivation of the liquid phase concentration depends on which component is considered. For oxygen, as

noted above,

CzO2 = 0

For nitrogen,

50

WRc Process Model Descriptions

dG N2

∆z

dz n

CzN2 = CzN2 +

n +1 n VL A

The gas phase mole fractions follow from the revised gas flow rates:

Gi

yi n +1

=

G n +1

G = ∑ Gi

where

G = total gas flow rate (mol/s)

If air is injected into the riser as well as the downcomer, allowance is made for the additional gas by

performing a mass balance across the increment corresponding to point of injection into the riser.

To determine the local gas superficial velocity, ideal gas behaviour is assumed:

GRT

VGz =

Ap z

where

R = universal gas constant (J/[mol.K])

T = absolute temperature (K)

At any point in the reactor, bubble size is assumed to be uniform. To make allowance for the effect of local

pressure on bubble size, ideal gas behaviour is also assumed. The bubble diameter specified is that at the point

of injection into the downcomer (the sparge point). At any other point in the reactor,

d bz p

= 3 ds

d bds pz

where the subscript ds indicates the sparge point.

9.1.4 Power

Adiabatic compression is assumed. The power required to compress the air to the pressure at the sparge point

is therefore given by:

γ −1

γGRT pds γ

Pc = − 1

γ − 1 patm

where

Pc = adiabatic power of compression (W)

γ = 1.4

Once the circulation rate has been calculated, the reaction kinetic model specified by the user is applied.

Whichever kinetic model is used, the tower reactor is treated as three parts: from the surface to the downcomer

sparge point; from the downcomer sparge point to the base; and the riser. Each part is divided into a number of

stages, each of which is treated as if it were an ideal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Fewer stages are

required for the kinetic model then for the hydraulic model.

51

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The local pressures and mass transfer coefficients derived in the hydraulic model are averaged for each of the

kinetic model stages. The solving of the kinetic model then proceeds in the same way as when applied to

conventional activated sludge or oxidation ditch processes.

(i) Bubble diameter. The bubble diameter at the downcomer sparge point must be specified. A uniform

bubble size is assumed. The default value of 5 mm is based on a review of bubble formation by

Heijnen and Van’t Riet35, who concluded that diameters in the range 4 to 6 mm could be expected

from both orifice and ejector-injector spargers.

(ii) Number of equivalent diameters. The pressure drop across the 180o bend at the reactor base is

considered to be the sum of a friction loss and a contraction loss. The friction loss is calculated for an

equivalent length of straight pipe, expressed in diameters. The default, applied by Joshi et al, is 75.

Whether or not a particular value is appropriate can only be investigated by trial and error.

(iii) Free area ratio, reactor base. This parameter is included in the calculation of the contraction loss

component of the pressure drop across the reactor base. Joshi et al1 reported that a standing bubble

tends to form on the upper radius of the 180o bend at the base of shaft reactors, and quoted a study

which found that such bubbles effectively reduced the cross-sectional area of the base by 25% under a

wide range of flow rates. This is equivalent to a free area ratio (the area available for flow divided by

the cross-sectional area) of 0.75. This is the default value. If no standing bubble were formed, the value

would be 1.0. In the absence of direct observation, whether or not a particular value is appropriate can

only be investigated by trial and error.

(iv) Surface roughness. This parameter is used in the calculation of the friction losses through the reactor.

The default is 0.3 mm, suggested by Perry36 as appropriate for smooth concrete. The build up of slime

on the reactor wall may increase friction. Whether or not a particular value is appropriate can only be

investigated by trial and error.

(v) Liquid diffusivity. The default values37 are 1.8 x 10-9 m2/s for oxygen and 1.64 x 10-9 m2/s for nitrogen.

35 JJ Heijnen and K Van’t Riet, 1984, “Mass transfer, mixing and heat transfer phenomena in low

viscosity bubble column reactors”, The Chemical Engineering Journal 28, B21-B42.

36 RH Perry and D Green (Eds), 1984, “Chemical Engineers’ Handbook”, 6th edition, McGraw Hill, New

York, USA.

37 JM Coulson and JF Richardson, 1977,”Chemical Engineering”, Volume 1, 3rd edition, Pergamon

Press, Oxford, UK.

52

WRc Process Model Descriptions

10 DEGASSER

The degasser should be used with the tower reactor process. Sludge coming out of a tower reactor process is

normally supersaturated with oxygen. The degasser reduces the concentration of dissolved oxygen to the

concentration of dissolved oxygen at the pressure in the degasser (normally atmosphere pressure). It calculates

the saturated dissolved oxygen concentration at the given pressure and temperature, assuming that the liquid is

in contact with air. The dissolved oxygen concentration is set to the lesser of the saturated value and the

current value.

53

WRc Process Model Descriptions

There are five settling models available and they should be used depending on which aeration tank model is

being used as follows:

• AERATION • SETTLING

MODEL • MODEL

• ASAL1 (1A) • SSED1

• ASAL2 (2A) • SSED2

• ASAL3 (3A) • Generic

• ASAL5 (5A) • SSED5

• IAWQ#1 • Generic

• IAWQ#2 • Generic

The fifth model (Version 3) will be used with later versions of the aeration models.

In this model the settling tank is divided into a number of zones to use in modelling the final tank, including

where the mixed liquor feed enters the final tank. Sewage flows either up into the top zone to leave as effluent

or down into the bottom two zones to be thickened and leave as Returned Activated Sludge (RAS).

The settling velocity equation uses the Takacs modification to the Vesilind equation

VS = min( Vmax , V0 [ e − b1 ⋅ X − e − b2 ⋅ X ])

where the solids are partitioned into two fractions, settleable and nonsettleable. Only the settleable fraction is

used in calculating the settling velocity

Limits are placed on the settling flux to mimic the effects of a minimum settling flux. For any zone within the

tank the settling flux is specified by the equation

( VS ⋅ X ) out = min([VS ⋅ X ]zone ,[ VS ⋅ X ]below )

providing the solids concentration is above a value specified by the user as marking the onset of hindered

settling (thickening threshold). As a first approximation this onset value can be set as the larger of the two

solutions calculated from

Vmax = V0 (exp( − b1 ⋅ X ) − exp( − b2 ⋅ X ))

The simplest way of solving this equation is to produce a graph of the V0 (exp[-b1X] - exp[-b2X]) term and

use the graph to locate the concentrations of X that give the Vmax values. Generally the solids concentration

marking the onset of hindered settling will be greater than

b2

ln

b1

X=

b2 − b1

38 I Takacs, GG Patry and D Nolasco, 1991, "A dynamic model of the clarification-thickening

process", Water Research 25(10) 1263-1271

54

WRc Process Model Descriptions

dS

= Q( Si − S )

dt

where Q has the value for the effluent flow above the feed point, the value of the total flow at the feed point,

and the value of the returned activated sludge plus wastage sludge below the feed point. Above the feed point

the inlet concentrations are those for the stage below, as the flow is upwards; below the feed point the inlet

concentrations are those for the stage above, as the flow is down; and at the feed point the inlet concentrations

are those for the entering mixed liquor. This can be seen in the following diagram.

Upflow

Mixed liquor

Feed stage

Downflow

For the solid components the equation is

dX Q A

= ( Xin − X ) + ( VS ⋅ X above

− VS ⋅ X )

dt V V

The same conditions on the flow and inlet concentrations apply as for the soluble components. At the top of

the settling tank there are no solids to enter from the air, so the value of VSXabove is zero. At the base of the

tank the tank floor prevents further settling, so that here the value of VSX is zero. The settling velocity VS is

calculated as a function of the solids concentration as given by the Vesilind equation.

This model has the parameters Vmax, V0, b1, b2, the thickening threshold and the nonsettleable solids

fraction. Values for these parameters can be calculated as follows:

the thickening threshold as described on previous page;

the non-settleable solids fraction by leaving a sample of the sludge to stand for 30 minutes to an hour and

measuring the solids left in suspension above the sludge blanket.

55

WRc Process Model Descriptions

V0 = 9.32 - 0.039 SSVI3.5

b1 = (0.269 + 0.00122 SSVI3.5) x 10-3

von Sperling41 suggests ranking sludges into 'good', 'fair' and 'poor' settleability, with the parameters

Good 7.57 0.36 x 10-3

Fair 6.85 0.52 x 10-3

Poor 5.63 0.81 x 10-3

Should you feel that these correlations do not represent the correct V0 and b1 values at your sewage works

then consult Appendix G for an alternative approach.

The maximum settling velocity is measured from a settling test. The activated sludge is diluted with final

effluent to a concentration around 500 mg/l and put into a settling cylinder. The settling velocity of large flocs

is measured and used as Vmax.

The final parameter, b2, should be much larger than b1, typically 50 times, and is normally in the range 10-

100 times b1. It is normally estimated by varying its value until the model predictions match those observed.

The lower the value of b2 the worse the sludge settles. A value of b2=b1 implies that the sludge does not

settle, while b2<b1 means that the sludge rises.

39 This correlation was developed by WRc using settling data from oxidation ditches reported by AJ

Rachwal, MJ Hanbury, DJ Critchard and DWM Johnstone, 1982, "The application of settleability

tests for the control of activated sludge plants", in B Chambers and E Tomlinson (eds), Bulking of

Activated Sludge, Ellis Horwood Publishers, Chichester. A similar correlation has been developed

from South African biological P-removal systems by PFC Catunda and AC van Haandel, 1992,

"Activated sludge settling Part I: Experimental determination of activated sludge settleability",

Water SA 18(3) 165-172. Their correlations are:

Vmax = (10.9 + 0.18 SSVI3.5) exp(-0.016 SSVI3.5)

b1 = (0.016 + 0.0027 SSVI3.5) x 10-3

40 SSVI3.5 is the Stirred Sludge Volume Index at a MLSS concentration of 3.5 g/l (3,500 mg/l). The

SSVI test is described in Appendix H. The SSVI is a replacement index for the SVI (Sludge

Volume Index) that is applicable to higher solids concentrations. It is a better test than SVI as the

results are more meaningful as a measure of the settleability of the sludge. By reporting the SSVI at

a standard value of 3.5 g/l we have a uniform index for comparing sludges. As a rule, SSVI3.5 less

than 80 is a rapid settling sludge; in the range 100-130 a 'typical' sludge; and greater than 150 a

bulking sludge. The numerical limits between 'good', 'average', and 'bulking' sludge may vary if

you consult a different source. The grey areas of SSVI 80-100 and 130-150 represent uncertainty as

to this sludge being good or bad. Note that you must use the SSVI3.5, not the SSVI at your

operational MLSS value.

41 M von Sperling, 1994, "A new unified solids flux-based approach for the design of final clarifiers.

Description and comparison with traditional criteria", paper submitted to Water Science and

Technology.

56

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The sequencing batch reactor models classical batch reactors, where the fill and drawdown stages are

exclusive. This version of the SBR will not model processes such as CASSTM or IDEA where sewage flows

continuously into the tank, even during decant, and where sludge wastage is permitted to be continuous.

There are three variations of the SBR, distinguished by their kinetic models. These are the WRc model (BOD

based, carbon-nitrogen removal); IAWQ Model #1 (COD based, carbon-nitrogen removal); and IAWQ Model

#2 (COD based, carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus removal). We recommend the use of the WRc and IAWQ #1

models.

The SBR is assumed to be in one of the following phases:

idle;

filling, either anoxic or aerobic;

reaction;

settling;

emptying, either decanting effluent or wasting sludge.

The settling stage uses the equations for the activated sludge settler, and these equations have not been

repeated here.

The SBR is treated as a single well-mixed tank for all phases except settling and emptying, where a sludge

blanket is formed.

The equations take the form of

IF StartOfIdle THEN

ResuspendTankContents

ELSE IF NotSettling THEN

UseOneStage - equations are the activated sludge reaction kinetics

ELSE

UseNumberOfStages - equations are the activated sludge reaction kinetics

END IF

The hydraulic equations during fill account for the variable volume, while the decant stage allows for the

induction of an upflow caused by the removal of the tank contents.

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.3 - ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 3 (ASAL3)

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.7 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.8 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2

57

WRc Process Model Descriptions

There are three models of the variable volume activated sludge tank, distinguished by their kinetic models.

These are the WRc model (BOD based, carbon-nitrogen removal); IAWQ Model #1 (COD based, carbon-

nitrogen removal); and IAWQ Model #2 (COD based, carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus removal). We recommend

the use of the WRc and IAWQ #1 models.

The settling stage uses the equations for the activated sludge settler, and these equations have not been

repeated here.

if not Settling or Decanting then

Standard mixing equations for activated sludge

else

Standard settling equations for settling tank

end if

The hydraulic equations during fill account for the variable volume, while the decant stage allows for the

induction of an upflow caused by the removal of the tank contents.

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.3 - ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 3 (ASAL3)

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.7 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.8 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2

58

WRc Process Model Descriptions

There are three models of the CSBR process, distinguished by their kinetics. These are the WRc model (BOD

based, carbon-nitrogen removal); IAWQ Model #1 (COD based, carbon-nitrogen removal); and IAWQ Model

#2 (COD based, carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus removal). We recommend the use of the WRc and IAWQ #1

models.

The settling stage uses the equations for the activated sludge settler, and these equations have not been

repeated here.

The CSBR is treated as a series of well-mixed stages for all phases except settling and emptying, where a

sludge blanket is formed.

The equations take the form of

if not Settling or Decanting then

Standard mixing equations for activated sludge

else

Standard settling equations for settling tank

end if

The differences between this model and the variable volume activated sludge model are

1. There can be multiple operating cycles specified during a day. The total of these cycles must equal 24

hours. Each cycle can have up to 8 completely-mixed phases, specified as two mixed phases followed

by a settling phase.

2. If there are no permanently completely-mixed stages then the sewage and RAS feed are assumed to

enter the base of the tank, while the variable volume model assumes that the feed enters at the tank

surface.

3. There is support for a mixed liquor take-off from the tank, separate to the internal mixed liquor recycle.

4. The decant flowrate is calculated from the equations for flow over a weir, rather than being a flowrate

specified by the user.

The hydraulic equations during fill account for the variable volume, while the decant stage allows for the

induction of an upflow caused by the removal of the tank contents.

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.3 - ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 3 (ASAL3)

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.7 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1

This model is the same as that described in Section 8.8 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2

42 The most common form of CSBR in the UK is Babcock Water Engineering’s CASS process.

59

WRc Process Model Descriptions

There are three biological filter models, two of which are BOD based and have been developed by WRc.

Much of the research that WRc drew upon has been presented by Salako43.

The biological filter model divides the filter into a series of N stages. The arrangement can be seen in the

following diagram.

Sewage

Liquid in a stage/pool

Biofilm

[Voidage part of biofilter]

Filter effluent

For each stage differential equations are solved, for the components:

SNH3:Ammoniacal Nitrogen [mg/l]

SNO3:Oxidised nitrogen [mg/l]

SO: Dissolved oxygen [mg/l]

SS: Soluble BOD [mg/l]

XNV: Nonvolatile solids [mg/l]

XV: Volatile or degradable solids [mg/l]

XX: Biomass solids [mg/l]

In addition you need to specify, for each stage within the filter, the concentrations of the heterotrophic and

autotrophic bacteria, XH and XA. The concentrations of XH and XA relate to the biofilm, while XX (biomass

solids not attached to the biofilm) applies to the liquid covering the biofilm. The biomass solids XX are

regarded as separate from the other volatile solids as they are not considered to be biodegradable within the

filter. (On passing to another filter they can then be degraded.)

43 NO Salako, 1989, Performance of Biological Filters, MSc thesis, Imperial College of Science,

Technology and Medicine, University of London

60

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Soluble substrates diffuse into the biofilm where they are converted by bacteria into more bacteria, carbon

dioxide and other reaction products. The suspended solids in the sewage is first adsorbed onto the surface of

the biofilm and then hydrolyses into soluble substrates. The soluble substrates can then diffuse into the biofilm

to be destroyed.

The differential equations used are:

Volatile solids in liquid film on biofilm:

∂XV Q X − XV K 2

= ⋅ V ,i − XV*

∂t A ⋅ a ⋅ ∆z d f + T f d f + Tf

XV* = T f ⋅ XV

∂SS Q( SS,i − SS ) K ⋅ YS, X *2 DB ∂SS, f

= + XV +

∂t A ⋅ a ⋅ ∆z ⋅ d f df d f ∂y y=0

Ammonia:

∂SNH 3 Q( SNH 3,i − SNH 3 ) DNH 3 ∂SNH 3, f

= +

∂t A ⋅ a ⋅ ∆z ⋅ d f df ∂y y=0

Oxidised nitrogen:

∂SNO3 Q( SNO3,i − SNO3 ) DNO3 ∂SNO3, f

= +

∂t A ⋅ a ⋅ ∆z ⋅ d f df ∂y y=0

Dissolved oxygen:

∂SO Q( SO,i − SO ) K L D ∂SO, f

= + ⋅ ( SO* − SO ) + O

∂t A ⋅ a ⋅ ∆z ⋅ d f df d f ∂y y=0

*

S is the equilibrium dissolved oxygen concentration.

O

K L = 0. 0051 ⋅ ( Q ⋅ g / A ) 0.33 Re 0.66 Sc −0.5 Mc 0.4

Biomass solids are produced inside the biofilm and an equivalent mass discharges into the liquor:

∂X X Q( X X ,i − X X ) D ∂SS, f DNH 3 ∂SNH 3, f

= − VH ⋅ YH , B S − VA ⋅ YA, N

∂t A ⋅ a ⋅ ∆z ⋅ d d d f ∂y y=0

df ∂y y=0

Nonvolatile solids:

∂X NV Q( X NV ,i − X NV )

=

∂t A ⋅ a ⋅ ∆z ⋅ d f

∂ 2 SS , f XH SS, f SO, f

DS = ⋅µH ⋅ ⋅

∂y 2

YH , S K S + SS, f K O, S + SO

∂ 2 SNH 3, f XA SNH 3, f SO

DNH 3 = ⋅µA ⋅ ⋅

∂y 2

YH , N K NH 3 + SNH 3, f K O, N + SO

∂ 2 SNO3, f ∂ 2 SNH 3

DNO3 = − YNO3, NH 3 ⋅ DNH 3 ⋅

∂y ∂y 2

61

WRc Process Model Descriptions

∂ 2 SO, f ∂ 2 SS, f ∂ 2 SNH 3, f

DO2 = α O, S ⋅ DS ⋅ + α O, N ⋅ DN ⋅

∂y 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2

The growth rates vary with temperature as given by the following equation:

b⋅( T − Tref )

µ = µ max ⋅ e

where µmax is the maximum growth rate at the reference temperature Tref, and b is the temperature

coefficient.

