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1 By extracting kerosene, 2 tons of waxed paper is to be dewaxed in a continuous

countercurrent extraction system that contains a number of ideal stages. The waxed paper
contains, by weight, 25% paraffin wax and 75% paper pulp. The extracted pulp is put
through a dryer to evaporate the kerosene. The pulp, which retains the unextracted wax
after evaporation, must not contain over 0.2 kg of wax per 100 kg of wax free pulp. The
kerosene used for the extraction contains 0.05 kg of wax paper per 100 kg of wax free
kerosene. Experiments show that the pulp retains 2.0 kg of kerosene per kg of kerosene
and wax free pulp as it is transferred from cell to cell. The extract from the battery is to
contain 5 kg of wax per 100 kg of wax free kerosene.
a Find the overflow stream.
b Find the underflow stream
c Kg wax / kg kerosene in the underflow
d No. of stages

First Sta Given:

V1:Overflow Vbyb
S: Solvent
5 kg wax Vaya V2y2 0.05 kg wax
100 kg kerosene 100 kg kerosene

Lbxb
Feed : 4 Tons Wax paper
25% wax L1: Underflow
2 kg kerosene
75% pulp
5 kg wax 1 kg pulp 0.2 kg wax
L1xkerosene
100 kg 1 100 kg free pulp

Required: Overflow and Underflow streamsN stages.

Solutions:

F+ S=V 1 + L1
OMB :

Material balance for the wax

1000 kg
4 Ton x =4000 kg
1Ton

4000 kg x .25=1000 kg 4000 kg x .75=3000 kg

Wax balance
0.05 kg wax 5 kg wax 0.2 kg wax
1000 kg+ V b= V a+ ( 0.75 x 4000 kg )
100 kg kerosene 100 kg kerosene 100 kg pulp

Solvent Balance

2 kg kerosene
V b=V a+ ( 0.75 x 4000 kg ) =V a +6000 kg
1 kg pulp

Solving simultaneously we get the streams

V a=20141 . 4141 kg Kerosene V b=V 2 =20081. 4141 kg kerosene

undeflow=6000 kg kerosene

0.2 kg wax
x 0.75 x 4000 kg pulp
100 kg pulp kg wax
x b= =0 .001
6000 kg kerosene kg kerosene

Wax balance:

5
20081.4141 y 2 +1000= ( 20141.4141) +6000 x 1
100

kg wax
equilibrium condition x1 = y a= y 2=0.05 y 2=0.01529
kg kerosene

No. of ideal stages

0.001−0.0005
N=
ln ( 0.05−0.01529 )
+1=4 .5398 ≈5
0.01529−0.0005
ln (
0.05−0.001 )
2 In a single step solid-liquid extraction soybean oil has to be extracted from soybean
flakes using hexane as solvent. 100 kg of the flakes with an oil content of 20 wt% are
contacted with 100 kg fresh hexane. 1.5 kg of inert material hold back a constant value of
1 kg solution.

extract (overflow) solvent

V1 V2

extraction

step

L0 L1

feed underflow

Total balance:

L0 + V2 = M = L1 + V1 = 100 + 100 = 200 kg


Balance for compound A:

L0 wA,L0 + V2 wA,V2 = M wA,M

with the feed concentration wA,L0 = 0.8 and the suggestion, that no solid particles are included in
the overflow, so wA,V2 = 0 follows:

100 * 0.8 + 100 * 0 = 200 * wA,M


wA,M = 0.4

Balance for compound B:

L0 wB,L0 + V2 wB,V2 = M wB,M

with the feed concentration wB,L0 = 0.2 and with the knowledge, that pure hexane is used as
solvent, wB,V2 = 0, follows

100 * 0.2 + 100 * 0 = 200 * wB,M

wB,M = 0.1

The concentration of compound C (solvent) in the mixing point M can be determined either by a
mass balance for compound C

L0 wC,L0 + V2 wC,V2 = M wC,M

with wC,L0 = 0, because no solvent is included in the feed, and with wC,V2 = 1, pure hexane,
follows

100 * 0 + 100 * 1 = 200 * wC,M

wC,M = 0.5

or by the rule, that the sum of the mass percent of each compound in the point M has to be 1.

wA,M + wB,M + wC.M = 1

0.4 + 0.1 + wC.M = 1

wC.M = 0.5

With these concentrations the mixing point M can be drawn in the diagram, which has to be on
the connection line of feed point F and solvent C.
It is given, that 1 kg inert material retains 1.5 kg solution (extractable substance + solvent =
miscella = overflow). Therefore the concentration of the underflow is

inert m

w
A,Underflow =

inert material+extractable substa

1.5

w
A,Underflow =w A,L1 =

1.5 + 1

The amount of the leaving flows L1 and V1 can be calculated from the mass balance for
compound A

M wA,M = V1 wA,V1 + L1 wA,L1

with wA,V1 = 0 (no solid material in the overflow) and wA,L1 = 0.6 (underflow)

W A ,M 0.4
L1=M =200
W A , L1 .0 .6

L1=133.333 kg

With the total balance

M = L1+V1
follows

V1 = M - L1 = 200 - 133.333

V1 = 66.666 kg

The concentrations of B and C in the overflow V1 are calculated with the suggestion that no inert
material A is included in the overflow.