The boundary conditions for the biofilm equations are:

At the surface of the biofilm, the concentrations are the same as that of the sewage :

SS , f = SS

y=0

SNH 3, f = SNH 3

y=0

SNO3, f = SNO3

y=0

SO, f = SO

y=0

If there is sufficient BOD to remove the oxygen deep within the biofilm, so that the concentration of BOD is

still greater than zero, then the 'deep film' boundary equations are:

SO, f =0

y =∞

∂SS, f

=0

∂y y =∞

∂SNH 3, f

=0

∂y y =∞

∂SNO3, f

=0

∂y y =∞

Otherwise, given that BOD and ammonia are removed 'deep' within the biofilm, the boundary equations

become:

SS , f =0

y =∞

SNH 3, f =0

y =∞

∂SNO3, f

=0

∂y y =∞

∂SO, f

=0

∂y y =∞

62

WRc Process Model Descriptions

a Specific surface area of filter media [m2/m3]

A Surface area of filter [m2]

df Liquid thickness over biofilm [m]

DNH3 Diffusivity of ammonia [m2/h]

DNO3 Diffusivity of nitrate [m2/h]

DO Diffusivity of oxygen [m2/h]

dP Filter media size [m]

DS Diffusivity of soluble BOD [m2/h]

g Gravitational acceleration [m/s2]

K Solids degradation rate [l/m mg h]

KL Mass transfer coefficient [m/h]

KN,O Half rate constant: autotrophs on oxygen [mg/l]

KN Half rate constant: autotrophs on ammonia [mg/l]

KS,O Half rate constant: heterotrophs on oxygen [mg/l]

KS Half rate constant: heterotrophs on BOD [mg/l]

Mc Media characteristic number = a df [-]

N Number of stages [-]

Q Flowrate [m3/h]

Re Reynolds number = Q dP / A ν [-]

Sc Schmidt number = Q / A DO [-]

SNH3,f Ammonia concentration within the biofilm [mg/l]

SNO3,f Nitrate concentration within the biofilm [mg/l]

SO,f Oxygen concentration within the biofilm [mg/l]

SO * Saturation dissolved oxygen concentration [mg/l]

SS,f BOD concentration within biofilm [mg/l]

Tf Solids adsorption coefficient [m]

VA Viability of autotrophs [-]

VH Viability of heterotrophs [-]

XV* Solids adsorbed onto the biofilm [m mg/l]

YA,N Yield of autotrophs on ammonia [-]

YH,S Yield of heterotrophs on BOD [-]

YNO3,NH3 Yield of nitrate on ammonia [-]

YS,X Yield of BOD from volatile solids [-]

Z Filter bed depth [m]

Greek symbols:

µA Autotrophs growth rate ( /h)

µH Heterotrophs growth rate ( /h)

αO,S Ratio of oxygen consumed to BOD removed

αO,N Ratio of oxygen consumed to ammonia-N remove

∆z Depth of each stage, Z/N (m)

The solution of this set of equations starts by linearising the biofilm differential equations and solving

these analytically. The analytic solution then results in a series of ordinary differential equations for the

filter. These equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta or equivalent integration methods.

63

WRc Process Model Descriptions

(i) The biofilm attains 'steady-state' values much faster than the bulk sewage. Because the biofilm is

normally microns thick this is a reasonable assumption.

(ii) The biofilm solids stay in 'steady-state'. There is no growth or loss of the biofilm. All solids produced

are lost directly to the sewage. Because of this, seasonal effects, such as sloughing, cannot be modelled.

It is up to the user to alter the biofilm biomass concentrations to represent seasonal effects.

Another result of this 'steady-state' biofilm solids assumption is that periods of low flow, BOD,

ammonia or oxygen starvation will have no long lasting effect on the biological activity - there is a

reduction in reaction rates caused by the shortage of these components, but the biofilm recovery is

instantaneous once the concentrations increase.

(iii) The constant production of biomass solids leads to high predictions of effluent solids. The humus tank

model removes these biomass solids, so that the effluent predictions from the humus tank are

reasonable representations of what would be achieved. The sludge predictions should be taken as an

average, rather than an instantaneous, value.

If the specific surface area is unknown then it can be estimated from the size of the media. The following

table44 gives specific surface area values for media up to 63 mm in diameter.

Type of media

Granite Blast-furnace slag Crushed gravel

Nominal maximum Single Range for Single Range for Single Range for

size of media size graded size graded size graded

mm material material material

25 194 185-237 208 200-246 176 169-208

37.5 135 129-149 146 140-163 125 120-140

50 97 94-111 104 101-118 89 86-101

63 75.5 73-85 81 70-90 69 67-77

For larger diameter media you can assume that the specific surface area (SSA) is proportional to the reciprocal

of the media size. The surface area is therefore calculated from

d small media

SSAlarge media = SSA small media ⋅

d large media

44 Unit Processes: Biological Filtration, Manuals of Practice in Water Pollution Control, The

Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management

64

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The effective specific surface area is the amount of the media surface on which there is active biofilm. Initially

this can be set to be 100% of the specific surface area. The WRc STOM Manual45 suggests that the effective

specific area be set to the superficial surface area if the wetting rate exceeds the following:

'Traditional' media: 25-35 mm, wetting rate in excess of 1 m3/m2.d

35-50 mm, wetting rate in excess of 1.5 m3/m2.d

50-100 mm, wetting rate in excess of 2 m3/m2.d

Random plastic packing: wetting rate in excess of 8-12 m3/m2.d

Structured plastic packing: wetting rate in excess of 10-30 m3/m2.d

The kinetic coefficients (growth rates, half-rate saturation coefficients, temperature coefficients) and

stoichiometry (ratio of BOD and ammonia to oxygen, and ratio of nitrate produced to ammonia removed)

should not normally be changed. When calibrating the biological filter we recommend that you initially adjust

the biofilm thickness and biomass concentration in the biofilm, before considering adjusting the kinetics or

stoichiometry.

(i) The depth of the pools within the model can be estimated using a tracer test. The tracer results are used

to calculate the retention time, and optionally the number of stages in series. The following equation is

then used to calculate the depth of the pools:

Q⋅τ

df =

V ⋅a

where Q = flowrate [m3/h]

τ = retention time [h]

V = volume of filter [m3]

a = specific surface area of filter media [m2/m3]

(ii) Alter the degradation rate of solids (K) until the overall solids removal is correct. It may also be

necessary to alter the upward velocity in the humus tank causing 95% removal of solids.

(iii) Alter the pool depth (df) and the constant determining the concentration of feed solids on the biofilm

(Tf) to change the height of effluent peaks and the timing of the model response. To keep the feed

solids degradation rate correct then changes to Tf must keep K Tf2 constant. Decreasing df+Tf

increases the peak values of the effluent solids and decreases the response time to changes in the

influent. Decreasing df has a similar effect on the BOD and ammonia effluent predictions.

(iv) The BOD and ammonia predictions can be altered by varying the heterotroph and nitrifier

concentrations. Because of the competition for oxygen between the heterotrophs and nitrifiers, altering

the heterotroph concentration can change the BOD and ammonia predictions. The concentrations are

normally set to be the same for each stage in the filter. This is an idealisation, as the heterotroph

concentration should be highest near the surface, reducing with depth, while the autotroph

concentration for most filters should increase with depth (low at the surface because of competition

with the heterotrophs) and then subsequently decrease (because of ammonia depletion). Tertiary

nitrifying filters have a low BOD influent, so that the autotroph concentration is highest at the filter

surface.

45 STOM - Sewage Treatment and Optimisation Model: User Manual and Description. 1987.

Previously published as WRc report TR 144. This manual describes a steady-state model with

correlations developed from several years of data from sewage works throughout the UK.

65

WRc Process Model Descriptions

These biofilter models are divided into three areas:

• Biofilm processes, describing diffusion and growth-related movement within the biofilm

• Bulk processes, describing the behaviour of determinands outside the biofilm

• Reaction kinetics

The models assume that there are no reactions within the bulk liquid. The only reaction is within the biofilm.

The biofilm model is taken from that of Wanner and Gujer46, with some additional developments by Wanner

and Reichert47.

For soluble material the governing equation is

∂S ∂ ∂S

= R − −D ⋅

∂t ∂z ∂z

where R is the reaction rate - production or consumption - and D is the diffusivity

The boundary conditions are

∂S

=0

∂z z= 0

(no mass transfer at the interface of the biofilm and the attachment surface)

∂S

−D ⋅ = K L ⋅ ( Sbulk − S L )

∂z z= L

KL is the mass transfer coefficient

For the particulate material the differential equation is:

∂X ∂X

∂t

(

= µ − µ ⋅ X − uz ⋅

∂z

)

where

Z

uz = ∫ µ ⋅ dξ

0

nX

µ= ∑µ

i =1

i ⋅ Xi

46 Wanner, O and W Gujer, 1986, “A multispecies biofilm model”, Biotechnology and Bioengineering

28(3) 314-328

47 Wanner, O and P Reichert, 1996, “Mathematical modelling of mixed-culture biofilms”,

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 49, 172-184

66

WRc Process Model Descriptions

At the biofilm surface shear loss and attachment terms are added to the uz term, to give the equation

L

u L = ∫ µ ⋅ dξ − σ + λ

0

The growth rate µ is the observed growth rate and includes all solids loss (biomass loss) terms.

The boundary conditions are

∂X

=0

∂z z= 0

∂X X

−u L ⋅ = K L ⋅ bulk − X L

∂z z= L ∑X

Wanner and Gujer normalise the concentration of solids within the biofilm to be mass fractions, while the

concentrations within the bulk liquid remain in mass concentration units.

The equations as specified above pose a moving boundary problem, because of the growth and loss of the

biofilm. Gujer and Wanner transformed this problem into a stationary problem, solvable on a fixed

computational grid, by applying the transformations:

Define Q = z / L. Q is constant (the fixed grid), while z and L will vary with time because of film growth.

∂ 1 ∂

→ ⋅

∂z L ∂Q

∂ ∂ Q ∂

→ − u L ⋅ ⋅

∂t ∂t L ∂Q

The spatial partial derivatives are estimated by upstream finite difference derivatives, to produce a method-of-

lines approximation that is then solved with the standard integration methods.

The bulk processes taking place are those of:

• mixing

• mass transfer of soluble material into or out from the biofilm

• detachment of solids

• attachment of solids (IAWQ implementation only)

• hydrolysis of particulate BOD (BOD implementation only)

ratt = k att ⋅ X

The solids hydrolysis term (BOD model only) is modelled as

X surface = k att ⋅ X BOD

n

rhyd = k hyd ⋅ X surface

67

WRc Process Model Descriptions

(

rdet = 0.5 k1 ⋅ µ L ⋅ L2 + k 2 ⋅ L2 )

The mass transfer of soluble material from the bulk liquid to the biofilm is calculated using the equation49

( )

k L = ξ ⋅ 0.765 ⋅ Re −0.82 + 0.365 ⋅ Re 0.386 ⋅ Sc −2 / 3 ⋅ U / ε

Re = U ⋅ d p ⋅ ρ / µ

Sc = µ / ( ρ ⋅ D)

where

Re Reynolds number

Sc Schmidt number

U Superficial velocity = Q/A

Q Liquid flowrate

A Cross-sectional area

dp Particle diameter

ρ Density

µ Viscosity

ε Voidage

ξ Mass transfer enhancement factor

The mass transfer enhancement factor is used because the correlation was developed for mass transfer to

smooth spheres, rather than to the irregular surface of biofilm support particles.

The reaction kinetics used are those for the WRc BOD model, described as ASAL3 in the activated sludge

section, and the IAWQ COD model, also described in the activated sludge section.

48 Steward, PS, 1993, “A model of biofilm detachment”, Biotechnology and Bioengineering 41, 111-

117

49 Dwivedi, PN and SN Upadhyay, 1977, “Particle-fluid mass transfer in fixed and fluidized beds”,

Industrial Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development 16(2) 157 ff

68

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The humus tank is a simple steady-state model. Few real data are available on humus tank performance and

what there is, is mostly for steady-state models. These data were collected in a manner that only permitted a

steady-state model to be developed. This has forced STOAT to use a steady-state model. The basis of the

model is to calculate the removal of settleable solids from the equation:

Removal fraction = exp(-3 V95/V)

where V95 is the upflow velocity at which 95% of solids are removed, and V is the actual upflow velocity.

V95 is estimated by comparing the model predictions to measured data.

Settleable solids are the nonvolatile and biomass solids entering the humus tank. Volatile solids of non-

biomass origin are nonsettleable.

Solids removal is modelled as

Xe = XNS + XS exp(-3 V95/V)

where Xe is the effluent solids concentration, XS the settleable influent solids concentration and XNS the

nonsettleable influent solids concentration. The solids removal is given by

R = Xe / (XNS+XS) = a + b exp(-3 V95/V)

If the solids removal is plotted against the reciprocal of the overflow rate, 1/V, and a smooth curve fitted

through the points, it is then possible to draw tangents to the curve to calculate the derivative dR/d(1/V) for

various values of (1/V).

The removal equation can be differentiated to give

dR/d(1/V) = -3 V95 B exp(-3 V95/V)

or ln(-dR/d(1/V)) = a' - 3 V95 / V

or (taking Y = ln(-dR/d(1/V)) and X = 1/V)

Y = a' - b X.

If R is plotted against X the tangent data dR/dX can be taken from the graph. From this a table of Y against X

can be constructed, and the linear regression equation of Y against X can be calculated to estimate a’ and b.

From the slope, b, V95 is calculated as V95 = -b/3.

69

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The BAF model is divided into three areas:

• Biofilm processes, describing diffusion and growth-related movement within the biofilm

• Bulk processes, describing the behaviour of determinands outside the biofilm (dilution).

• Reaction kinetics

The model assumes that there are no reactions within the bulk liquid. The only reaction is within the biofilm.

The differences between the BAF and biological filters are:

• The filter always assumes that there is excess oxygen, the BAF uses forced aeration so the user

specifies how much air is supplied and there is a possibility of being oxygen limited.

• The Biofilm density is greater in the BAF system than in the biological filter.

• The BAF model supports external solids loss (i.e. the flow of liquid can be high enough to strip

solids from the biofilm).

The biofilm models the transport of substrate into the biofilm from the bulk liquid.

The biofilm model used is the same as that used to model the biological filter and is described fully in Section

15.3 - BIOLOGICAL FILTER MODELS 2 & 3

The reaction kinetics models the breakdown of substrate within the biofilm for growth purposes.

There are three models available to describe the reaction kinetics and these are the same as those described in

Section 8.3 - ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 3 (ASAL3)

Section 8.7 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1

Section 8.8 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2

70

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The fluidised bed model is divided into four areas:

• Biofilm processes, describing diffusion and growth-related movement within the biofilm

• Bulk processes, describing the behaviour of determinands outside the biofilm

• Reaction kinetics

• Bed expansion

• The BFB is operated as a flooded system, the filter is not.

• The filter always assumes that there is excess oxygen, the BFB uses external aeration so the user

specifies how much air is supplied (using the oxygenator - Section 19) and there is a possibility of

being oxygen limited.

• The BFB always behaves as a completely mixed tank.

• The Biofilm density is greater in the BFB system than the biological filter.

• The BFB model supports external solids loss (i.e. the flow of liquid can be high enough to strip

solids from the biofilm).

• The model assumes that there are reactions within the bulk liquid.

The biofilm models the transport of substrate into the biofilm from the bulk liquid.

The biofilm model used is the same as that used to model the biological filter and is described fully in Section

15.3 - BIOLOGICAL FILTER MODELS 2 & 3

The reaction kinetics model the breakdown of substrate within the biofilm for growth purposes.

There are three models available to describe the reaction kinetics and these are the same as those described in

Section 8.3 - ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 3 (ASAL3)

Section 8.7 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1

Section 8.8 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2

The bed expansion is calculated from the equation

ψ 2 = ψ 0 + (1 − ψ 0 ) ⋅ ψ RZ exp( 2.1n[1 − ψ RZ ])

2.2 n + 8 d p / DT

1/ n

u

ψ RZ = − d L/ D

Vt p T

n = 4.7

where

Vt Stokes settling velocity

ug superficial gas velocity

uL superficial liquid velocity

dp particle diameter

DT column diameter

ρs particle density

ρL liquid density

ψ2 two-phase expanded bed voidage

ψ0 static bed voidage

71

WRc Process Model Descriptions

19. OXYGENATOR

The oxygenator is commonly used with the Biological Fluidised Bed Model (Section 18) and its purpose is to

model the air input to the fluidised bed. it can also be used for any process that requires an external aeration

50

system to be modelled e.g. VITOXTM

The oxygenator is provided as two models, steady-state and dynamic.

The steady-state model solves the equation

to calculate the dissolved oxygen concentration.

The dynamic model solves the differential equation

dSO2

V⋅ = Q( SO2,in − SO2 ) + K L a ⋅ V ⋅ ( SO 2,saturation − SO2 )

dt

72

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The RBC model is divided into three areas:

• Biofilm processes, describing diffusion and growth-related movement within the biofilm

• Bulk processes, describing the behaviour of determinands outside the biofilm

• Reaction kinetics

The model assumes that there are no reactions within the bulk liquid. The only reaction is within the biofilm.

The RBC model follows the approach used by Lumbers51 of dividing the RBC into two sections, one

immersed in the trough and the other the exposed surface. Instead of modelling the movement of the RBC disc

through the trough the apparent flow of fluid from the trough onto the exposed disc surface is calculated. The

model treats the soluble substrates as having different concentrations between the exposed and submerged

biofilms but treats the particulate substrates as having the same concentration whether exposed or submerged.

This averaging of the particulate material is required to approximate the movement of the biofilm through the

trough.

exposed rotor

Influent

Liquid volume in Effluent

trough

RBC 1 RBC 2

The biofilm models the transport of substrate into the biofilm from the bulk liquid.

The biofilm model used is the same as that used to model the biological filter and is described fully in Section

15.3 - BIOLOGICAL FILTER MODELS 2 & 3

The reaction kinetics model the breakdown of substrate within the biofilm for growth purposes.