B 20
W B ,V 1= =
A+ B+C 0+ 20+100
C 100
W C , V 1= =
A +B+ C 0+20+100

B ,V 1=0.1667
¿
W¿

W C , V 1=0.8333

The composition of the underflow can be calculated by mass balances for compound B and C.

L1 wB,L1 + V1, wB,V1 = L0 wB,L0 + V2 wB,V2

LO × W B , Lo−V 1 ×W B ,V 1 100 ×0.2−66.666 ×0.1667


W B , L1= =
L1 133.333

W B , L1=0.067

W A ,L 1+ W B , L 1+W C , L1=1

W C , L1 =1−0.6−0.67

W C , L1 =0.333

Total mass (kg) Wt% A Wt% B Wt%C


Feed LO 100 80 20 0

Solvent V2 100 0 0 100

Overflow V1 66.666 0 16.667 83.333

Underflow L1 133.333 60 6.7 33.3


Situation for problems no. 23-28

By extraction with kerosene with 0.05 lb wax per 100 lb kerosene, 2 tons of waxed paper per day
is to be dewaxed in a continuous countercurrent extraction system that contains a number of
ideal stages. The waxed paper contains, by weight, 25 percent paraffin wax and 75 percent paper
pulp. The extracted pulp is put through a dryer to evaporate the kerosene. The pulp, which retains
the unextracted wax after evaporation, must not contain over 0.2 lbs of wax per 100 lbs of wax-
free kerosene-free pulp. Experiment show that the pulp retains 2.0 lb of kerosene per lb of
kerosene and wax-free pulp as it is transferred from cell to cell. The extract from the battery is to
contain 5 lb of wax paper per 100 lb of wax-free kerosene. Per 100 lb of wax-free kerosene-free
pulp,

23. The kerosene in the exhausted pulp is equal to


a. 150 lb c. 117 lb
b. 200 lb d. 212 lb
24. The kerosene in the strong solution is equal to
a. 561 lb c. 761
b. 651 lb d. 671 lb
25. The wax in the strong solution is equal to
a. 35.35 lb c. 55.33 lb
b. 33.55 lb d. 53.53 lb
26. The wax in the underflow to unit 2 is equal to
a. 8 lb c. 12 lb
b. 10 lb d. 14 lb
27. The wax in the overflow from the second cell to the first is
a. 10.22 lb c. 12.11 lb
b. 11.12 lb d. 13.19 lb
28. The total number of ideal stages is equal to
a. 3 c. 5
b. 4 d. 6

Given:

Solute = Wax
Solvent = Kerosene
Inert = Pulp
Y1 Y2 YN+1

1 2 N
XN
X1

F= 2 Tons
25% Solute
75% Inert

Solution:
In Feed:

Inert = 100 lb
100 lbinert
=133.3333lb
Feed = 0.75

Solute = (0.25)(133.3333 lb) = 33.3333 lb

In Final Underflow:

Inert = 100 lb
0.2lb solute
x 100 lb inert =0.2 lb
Solute = 100 lb inert

2 lb solvent
x 100 lb inert=200lb
Solvent = lb inert

Overall Solvent Balance


0 + VN+1 = V1 + 200 Equation 1

Overall Solute Balance


0.05 lb solute 5 lb solute
33.3333 + ( 100 lb solvent x VN+1) = ( 100 lb solvet x V1) + 0.2 Equation 2
From Equation 1:

VN+1 – V1 = 200

From Equation 2:

5 x 10−4 VN+1 – 0.05V1 = -33.1333

Equate Equation 1 and Equation 2, solve for VN+1 and V1:

VN+1 = 871.3798 lb
V1 = 671.3798 lb

Solute in V1:

5 lb solute
100 lb solvent x 671.3798 = 33.5690 lb

Solvent Balance in Stage 1:

0 + V2 = 671.3798 +200

V2 = 871.3798 lb

Solute Balance in Stage 2:

5 lb solute
( x 200 lb solvent )
33.3333 + solute in V2 = 100 lb solvent +

5 lb solute
( 100lb solvent )
x 671.3798lb solvent

Solute in V2 = 10.2357 lb

5 lb solute
x 200 lb solvent =10 lb
Solute in Y2 = 00lb solvent
Solving for Number of Stages:

Y N+1 −X N
ln ⁡[ ]
Y 2−X 1
N=1+
Y −Y 2
ln ⁡[ N +1 ]
XN− X1

where:

0.05 lb solute −4
=5 x 10
YN+1 = 100 lb solvent
0.2 lb solute −3
=1 x 10
XN = 200 lb solvent
10.2357 lb solute
=0.0117
Y2= 871.3798lb solvent

10 lb solute
=0.05
X1 = 200 lb solvent

5 x 10−4 −1 x 10−3
ln ⁡[ ]
0.0117−0.05
N=1+ 5 x 10−4 −0.0117
ln ⁡[ ]
1 x 10−3−0.05

N = 3.9396 = 4 stages
Problems no. 29-31.

100 kg of solid containing 50% of a soluble material were treated with 200 kg of a solvent
containing the same solute at 3% concentration in a vessel under the constant agitation. After a
long time, pressing separated in the solution and the solid. The solid analyzed 0.75 kg of solvent
per kg of inert solid.

29. The amount of solute in the final underflow is approximately equal to

a. 10.82 kg c. 2.78 kg

b. 8.54 kg d. 7.16 kg

30. The amount of solvent in the extract is approximately equal to

a. 106.2 kg c. 178.3 kg

b. 216.0 kg d. 156.5 kg

31. How much extract was collected?

a. 201.68 kg c. 216.08 kg

b. 106.21 kg d. 192.86 kg
Given:
Overflow, V1 Vo = 200 kg
(Extract) 3% solute
97% solvent

Feed, F = 100 kg Underflow, L1


0.75 kg solvent
50% solute solid = kg inert solid

50% solid

Required: 29.) amount of solute in final underflow


30.) amount of solvent in the extract
31.) V1

Solution:

In the Feed, F: solute=( 0.5 )( 100 kg )=50 kg

inert solid =( 0.5 ) (100 kg )=50 kg

In Vo: solute=( 0.03 )( 200 kg )=6 kg

solvent =( 0.97 )( 200 kg )=194 kg

In overflow, V1.: solute=a

solvent =Vi−a

Solute balance:
Continuation...
Inerts balance:
inerts∈F=inerts∈L1=50 kg

Solution balance:
solution ∈F +Vo=solution ∈ L1+V 1

( 50+0 ) +200=93.5−a+V 1

156.5+a=Vi

At Equilibrium:

solute solute
( solution ) =( solution
V1
) L1

a 56−a
( 156.5+ a ) ( 37.5+56−a )
=
V1 L1

a=45.1753 kg

29.) Amount of solute in underflow, L1:

solute=56−a=56−45.1753=10.8247 kg

30.) Amount of solvent in Extract, Vi:

solvent =V 1−a=156.5+ a−a=1 56.5 kg

31.) V1:

V 1=solvent V + soluteV =156.5+45.1753=201.6753 kg


1 1
Situation for problems no. 32-34
x A=0.25 x B=0.75
A solid B, contains a soluble component, A, of mass fractions , and is
to be recover A by a solvent extraction with C. Solid B and solvent C are mutually totally
insoluble. The extracted solid is to be screw passed to a 0.75 kg of solution/kg of B underflow.
The entrainment of B in the overflow can be neglected. Per kg of feed and to obtain 85% of A in
the extract overflow.
32. The composition of the solution in the underflow is
a. 0.04 c. 0.01
b. 0.07 d. 0.10

33. The amount of solvent in the underflow is


a. 0.44 c. 0.88
b. 0.53 d. 1.33

34. How much solvent C (A free) must be fed?


a. 3.5000 kg c. 1.7000 kg
b. 2.5712 kg d. 5.2311 kg
GIVEN:

REQUIRED:
32. x1 in L1
33. solvent in L1
34. solvent C

SOLUTION:

In Feed, F:

F = 1 kg
Solute (A) : (0.25)(1) = 0.25 kg
Inerts (B) : (0.75)(1) = 0.75 kg

In Underflow , L1 :
Inerts (B) : 0.75 kg
Solution (A + C) : (0.75)(0.75) = 0.5625 kg
Solute : (1 - 0.85)(0.25) = 0.0375 kg
Solvent : (0.5625 - 0.0375) = 0.5250 kg
solute 0.0375
x 1= = =0.0667
solution 0.5625

In Overflow , V1 :
Solute (A) : (0.85)(0.25) = 0.2125 kg
V1 = ? ? ?
Solution Balance:
(0.25 + 0) + C = V1 + 0.5625
V1 = C - 0.3125

@ equilibrium:

solute solute
( solution ) =( solution
V1
) L1

0.2125
( C−0.3125 ) =( 0.0375
0.5625 )
V1 L1

C = 3.5000 kg
Situation for problems no. 35-38
Seeds containing 30% weight oil are extracted in a countercurrent plant and 88% of the oil is
recovered in a solution containing 55% by weight of oil. The seeds are extracted with fresh
solvent and 1 kg of solution is removed in the underflow in association with every 1.5 kg of
insoluble material.
35. The amount of solvent in final extract is approximately equal to

a. 26.4 kg c. 46.67 kg
b. 21.6 kg d. 43.07 kg
36. The amount of solvent in final underflow is approximately equal to

a. 26.4 kg c. 46.67 kg
b. 21.6 kg d. 43.07 kg
37. The concentration of oil in the solvent stream for stage 1 is approximately equal to

a. 0.55 c. 0.18
b. 0.08 d. 0.34
38. How many ideal stages are needed to attain the desired separation?

a. 4 c. 8
b. 6 d. 10
GIVEN:

REQUIRED:
35. Solvent in V1
36. Solvent in LN
37.Concentration of oil V2
38.N
SOLUTION:
Basis: 100 kg of Feed
In Feed, F:
Insoluble = 0.70(100 kg) = 70 kg
Oil = 0.30(100 kg) = 30 kg
In final Overflow, V1:
Oil = 0.88 (30 kg) = 26.4 kg
45
( )
Solvent = 26.4 kg 55 = 21.6 kg

y1=x1=0.55

In final Underflow, LN=L1=46.6667 kg


Oil= 0.12(30 kg) = 3.6 kg
Insoluble = 70 kg
Solution = 70 kg ( 1.51 kkgg solution
insoluble ) = 46.6667 kg

Solvent = 46.6667 kg– 3.6 kg= 43.0667 kg


3.6
=0.0771
xN= 46.6667

In Fresh Solvent, VN+1:


Solvent = 21.6 kg + 43. 0667 kg = 64.6667 kg
Solute = 0
yN+1 = 0
Solute Balance around Stage 1:
30 kg + 64.6667 kg (y2) = 26.4 kg + 46.6667 kg(0.55)
y2= 0.3412 = x2

0−0.0771
1+
ln ( 0.3412−0.55 )
N= 0−0.3412 = 4.05
ln (
0.0771−0.55 )
Situation for problems 39-42
Calcium-carbonate precipitate can be produced by the reaction of an aqueous solution of
sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. The by-product is aqueous sodium hydroxide.
Following decantation, the slurry leaving the precipitation tank is 5 wt% calcium carbonate,
0.1 wt% sodium hydroxide, and the balance water. One hundred thousand lb/h of this slurry is
fed to a two-stage, continuous, countercurrent washing system to be washed with 20,000 lb/h
of fresh water. The underflow from each thickener will contain 20 wt% solids.
39. The amount of extract
40. The amount of sodium hydroxide in final extract
41. The amount of sodium hydroxide in final underflow
42. The percent recovery of sodium hydroxide in the extract
Given:
20,000 lb/h
(V1) (V2) (V3)
1
2

(F) 100,000 lb/h (L1) (L2


)
5 wt% Calcium 20wt% solid
Carbonate

0.1 wt% Sodium


Hydroxide

Solution:
In Feed:
Calcium Carbonate=0.05(100,000)=5000 lb/h

Sodium Hydroxide=0.001(100,000)=100lb/h

Water=0.949(100,000)=94900 lb/h
Solid Balance:
Solid ∈F=Solid ∈L 2

lb
5000 =0.20 ( L2 )
h

lb
L2=25000
h

OMB:
F+V 3=V 1+ L 2

100,000+20,000=V 1+25,000

lb
V 1=95000
h

Stage 1 (@ equilibrium)

Solute Solute
( ) =( )
Solution (V 1) Solution ( L1)

Solute Solute
( ) =( )
95,000 (V 1 ) 20,000 (L 1)

Solute ∈V 1=4.75 Solute∈L 1−−−eqn(1)

Stage 2 (@ equilibrium)
Solute Solute
( ) =( )
Solution (V 2) Solution ( L2)

Solute Solute
( ) =( )
20,000 (V 2) 20,000 (L2 )
Solute ∈V 2=Solute∈L 2−−−eqn(2)

Solute Balance in Stage 2


Solute L 1+ SoluteV 3=Solute V 2 +Solute L 2

Solute L 1+0=SoluteV 2 +Solute L2

Solute L 1=Solute L 2+ Solute L2

Solute L 1=2 Solute L2−−−eqn( 3)

Overall Solute Balance


Solute F + Solute V 3=SoluteV 1 + Solute L2

100+0=Solute V 1+ Solute L2 −−−eqn (4)

Substitute eqn (1) to eqn (4)


100=4.75 Solute L1 + Solute L2−−−eqn(5)

Substitute eqn (3) to eqn (5)


100=4.75 ( 2 ) Solute L2 +Solute L 2

lb
Solute L 2=9.52
h

Using eqn 4:
100+0=Solute V 1+ 9.52

lb
Solute V 1=90.48
h

SoluteV 1−SoluteV 3
Percent Recovery ( R )=
Solute F
( 90.48−0 )
R= x 100
100

R=90.48

PROBLEM 43-46

Ground roasted coffee contains 8% soluble solids, 2% water, and 90% inert insoluble solids.
In order to obtain an extract with high soluble solids content without having to concentrate it
for spray drying, a countercurrent extraction process is to be used to prepare the extract. It is
desired that the final extract contain 0.15kg soluble/kg water and that the soluble of the spent
coffee grounds not to exceed 0.008 kg/kg dry inert solids. The coffee grounds carry 1 kg
water/kg of soluble-free inert solids and this quantity is constant with the solute concentration
in the extract.

REQD:

43) The amount of final extract is approximately equal to

a. 55.81 kg b. 48.54 kg c. 72.8 kg d. 28.1 kg


44) The concentration of the solution adhering to the extracted solids is approximately equal
to

a. 0.0936 b. 0.0079 c. 0.1304 d. 0.0032

45) The water/coffee ratio to be used in the extraction is

a. 1.37 b. 2.88 c. 0.98 d. 1.87

46) The number of extraction stages needed for this process is

a. 5 b. 6 c. 7 d. 8

SOLUTION:

V2 V3 V4

Overflow, V1 Solvent, Vn+1


Y2 Y3 Y4
0.15 kg solute
Yn+1
kg H2O Solution:
1 2 3 N

R1 R2 R3
Final Underflow, Ln
Feed, F
L1 L2 L3
8% Solute In the feed: basis(100 Xn kg)
Solute/Inerts = 0.008
2% H2O Solute: 0.08(100)= 8kg
R= 1 kg H2O/kg
Solvent: 0.02(100)=
Inerts
2kg

Inerts: 0.9(100)=90kg

In final underflow:

Inerts= inerts in F=90kg

Solute=0.008(90)=0.72kg

Solvent=90(1)=90 kg

XN= 0.008
Solute 0.72
( Solution ) in LN = 90+0.72 =0.0079 (#44)

In final overflow, V1:

Solute balance: 8+0=0.72+Solute in V1

Solute
=0.15
Y1= X1= Solvent

Final Overflow(extract)=solute+solvent

= 7.28+48.5333kg=V1

= 55. 8133 kg(#43)

In solvent stream, Vn+1

Yn+1=0(pure water)

Solvent= Vn+1=?