There are three models available to describe the reaction kinetics and these are the same as those described in

Section 8.3 - ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 3 (ASAL3)

Section 8.7 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1

Section 8.8 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2

51 Lumbers, JP, 1987, Rotating Biological Contactors: Mechanisms, Modelling and Design, PhD

Thesis, Imperial College, University of London

73

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The SBC model is divided into three areas:

• Biofilm processes, describing diffusion and growth-related movement within the biofilm

• Bulk processes, describing the behaviour of determinands outside the biofilm

• Reaction kinetics

The model assumes that there are no reactions within the bulk liquid. The only reaction is within the biofilm.

The SBC model follows the approach used by Lumbers52 of dividing the RBC into two sections, one

immersed in the trough and the other the exposed surface. Instead of modelling the movement of the RBC disc

through the trough the apparent flow of fluid from the trough onto the exposed disc surface is calculated. The

model treats the soluble substrates as having different concentrations between the exposed and submerged

biofilms but treats the particulate substrates as having the same concentration whether exposed or submerged.

This averaging of the particulate material is required to approximate the movement of the biofilm through the

trough.

exposed rotor

Influent

Liquid volume in Effluent

trough

SBC 1 SBC 2

The difference between the Submerged Biological Contactor model Rotating Biological Contactor

models are:

• The SBC has support for direct aeration of the trough whereas the RBC does not.

The biofilm models the transport of substrate into the biofilm from the bulk liquid.

The biofilm model used is the same as that used to model the biological filter and is described fully in Section

15.3 - BIOLOGICAL FILTER MODELS 2 & 3

The reaction kinetics model the breakdown of substrate within the biofilm for growth purposes.

There are three models available to describe the reaction kinetics and these are the same as those described in

Section 8.3 - ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL 3 (ASAL3)

Section 8.7 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #1

Section 8.8 - IAWQ ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL #2

52 Lumbers, JP, 1987, Rotating Biological Contactors: Mechanisms, Modelling and Design, PhD

Thesis, Imperial College, University of London

74

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The disinfection model has been taken from H Zhou and DW Smith, 1994, “Kinetics of ozone disinfection in

completely mixed system” (sic), Journal of Environmental Engineering 120(4) 841ff. We have not assessed

the model, but the two models that we have abstracted from this paper were compared by the authors to other

models in the literature, and on the basis of their data these are the models that they recommended.

THIS MODEL IS NOT APPLICABLE TO UV DISINFECTION

Disinfection should produce a reduction in BOD/COD, as disinfectants are oxidising agents. We have

assumed that this reaction is described by the following equation

dC

= k ⋅C⋅ B

dt

where k is the reaction rate

C is the disinfectant concentration and

B is the concentration of BOD.

Because of the lack of data we have assigned the reaction rate a value of 0. Therefore by default STOAT

assumes that disinfection does not reduce BOD/COD, and also that there is no consumption of the disinfectant

- only removal by hydraulic flow. Although this is a limitation it is one that is found in many design programs,

for example the US EPA’s CAPDET.

Rate of disinfection = k ⋅ C n ⋅ S

where C = disinfectant concentration

S = bacterial concentration

k = reaction constant

n = reaction order.

k1 ⋅ C n ⋅ S

Rate of disinfection =

1 + k2 ⋅ C n ⋅ t

where C = disinfectant concentration

S = bacterial concentration

t = contact time

k1 = rate constant

k2 = resistance constant

n = reaction order

This model implies that increasing reaction times or increasing disinfectant concentrations does not

necessarily produce an improvement in disinfection performance. The contact time is taken to be the hydraulic

age (retention time of the liquid within the tank), and this is calculated as

dτ Q ⋅τ

= 1−

dt V

75

WRc Process Model Descriptions

In STOAT, there are two anaerobic digestion models. The first model is based on the first-order decay of

volatile solids. This is a simple model, readily calibrated from laboratory digestion tests but it does not fully

characterise the processes known to be happening within anaerobic digestion. There is therefore a second,

more complex, model, which includes the full set of anaerobic digestion processes. This second model is

based on the work of Mosey53.

The first-order model has the following equations:

Biodegradable solids:

dXV Q

= ( XV ,i − XV ) − K ⋅ X V

dt V

Total BOD:

dS Q

= ( Si − S ) − YSX ⋅ K ⋅ X

dt V

K is the degradation rate and YSX is the BOD content of volatile solids.

This model does not predict gas production. It also assumes that BOD removal is directly proportional to

volatile solids removal. If the sludge has a high volatile solids content and a low BOD this model may predict

negative BOD. Should this happen there are two work-arounds. The first is to reduce the fraction of the

volatile solids that are biodegradable. The second is to reduce the BOD equivalent of the volatile solids (this

parameter can be changed from the main run menu in STOAT) – this will have a global effect on the sewage

works simulation.

A 30-day batch digestion test can provide the data needed to calculate the degradation rate and the

biodegradable fraction of volatile solids. The volatile solids left after a time T is given by

XV = XV,0 e-K t

This equation can be re-written as

ln XV = ln XV,0 - K t

or

Y = a + b X,

with Y = ln XV, and X = t.

F Mosey, 1989, The Modelling of Carbohydrate Kinetics in Anaerobic Digestion, WRc Report UM

1008

F Mosey, 1983, "Mathematical modelling of the anaerobic digestion process: Regulatory

mechanisms for the formation of short-chain volatile acids from glucose", Water Science and

Technology 15, 209-232

F Mosey, 1983, "Kinetic descriptions of anaerobic digestion", Proceedings of the Third

International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion, Boston, Massachusetts, 37-52

76

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Least-squares regression packages can be used to calculate the initial biodegradable solids concentration and

the degradation rate. Least-squares calculations are available in most spreadsheets, including Lotus 1-2-3,

Microsoft Excel, 2020, SuperCalc and AsEasyAs. From the results of the regression XV,0 and K are given by

K = -b

XV,0 = exp(a)

This model is a detailed mechanistic model of anaerobic sludge digestion. Five bacterial populations are

modelled, interacting through their production and consumption of hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide,

volatile fatty acids and complex carbohydrates. It has long been recognised, as discussed by Mosey, that

anaerobic sludge digestion takes place only through the 'co-operation' of several bacterial species, each

responsible for adjusting the digester environment to the benefit of all. The most commonly quoted aspect of

this ecosystem is that the bacteria that produce methane also produce hydrogen, yet their growth is inhibited

by high levels of hydrogen. It is the presence of hydrogen-scavenging bacteria working in consort with the

methanogens that produces a stable sludge digester. Digester performance can therefore be impaired by any

change in the bacterial balance.

This model was originally developed to analyse the performance of laboratory digesters operating with simple

carbohydrates, such as glucose; it has been extended with the addition of 'complex carbohydrates' ('volatile

solids' is an approximation to 'complex carbohydrates') as a component for full-scale sludge digesters. The

components involved are:

[H+] Hydrogen ions [M]

A: Acetic acid [mM]

B Butyric acid [mM]

C: Biodegradable volatile solids [mg/l]

CH4: Methane gas [mM]

CO2: Carbon dioxide [mM]

CO3: Fully dissociated hydrogen carbonate [mg/l]

G: Glucose [mM]

H: Hydrogen gas [mM]

H2CO3: Undissociated hydrogen carbonate [mg/l]

HCO3: Singly dissociated hydrogen carbonate [mg/l]

P: Propionic acid [mM]

PH2: Partial pressure of hydrogen [atm]

XA: Acetic acid-using biomass [mg/l]

XB: Butyric acid-using biomass [mg/l]

XG: Glucose-using biomass [mg/l]

XH: Hydrogen-using biomass [mg/l]

X P: Propionic acid-using biomass [mg/l]

Ammonia, nitrate, phosphate, nonvolatile solids and nonbiodegradable volatile solids are treated as

conservative components, taking part in no reactions. The hydrogen carbonate species are used, along with

other ionic species, to calculate the ionic status and pH of the digester.

The equations relating biological growth and the removal of volatile solids, fatty acids and the production of

carbon dioxide and methane are given below. A detailed explanation of the inter-relationship and derivation of

these equations can be found in the publications of Mosey referred to earlier.

Breakdown of complex carbohydrates to simple carbohydrates

77

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Carbohydrates:

dC 40 ⋅ XG ⋅ C

= Qin ⋅ Cin − Qout ⋅ C − ⋅V

dt 5000 + C

Glucose formed from carbohydrate degradation:

dG1 1.11 40 ⋅ XG ⋅ C

= ⋅

dt 180 5000 + C

Glucose degradation:

dG2 1. 5 ⋅ K p1 ⋅ XG ⋅ G

=

dt ( 0.128 + G ) ⋅ (1 + 1482 ⋅ PH 2 )

Acetate formed from glucose:

dA1 2 dG

= ⋅ 2

dt (1 + 1482 ⋅ PH 2 ) 2 dt

Propionate formed from glucose:

dP1 2 dG2

= ⋅

dt 1 + 1 dt

1482 ⋅ PH 2

Butyrate formed from glucose:

dB1 1 dG2

= ⋅

dt 1 dt

2 + 1482 ⋅ PH 2 +

1482 ⋅ PH 2

Gas production:

dCO21 dA1 dB

= +2 1

dt dt dt

dH 21 dA dB dP

= 2 1 +2 1 − 1

dt dt dt dt

Reactions associated with the acetate-removing bacteria

Acetate degradation:

dA2 0.16 ⋅ K p1 ⋅ X A ⋅ A

=

dt 2. 78 ⋅ 10 −7

+A

[H+ ]

Gas production:

dCH 41 dA2

=

dt dt

dCO 2 2 dA2

=

dt dt

Reactions associated with the propionate-removing bacteria

Propionate degradation:

dP2 0. 038 ⋅ K p1 ⋅ X P ⋅ P

=

dt 5 ⋅ 10 −8

( + A) ⋅ (1 + 1482 ⋅ PH 2 )

[H + ]

78

WRc Process Model Descriptions

dA4 dP2

=

dt dt

Gas production:

dCO 2 3 dP

= 0. 0038 ⋅ (10 ⋅ 2 − K D ⋅ X P )

dt dt

dH 2 2 dP

=3 2

dt dt

dCO 2 7 dP2

=

dt dt

Reactions associated with the butyrate-removing bacteria

Butyrate degradation:

dB2 0. 035 ⋅ K p1 ⋅ X B ⋅ B

=

dt 8. 3 ⋅ 10 −9

( + B) ⋅ (1 + 1482 ⋅ PH 2 )

[H+ ]

Acetate formed from butyrate:

dA5 dB

= 2⋅ 2

dt dt

Secondary metabolite use of butyrate:

dB3 dB

= 0. 0076 ⋅ ( 20 2 − K D ⋅ X B )

dt dt

Gas production:

dH 2 3 dA5

=

dt dt

dCO 2 4 dB3

=

dt dt

Reactions associated with the hydrogen-scavenging bacteria

Hydrogen consumption:

dH 4 2 ⋅ K p1 ⋅ X H ⋅ PH 2

=

dt 0. 00133 + PH 2

Associated removal of carbon dioxide:

dCO 2 5 dH 2 4

= 0. 25

dt dt

Production of methane:

dCH 4 2 dCO 2 5

=

dt dt

Secondary metabolite consumption of hydrogen:

dH 2 5 dH 2 5

= 0. 08 ⋅ ( 2. 5 − KD ⋅ XH )

dt dt

Secondary metabolite consumption of carbon dioxide:

dCO 2 6 dH 2 5

= 0. 5

dt dt

79

WRc Process Model Descriptions

dX H Q dH

= − out ⋅ X H + 2. 5 ⋅ 4 − K D ⋅ X H

dt V dt

Net growth of butyrate users:

dX B Q dB

= − out ⋅ X B + 20 ⋅ 2 − K D ⋅ X B

dt V dt

Net growth of propionate users:

dX P Q dP

= − out ⋅ X P + 10 ⋅ 2 − K D ⋅ X P

dt V dt

Net growth of acetate users:

dX A Q dA

= − out X A + 2. 5 ⋅ 2 − K D ⋅ X A

dt V dt

Net growth of glucose users:

dXG Q dA dP dB

= − out ⋅ XG + 20 ⋅ 1 + 10 ⋅ 1 + 10 ⋅ 1 − K D ⋅ XG

dt V dt dt dt

Gas production rates:

dCO2 dCO21 dCO2 2 dCO2 3

= + −

dt dt dt dt

dCO2 4 dCO2 5 dCO2 6 dCO2 7

− − − +

dt dt dt dt

dCH 4 dCH 41 dCH 4 2

= +

dt dt dt

dH 2 dH 21 dH 2 2 dH 2 3 dH 2 4 dH 2 5

= + + − −

dt dt dt dt dt dt

This model has no adjustable kinetic or stoichiometric coefficients. Note that in the equations above the rates

are expressed in per day, not per hour.

The two parameters Kp1 and KD are a pH inhibition term on biomass growth and the death rate, also a

function of pH. The variation of these two coefficients with the pH value is shown in the following graph:

0.8

0.6

Kp1

0.4 Kd

0.2

0

1 3 5 7 9 11 13

pH value

80

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The digester gas head-space and the concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions within the sludge

are used to calculate the pH within the digester.

Under normal conditions and under neutral or alkaline conditions the pH value of the digester is controlled by

a natural bicarbonate/carbonate buffering system. Accumulation of acetic acid will displace bicarbonate ions,

converting them into gaseous carbon dioxide and replacing them with acetate ions to form an acetic

acid/acetate buffer. Other volatile fatty acids behave in a similar manner. At the other extreme the inadvertent

addition of excessive quantities of alkali will absorb most or all of the carbon dioxide from the headspace gas,

destroy the bicarbonate/carbonate buffering system and replace it with an ammonia/ammonium ion buffering

system derived from the high concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen normally present in sewage sludges.

81

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The TAD model supports two forms of operation:

1. continuous inflow and

2. feeding to approximately conform to the DoE guide-lines on sewage sludge treatment for disposal to

agricultural land.

If the DoE guide-lines are followed sludge must be held within the digester for a minimum average retention

time of 7 days (this part of the DoE requirements is not enforced within STOAT) and the sludge must be held

for a minimum of 4 hours at 55°C. This 4-hour holding time at 55°C requires a holding tank between the

sludge feed line and the TAD tank, where cold sludge is kept while the digesting sludge attains the

temperature requirement.

A continuous feed of sludge would necessitate a continuous discharge, so that the minimum 4 hours at 55°C

could not be guaranteed. Because of this if you specify continuous flow you are required to enter information

only for the TAD tank whereas if you wish to operate with the DoE guide-lines then you must also specify

some information on the holding tank. This holding tank is created and associated with TAD and will not be

displayed on the screen. The holding tank is assumed to be infinite volume with you specifying the pumping

rate between the holding tank and the TAD tank. Note that the pumping rate is commonly chosen so that TAD

tanks are filled/emptied within half-an-hour, based on the discharge/feed volume. This may mean that a

simulation time step of (say) one hour may miss reporting the feed - but the feed will have taken place.

The equations for the holding tank are the same as for the balancing tank as described in Section 35 of this

manual.

For the TAD tank the components are:

SNH3: Ammonia [mg/l]

SNO3: Nitrate [mg/l]

SO : Oxygen [mg/l]

SPO4: Phosphate [mg/l]

T: Temperature [mg/l]

V: Volume [mg/l]

XNV: Nonvolatile solids [mg/l]

X S: BOD [mg/l]

XT: Thermophilic bacteria [mg/l]

XV: Volatile solids [mg/l]

The equations for these are:

Volume:

dV

= Qin − Qout − Qevap

dt

BOD - soluble BOD is assumed to be negligible:

dV ⋅ X S XS

= Qin ⋅ X S,in − Qout ⋅ X S − RS ⋅ XT ⋅ V − K D ⋅ XT ⋅ V

dt K S + XS

dV ⋅ X dX dV

= f (...) = V +X

dt dt dt

dV

f (...) − X

dX dt

=

dt V

82

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Biomass:

dV ⋅ XT XS

= −Qout ⋅ XT + YT ⋅ RS ⋅ ⋅ XT ⋅ V

dt K S + XS

Volatile solids:

dV ⋅ XV XS

= Qin ⋅ XV ,in − Qout ⋅ XV − YS , X ⋅ RS ⋅ ⋅ XT ⋅ V

dt KS + XS

Temperature:

dV ⋅ T

= Qin ⋅ C p,l ⋅ (Tin − Tref ) − Qout ⋅ Cp,l ⋅ (T − Tref )

dt

−Qevap ⋅ λ evap + Qgas,in ⋅ Hgas,in − Qgas,out ⋅ Hgas,out

XS

+ Ppump + ∆H ⋅ RS ⋅ ⋅ XT ⋅ V

K S + XS

The nonvolatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and phosphate are assumed to be conserved substances and only

simple dilution mass balances are written for them. Although oxygen takes part in the reactions the model

assumes that all the oxygen required is supplied from the gas stream; the dissolved oxygen is therefore treated

as another conserved substance. Because the transport of dissolved oxygen around the sewage works is

negligible compared to the oxygen requirements of bacteria this approximation does not affect the predictions

of the TAD model.

The rate of substrate degradation is modelled by

− B1 − B2

RS = A1 ⋅ e T + 273.15 − A2 ⋅ e T + 273.15

and the biomass death rate by

− B3

K D = A3 ⋅ e T + 273.15

The equation form for the rate of substrate degradation was taken from Sinclair et al54. This models the rapid

increase in substrate degradation as enzymes become more active, followed by the fall in the degradation rate

at higher temperatures as the enzymes break down.

The gas enthalpies are calculated by integrating the specific heats over the range (Tref,, Tin) for the inlet gas

and (Tref, T) for the outlet. The specific heat values were taken from Sinnott55.