Overall solvent bal:

2+Vn+1=90+48.5333

Vn+1=136.5333

Ratio:

Vn+1 136.5333
= =1.3653
F 100 (#45)

Solute for Y2 using Solute balance around stage 1

8+ V2Y2=L1X1+7.28

V2= Vn+1=136.5333

Y2=?

L1=LN=90
X1=Y1=0.15

8+136.5333=90(0.15)+7.28

Y2=0.0936

Solve for N:

0.008
ln( 0.0926−0.15 )
N=1+ 0−0.0936 =5.69=6 stages(#46)
ln (
0.008−0.15 )

Problem 47

Given:

V1 V2
YN+1

Y1 1 Y2 2 N

L1 LN

Feed= 50 tons/hr X1` XN

48% H2O
3 tons H 20
40% Pulp R= tons Pulp
12%Sugar

Required: N = ?

Solutions:

tons
In Feed: H2O = 0.48(50) = 24 hr

tons
Pulp = 0.40(50) = 20 hr

tons
Sugar = 0.12(50) = 6 hr

In Final Overflow:

tons
Sugar = 0.97(6) = 5.82 hr

5.82 tons
Solution = 0.15 = 38.8 hr

tons
H2O = V1 = 38.8 – 5.82 = 32.98 hr

5.82
Y1 = 32.98 = 0.1765

X1 = Y1 = 0.1765 at equilibrium

In Final Underflow:

tons
Sugar = 0.03(6) = 0.18 hr

tons
H2O = LN = 20(3) = 60 hr
0.18
XN = 60 = 0.003

In Fresh Solvent:

OMB (Solvent): LN + V1 – Lo

VN+1 = 60 + 32.92 – 24

tons
H20 = VN+1 = 68.98 hr

YN+1 = 0 (pure solvent)

Sugar Balance Around Stage 1:

Sugar in F + V2Y2 = L1X1 + V1Y1

tons
V2 = V3 = V4 = ….. = VN+1 = 68.98 hr

tons
L1 = L2 = L3 = L4 = ….. = LN = 60 hr

6 + 68.98Y2 = 60(0.1765) + 5.82

Y2 = 0.1509

Solving for N:

0−0.003
ln ⁡
0.1509−0.1765
N= 0−0.1509 +1
ln
0.003−0.1765

N = 16.36 = 17
Problem 48

Constant Solution Retention: L8V – solution flowrates : X8Y – solute/solution

In Feed:

H2O = 0.48(50) = 24 tons/hr

Pulp = 0.40(50) = 20 tons/hr

Sugar = 0.12(50) = 6 tons/hr

In Final Overflow:

Sugar = 0.97(6) = 5.82 tons/hr

Y1 = 0.15

5.82
Solution = V1 = 0.15 = 38.8 tons/hr

X1 = Y1 = 0.15 (@ equilibrium)

In Final Underflow:

3 tons solution
R= ton dry pulp

Sugar = 0.03(6) = 0.18 tons/hr

Solution = LN = 3(20) = 60 tons/hr

0,18
XR = 60 = 0.003

In Fresh Solvent

H2O = VN+1 = LN + V1 – L0 (overall solution balance)

H2O = VN+1 = 60 + 38.8 – (24 + 6)

VN+1 = 68.8 tons/hr


YN+1 = 0 (pure solvent)

Sugar Balance Around Stage 1:

Sugar in F + V2Y2 = L1X1 + V1Y1

V2 = V3 = V4 = . . . = VN+1 = 68.8 tons/hr

L1 + L2 + L3 = . . . = LN = 60 tons/hr
6 + 68.8Y2 = 60(0.15) + 38.8(0.15)

Y2 = 0.1282

Solving for N:

0−0.003
ln [ ]
0.1282−0.15
N= 0−0.1282
ln[ ]
0.003−0.15

N = 15.49 = 16
Situation for problems no. 49-52

A seashore sand contains 85% insoluble sand, 12% salt and 3% water. 1000 lb/hr of this
mixture is to be extracted in a countercurrent washing system with 2000 lb/hr of pure water
so that after drying it will contain only 0.2% salt. The sand retains 0.5 lb of water per pound
of insoluble sand.

49. The mass of salt in the final underflow is equal to


a. 1.7 lb/hr c. 2.3 lb/hr
b. 1.2 lb/hr d. 2.5 lb/hr
50. The concentration of salt in the final overflow is equal to
a. 0.03 c. 0.07
b. 0.05 d. 0.09
51. The concentration of salt in the solvent stream for stage 1 is approximately equal to
a. 0.023 c. 0.07
b. 0.015 d. 0.19
52. The number of washing is approximately equal to
a. 3 c. 5
b. 4 d. 6

Given:
2000 lb/hr
Y1 Y2 YN+1

1 2 N
LN
L1

F= 1000 lb/hr
12% Solute
85% Inert after drying = 0.2% sa
3% Solvent

Solution:

In Feed :

Inert = 1000 lb/hr (0.85) = 850 lb/hr


Solute = 1000 lb/hr (0.12) = 120 lb/hr
Solvent = 1000 lb/hr (0.03) = 30 lb/hr

In Final Underflow :

Inert = 850 lb/hr


0.5lb solvent
×850 lbinert =425lb solvent
Solvent = lbinert

Solute :

0.2
solute ∈LN = ( inert + solute∈ LN )
100

0.2 0.2
solute ∈ LN = inert + solute ∈ LN
100 100

0.2 lb 0.2
solute ∈LN = (850 )+ solute∈ LN
100 hr 100

solute ∈LN =1.7034 lb/hr


Final underflow = inert +solvent + solute

lb
¿ ( 850+425+1.7034 )
hr

FinalUnderflow =1276.7034 lb/hr

Overall Material Balance (OMB) :

F+V N +1=LN +V 1

lb lb lb
1000 +2000 =1276.7034 +V 1
hr hr hr

lb
V 1=1723.2966
hr

Overall Solute Balance :

F solute +V N +1solute =V 1Solute + L Nsolute

lb lb
120 +0=V 1solute +1.7034
hr hr

lb
V 1solute=118.2966
hr

118.2966
concentration of solute∈V 1=
1723.2966

concentration of solute∈V 1=0.06865≈ 0.07

lb lb
solvent ∈V 1 =( 1723.2966−118.2966 ) =1605
hr hr
In Stage I :

V1=1605 V2 = 2000 lb/hr


lb/hr

F= 30 LN= 425
lb/hr lb/hr

solute
solvent
¿
¿
¿

lb
118.2966
hr solute ∈L1
=
lb lb
1605 425
hr hr

lb
solute ∈L1 =31.3246
hr

Solute Balance in Stage I :


F solute +V 2solute =V 1solute + L1solute

lb lb lb
120 +V 2solute =118.2966 +31.3246
hr hr hr

lb
solute ∈V 2=29.6212
hr
29.6212
concentration of solute∈V 2=
2000

concentration of solute∈V 1=0.01481≈ 0.015

Solving for Number of Stages:

Y N+1 −X N
ln ⁡[ ]
Y 2−X 1
N=1+
Y −Y 2
ln ⁡[ N +1 ]
XN− X1

where:
YN+1 = 0

1.7034 lb solute
=4.008 x 10−3
XN = 425 lb solvent

29.6212 lb solute
=0.01481
Y2= 2000 lb solvent

31.3246 lb solute
=0.07370
X1 = 425lb solvent

0−4.008 x 10−3
ln ⁡[ ]
0.01481−0.0737
N=1+ 0.01481−0
ln ⁡[ ]
0.07370−4.008 x 10−3

N = 2.7352 = 3 stages
55. A slurry of flaked soybeans weighing 100 kg contains 75 kg inert solids and 25 kg of
solution 10 weight % oil and 90 weight % solvent hexane. This slurry is contacted with 100
kg pure hexane in a single stage so that the value of retention for the outlet underflow is 1.5
kg on insoluble solid per kg solvent in the adhering solution. The composition of underflow
leaving the extraction stage in percent by weight oil is

GIVEN:

V1 V0 = 100 kg hexane
y1 y0

F = 100 kg L1
Inert = 75 kg x1
Sol’n = 25 kg

REQUIRED:

The composition of underflow leaving the extraction

SOLUTION:

In Feed:
F = 100 kg
Inert = 75 kg
Sol’n = 25 kg
Oil (solute) = .10(25 kg) = 2.5 kg

Inert balance:
Inert in feed = Inert in L1
Inert in L1= 75 kg

In Underfeed (L1):
Inert = 75 kg
Solvent = ? = 50 kg

75 kg inert
solvent =
kg inert
1.5
kg solvent
Solute = ?

Solute balance:

Solute in F + Solute inV0 = Solute in V1 + Solute in L1


2.5 kg + 0 = Solute in V1 + Solute in L1

Eq. 1
solute ∈V 1=2.5−solute∈L1

Solvent balance:
Solvent in F + Solvent in V0 = Solvent in V1 + Solvent in L1
22.25 kg + 100 kg = solvent in V1 + 50 kg
Solvent in V1 = 72.5 kg

At Equilibrium:

solute ∈V 1 solute∈ L1
=
solution∈V 1 solution∈L1

Eq. 2

solute∈V 1 solute ∈L2


=
solute∈V 1 + solvent ∈V 1 solute∈ L2+ solvent ∈L2

Subs. Eq. 1 to Eq. 2:


2.5−solute ∈ L1 solute∈L1
=
( 2.5−solute∈ L1 ) +solvent ∈V 1 solute ∈L1 + solvent ∈ L1

Solute in L1 = 1.0204 kg

Subs to Eq. 1

Solute in V1 = 1.4795

Composition on underflow leaving:


V
¿ 1
L1
1.4795 kg
¿
1.0204 kg

= 1.45

56. Tung meal containing 55% oil is to be extracted at a rate of 4000 kg per hour using n-
hexane containing 5% wt oil as solvent. A counter current multiple stage extraction system is
to be used. The meal retains 2 kg of solvent per kg of oil free meal while the residual charge
contains 0.11 kg oil per kg oil free meal while the product is composed of 15 weight percent
oil. The theoretical number of ideal stages is

(A) 3 (C) 5

(B) 4 (D) 6

Given:

V1

V n+1

1 2 3 n
15% oil
5% oil

kg
F=4000
hr

Ln

55% oil
0.11 kg oil
kg oil free meal

2 kgsolvent
R=
kg free meal

Required:
Theoretical number of ideal stages
Solution:
Basis: 1 hr
In the Feed,
kg oil : 0.55 x 4000=2200 kg

kgmeal :0.45 x 4000=1800 kg

In the final underflow,


0.11 kg oil
kgoil : x 1800 kg=198 kg
kg oil free meal

2 kg solvent
kg solvent : x 1800 kg=3600 kg
kg free meal

kg meal :1800 kg

2200+V n+ 1=V 1+ 3600+198


Overall Solution Balance:
V n+1 =V 1+1598  eq. 1
2200+0.05 V n+1 =198+0.15 V 1
Overall Solute Balance: eq 2
V 1=20819 kg

V n+1 =22417 kg

At equilibrium condition,
solute solute
( solution ) (
V 1= L
solution 1 )

( 0.1520819
x 20819 kgoil∈ L1
)=( 3600+kg oil∈L 1 )

Kg oil in L1= 635.29 kg

2200+kg oil∈V 2=0.15 x 20819+635.29


Solute balance in stage 1:
Kg oil in V2= 1558.14 kg

Solvent balance in stage 1:


0+kg solvent ∈V 2=3600+ 0.85 x 20819

Kg solvent in V2= 21296.15 kg

1558.14
y2 : =0.0682
1558.14+21296.15
198
xn : =0.0521
3600+198

635.29
x1 : =0.15
635.29+3600

At constant underflow,
y n+1 −x
log n

y 2−x 1
N−1=
y n+1− y 2
log
x n−x 1

0.05−0.0521
log
0.0682−0.15
N−1=
0.05−0.0682
log
0.0521−0.15

N= 3.1665 ≈ 4 stages

57. Coconut oil is to be produced from dry copra in two stages. First, through expellers to
squeeze out part of the coconut oil and then through a counter current multi stage solvent
extraction process. After expelling, the dry copra cake contains 20% residual oil. In the
solvent extraction operation, 90% of the residual oil in the expeller cake is extracted as a
solution containing 50% by weight oil. If fresh solvent is used and on kg of solution with
every 2 kg of insoluble cake is removed with the underflow, the number of ideal stages is

(A) 4 (C) 6

(B) 5 (D) 7

Given:
V1

V n+1

90% recovery 1 2 3 n
V n+1
50% oil

Ln
F
Copra
1 kg solution
R=
20% oil 2 kg cake

Required:
Number of Ideal Stages
Solution:
Basis: 100 kg Copra
In the Feed,
F= 100 kg
Kg oil: 0.20 x 100= 20 kg
Kg inert: 0.80 x 100= 80 kg

In the Solvent, V(n+1)

solute
y n+1= =0
solution

In the Final Underflow, Ln,


Kg inert= 80 kg
1 kg solution
x 80 kg inert =40 kg
Kg solution: 2 kg inert

Ln :80 kg+40 kg=120 kg

solute :0.10 x 20=2kg

solute 2
: =0.05
solution 40

In the Final Overflow, V1


y 1=0.50

kg solute :0.90 x 20=18 kg


18 kg
V 1: =36 kg
0.50

In the first undeflow, L1


solute
= y 1=0.50
solution

Kg inert: 80 kg
Kg solution: 40 kg
L1 :80 kg +40 kg=120 kg

kg solute :0.50 x 40 kg=20 kg

In the Ovreflow 2, V2,


OMB on stage 1,
F+V 2 =L1+V 1

100+V 2=120+36

V 2=56 kg

Solute balance on stage 1,


solute ∈F + solute∈V 2=Solute∈ L1+ solute∈V 1

20+ y 2 x 56=20+18

y 2=0.3214

For constant underflow,


y n+1 −x
log n

y 2−x 1
N−1=
y n+1− y 2
log
x n−x 1

0−0.05
log
0.3214−0.50
N−1=
0−0.3214
log
0.05−0.50

N= 5
stages
58. Roasted copper ore containing the copper as CuSO4 is to be extracted in countercurrent
stage extractor. Each hour, a charge consisting of 10 tons gangue, 1.2 tons CuSO4 and 0.5 ton
water is to be treated. The strong solution produced is to consist of 90% wt. water and 10%
wt. CuSO4. The recovery of CuSO4 is to be 98% of that in the ore. Pure water is to be used
as fresh solvent. After each stage, one ton inert gangue retained 2 tons of water plus the
copper sulfate dissolve in that water. Equilibrium is attained in each stage. The number of
stages required is.