54 CG Sinclair, B Kristiansen and JD Bu'lock, 1987, Fermentation Kinetics and Modeling, Open

University Press, Milton Keynes, UK, and Taylor and Francis, New York

55 RK Sinnott, 1983, Chemical Engineering Volume 6: Design, Pergamon Press

83

WRc Process Model Descriptions

For the evaporative loss of water you specify the percent saturation of the inlet and outlet gas. Typical values

for the inlet gas are in the range 0-50%, and the outlet 80-100%. The saturated humidity of the gas is

calculated using the methods given in Coulson and Richardson56. The vapour pressure of water for this

method is calculated from the correlation in McGarry57. The heat of reaction has been taken from Cooney et

al.58

A pump is normally seen as a method of converting electrical energy into pressure and kinetic energy. In the

energy balance equation there is a mechanical heating power term, PPump. Many TAD systems are aerated

using a venturi aerator, where sludge is pumped through a venturi to entrain air, or pumped through the

venturi with air blown into the venturi. The aim in both cases is to efficiently mix the air into the sludge,

producing fine bubbles. Many sludge pumps are treated as having 40-60% pumping efficiency, from which

you would expect that perhaps 30-50% of the electrical power is transferred to the sludge as heat, the rest

being lost to the atmosphere. This is not the case. When the sludge enters the TAD tank its pressure and

kinetic energy are lost and also converted to heat. This means that the pump power ultimately converted to

heat seen by the digester is usually in the range 60-80%. Where a submersible pump, or a submersible mixer,

is used for aeration then 100% of the electrical energy will eventually be available as heat within the digester.

Oxygen mass transfer is represented by a simple method. You specify the maximum fraction of oxygen in the

air that can be dissolved. This is typically in the range 30-90%; we would suggest a value in the range 80-

90%. The oxygen uptake rate is calculated and set to the lesser of the calculated value and the transfer rate;

this is then used with the equations given above. There has been no work reported on oxygen mass transfer

rates in aerobic sludge digestion. Unpublished work at WRc has found that the high solids concentrations

leads to higher KLa values than would be predicted by methods such as those described in Appendix B. This

conclusion has been frequently found in the chemical engineering literature. For the most commonly studied

system - bubble-columns - the increase in KLa values caused by the solids has been found to be a function of

concentration, particle diameter and nature of solids. This means that simple correlations for TAD may be

difficult to find. WRc, in common with other designers of TAD systems, has found that the assumption of an

upper limit to oxygen transfer is a reasonable solution to this problem.

The symbols used are defined as:

λ: Specific latent heat @ Tref [kJ/kg]

∆H: Oxidation energy on BOD [kJ/kg]

Cp,l: Liquid specific heat capacity [kJ/t °C]

Hgas: Specific enthalpy of gas [kJ/kg]

KD: Bacterial death rate [1/h]

K S: Saturation coefficient on BOD [mg/l]

Ppump: Heat energy associated with pump [kW]

Q: Sludge flowrate [m3/h]

Qgas: Gas flowrate [kg/h]

RS: Removal rate of BOD [1/h]

Tref: Thermodynamic reference temperature [°C]

YT: Yield of biomass on BOD [-]

56 JM Coulson and JF Richardson, 1977, Chemical Engineering Volume 1, Third Edition, Pergamon

Press

57 J McGarry, 1983, "Correlation and prediction of the vapour pressures of liquids over large ranges",

IEC Process Design and Development 22, 313-322

58 CL Cooney, DIC Wang and RI Mateles, 1968, “Measurement of heat evolution and correlation with

oxygen consumption during microbial growth”, Biotechnology and Bioengineering 11, 268 ff.

84

WRc Process Model Descriptions

25. DEWATERING

Dewatering is represented by a simple steady-state model. The model uses a mass balance where the

specifications are %TSS in the produced cake and the %recovery of solids. Note that STOAT uses suspended

solids, but that cake solids are normally measured as total solids - that is, suspended solids + dissolved solids.

This difference introduces a modelling error between STOAT and the true works. Because dissolved solids are

not commonly measured during sewage treatment we have chosen to ignore their contribution to the solids

balance.

The model also allows you to specify the dose of various conditioning chemicals that can be added to aid

dewatering.

The mass of solids out is calculated as

(%recovery) *( (mass of solids in) + (mass of conditioning solids added.))

The flowrate is then calculated as

Flow out = (Mass of solids out) / (Concentration of solids in dewatered cake).

This is sufficient to specify the mass balance on solids and solubles.

85

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Within STOAT, there are 4 heat exchanger models:

Steady-state countercurrent

Steady-state cocurrent

Dynamic countercurrent

Dynamic cocurrent

The steady-state countercurrent model solves the following equation for heat transfer:

(Tshell,in − Ttube,out ) − (Tshell,out − Ttube,in )

ln

(Tshell,in − Ttube,out )

(Tshell,out − Ttube,in )

26.2 STEADY-STATE COCURRENT

The steady-state cocurrent model solves the following equation for heat transfer:

(Tshell,in − Ttube,in ) − (Tshell,out − Ttube,out )

ln

(Tshell,in − Ttube,in )

(Tshell,out − Ttube,out )

26.3 DYNAMIC COUNTERCURRENT

The dynamic countercurrent model divides the heat exchanger into N stages for both the shell and tube side.

For each stage the heat transfer equation solved is

dTshell Q ⋅ C p

dt

=

V

(Tin − Tshell ) + U ⋅ A ⋅ (Tshell − Ttube )

dTtube Q ⋅ C p

= (Tin − Ttube ) − U ⋅ A ⋅ (Tshell − Ttube )

dt V

The flow path is

86

WRc Process Model Descriptions

dTshell Q ⋅ C p

dt

=

V

(Tin − Tshell ) + U ⋅ A ⋅ (Tshell − Ttube )

dTtube Q ⋅ C p

= (Tin − Ttube ) − U ⋅ A ⋅ (Tshell − Ttube )

dt V

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

Direct thermal sludge drying is a process by which hot gases directly contact the wet sludge co-currently and

evaporate the water. The hot gas is vented separately from the sludge.

The flow path is

Gas

Sludge

The drying model divides the drier into N stages for both the sludge and gas phase side.

For each stage the heat transfer equation solved is

dTgas Q ⋅ Cp mevap ∆Hlatent

dt

=

V

(T

in ) (

− Tgas + U ⋅ A ⋅ Tgas − Tsludge + ) V

dTsludge Qsludge ⋅ C p,sludge mevap ∆H latent

dt

=

V

(T

in ) (

− Tsludge − U ⋅ A ⋅ Tgas − Tsludge +) V

When the temperature of the sludge exceeds the boiling point of water the sludge equations are changed to the

following

dTsludge

=0

dt

Qsludge ⋅ C p

V

(Tin ) (

− Tsludge + U ⋅ A ⋅ Tgas − Tsludge )

mevap =

∆H latent

where

mevap mass of water evaporated

Q mass of sludge or heating fluid through the stage

U heat transfer coefficient

A heat transfer area

T temperature

V volume of the stage

Cp specific heat capacity

∆hlatent latent heat of evaporation

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

The indirect drier dries the sludge by keeping the heating medium completely separate from the sludge. This is

done by passing the sludge through a heat exchanger and the hot drying gas carries out its duty through a tube

wall.

The flow path is

SLUDGE

GAS

The drying model divides the drier into N stages in each of the sludge and heating medium side.

For each stage the heat transfer equation solved is

dTshell Q ⋅ C p

dt

=

V

(Tin − Tshell ) + U ⋅ A ⋅ (Tshell − Ttube )

dTtube Q ⋅ C p

= (Tin − Ttube ) − U ⋅ A ⋅ (Tshell − Ttube )

dt V

When the temperature on the tube side (where the sludge flows) exceeds the boiling point of water the

equations are changed to the following

dTtube

=0

dt

Q ⋅ Cp

V

(Tin − Ttube ) + U ⋅ A ⋅ (Tshell − Ttube )

mevap =

∆H latent

where

mevap mass of water evaporated

Q mass of sludge or heating fluid through the stage

U heat transfer coefficient

A heat transfer area

T temperature

V volume of the stage

Cp specific heat capacity

∆hlatent latent heat of evaporation

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

29 SLUDGE INCINERATION

The incinerator model is currently steady-state only. There are always 6 streams entering the incinerator:

• sludge in and ash out

• air in and exhaust gas out

• cooling air in and out

A fluidised bed system is distinguished, for the model, by setting the cooling gas flow to be zero. Multiple

hearth systems should have a cooling gas flow specified.

The oxygen demand is calculated from the COD. A BOD-based model will calculate the oxygen demand

from the BOD, but ignore the additional oxygen required for the nonbiodegradable COD. An additional

oxygen demand is created by the ammonia, organic nitrogen and sulphur content of the sludge, offset by the

nitrate.

All the volatile solids are assumed to be burnt, while the ash is assumed to be only the nonvolatile solids.

Supplementary fuel can be added, as either methane or oil. The default parameters for oil are for a No. 2

heating oil. The oxygen demand for the fuel is calculated as

O2 = 2.664 C + 7.937 H + 0.998 S - O

where C, H, S and O are the mass fractions of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and oxygen in the fuel.

An excess oxygen requirement is specified and used to calculate the minimum amount of oxygen that must be

available for complete burnout. If this minimum is not supplied then the percentage burn is scaled back by the

ratio of the available oxygen to the minimum oxygen demand.

The exit temperature is then calculated from the energy balance:

273+ Tgas , in 273+ Tcool gas , in

273

p, gas ⋅ dT + ∆H combustion ⋅ O2,consumed + Qcool gas ⋅ ∫C

273

p,cool gas ⋅ dT

=

273+ T 273+ Tcool gas , out

Qgas,out ⋅ ∫C

273

p, gas ⋅ dT + Qcool gas ⋅ ∫C

273

p,cool gas ⋅ dT + Qsludge ⋅ ∆H latent + Qash ⋅ C p, ash ⋅ T

If a cooling gas flow is specified then a second equation must be solved for the cooling gas temperature:

273

273+ Tcool gas ,out

273

where

Q Mass flow (kg/h)

T Temperature (°C)

Cp Specific heat (J/kg °C)

∆Hlatent Latent heat of evaporation (J/kg)

∆Hcombustion Heat of combustion (J/kg)

LMTD Log-mean temperature difference

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

The PID controller is available in discrete and continuous forms, with simple and fuller variants on the

parameters.

Models 1 and 2 are simulations of continuous (analogue) controllers and Models 3 and 4 are simulations of

discrete (digital) controllers. All the models use the equation form of model 1:

1 dError

Output = Gain ⋅ Error +

Integral time ∫ Error dt + Derivative time ⋅

dt

PID stands for Proportional-Integral-Derivative, and is sometimes referred to as a three-term controller. In real

life, by switching off different parts of the P, I or D terms, it is possible to achieve 7 different modes of control

i.e. P, I, D, PI, PD, DI, or PID. Of these the most widely used modes are P, PI and PID and these are the only

modes available within STOAT.

The recommended mode is PI.

The equation describing the PID is

t

1 de

Y = K P (e +

τI ∫ e ⋅ dt + τ D

0 dt

)

e: error (calculated as e = set point - measured value)

KP: controller proportional gain.

τI: controller integral time and

τD: controller derivative time.

The model asks for several additional parameters: the maximum and minimum value for the calculated output

Y and the control sign. The action of the control sign is that if you wish the control output to increase as the

error increases in the positive direction, then you set a sign of +1. If you wish the control output to increase as

the error increases in the negative direction, then you set the sign to -1. As examples, if in activated sludge

plants, the dissolved oxygen level is below the set point value the required action is to increase the air

flowrate. But for controlling MLSS levels the required action for MLSS below the set point value is to

decrease the wastage rate. For these examples the first would operate with a sign of +1, the second with a sign

of -1.

The control algorithm is based on a model of a full output 'analogue' controller; that is, the integral term is a

function of time. There are other variants on this, where the controller is 'digital' and uses the equation

1 t

∆e

Y = KP (e +

τI

∑ e ⋅ ∆t + τ

0

D

∆t

)

or where the output is incremental, rather than full. The incremental controller uses the same set of equations

as given above, but the calculated Y value is treated as an increment to be added to the current output.

There can also be differences in how control algorithms choose to evaluate the integral or summation terms, or

the derivative or difference terms, in the PID equation. STOAT currently implements two of the various

'enhancements', wind-up protection and ‘bumpless’ derivative control. The changes made for wind-up

protection are:

If the controller output is at its maximum value, and the action of the new error would be to increase the

calculated output, then the integral term is not updated. If the controller output is at its minimum, and the

action of the new error would be to decrease the calculated output, then the integral term is not updated. The

rationale behind this approach is that if we did not make this change then the integral term would continue to

increase when the controller output could not further increase. When the error term begins to act to reduce the

controller output we will first have to lose the quantity that was integrated before the control output itself can

91

WRc Process Model Descriptions

be reduced. The result is that the control action shows a marked lag behind the error term. Wind-up protection

increases the responsiveness of the PID controller.

‘Bumpless’ derivative control replaces the derivative term de/dt by dx/dt, where x is the current measured

value. This change means when the setpoint is altered there is not a corresponding large change in the error

derivative. There is no difference in performance between the standard and ‘bumpless’ derivative control for a

constant setpoint, but ‘bumpless’ control is more stable when the set point is changed.

Values for the control parameters KP, τI and τD are commonly estimated from experimental data. Methods for

this can be found in standard process control textbooks such as Luyben59, Coughanouer and Koppel60 or

Pollard61. As stated above, the recommended control method is PI. Proportional control normally produces an

offset: the control variable can never achieve the desired setpoint. You can reduce the offset by increasing the

controller gain, but this reduces the controller stability.

Stability is also a problem with the PI and PID controllers. The choice of large gains or derivative times, or

small integral times, can be expected to produce control output that moves rapidly from 'full on' to 'full off',

leading to unstable control. The PID controller is more likely to be unstable than the PI controller because the

derivative can cause large control changes when the setpoint value is changed or where there are sudden

discontinuities in the works, such as can be caused by wet wells or storm tank returns.

In the description of the wet well and balancing tank we stated that you could set the outlet flow by the inlet

flow using the PID controller. This can be achieved by the following method. Create two controllers. For the

first controller, use proportional control. The setpoint should always be set to zero and the action to negative.

If you wish the manipulated flowrate to be proportional to the measured flowrate set the controller gain to be

1.0. Should you want the manipulated flowrate to be 0.5 set the controller gain to 0.5. The controller output

should be setpoint to the second controller. The second controller can use proportional or PI control. We do

not recommend PID control as the derivative term may create large changes caused by the changing values of

the influent flowrate.

Model 1 allows you to specify that the output is bounded as

Minimum < Output < Maximum

Whenever the output attempts to exceed the boundaries, integration of the error is stopped - this is called

windup protection in the control literature.

Model 2 adds the following features:

1. The input signal can also be bounded. This is equivalent to an input channel being scaled so that (say)

if the dissolved oxygen should be in the range 1-4 mg/l then any DO readings less than 1 are treated as

1, while DO readings greater than 4 are treated as 4.

2. The input signal can be assigned a positive and negative hysteresis. This means that if the old signal

was 2.0 mg/l, and a positive hysteresis of 0.2 and a negative hysteresis of 0.5 mg/l have been assigned,

then the signal that the control algorithm will use will be 2.0 until the true signal exceeds 2.2 or drops

below 1.5. Hysteresis is common in mechanical systems and can be also be built into control systems to

prevent noise from causing changes in control outputs.

3. The output value can be assigned a positive and negative hysteresis.

4. An offset can be assigned to the output. This is important for proportional control. Model 1 on

proportional control will always have an output of zero when the error is zero - therefore there must

always be an error offset. If an output offset can be assigned it is possible to reduce the error offset.

59 WL Luyben, Process Modelling, Simulation, and Control for Chemical Engineers, McGraw Hill

60 Coughanouer and Koppel, Process Systems Analysis and Control, McGraw Hill

61 A Pollard, Process Control, Heinemann

92

WRc Process Model Descriptions

This is identical to Model 1, but instead of integrating the error integral it uses a summation. Also, the input

and output values are only updated at the chosen sampling interval.

This is identical to Model 2, but instead of integrating the error integral it uses a summation. Also, the input

and output values are only updated at the chosen sampling interval.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

The ladder logic controller is a series of IF ... THEN statements. The operation can be envisaged as

IF Condition1 THEN Output1

ELSEIF Condition2 THEN Output2

ELSEIF ...

If no conditions are satisfied then the output from the last successful control action is used.

The control conditions are all of the form

LowerLimit1 < ValueOfParameter1 < UpperLimit1

AND LowerLimit2 < ValueOfParameter2 < UpperLimit2

AND ...

94

WRc Process Model Descriptions

This is a simple model of an instrument and describes how the signal out from an instrument is affected by

fouling of the probe.

The signal out from the meter is controlled by the differential equation

dS α ⋅ R − S

=

dt τ

where S is the output(signal);

R is the true reading;

α is the instrument gain; and

τ is the time constant.

The signal out from the meter is controlled by the differential equation

d 2 S α ⋅ R − S ζ dS

= − ⋅

dt 2 τ2 τ dt

where the symbols are as defined above, with the addition of the damping parameter ζ.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

33. SIMPOL

SIMPOL is a simplified sewer modelling system. A version of the SIMPOL model has been published as a

series of Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets in the UPM Manual published by the Foundation for Water Research

(Marlow, UK). The EXCEL version includes Monte Carlo simulations for investigating the stochastic nature

of storms.

STOAT includes a version of SIMPOL. There is no support for Monte Carlo simulation, but the interface is

easier and the handling of quality parameters has been improved. SIMPOL was designed to require calibration

against more accurate sewer models, such as MOUSETRAP (Danish Hydraulics Institute) or HydroWorks-

QM/MOSQITO (Wallingford Software). SIMPOL would then be used to study a range of proposed

changes/improvements to the sewer system and the resulting shortlist would be run as full

MOUSETRAP/HydroWorks-QM models. The STOAT version of SIMPOL is also designed for this usage,

and to provide a simple sewer network model to feed a sewage works model.

Further information on SIMPOL can be found in the UPM Manual.

General description

Rainfall

Sewer (variable volume)

This tank

• Converts rain into runoff (QR)

• Combines runoff and foul flow (QF)

• Erodes or deposits sewer sediment

• Attenuates flows so that the outflow (QO) can be less than the inflow

When there is no runoff (QR = 0) the outflow QO = QF

When there is runoff the volume in the tank can build up. QO is then related to the extra volume in the tank.

This creates attenuation.

Store 1 is deposited from the foul flow when runoff is low or zero. It builds up linearly. It is eroded when

runoff exceeds a particular threshold. The quantity eroded is directly proportional to the runoff quantity.

Store 2 can have a different composition from Store 1 and is assumed to be automatically replenished. Erosion

occurs when Store 1 is empty and runoff exceeds a higher threshold. The quantity eroded is directly

proportional to the runoff quantity. Build-up of Store 2 is not modelled.

96

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Calibration Parameters

RAINc1 = rainfall intensity below which deposition can occur (mm/h)

RAINc2 = rainfall intensity above which erosion from Store 1 can occur (mm/h)

RAINc3 = rainfall intensity above which erosion from Store 2 can occur (mm/h)

BOD1max = maximum quantity of BOD in Store 1 (kg/ha)

T1 = time factor for build-up of BOD in store 1 (s)

RV = ratio of volatile solids to BOD in store 1 by mass

RNV = ratio of non-volatile solids to BOD in store 1 by mass (-)

KB1 = erosion concentration for BOD from Store 1 (mg/l)

KB2 = erosion concentration for BOD from Store 2 (mg/l)

KV2 = erosion concentration for volatile solids from Store 2 (mg/l)

KNV2 = erosion concentration for non-volatile solids from Store 2 (mg/l)

A = attenuation multiplier

B = attenuation exponent

IAREA = impermeable area (ha)

PIMP = percentage of total area that is impermeable (%)

SOIL = soil factor (-) [between 0.15 and 0.5]

Runoff

This is calculated from the standard WALLRUS runoff equation

RF = min1, 0.829 +

PIMP

RF ⋅ IAREA ⋅ RAIN

QR =

360

m3 / s [ ]

Outflow

The outflow is calculated as

A ⋅ (V − VD )

B

QO = + QF

∆T

Volume

dV

= QF + QR − QO

dt

dS (QF + QR ) ⋅ ( Sin − S )

=

dt V

97

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Deposition

When RAIN < RAINc1 deposition of particulate matter can occur, if Store 1 is not already full. The value for

RAINc1 will normally be 0.

BOD1 max

DB1 = if RAIN < RAINc1 and BOD1 < BOD1max

T1

DB1 = 0 if RAIN > RAINc1 or BOD1 = BOD1max

dBOD1

= DB1

dt

dX BOD (QF + QR ) ⋅ ( X in, BOD − X BOD ) 1000 ⋅ DB1

= −

dt V V

If at any stage BOD1 > BOD1max or XBOD < 0 then DB1 should be recalculated to prevent this.

Solids

Similar calculations are carried out for solids but there is no check to prevent negative sewage concentrations,

nor limits on the solids capacity of the sediment. It is assumed that these limits will be automatically satisfied

by the user’s chosen stoichiometry.

Erosion

When RAINc1 < RAIN < RAINc2 there will be no erosion or deposition, and therefore no change in the

sedimentation store.

When RAINc2 < RAIN < RAINc3 then erosion of Store 1 can occur, if there is material to be eroded.

The erosion rate is calculated as

QR ⋅ K B1

E B1 = if RAIN > RAINc2 and BOD1 > 0

1000

EB1 = 0 if these conditions are not met.

dBOD1

= − E B1 if this gives BO1 < 0 then set BOD1 = 0 and recalculate EB1

dt

= +

dt V V

Erosion of solids is assumed to be stoichiometrically in proportion to the erosion of BOD.

98

WRc Process Model Descriptions

When RAINc3 < RAIN erosion of Stores 1 and 2 can occur, if there is material to be eroded. If there is

material in Store 1 this is eroded in preference to material in Store 2. If Store 1 is empty then erosion rates for

Store 2 are:

QR ⋅ K B 2

E B2 =

1000

Q ⋅K

EV 2 = R V 2

1000

Q ⋅K

E NV 2 = R NV 2

1000

Changes in BOD and solids in Store 2 do not need to be calculated as the store is assumed to be infinite.

The change in BOD in the water is

= +

dt V V

The inline detention tank is based on the storm tank model. The mathematical descriptions of the models are

presented in

Section 2.1 - STORM TANK MODEL 1

Section 2.2 - STORM TANK MODEL 2

Section 2.1 - PARAMETER ESTIMATION

The offline detention tank is based on the storm tank model.

The mathematical descriptions of the models are presented in

Section 2.1 - STORM TANK MODEL 1

Section 2.2 - STORM TANK MODEL 2

Section 2.1 - PARAMETER ESTIMATION

Overflow

Detention tank

Detention tank

return flow

Overflow

Influent

Control stream

AND CONTROL STREAM

99

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The combined sewer overflow (CSO) is based on the balancing tank (Section 35). It ignores the effect of

solids settlement and is used to model small-volume, turbulent-flow devices such as an overflow, but

including some of the mixing effects that CSOs normally provide.

The differential equation for the CSO is

dC Qin ⋅ ( Sin − S )

=

dt V

The flow out is controlled by the maximum discharge rate. If the volume in tank reaches the minimum value

then the flow out is the lesser of the flow in and the maximum discharge rate.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

The wet well model is designed to support fixed flow pumps, primarily to provide intermittent supplies at a

higher flow rate from a low flow rate supply. This is the use of a wet well for sludge or sludge liquor returns,

or the inlet wet well at some small sewage works. The term wet well is also used where variable flow pumps

match the pumping rate to the inflow rate, and the purpose of the wet well is keep the pump inlets flooded.

The STOAT wet well is not designed for this usage, but the balancing tank model can achieve this behaviour.

The wet well supports two pumps, pumping at rates Q1 and Q2, cutting in at volumes V1,1 and V2,1. The

pumps cut out once the volume within the wet well falls below V1,2 and V2,2. There is no requirement for

pump 2 to start at a higher volume than pump 1, nor to cut off at a higher volume. The anticipated usage for

wet wells is as a control device for small flows, where the first pump is the duty pump and the second pump

treated as an emergency boost.

V2,1 = Pump 2 On

V1,1 = Pump 1 On

The equations modelling performance are:-

Tank volume:

dV

= Q − Q1 − Q2

dt

All components, soluble and particulate:

dS

= Q ⋅ Si − ( Q1 + Q2 ) S

dt

With wet wells there is a 'memory' problem: when the wet well volume is between V1,1 and V1,2 should

pump 1 be on or off? The answer is that if the volume had exceeded V1,1 then pump 1 is on: the volume is

coming down because the pump is on. Therefore you must specify the pump state at the start of a simulation.

This will be over-ridden if the pump must be on or off, that is the volume is greater than V1,1 or less than

V1,2. The default is to assume that the pumps are off, so that the wet well is filling up, and also that the wet

well is empty.

Although the pumping rates are 'fixed' they can be altered by attaching a PID controller to the wet well. The

pump is then switched on and off by the fixed levels, but the pumping rate can be controlled by the tank

volume or the inlet flow rate.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

Balancing tanks are similar to wet wells, and the equations used to model their performance are the same as

for wet wells. The difference between the two is that wet wells are assumed to take low flows and pump at a

higher rate, but discontinuously. Balancing tanks operate with higher flow and smooth out the flow and load

to the rest of the works.

The balancing tanks in STOAT can be set to operate in one of three modes: 'constant volume', 'infinite volume'

and 'overflow'. The constant volume option sets the outflow to be the same as the inflow; there is no hydraulic

smoothing but the tank acts to provide some load balancing. The infinite volume option assumes that there is a

constant outflow rate and that there will always be sufficient tank volume to store the excess of inflow over

outflow. This option can be useful in design as one of the outputs is the maximum volume that was reached.

The final option is the most realistic. This operates with a constant outflow rate. When the tank is full the

excess flow then goes to an overflow. It is up to you to decide what happens to the overflow - pass it on to

final effluent, mix it in with the pumped outflow, feed it to storm tanks or whatever else the works does with

the overflow.

Balancing tanks can be set to take the full flow to the works - inline balancing tanks - or only the flow above a

set maximum - off-line tanks. Inline balancing tanks provide the maximum flow and load smoothing but

require larger tank volumes than do off-line tanks. If you wish to include the effects of solids settling you can

replace the balancing tank with a storm tank (inline or off-line) or a primary tank (inline only).

The flow from the balancing tanks can be altered by attaching a PID controller to the tank. The output flow

can then be set by the volume within the tank or by the inlet flow.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

36. SEPARATOR

The separator is a simple steady-state model. One stream is split into two streams, and you specify the split

ratio. As examples:

Split ratio of 0.5: The mass of the component in each stream is the same

Split ratio of 0.1: 10% of the mass of the component goes into the first stream, 90% into the second

By specifying the split ratio for the flow you can then define how you wish concentrations in the two split

streams to vary. A typical usage would be to provide simple models for membranes or dewatering presses. For

this you would specify:

Membrane: Stream 1 is produced liquor, stream 2 is retained liquor. Assume flow split is 90% produced,

10% retained. Then flow ratio is 0.9; solubles are 0.9; and particulates are 0. This specifies

zero concentration of soluble material and the complete retention of solids.

Dewatering: Stream 1 is dewatered sludge, stream 2 is filtrate. Assume flow split is 10% in cake, and that

there is 99% recovery of solids. Then the flow ratio is 0.1; solubles 0.1; and particulates

0.99.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

The black box model supports simple correlations to model the performance of treatment processes that are

not already covered by STOAT. This is a quick way of investigating the effect that new processes may have

within the total flowsheet. The supported correlations are:

[Component out] = A + B [Component in]

[Component out] = A + B [Flow]C [Component in]D

[Component out] = A + B [Total BOD in]

[Component out] = A + B [Volatile solids in]

[Component out] = A + B [Phosphorus in]

[Component out] = A + B [Flow]C [Total BOD in]D

[Component out] = A + B [Flow]C [Volatile solids in]D

[Component out] = A + B [Flow]C [Phosphorus in]D

[Component out] = A + B [Component in] + C [Total BOD in]

[Component out] = A + B [Component in] + C [Volatile solids in]

[Component out] = A + B [Component in] + C [Phosphorus in]

Other correlations can be added by WRc if you have processes that require different equations.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

The pipe delay is intended to model only the hydraulic delays in concentration caused by pipelines. The pipe

is divided into N stages and each stage is treated as a completely-mixed tank.

The governing differential equation for each component in each stage is then

dC Q ⋅ (Cin − C )

=

dt V

where Q is the flowrate;

V the volume;

C the concentration in the stage; and

Cin the concentration in the fluid entering the stage.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

The mixers and splitters are simple steady-state models. They model all the flowstream components within

STOAT.

39.1 MIXERS

The mixer allows two or three streams to be mixed into one stream. Mixing is assumed to be instantaneous,

with no mixing volume involved. This approximates to mixing at pipe junctions. The equations are: (for the

two-stream mixer):

Q = Q 1 + Q2 ; flow

T = (Q1 T1 + Q2 T2) / Q ; temperature

C = (Q1 C1 + Q2 C2) / Q ; component concentrations

39.2 SPLITTERS

There are a range of flow splitters. The first is a simple splitter that divides a flowstream into either two or

three streams. You specify the split ratio, which must sum to 1.0.

The second splitter requires that you define a sludge solids concentration. Any flow entering the splitter with

solids below the sludge value is sent to the first output flowstream, as sewage. When the solids in the

flowstream exceed the sludge value flow is sent to the second output flowstream as sludge. This splitter is

expected to be used mainly with the storm tanks, allowing you to simulate drawing the tank down followed by

desludging.

There is one timed splitter. This splitter has two output streams, and the output split is defined for two time

periods. During the first time period the split ratio follows the first definition. During the second time period

the split ratio follows the second definition. For example, this splitter could be set up so for the first 6 hours of

each 12 hour period the split between the two outputs is 30:70, and then for the second 6 hours the split could

be 50:50.

39.3 OVERFLOW

The overflow requires that you specify an overflow rate. The equations for this flowsplitter are:

Q1 = min(Q, Qoverflow)

Q2 = max(0, Q - Qoverflow)

where Q1 is the main flow and Q2 is the overflow.

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WRc Process Model Descriptions

40.1 INTRODUCTION

The cost functions incorporated in STOAT enable preliminary estimates to be made of capital and operating

costs for many of the unit processes. It has not been possible to provide cost functions for all the processes

included in STOAT because of a lack of published information, but there is provision for the modification of

the incorporated functions should additional information become available.

Capital cost functions are of the generic form:

where:

CCap = capital cost (£’000)

a0 , a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 = cost parameters

d1 , d 2 = cost descriptors

Cost descriptors are physical dimensions of the process which can be related to cost: tank volume, surface area

and installed power of motors are examples. Cost parameters are the empirical constants which quantify the

relationship between the cost descriptors and the cost.

This generic function can, by appropriate assignment of unity or zero values to parameters and/or descriptors,

be simplified to such common forms of cost function as linear:

C = a0 + a1 d1

and power (logarithmic):

C = a1 d1 b1

An important assumption, made after consideration of capital cost functions proposed in a number of

references, is that a single function is applicable for all magnitudes of the cost descriptors.

Operating cost functions are of the generic form:

where:

COp = operating cost (£’000/y or kWh/y or man-hour/y)

a0 , a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 = cost parameters

d1 , d 2 = cost descriptors

The operating cost function may be expressed in various units; this is discussed further in section 29.3.2.

Like the capital cost function (section 40.2.1) the operating cost function can be simplified by assigning

appropriate values to the parameters and/or descriptors.

Unlike the capital cost function, the operating cost function can be specified for up to three ranges of

magnitude of a cost descriptor:

107

WRc Process Model Descriptions

where:

lim1, lim2 = limiting values

By appropriate selection of limiting values one, two or three ranges can be specified.

This option has been included because operating cost relationships published in a graphical format cannot

always be described by a single equation of the generic form. For example, an operating cost is sometimes

shown to be constant at low magnitudes of a descriptor; to follow a power relationship at high values; and to

follow a relationship at intermediate values which can be approximated to a second order polynomial. Such a

polynomial is used only within the range over which it has been evaluated, to preclude nonsensical

extrapolation.

40.3.1 Capital

Capital costs are divided between civil works and mechanical and electrical equipment (M&E). This division

is convenient when evaluating net present cost (NPC) (the civil component may be assigned a longer life than

the M&E in NPC calculations) and for adjusting costs over time (different cost indices can be used). Two cost

functions are therefore used, one for civil and the other for M&E, which can be based on different descriptors.

The total capital cost is the sum of the two.

The cost functions are applied independently to each process icon that appears on the STOAT works

flowsheet. If there is more than one icon for a given process, each will be costed separately and a total

calculated. This could give a misleading result, because of the economy of scale explicit in most of the cost

functions. Thus a works model intended for costing purposes should normally be as simple as possible, with

each process type lumped into a single icon.

40.3.2 Operating

The operating cost for a process is divided into four components:

• power (kWh/y)

• labour (man-hour/y)

• materials (£’000/y)

• chemicals (tonne/y)

Cost functions are used for the first three components, while the fourth, where applicable, is derived from the

design flow rate and expected chemical dose. Of the three operating cost functions, only materials is expressed

directly in monetary units. For power and labour a unit power cost (£/kWh) and unit labour cost (£/man-hour),

respectively, have to be specified. Likewise a unit cost (£/tonne) has to be specified for each chemical used.

The cost functions are applied independently to each process icon that appears on the STOAT Works

flowsheet. If there is more than one icon for a given process, each will be costed separately and a total

calculated. This could give a misleading result, because of the economy of scale explicit in most of the cost

functions. Thus a works model intended for costing purposes should normally be as simple as possible, with

each process type lumped into a single icon.

108

WRc Process Model Descriptions

All cost functions expressed directly in monetary units (i.e. capital cost functions and the materials component

of operating costs) have been adjusted to a common base time, Q3 1992. It is important that any additions

or modifications to the existing cost functions by the user are deflated to Q3 1992. If a different base time

is required, all the monetary cost functions must be modified accordingly. It is the responsibility of the user to

ensure consistency.

Costs are inflated to any other specified time using cost indices:

Index spec

Cspec = Cbase

Index base

where

Cspec = cost at specified time

Cbase = base cost (Q3 1992)

Index spec = cost index at specified time

The materials component of the operating cost is adjusted using the same index applied to the M&E capital

cost. Power, labour and chemical costs are evaluated directly from the unit costs defined by the user, so these

unit costs must correspond to the specified time.

The suggested indices to use for UK applications are:

• for civils, the Construction Output Price Index (COPI) (Q3 1992 = 143.8)

• for M&E, the Metal Goods Engineering and Vehicle Industries Producers Price Output Index (MGI) (Q3

1992 = 185.4)

These indices are prepared by the Central Statistical Office and published in the Monthly Digest of Statistics,

and are also listed from time to time in Aqualine Abstracts, published monthly by WRc. The most recent

values at the time of writing are for Q2 1996: COPI = 164.0 (provisional), MGI = 205.0.

A note on terminology. In STOAT, costs are assigned positive values. This is the opposite of the convention

(costs negative, income positive) usually adopted when evaluating the Net Present Value (NPV) of a project.

However, in the absence of any income, it is not uncommon to see NPV costs quoted as positive values. To

avoid any possible confusion, STOAT refers to NPC.

If a longer life is assumed for civil works than for M&E equipment, the NPC is calculated by:

1 k = nCiv

1

NPC = CCiv + C ME 1 + nME

+ COp ∑

(1 + id ) k =1 (1 + id )

k

where:

NPC = Net Present Cost (£’000)

CCiv = Civils capital cost (£’000)

C ME = M&E capital cost (£’000)

id = Discount rate

n ME = Life of M&E equipment (y)

COp = Operating cost (£’000/y)

nCiv = Life of civil works (y)

It should be noted that the above equation makes no allowance for any residual or salvage value.

109

WRc Process Model Descriptions

If civil works and M&E equipment are assumed to have an equal life, such that nCiv = n ME = n , the

equation simplifies to:

k =n

1

NPC = CCiv + C ME + COp ∑

k =1 (1 + id ) k

Values of nCiv and n ME are user-defined, but must meet the condition nCiv ≥ n ME .

Capital expenditure occurs in year 0, and operating costs are incurred in years 1 to n.

The cost function data is stored in a data file, COSTS.DAT. This file is reproduced below. You can edit this

file to reflect your own data. The comments in the file provide sufficient information to guide you in making

your changes. An additional file, COSTS.XLS, contains a spreadsheet that details the cost functions. The

contents of this spreadsheet are also reproduced below.

;

; STOAT cost data file

;

primary tank = circular ; circular or rectangular

humus tank = circular ; circular or rectangular

secondary tank = circular ; circular or rectangular

storm tank = circular

blind tank = circular

inline tank = circular

offline tank = circular

aeration tank = fine bubble ; surface or fine bubble or coarse bubble

disinfectant = ozone ; ozone or chlorine

civil life = 50

mechanical life = 15

discount rate = 0.05

project life = 20

;

; reference year to those in the current year. The default costs are

; based on data for Q3 1992, with the civils index being the

; Construction Prices Output Index; the mechanical and electrical

; index is the Metal Goods Engineering and Vehicle Industries

; Producers Price Output Index. This index is also the default index

; for operating and materials costs. Updated values for these indices

; are published by Her Majesty's Government, and details can be found

; in WRc's TR 61 and subsequent TR 61 documents.

;

civil factor = 1

mechanical factor = 1

labour factor = 1

power factor = 1

material factor = 1

labour cost = 5 ;

£/h

power cost = 0.05 ;

£/kWh

aerator efficiency = 2 ; kg O2/kWh

aerator utilisation = 0.05 ; % O2 uptake

110

WRc Process Model Descriptions

;

; Cost = a0 + a1 d1^b1 + a2 d2^b2

; where d1 and d2 are design parameters

; The file layout is:

; ProcessID, CostCode, a0, a1, b1, a2, b2

; The Cost code is 1: Civil and 2: Mechanical

;

; -- Civil --

;

1, 1, 0, 3.48, 0.569, 0, 1 ; Circular primary

2, 1, 0, 67.82, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Rectangular primary

3, 1, 23.32, 0.163, 1, 0, 1 ; Circular storm tank

4, 1, 0, 67.82, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Rectangular storm tank

5, 1, 17.72, 71.43, 1, 0, 1 ; Trickling filter

6, 1, 154.02, 42.14, 1, 0, 1 ; Surface activated

7, 1, 154.02, 42.14, 1, 0, 1 ; Fine bubble activated

8, 1, 154.02, 42.14, 1, 0, 1 ; Coarse bubble activated

9, 1, 0, 175.9, 0.63, 0, 1 ; Anaerobic digestion

10, 1, 0, 3.92, 0.561, 0, 1 ; Circular humus

11, 1, 0, 151, 0.633, 0, 1 ; Rectangular humus

12, 1, 0, 0.74, 0.841, 0, 1 ; Circular final

13, 1, 0, 67.82, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Rectangular final

14, 1, 0, 95.2, 0.51, 0, 1 ; Chemical sedimentation

15, 1, 0, 67.82, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Wet well

16, 1, 0, 67.82, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Balancing tank

17, 1, 0, 0.74, 0.841, 0, 1 ; Circular inline tank

18, 1, 0, 67.82, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Rectangular inline

19, 1, 0, 0.74, 0.841, 0, 1 ; Circular offline

20, 1, 0, 67.82, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Rectangular offline

21, 1, 0, 0.74, 0.841, 0, 1 ; Circular blind tank

22, 1, 0, 67.82, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Rectangular blind

23, 1, 0, 0.74, 0.841, 0, 1 ; SBR

24, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; CSBR

25, 1, 153, 3.02, 1, 0, 1 ; DAF

26, 1, 0, 134, 0.6, 0, 1 ; Chlorine disinfection

27, 1, 0, 51.8, 0.37, 0, 1 ; Ozone disinfection

28, 1, 0, 76.16, 0.43, 0, 1 ; Oxidation ditch

29, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; TAD

30, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Incineration

31, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Sludge drying

32, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Lamella settler

33, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; TOWER

34, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; BAF

35, 1, 0, 390, 0.9382, 0, 1 ; RBC

36, 1, 0, 390, 0.9382, 0, 1 ; SBC

37, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Fluidised bed

38, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Chemical P removal

39, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Heat exchanger

;

111

WRc Process Model Descriptions

; -- M & E --

;

1, 2, 21.606, 1.696, 0.5, 0, 1 ; Circular primary

2, 2, 25.15, 0.05, 1, 0, 1 ; Rectangular primary

3, 2, 8.49, 3.922, 0.5, 1.104, 0.625 ; Circular storm tank

4, 2, 25.15, 0.05, 1, 1.104, 0.625 ; Rectangular storm tank

5, 2, 14.4, 0.012, 1, 30.36, 1 ; Trickling filter

6, 2, 24.05, 22, 1, 0, 1 ; Surface activated

7, 2, 0, 239.6, 0.919, 0, 1 ; Fine bubble activated

8, 2, 0, 127.41, 0.7926, 0, 1 ;Coarse bubble activated

9, 2, 0, 191.8, 0.53, 0, 1 ; Anaerobic digestion

10, 2, 21.606, 1.696, 0.5, 0, 1 ; Circular humus

11, 2, 25.15, 0.05, 1, 0, 1 ; Rectangular humus

12, 2, 21.606, 1.696, 0.5, 0, 1 ; Circular final

13, 2, 25.15, 0.05, 1, 0, 1 ; Rectangular final

14, 2, 46.9, 16.8, 0.51, 286.5, 0.715 ; Chemical sedimentation

15, 2, 0, 1.104, 0.625, 0, 1 ; Wet well

16, 2, 0, 1.104, 0.625, 0, 1 ; Balancing tank

17, 2, 0, 1.104, 0.625, 0, 1 ; Circular inline tank

18, 2, 0, 1.104, 0.625, 0, 1 ; Rectangular inline

19, 2, 0, 1.104, 0.625, 0, 1 ; Circular offline

20, 2, 0, 1.104, 0.625, 0, 1 ; Rectangular offline

21, 2, 0, 1.104, 0.625, 0, 1 ; Circular blind tank

22, 2, 0, 1.104, 0.625, 0, 1 ; Rectangular blind

23, 2, 0, 0.185, 0.841, 0, 1 ; SBR

24, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; CSBR

25, 2, 187, 3.7, 1, 0, 1 ; DAF

26, 2, 0, 138.2, 0.46, 0, 1 ; Chlorine disinfection

27, 2, 0, 183.4, 0.6, 0, 1 ; Ozone disinfection

28, 2, 24.05, 22, 1, 0, 1 ; Oxidation ditch

29, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; TAD

30, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Incineration

31, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Sludge drying

32, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Lamella settler

33, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; TOWER

34, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; BAF

35, 2, 0, 1170, 0.9382, 0, 1 ; RBC

36, 2, 0, 1170, 0.9382, 0, 1 ; SBC

37, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Fluidised bed

38, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Chemical P removal

39, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1 ; Heat exchanger

;

; Cost data - power, labour and materials

;

112

WRc Process Model Descriptions

;

; The file layout is

; ProcessCode, CostCode, RangeItem, a0, a1, b1, a2, b2, Range

; Cost codes are 3: Power; 4: Labour; and 5: Materials

; Up to 3 ranges can be specified. A range value of -1 means that

; this cost function applies for all sizes.

;

; -- Power --

;

1, 3, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, -1

2, 3, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, -1

3, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

4, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

5, 3, 1, 0, 0.019075, 1, 0, 1, -1

6, 3, 1, 0, 7094.5, 1, 0, 1, -1

7, 3, 1, 0, 1021600, 0.9515, 0, 1, -1

8, 3, 1, 0, 1021600, 0.9515, 0, 1, -1

9, 3, 1, 2118, 21.446, 1, 6.39E-04, 2, 15789

9, 3, 2, 0, 0.252, 1.5, 0, 1, -1

10, 3, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, -1

11, 3, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, -1

12, 3, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, -1

13, 3, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, -1

14, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

15, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

16, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

17, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

18, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

19, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

20, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

21, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

22, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

23, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

24, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

25, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

26, 3, 1, 0, 614.2, 1.0396, 0, 1, -1

27, 3, 1, 0, 25, 1, 0, 1, -1

28, 3, 1, 0, 7094.5, 1, 0, 1, -1

29, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

30, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

31, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

32, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

33, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

34, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

35, 3, 1, 0, 415000, 1.4956, 0, 1, -1

36, 3, 1, 0, 415000, 1.4956, 0, 1, -1

37, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

38, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

39, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

;

113

WRc Process Model Descriptions

; -- Labour --

;

1, 4, 1, 525, 1.0455, 1, -3.79E-05, 2, 9110

1, 4, 2, 0, 9.5311, 0.7223, 0, 1, -1

2, 4, 1, 525, 1.0455, 1, -3.79E-05, 2, 9110

2, 4, 2, 0, 9.5311, 0.7223, 0, 1, -1

3, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

4, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

5, 4, 1, 148, 94.408, 1, -1.1503, 2, 28.26

5, 4, 2, 0, 176.87, 0.71, 0, 1, -1

6, 4, 1, 1238, 9.113, 1, -0.00044, 2, 3725

6, 4, 2, 0, 28.651, 0.8416, 0, 1, -1

7, 4, 1, 1280, 650.8, 1, 32.069, 2, 2.41

7, 4, 2, 0, 1867.4, 0.5522, 0, 1, -1

8, 4, 1, 1280, 650.8, 1, 32.069, 2, 2.41

8, 4, 2, 0, 1867.4, 0.5522, 0, 1, -1

9, 4, 1, 922, 0, 1, 0, 1, 15.79

9, 4, 2, 922, 0.78, 1, -8.17E-04, 2,15789

9, 4, 3, 0, 1.0228, 0.9621, 0, 1, -1

10, 4, 1, 525, 1.0455, 1, -3.79E-05, 2, 9110

10, 4, 2, 0, 9.5311, 0.7223, 0, 1, -1

11, 4, 1, 525, 1.0455, 1, -3.79E-05, 2, 9110

11, 4, 2, 0, 9.5311, 0.7223, 0, 1, -1

12, 4, 1, 525, 1.0455, 1, -3.79E-05, 2, 9110

12, 4, 2, 0, 9.5311, 0.7223, 0, 1, -1

13, 4, 1, 525, 1.0455, 1, -3.79E-05, 2, 9110

13, 4, 2, 0, 9.5311, 0.7223, 0, 1, -1

14, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

15, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

16, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

17, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

18, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

19, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

20, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

21, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

22, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

23, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

24, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

25, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

26, 4, 1, 578, 7.598, 1, -1.02E-03, 2, 1799

26, 4, 2, 0, 15.451, 0.8753, 0, 1, -1

27, 4, 1, 550, 0, 1, 0, 1, 32

27, 4, 2, 467, 2.6722, 1, -9.60E-04, 2, 909

27, 4, 3, 0, 9.597, 0.7909, 0, 1, -1

28, 4, 1, 1238, 9.113, 1, -4.44E-04, 2, 3725

28, 4, 2, 0, 28.651, 0.8416, 0, 1, -1

29, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

30, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

31, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

32, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

33, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

34, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

35, 4, 1, 0, 458.85, 1, 0, 1, -1

36, 4, 1, 0, 458.85, 1, 0, 1, -1

37, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

38, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

39, 4, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

;

114

WRc Process Model Descriptions

; -- Materials --

;

1, 5, 1, 0, 0.0123, 0.8, 0, 1, -1

2, 5, 1, 0, 0.0123, 0.8, 0, 1, -1

3, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

4, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

5, 5, 1, 0, 0.228, 0.4853, 0, 1, -1

6, 5, 1, 0, 1.055, 0.4301, 0, 1, -1

7, 5, 1, 0, 5.851, 0.4706, 0, 1, -1

8, 5, 1, 0, 5.851, 0.4706, 0, 1, -1

9, 5, 1, 2.507, 0, 1, 0, 1, 15.79

9, 5, 2, 2.507, 0.00203, 1, -3.32E-08, 2, 15789

9, 5, 3, 0, 0.006, 0.8682, 0, 1, -1

10, 5, 1, 0, 0.0123, 0.8, 0, 1, -1

11, 5, 1, 0, 0.0123, 0.8, 0, 1, -1

13, 5, 1, 0, 0.0123, 0.8, 0, 1, -1

13, 5, 1, 0, 0.0123, 0.8, 0, 1, -1

14, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

15, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

16, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

17, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

18, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

19, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

20, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

21, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

22, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

23, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

24, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

25, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

26, 5, 1, 0, 1.054, 0.2886, 0, 1, -1

27, 5, 1, 1.237, 0.0399, 1, 3.92E-05, 2, 45.45

27, 5, 2, 0, 0.2656, 0.6467, 0, 1, -1

28, 5, 1, 0, 1.0548, 0.4301, 0, 1, -1

29, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

30, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

31, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

32, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

33, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

34, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

35, 5, 1, 0, 0.324, 1.0124, 0, 1, -1

36, 5, 1, 0, 0.324, 1.0124, 0, 1, -1

37, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

38, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

39, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, -1

CAPITAL - CIVIL

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 d1 d2

SURFACE_ACT 154.02 42.14 1 0 1 Volume 000 m3

FINE_ACT 154.02 42.14 1 0 1 Volume 000 m3

COARSE_ACT 154.02 42.14 1 0 1 Volume 000 m3

BALANCE 0 67.82 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

CIRC_BLIND 0 0.74 0.841 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_BLIND 0 67.82 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

CHEMSED 0 95.2 0.51 0 1 Volume 000 m3

HX 0 0 1 0 1

CHEMREM 0 0 1 0 1

DAF 153 3.02 1 0 1 Surface area m2

DIS_CHLOR 0 134 0.6 0 1 Volume 000 m3

DIS_OZONE 0 51.8 0.37 0 1 Volume m3

DRYER 0 0 1 0 1

INCIN 0 0 1 0 1

115

WRc Process Model Descriptions

RECT_HUMUS 0 151 0.633 0 1 Surface area 000 m2

CIRC_INLINE 0 0.74 0.841 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_INLINE 0 67.82 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

LAMELLA 0 0 1 0 1

TOWER 0 0 1 0 1

BAF 0 0 1 0 1

RBC 0 390 0.9382 0 1 Volume 000 m3

SBC 0 390 0.9382 0 1 Volume 000 m3

FLUIDISEDBED 0 0 1 0 1

MAD 0 175.9 0.63 0 1 Volume 000 m3

CIRC_OFFLINE 0 0.74 0.841 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_OFFLINE 0 67.82 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

OXID 0 76.16 0.43 0 1 Volume 000 m3

CIRC_PRIM 0 3.48 0.569 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_PRIM 0 67.82 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

SBR 0 0.74 0.841 0 1 Surface area m2

CSBR 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_SEC 0 0.74 0.841 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_SEC 0 67.82 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

CIRC_STORM 23.32 0.163 1 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_STORM 0 67.82 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

TAD 0 0 1 0 1

BIOFILTER 17.72 71.43 1 0 1 Volume 000 m3

WETWELL 0 67.82 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

CAPITAL - M&E

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 d1 d2

FINE_ACT 0 239.6 0.919 0 1 Air capacity m3air/s

COARSE_ACT 0 127.41 0.7926 0 1 Air capacity m3air/s

BALANCE 0 1.104 0.625 0 1 Pump rate m3/h

CIRC_BLIND 0 1.104 0.625 0 1 Pump rate m3/h

RECT_BLIND 0 1.104 0.625 0 1 Pump rate m3/h

CHEMSED 46.9 16.8 0.51 286.5 0.715 Volume 000 m3 Surface area 000 m2

HX 0 0 1 0 1

CHEMREM 0 0 1 0 1

DAF 187 3.7 1 0 1 Surface area m2

DIS_CHLOR 0 138.2 0.46 0 1 Chlorine consumed tonne/d

DIS_OZONE 0 183.4 0.6 0 1 Ozone generated kg/h

DRYER 0 0 1 0 1

INCIN 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_HUMUS 21.606 1.696 0.5 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_HUMUS 25.15 0.05 1 0 1 Surface area m2

CIRC_INLINE 0 1.104 0.625 0 1 Pump rate m3/h

116

WRc Process Model Descriptions

CAPITAL - M&E

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 d1 d2

LAMELLA 0 0 1 0 1

TOWER 0 0 1 0 1

BAF 0 0 1 0 1

RBC 0 1170 0.9382 0 1 Volume 000 m3

SBC 0 1170 0.9382 0 1 Volume 000 m3

FLUIDISEDBED 0 0 1 0 1

MAD 0 191.8 0.53 0 1 Volume 000 m3

CIRC_OFFLINE 0 1.104 0.625 0 1 Pump rate m3/h

RECT_OFFLINE 0 1.104 0.625 0 1 Pump rate m3/h

OXID 24.05 22 1 0 1 Volume 000 m3

CIRC_PRIM 21.606 1.696 0.5 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_PRIM 25.15 0.05 1 0 1 Surface area m2

SBR 0 0.185 0.841 0 1 Surface area m2

CSBR 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_SEC 21.606 1.696 0.5 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_SEC 25.15 0.05 1 0 1 Surface area m2

CIRC_STORM 8.49 3.922 0.5 1.104 0.625 Surface area m2

RECT_STORM 25.15 0.05 1 1.104 0.625 Surface area m2

TAD 0 0 1 0 1

BIOFILTER 14.4 0.012 1 30.36 1 Design DWF m3/d Volume 000 m3

WETWELL 0 1.104 0.625 0 1 Pump rate m3/h

OPS - POWER

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 RANGE d1 d2

FINE_ACT 0 1021600 0.9515 0 1 Air applied m3air/s

COARSE_ACT 0 1021600 0.9515 0 1 Air applied m3air/s

BALANCE 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_BLIND 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_BLIND 0 0 1 0 1

CHEMSED 0 0 1 0 1

HX 0 0 1 0 1

CHEMREM 0 0 1 0 1

DAF 0 0 1 0 1

DIS_CHLOR 0 614.2 1.0396 0 1 Chlorine consumed tonne/y

DIS_OZONE 0 25 1 0 1 Ozone generated kg/y

DRYER 0 0 1 0 1

INCIN 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_HUMUS 0 1 1 0 1 No of tanks

RECT_HUMUS 0 1 1 0 1 No of tanks

CIRC_INLINE 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_INLINE 0 0 1 0 1

117

WRc Process Model Descriptions

OPS - POWER

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 RANGE d1 d2

LAMELLA 0 0 1 0 1

TOWER 0 0 1 0 1

BAF 0 0 1 0 1

RBC 0 415000 1.4956 0 1 Volume 000 m3

SBC 0 415000 1.4956 0 1 Volume 000 m3

FLUIDISEDBED 0 0 1 0 1

MAD 2118 21.446 1 6.39E-04 2 0<d1<15789 Throughput m3/h

0 0.252 1.5 0 1 d1>15789

CIRC_OFFLINE 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_OFFLINE 0 0 1 0 1

OXID 0 7094.5 1 0 1 Installed power kW

CIRC_PRIM 0 1 1 0 1 No of tanks

RECT_PRIM 0 1 1 0 1 No of tanks

SBR 0 0 1 0 1

CSBR 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_SEC 0 1 1 0 1 No of tanks

RECT_SEC 0 1 1 0 1 No of tanks

CIRC_STORM 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_STORM 0 0 1 0 1

TAD 0 0 1 0 1

BIOFILTER 0 0.019075 1 0 1 Design DWF m3/d

WETWELL 0 0 1 0 1

OPS - LABOUR

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 RANGE d1 d2

0 28.651 0.8416 0 1 d1>3725

FINE_ACT 1280 650.8 1 32.069 2 0<d1<=2.41 Air applied m3air/s

0 1867.4 0.5522 0 1 d1>2.41

COARSE_ACT 1280 650.8 1 32.069 2 0<d1<=2.41 Air applied m3air/s

0 1867.4 0.5522 0 1 d1>2.41

BALANCE 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_BLIND 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_BLIND 0 0 1 0 1

CHEMSED 0 0 1 0 1

HX 0 0 1 0 1

CHEMREM 0 0 1 0 1

DAF 0 0 1 0 1

DIS_CHLOR 578 7.598 1 -1.02E-03 2 0<d1<=1799 Chlorine consumed tonne/y

0 15.451 0.8753 0 1 d1>1799

DIS_OZONE 550 0 1 0 1 0<d1<=32 Ozone generated kg/d

467 2.6722 1 -9.60E-04 2 32<d1<=909

0 9.597 0.7909 0 1 d1>909

118

WRc Process Model Descriptions

OPS - LABOUR

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 RANGE d1 d2

DRYER 0 0 1 0 1

INCIN 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_HUMUS 525 1.0455 1 -3.79E-05 2 0<d1<=9110 Surface area m2

0 9.5311 0.7223 0 1 d1>9110

RECT_HUMUS 525 1.0455 1 -3.79E-05 2 0<d1<=9110 Surface area m2

0 9.5311 0.7223 0 1 d1>9110

CIRC_INLINE 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_INLINE 0 0 1 0 1

LAMELLA 0 0 1 0 1

TOWER 0 0 1 0 1

BAF 0 0 1 0 1

RBC 0 458.85 1 0 1 Volume 000 m3

SBC 0 458.85 1 0 1 Volume 000 m3

FLUIDISEDBED 0 0 1 0 1

MAD 922 0 1 0 1 0<d1<=15.79 Throughput m3/h

922 0.78 1 -8.17E-04 2 15.79<d1<=15789

0 1.0228 0.9621 0 1 d1>15789

CIRC_OFFLINE 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_OFFLINE 0 0 1 0 1

OXID 1238 9.113 1 -4.44E-04 2 0<d1<=3725 Installed power kW

0 28.651 0.8416 0 1 d1>3725

CIRC_PRIM 525 1.0455 1 -3.79E-05 2 0<d1<=9110 Area m2

0 9.5311 0.7223 0 1 d1>9110

RECT_PRIM 525 1.0455 1 -3.79E-05 2 0<d1<=9110 Area m2

0 9.5311 0.7223 0 1 d1>9110

SBR 0 0 1 0 1

CSBR 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_SEC 525 1.0455 1 -3.79E-05 2 0<d1<=9110 Surface area m2

0 9.5311 0.7223 0 1 d1>9110

RECT_SEC 525 1.0455 1 -3.79E-05 2 0<d1<=9110 Surface area m2

0 9.5311 0.7223 0 1 d1>9110

CIRC_STORM 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_STORM 0 0 1 0 1

TAD 0 0 1 0 1

BIOFILTER 148 94.408 1 -1.1503 2 0<d1<=28.26 Volume 000 m3

0 176.87 0.71 0 1 d1>28.26

WETWELL 0 0 1 0 1

OPS - MATERIALS

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 RANGE d1 d2

FINE_ACT 0 5.851 0.4706 0 1 Air applied m3air/s

COARSE_ACT 0 5.851 0.4706 0 1 Air applied m3air/s

119

WRc Process Model Descriptions

OPS - MATERIALS

Process a0 a1 b1 a2 b2 RANGE d1 d2

BALANCE 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_BLIND 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_BLIND 0 0 1 0 1

CHEMSED 0 0 1 0 1

HX 0 0 1 0 1

CHEMREM 0 0 1 0 1

DAF 0 0 1 0 1

DIS_CHLOR 0 1.054 0.2886 0 1 Chlorine consumed tonne/y

DIS_OZONE 1.237 0.0399 1 3.92E-05 2 0<d1<45.45 Ozone generated kg/d

0 0.2656 0.6467 0 1 d1>45.45

DRYER 0 0 1 0 1

INCIN 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_HUMUS 0 0.0123 0.8 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_HUMUS 0 0.0123 0.8 0 1 Surface area m3

CIRC_INLINE 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_INLINE 0 0 1 0 1

LAMELLA 0 0 1 0 1

TOWER 0 0 1 0 1

BAF 0 0 1 0 1

RBC 0 0.324 1.0124 0 1 Volume 000 m3

SBC 0 0.324 1.0124 0 1 Volume 000 m3

FLUIDISEDBED 0 0 1 0 1

MAD 2.507 0 1 0 1 0<d1<15.79 Throughput m3/h

2.507 0.00203 1 -3.32E-08 2 15.79<d1<15789

0 0.006 0.8682 0 1 d1>15789

CIRC_OFFLINE 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_OFFLINE 0 0 1 0 1

OXID 0 1.0548 0.4301 0 1 Installed power kW

CIRC_PRIM 0 0.0123 0.8 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_PRIM 0 0.0123 0.8 0 1 Surface area m3

SBR 0 0 1 0 1

CSBR 0 0 1 0 1

CIRC_SEC 0 0.0123 0.8 0 1 Surface area m2

RECT_SEC 0 0.0123 0.8 0 1 Surface area m2

CIRC_STORM 0 0 1 0 1

RECT_STORM 0 0 1 0 1

TAD 0 0 1 0 1

BIOFILTER 0 0.228 0.4853 0 1 Volume 000 m3

WETWELL 0 0 1 0 1

120

WRc Process Model Descriptions

40.7 REFERENCES

Note that cost functions taken from the WRc report TR61 Fourth Revision can be made available only to

contributors to that report.

Benjes H H (1980). Handbook of Biological Wastewater Treatment. Garland STPM Press, New York, USA.

Gumerman R C, Culp R L and Hansen S P (1978). Estimating Costs for Water Treatment as a Function of

Size and Treatment Efficiency, EPA Report EPA-600/2-78-182. USEPA, Cincinnati, USA.

Kiefhaber K P, Neis U, Hanz T and Hahn H H (1980), Korrespondenz Abwasser, 27 (5) 309-313.

Langlais B, Reckhow D A and Brink D R (1991). Ozone in Water Treatment. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea,

USA.

Longhurst S L and Graham N J D (1987). The Public Health Engineer, 14 (6) 71-76.

Qasim S R (1994). Wastewater Treatment Plants. Technomic Publishing Co Inc, Lancaster, USA.

WRc (1977). Cost Information for Water Supply and Sewage Disposal, Technical Report TR61. WRc,

Medmenham, UK.

WRc (1995). Water Industry Construction Cost Estimating Manual, TR61 Fourth Revision. WRc, Swindon,

UK.

121

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The STOAT processes are linked together by flowstreams. The components of every stream are:

Flowrate [m3/h]

Temperature [°C]*

pH *

Volatile fatty acid concentration as a BOD equivalent [mg/l]*

Soluble BOD [mg/l]

Nonbiodegradable COD [mg/l]*

Particulate BOD [mg/l]

Nonbiodegradable particulate COD [mg/l]*

Volatile solids [mg/l]

Nonvolatile solids [mg/l]

Ammonia nitrogen [mg/l]

Oxidised nitrogen [mg/l]

Soluble organic nitrogen [mg/l]*

Particulate organic nitrogen [mg/l]*

Dissolved oxygen [mg/l]*

Soluble phosphorus [mg/l]*

PHB62 in viable P-removing bacteria [mg/l]*

PHB in nonviable P-removing bacteria [mg/l]*

Polyphosphate in viable P-removing bacteria [mg/l]*

Polyphosphate in nonviable P-removing bacteria [mg/l]*

Viable heterotrophs [mg/l]*

Nonviable heterotrophs [mg/l]*

Viable autotrophs [mg/l]*

Nonviable autotrophs [mg/l]*

Viable P-removing bacteria [mg/l]*

Nonviable P-removing bacteria [mg/l]*

Viable G-bacteria [mg/l]*

Nonviable G-bacteria [mg/l]*

PHA in viable G-bacteria [mg/l]*

PHA in nonviable G-bacteria [mg/l]*

Glycogen in viable G-bacteria [mg/l]*

Glycogen in nonviable G-bacteria [mg/l]*

Glycogen in viable PAO [mg/l]*

Glycogen in nonviable PAO [mg/l]*

Metal Hydroxide [mg/l]*

Metal Phosphate [mg/l]*

Metal ion [mg/l]*

Alkalinity [mg/l]*

Nitrite [mg/l]*

Soluble nondegradable organic nitrogen [mg/l]*

Particulate nondegradable organic nitrogen [mg/l]*

Soluble degradable organic phosphorus [mg/l]*

Soluble nondegradable organic phosphorus [mg/l]*

Particulate degradable organic phosphorus [mg/l]*

Particulate nondegradable organic phosphorus [mg/l]*

Dissolved Organic Carbon [mg/l]*

Total dissolved solids [mg/l]*

122

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The components marked with an asterisk do not need to be supplied by you; they can be given a value of zero.

If you do not specify bacterial concentrations within the sewage, or if you are using intermediate models that

do not include the bacteria63, then you must have bacteria as part of the initial conditions for your models.

This leaves us with an essential core of flowrate, soluble and particulate BOD, volatile and nonvolatile solids,

and ammonia. Where data are missing the following assumptions can be made:

No soluble BOD data: assume that 50-60% of the total BOD is particulate, and the rest soluble. If possible,

arrange for one or two total and filtered BOD tests and use the ratio of total to filtered BOD from these tests to

determine the split between soluble and particulate BOD. The diurnal variation of particulate BOD can be

assumed to follow that of total BOD. Soluble BOD can either be assumed to follow the total BOD diurnal

profile or the ammonia profile. If the ammonia profile is used you must adjust the soluble BOD values to

ensure that the total BOD at any time is correct.

No volatile/nonvolatile solids data: Assume that 75-80% of the total solids are volatile solids. Where possible

arrange for several samples to be analysed for volatile and nonvolatile solids and use this data to determine the

split between volatile and nonvolatile solids. If there is no information on the diurnal variation then assume

that the diurnal variation follows that of particulate BOD.

The standard tests for volatile and nonvolatile solids are based on total solids, while STOAT assumes that the

solids are suspended solids. This requires modifying the standard test by carrying out the volatile and

nonvolatile solids analyses on samples of both the sewage and the filtered sewage, to measure both the total

solids and the filterable (dissolved) solids. Subtraction will then produce values for the suspended solids.

If the only data available are daily samples then you have two options. The first is to begin a sampling

programme to measure the diurnal variations. The second is to assume self-similarity in the sewage profile.

Self-similarity means that the diurnal profile will look similar to the seasonal profile: therefore, given 12

months daily data you assume that each half-month corresponds to the equivalent variation of an hour. We

recommend setting up a sampling programme whenever this is feasible.

63 As an example, the primary tanks currently do not model bacteria. Therefore the settled sewage and

primary sludge leaving the primary tank are bacteria free. Further models are planned that will

transmit bacteria.

123

WRc Process Model Descriptions

When constructing a STOAT model the important parameters within the model are

(i) Physical dimensions

(ii) Sewage characteristics

(iii) Settling characteristics

For typical domestic sewages there should be no need to adjust the default biological reaction parameters. The

major variability between sewage works, aside from the 'obvious' items covered in points (i) and (ii), is the

settleability. The tests described in the descriptions of the storm, primary, humus and activated sludge settling

tanks will allow the model to be built without the need for 'tweaking' the parameters. You may find it

necessary to adjust the values - this adjustment reflects the need to model a wider range of sewage conditions

than used in the tests, and to compensate for the scale effects caused by testing in small-scale equipment and

then applying to larger tanks. Despite this warning you should find that for most models the adjustments

required are minimal, if any.

Where possible the output from STOAT should be compared against works data. This provides an estimate of

the modelling errors that you can expect and identifies weaknesses in the model or the data. You should not

expect that model output will exactly match works data - there is always a need to interpret and to use

engineering judgement in analysing the results.

The output from STOAT can be analysed in various ways. A common requirement is to estimate the 95%-ile

effluent quality. The correct way to do this with STOAT is to have a model that represents the statistical

variability of the influent sewage (both the average concentrations and the daily variation), and then to carry

out a large number of STOAT simulations to build up the expected distribution of effluent quality.

Few works will have the data needed for this; few people will have the time. There is a rule of thumb that a

95%-ile effluent quality corresponds to twice the average effluent quality. This approach allows one run of

STOAT with average conditions to estimate the 95%-ile effluent quality. You should check that the maximum

predicted effluent concentrations are below the 95%-ile values as well as the 'double the average' check.

An alternative approach to calculate 95%-ile statistics is given in the Water Services Association report The

Testing of Process Plant for the Water Industry, available from the Foundation for Water Research. The

following table has been extracted from this report. This table provides a ready reckoner, given the standard

deviation to mean ratio, for the required percentage compliance. As an example, if the average effluent BOD

is 12 mg/l, with a standard deviation of 10 mg/l, then the coefficient of variation (standard deviation divided

by average) is 10 / 12 = 0.8. From the table the standard-to-mean ratio for a 95%-ile effluent is 2.48. The

95%-ile effluent BOD concentration is therefore 2.48 x 12 = 30 mg/l. (The ‘special’ entry in the table for a

coefficient of variance of 0.528 is for the commonly assumed distribution of sewage effluent quality, where

the 95%-ile effluent is twice the average.)

124

WRc Process Model Descriptions

true

% 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.52 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

compliance 8

80 1.23 1.28 1.33 1.34 1.37 1.39 1.41 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.40 1.37

85 1.30 1.38 1.46 1.48 1.52 1.58 1.62 1.65 1.68 1.70 1.71 1.70

90 1.40 1.52 1.64 1.67 1.75 1.84 1.92 1.99 2.06 2.15 2.21 2.25

91 1.42 1.56 1.69 1.72 1.80 1.91 2.01 2.09 2.16 2.27 2.35 2.40

92 1.45 1.60 1.74 1.78 1.87 1.99 2.10 2.19 2.28 2.41 2.51 2.58

93 1.48 1.64 1.80 1.84 1.94 2.08 2.20 2.32 2.42 2.58 2.70 2.80

94 1.51 1.69 1.86 1.91 2.03 2.19 2.33 2.46 2.58 2.78 2.94 3.06

95 1.55 1.75 1.95 2.00 2.13 2.31 2.48 2.64 2.78 3.03 3.22 3.38

95.5 1.58 1.78 1.99 2.05 2.20 2.39 2.57 2.74 2.90 3.17 3.40 3.58

96 1.60 1.82 2.05 2.11 2.26 2.47 2.68 2.86 3.04 3.34 3.60 3.81

96.5 1.63 1.87 2.11 2.17 2.34 2.57 2.79 3.00 3.20 3.54 3.84 4.08

97 1.66 1.92 2.17 2.25 2.43 2.69 2.93 3.16 3.38 3.78 4.12 4.41

97.5 1.70 1.98 2.26 2.34 2.54 2.82 3.10 3.36 3.62 4.08 4.48 4.82

98 1.75 2.05 2.36 2.45 2.68 3.00 3.31 3.62 3.91 4.45 4.94 5.36

98.5 1.81 2.14 2.49 2.59 2.86 3.23 3.59 3.95 4.31 4.97 5.57 6.11

99 1.90 2.28 2.68 2.80 3.12 3.56 4.01 4.46 4.90 5.76 6.56 7.29

99.5 2.04 2.50 3.02 3.17 3.58 4.17 4.78 5.41 6.04 7.29 8.51 9.66

99.9 2.37 3.05 3.85 4.09 4.76 5.77 6.86 8.03 9.26 11.90 14.50 17.20

125

WRc Process Model Descriptions

126

WRc Process Model Descriptions

127

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The degree of longitudinal mixing in an aeration tank can be determined by tracer tests. An obvious

difficulty with the use of tracer tests is that the process must exist before the test can be performed.

One measure of the degree of longitudinal mixing is the number of equivalent equal-sized completely

mixed tanks in series that will produce the same tracer test response. A correlation for this number of

tanks in series has been developed by WRc64.

This equation is

7. 4 ⋅ L ⋅ QS ⋅ (1 + R )

N=

W⋅H

where N = number of tanks in series

W = tank width

[m]

H = tank depth

[m]

L = tank length

[m]

QS = average sewage flowrate [m3/s]

R = recycle ratio.

[-]

This equation can be used to estimate the degree of longitudinal mixing in aeration tanks to ±15% for

diffused-air systems only provided that the variables are within the following ranges:

2 < W < 20 [m]

2.4 < H < 6 [m]

28 < L < 500 [m]

0.7 < R < 1.5 [-]

1.3 < t* < 8 [h]

V

t* =

3600 ⋅ QS ⋅ (1 + R )

where V is the aeration tank volume.

For surface aeration there is no equivalent correlation. As a first estimate the number of tanks in series

can be taken as the number of mechanical aerators, or the number of pocketed aeration zones, in series

within the aeration tank.

Aeration, WRc Interim Report 217-S

128

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Tracer tests can use a variety of chemicals as the tracer. The most common has been lithium chloride,

followed by a range of fluorescent dyes. The test procedure for lithium is to add sufficient lithium

chloride to the inlet to the aeration tank to produce an average lithium (not lithium chloride)

concentration within the tank of 2 mg/l. The lithium chloride solution is added as rapidly as possible as

a single dose. The effluent from the tank is sampled every 15 minutes for the first two hours, every

half-hour for the next two hours, and hourly after that for a typical 8-hour retention tank, and the

sampling procedure continues for at least 2 sewage retention times. Where fluorescent dyes are used it

is possible to set up continuous monitoring. The fluorescent dye concentration used is chosen to be

readily detectable; this will depend on the dye chosen and the analytical technique (on-line instrument

or laboratory analysis).

The standard approach to using the results to calculate the number of tanks in series proceeds as

follows65:

Given a collection of N data points {ti, ci} the average retention time and standard deviation are

calculated from

Ci = 0.5 (ci + ci+1) ; average concentration

Ti = 0.5 (ti + ti+1) ; average time

∆Ti = (ti+1 - ti) ; time interval

N −1

∑ T C ∆T i i i

T= i =1

N −1 ; average retention time

∑ C ∆T

i =1

i i

N −1

∑ (T − T ) C ∆T i

2

i i

σ = 2 i =1

N −1 ; variance σ2;

∑ C ∆T

i =1

i i

The number of tanks in series is calculated by

N tanks = T 2 / σ 2

STOAT comes with a program TRACER that will carry out these calculations for you.

This equation assumes

(i) That there is no backmixing in the influent or effluent of the tank.

(ii) There is no external recirculation. This makes this equation unsuitable for oxidation ditches or

where the tracer concentration in the RAS affects the measurements. The interference of the

RAS is frequently avoided by the heuristic of calculating the standard deviation and ignoring all

measurements taken after 4 standard deviations. The standard deviation can then be recalculated

and used to again remove any measurements taken after the new value of 4 standard deviations.

(iii) The tanks in series are all the same size.

(iv) The flowrate during the test was constant.

(v) There is none of the tracer component normally present in the sewage.

International Edition

129

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The first assumption is unlikely to be a problem with activated sludge systems. Mixing in oxidation

ditches is difficult to calculate using this method: the high recirculation flows mean that for the sewage

the oxidation ditch behaves like a single tank, but the dissolved oxygen profile follows that for a plug-

flow system. The best approach to calculating the number of tanks in series for an oxidation ditch is to

stop the recirculation during the tracer experiment. If this is not possible then the correlation given in

Appendix A should be used.

If you wish to include the effect of the RAS recirculation it is possible to use the STOAT model itself

to estimate the number of tanks in series. For this we suggest using the correlation in Appendix A to

calculate the number of tanks in series N, and use N-1, N and N+1 tanks in the STOAT model. By

assigning the tracer values to phosphorus in any of the non-P-removal models the model will then

predict the tracer concentrations in the effluent. Compare the measured and predicted tracer

concentrations, and then use the best value of N-1, N or N+1.

Where the tracer is expected to be present in the sewage (this is the case when lithium is used) you

should have a duplicate tank, sampled for the tracer as well. Subtracting the tracer concentration in the

duplicate tank gives you the value for tracer added in the test tank. If there is no control then take the

samples in the influent sewage and subtract the average value from the measured tracer values in the

effluent.

The effect of dead volume in the tank can be estimated. The effective tank volume is given by

V = Q⋅T

Q = average flowrate during the tracer test

If the effective tank volume is much less that the actual volume then there is extensive dead volume in

the tank. The effective tank volume may be a little smaller or larger than the actual volume - this

reflects measuring errors, truncation errors in using the summation formulae to calculate the average

retention time and variations in the flowrate (the formulae given above have assumed that there is

negligible variation in Q during the test).

Although STOAT does not use other mixing models you can find details on other approaches in

Levenspiel. These mixing models may help in locating process problems such as short-circuiting and

dead volume.

130

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The oxygen mass transfer coefficient, KLa, can be calculated for diffused air activated sludge systems

by;

0 . 25

D

0 .5

V ⋅ g 6 ⋅ε G

K L a = 7200 ⋅ O 2 ⋅ G ⋅

π µL db

where KLa has the units of h-1.

The other parameters are

DO2: Oxygen diffusivity

g: Gravitational acceleration, 9.81 ms-2

db: Bubble diameter, m

VG: Superficial gas velocity = QG/A

QG: Gas flow rate, m3s-1

A: Tank cross-sectional area, m2

εG: Gas hold-up

µL: Liquid viscosity, 0.001 Pas

The bubble diameter can be calculated from

σ 0.6

db = 4.15 ε 0.5 + 9 ⋅ 10 −4

0.4 0.2 G

( PG / V ) ρ L

where V is the liquid volume, m3

PG is the gassed power, W

σ is the surface tension, Nm-1

ρL is the liquid density, 1000 kgm-3

This correlation is strictly valid only for sparged mixed tanks. We believe it is a reasonable estimate of

the bubble diameters coming from fine-bubble diffused air systems, based on visual observations.

The gassed power can be calculated from

PA

PG = QG ⋅ PA ⋅ ln

PS

where PA is the air pressure at the diffuser inlet, Pa

PS is the pressure at the surface of the tank, Pa. This is normally atmospheric pressure, 1.013 x 105 Pa.

This equation is for isothermal expansion, and is the gas power released within the aeration basin. The

power consumption within the blower should be calculated based on adiabatic compression, and

include the friction losses in the air delivery lines and across the diffuser domes, and should also

include the machine efficiency. The program KLACALC ignores all these terms and therefore always

calculates high aeration efficiencies. The calculated values can be corrected once you have calculated

the additional pressure drops and machine inefficiencies involved in the complete aeration system.

The gas hold-up is given by

VG V 3 ⋅ Vb ⋅ (1 − ε G ) / (1 − ε 5G/ 3 )

+ L =

ε G 1 − ε G 1 + 2(1 − 0.628 µ L / ρ L ⋅ Vb ⋅ db )

where VL is the superficial liquid velocity, m/s. This is positive if the liquid is flowing upwards,

negative if the liquid is flowing down, and zero if the liquid is flowing across the tank. For most

activated sludge units the value of VL will thus be zero; the principal exemption is TOWER.

131

WRc Process Model Descriptions

Vb = 2 ⋅ σ / ( ρ L ⋅ db ) + 0.5 ⋅ g ⋅ db

The equation for KLa will calculate the clean-water transfer value at any temperature providing that

the correct values for viscosity, diffusivity, density and surface tension have been used.

The calculation procedure is then:

Given the gas flowrate and aeration tank area and depth, calculate the gassed power PG and the

superficial gas velocity VS. Guess a value for the gas holdup, and use this to calculate the bubble

diameter db and the bubble free rise velocity Vb. Use Vb and db to calculate the gas holdup. Iterate

over the gas holdup, bubble size and bubble rise velocity calculations until the gas holdup value has

converged to a steady-state. Finally, calculate the mass transfer coefficient KLa. There is a program

supplied with STOAT, KLACALC, that will automate this procedure, and will also calculate the air

flowrate given a value for KLa.

The effect of surfactants can be estimated from the following correlation66 for the alpha-factor. The

alpha-factor is defined as the ratio between KLa in the activated sludge aeration tank and in clean

water.

SAA ε G ⋅ h

X= ⋅

a VG

where

a is the specific bubble surface area

SAA is the concentration of surfactant as Manoxol OT

h is the depth of the aeration tank.

You should note

(i) the value calculated for KLa is accurate to ±20%

(ii) the value calculated for α has been obtained for a clean-water system to which detergent was

added. The error band of the result is not known.

For surface aeration systems KLa can be calculated from

1000 ⋅ EO 2 ⋅ P

KLa =

CO∗ ⋅ V

where EO2 is the oxygen transfer efficiency, kg O2/kWh

P is the power demand of the aerator, kW

CO* is the saturation oxygen concentration, mg/l

V is the aeration volume, m3

The factor 1000 is the conversion between mg/l and kg/m3

KLa from this equation has the units of h-1, which are the units used in STOAT.

This equation requires a knowledge of the power drawn by the surface aerator and the manufacturer's

declared oxygen transfer efficiency.

66 Unpublished research at WRc. A paper describing the work has been accepted by Water

Research, to be published in 1995.

132

WRc Process Model Descriptions

There are several ways of assessing how well a calibrated model matches the calibration data. The

choice as to which method depends on how much data is available and how it was used. The 'classical'

statistical methods are to calculate the sum-of-squares, the R2-value, standard deviations of residuals

and variability coefficients. These measures generally have three underlying assumptions. The first is

that the data is accurate, especially the times at which the data was collected. Where the data is known

to be inaccurate then the assumption is generally that the measurement error is independent of the

value - for example, that a BOD of 300 mg/l and a BOD of 30 mg/l are both accurate to ±3 mg/l. The

second assumption is that either the data can be represented by the Normal distribution, or that there is

enough data for the underlying distribution, through the Central Limit Theorem, to approach the

Normal distribution. The final assumption is that the data values are independent of each other. When

modelling dynamic events the data are usually collected at intervals short enough such that the data are

correlated - this is why sewage shows diurnal, weekly and seasonal patterns.

For sewage data these assumptions are usually not justified. Alternative criteria that can be used, and

that are less dependent on the statistical properties of the data, are known as nonparameteric statistical

tests67. These tests include such items as the sign test, where the test is to see if the predictions are

consistently under- or over-predicting compared to the data. WRc, in evaluating the performance of

STOAT, have used the following criteria:

(ii) Prediction of the peak effluent concentrations;

(iii) Predictions of the timing of the peak concentration values.

Because data were frequently limited, available only from one run, the data was divided into two

groups. The model was calibrated on the first half (for example, data from the morning), and then

evaluated on the second half (for example, data from the afternoon). This produces a statistically

weaker test. Where the data is available the preferred evaluation is to use separate data sets for

calibration and evaluation. Separate here means that the data should be collected on separate days.

In evaluating the goodness of fit of the three criteria above the preferred method was 'eye-balling' a

graph of the results. This is linked to the general paucity of data. As a rule of thumb at least 32 data

points are needed before the formal statistical tests become acceptable. With less than 32 the

probability of false positives and false negatives is higher than the standard tables would suggest.

67 One of the standard books in this field is S Siegel, 1956, Nonparametric Statistics for the

Behavioural Sciences, McGraw Hill. All the routines in Siegel are available in the computer

program SPSS - Statistical Program for the Social Sciences, and in a variety of other

dedicated statistical programs.

68 This should allow for the expected measuring error. Approaches to this have been to

normalise the calculated error by dividing by the measurement error and then calculating

acceptance statistics on these normalised values, or to set error bands and accept the model

provided the predictions lie within the upper and lower bounds.

133

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The Student's t-test is a notable exception to this rule, as are the nonparameteric tests mentioned earlier.

The preference for graphical evaluation can be seen from the following comments on comparing peak

concentrations:

(i) Identification of peaks can be difficult;

(ii) Peaks in the measured data do not always have corresponding model peaks, and vice versa;

(iii) The number of peaks is generally very small (in typical data sets usually less than 10, and

sometimes less than 5).

134

WRc Process Model Descriptions

This is a summary of the monitoring requirements for model calibration. For a particular works the

requirements may vary from those given here because of variations in plant layout and operation. The

suggested monitoring points are69:

(i) Works influent;

(ii) All outflows from the works;

(iii) All flows between each process stage in the treatment stream where the flows may change, e.g.

pumps, mixers or splitters;

(iv) Any recycle flows.

The frequency with which samples are taken will depend on the variability of the sewage and the

resources available. Typical sampling frequencies are 1, 2 or 3 hourly. The choice of frequency will

depend on the works, but if the model is required to follow variations that take place over an interval of

X hours the sampling frequency should be at least every X/2 hours. The sampling frequency does not

have to be the same for every parameter70. Activated sludge MLSS values change slowly so that daily

sampling may be sufficiently frequent (except under storm conditions), while dissolved oxygen may

require sampling at 12 minute intervals.

The duration of the sampling period, like the frequency of sampling, depends on the purpose of

sampling. The sampling period should be long enough to cover the expected phenomena to be studied;

if possible it should be long enough to collect sufficient data such that spurious errors can be detected.

This suggests that diurnal data should be collected over at least two days, and preferably longer.

Collecting data for storms cannot be as easily programmed, but if possible samples should be taken and

kept for 24-48 hours. When the storm event finally takes place the stored samples should also be

submitted for analysis, so that there is information on the state of the sewage and works prior to the

storm; sampling and analysis should continue for another 24 hours after the end of the storm. Where a

process like activated sludge is to be studied the monitoring period should cover at least one, and

preferably three, sludge ages: although it may not be necessary to take diurnal samples for the entire

period.

Composite samples should be used to average out some of the variation in the nature of sewage. The

number of samples taken for a composite is typically four or more. The compositing procedure can be

based on either a simple average or a flow-weighted average. Whichever method is used should be

taken into account when comparing model predictions with the data.

STOAT can be used to assess what parameters should be sampled. By running a simulation of the

study prior to planning data collection the STOAT results can be used to identify parameters that are

expected to vary and can be used to monitor performance or the acceptability of the model. Parameters

that are not expected to vary can be sampled less frequently to test the expectation that they should not

vary. Experimenting with the operating conditions in STOAT will identify when variations are

expected to be influenced by the operating conditions, the model parameters (such as settling velocities

or growth rates), and the variability assigned to the sewage profile.

69 This list is only a suggestion. The sampling points will depend on what you wish to do with

the model. As an example, if you wish to calibrate the model kinetics in activated sludge you

must measure the oxygen, BOD and ammonia profiles along the length of the tank.

Measuring only the influent and effluent will not allow you to correctly estimate the kinetic

parameters - you can estimate parameters, but they will have large error bands.

70 J Chen, 1993, Modelling and Control of the Activated Sludge Process: Towards a

Systematic Framework, PhD Thesis, Imperial College of Science, Technology and

Medicine, University of London.

135

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The raw process data may not be suitable for direct use in evaluating the performance of STOAT.

Possible problems include:

(i) Observation errors - random or systematic errors, but not gross errors;

(ii) Outliers - errors so large that the data does not follow the trend; and

(iii) Missing data.

The data contain errors caused by sampling and analysis. Two samplers mounted side-by-side will not

normally produce identical results. The same sample analysed by different methods, different analysts

or different laboratories will also not produce identical results. Codes of practice such as Standard

Methods or the HMSO Blue Books define the expected best accuracy and reproducibility of the

analytical methods. You should not expect to normally achieve these best levels of reproducibility or

accuracy.

Outliers are difficult to detect, especially by automated software. Values that do not follow the trend

may indicate anomalous but correct conditions - low flow, high flow, the start of desludging - as well

as incorrect conditions - sampler failure, analysis problems, samples mixed up. The best approach to

identifying the quality of the data is to plot the data and to have the results vetted by people familiar

with the data collection exercises and the works.

Missing data can be ignored or interpolated. If data are missing on the sewage influent STOAT will

linearly interpolate, or if necessary linearly extrapolate, to generate the missing points. When

examining the results of a simulation the effects of interpolation and extrapolation must be included.

You may elect to use other smoothing procedures, such as plotting the data and fitting a smooth curve

through the existing data. Amongst the automatic methods the most common are cubic splines,

smoothing cubic splines and Fourier smoothing. Such methods are available in the NAG library or

Press et al71.

136

WRc Process Model Descriptions

The methods described in this appendix will enable you to calculate the parameters V0 and b1 in the

Vesilind settling equation VS = V0 exp(-b1 X), where VS is the settling velocity of sludge at a

concentration X mg/l.

If a column (an SSVI cylinder or larger) is filled with activated sludge and left to settle a graph of the

solids interface against time can be plotted as shown in the figure below. From this graph it is possible

to calculate ("Kynch analysis") the solids' settling velocity at any concentration. The solids

concentration must be high enough that zone settling takes place: the solids settle as a blanket, with a

sharp interface between the sludge blanket and the clarified liquid above the blanket. This is not a

suitable settling test for crude sewages.

H0

Hi

Ha

0 Ta Ti

Elapsed time

If a tangent is drawn to the settling curve at a time Ta this tangent will intersect the elapsed time axis at

Ti and the height axis at Hi. The solids concentration at the interface between the sludge blanket and

the clarified liquor at the time Ta is given by

Ca = C0 H0 / Hi

and the settling velocity by

Va = Hi / Ti

where C0 is the initial concentration of solids in the settling column; H0 the initial depth of the sludge

blanket; and Ca and Va the concentration and settling velocity of the interface at time Ta.

This procedure is only applicable when the sludge is settling, rather than compressing. If several tests

are done at different initial concentrations or initial heights and then plotted on reduced co-ordinates,

so that the Y-axis is H/H0C0 and the X-axis T/H0C0 the curves for the different tests will coincide

where compression is not affecting the results. If the tangent construction described above is carried

out using the reduced co-ordinates graph the intersections on the axes are VaCa on the X-axis and 1/Ca

on the Y-axis.

Completing the tangent constructions produces a collection of data points of {Ca, Va}. These points

should now follow the settling equation Va = V0 exp(-b1 Ca). Taking natural logarithms transforms

the equation to ln Va = ln V0 - b1 Ca. This equation has the form Y = a + b X, and this can be solved

using standard least-squares methods. The least-squares parameters a and b are then

used to calculate V0 and b1 as V0 = exp(a) and b1 = -b.

137

WRc Process Model Descriptions

THE SSVI TEST

1. Use the standard SSVI settling apparatus. This is a graduated cylinder, a slow-speed stirrer

(1 rpm) and a driving motor for the stirrer. The SSVI cylinder is available from Triton

Electronics, Bigods Hall, Dunmow, Essex, UK.

2. Two tests are required,. These can be carried out rapidly using two cylinders, one containing the

MLSS and the other RAS solids. The results of these two tests are used to interpolate the SSVI

results to a reference concentration of 3.5 kg/m3.

3. Obtain separate samples of the MLSS and RAS solids from the activated sludge plant. Ensure

that each sample is well mixed, so that no solids separation has taken place. Measure the MLSS

and RAS concentrations. Fill the SSVI cylinders with the two samples. The cylinders must be

filled to the top graduation mark (50 cm). Insert the stirrer and start the stirrer drive motor (zero

time).

4. Allow the sludge to settle for 30 minutes. At this time note the height of the sludge interface in

each column.

5. Calculate the SSVI3.5 as follows:

C1 = MLSS concentration, mg/l

C2 = RAS solids concentration, mg/l

H1 = height of MLSS interface after 30 minutes

H2 = height of RAS interface after 30 minutes

(i) Interpolate to obtain a settled height for solids concentration of 3.5 kg/m3:

3500 − C1

H3.5 = H1 + ⋅ ( H2 − H1 )

C2 − C1

(ii) Calculate SSVI3.5 from:

1000 ⋅ H3.5

SSVI3.5 =

3. 5 ⋅ H0

where H0 = original height of suspension in the cylinder (= 50 cm)

138

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