Given:

OverFlow Solvent(Pure
water)
90% water, 10% CuSO4

Feed Underflow
1 ton gangue
R=
10 tons gangue 2 tonsolution

1.2 tons CuSO4


0.5 tons water

Solution:

Inert in feed = inert in underflow

Amount of solution in underflow


2ton s olution
10 ton inert x =20 ton solution
1 toninert

Amount of overflow
1.2 tons x 0.98
=11.76 tons
0.10

Overall balance of solute and solvent


11.76 + 20 = 0.5 + solvent stream
Solvent stream = 30.06 tons

Composition of final underflow


Solute in underflow = 1.2 – 1.2x0.98
=0.024 tons
0.024 −3
=1.2 x 1 0
%wt. = 20

For stage 1
11.76 tons 30.06 tons

1.2 tons CuSO4 20 tons


0.5 tons Water
At equilibrium
solute s olute
( ) =( ) =0.10
solution overflow solution underflow

Solute balance ; let x = fraction of solute at solvent stream


1.2 = 30.06 x =1.176 + 2
X = 0.065735

0−1.2 x 1 0−3
ln ⁡[ ]
0.065735−.10
Number of stages =1+ 0−0.065735
ln ⁡[ ]
1.2 x 1 0−3 −.10

= 9.226 = 10 stages
Situation for Problems 59-63
Oil is to be extracted from meal by means of benzene using a continuous countercurrent
extractor. The unit is to be treat 1000 kg of meal (based on completely exhausted solid) per
hour. The untreated meal contains 400 kg of oil and is contaminated with 25 kg of benzene.
The fresh solvent mixture contains 10 kg of oil and 655 kg of benzene. The exhausted solids
are to contain 60 kg of unextracted oil. Experiments carried out under conditions identical
with those of the projected battery show that the solution retained depends on the
concentration of the solution, as shown in table below. All quantities are given in an hourly
basis.

Concentration, kg Solution retained, Concentration, kg Solution retained,


oil/kg solution kg/kg solid oil/kg solution kg/kg solid
0.0 0.500 0.4 0.550
0.1 0.505 0.5 0.571
0.2 0.515 0.6 0.595
0.3 0.530 0.7 0.620

59. The concentration of the strong solution or extract is approximately equal to


a. 0.56 c. 0.60
b. 0.58 d. 0.62

60. The concentration of the solution adhering to the extracted solids is approximately equal
to
a. 0.193 c. 0.021
b. 0.218 d. 0.118

61. The mass of the solution leaving with the extracted meal is approximately equal to
a. 507 kg/h c. 418 kg/h
b. 306 kg/h d. 621 kg/h

62. The mass of the extract is approximately equal to


a. 583 kg/h c. 536 kg/h
b. 512 kg/h d. 571 kg/h

63. The number of stages required is


a. 3 c. 6
b. 4 d. 7

Given:

Final Overflow, Vi V2, VN, Solvent, VN+1


1 y2 2 yN N 10 kg oil
655 kg benzene
Feed, F = 1000 kg meal/hr L1, L2, LN
400 kg oil x1 x2 60 kg unextracted oil
25 kg benzene
575 kg solid

Solution:
In the feed: F = 1000 kg meal/hr
Solute: 400 kg oil In the Solvent: VN+1 = 10+655 = 665 kg
Solvent: 25 kg benzene Solute: 10 kg oil
Inert Solid: 1000 – (400+25) = 575 kg Solvent: 655 kg benzene
Solution: 400 + 25 = 425 kg/h solution
400 In the Final Underflow: LN
af = 425 = 0.941
Solute: 60 kg unextracted oil
Benzene: Ln – 60 OMB Solute: Feed + Solvent = Final
(Underflow + Overflow)
Oil: 400 + 10 = 60 + Final Overflow
Let:
Final Overflow Solute: 350 kg/h
a = mass fraction of oil in final underflow
OMB Solvent: Feed + Solvent = Final
b = mass fraction of oil in final overflow (Underflow + Overflow)
10 Benzene: 25 + 655 = 447 + Final Overflow
bVn+1 = 665 = 0.015
Final Overflow Solvent: 233 kg/h
Vi = 350 + 233 = 583 kg/h extracted
By trial and error, 350
b= 583 = 0.60
Assume aVn+1 = 0.1,
from table, Solution in Ln = 0.505 At equilibrium:
kg
kg solid a = bvi = 0.60,
kg
LN = 0.505 (1000) = 505 kg/hr from table, Solution = 0.595 kg solid
60
avn+1 = 505 = 0.119 At stage 1:
MB: Feed + V2 = V1 + L1
@ avn+1 = 0.119,
425 + V2 = 583 + 595
from table, Solution Ln = 0.507
kg V2 = 953 kg
kg solid
Oil Balance:

Ln = 0.507(1000) = 507 kg/h 595 (0.60) + 583 (0.6) = 425 (0.) + 753Y2

60 y2 = 0.408
avn+1 = 507 = 0.118
0.015−0.118
ln [ ]
0.408−0.6
@ Final Underflow, Ln: N=1+ 0.015−0.408 = 4.05 = 4
ln ⁡[ ]
Benzene: 507 – 60 = 447 kg/h 0.118−0.6

@ Final Overflow
64. An oil-sand mixture that is 25% (by mass) oil and 75% (by mass) sand is to be extracted or
leached with 75 tons/day of naphtha in a countercurrent extractor. The feed consists of 100
tons/day of mixture. The final extract (overflow) produced contains 35% (by mass) oil and 65%
(by mass) naphtha, and the underflow from each unit consists of 32% (by mass) oil and 68% (by
mass) sand. The overall efficiency of the extraction is 80% (by mass). Assume the solvent is
miscible with the oil in all portions and the extractor has reached equilibrium conditions in each
stage. Assume there is no sand in the overflow. The number stages required to effect the desired
separation of oil from sand is

a. 3 c. 5

b. 4 d. 6

Given:

75
OverFlow
tons/day
Yoil = 0.35 of

Ynaphtha =
0.65

Feed, F
100 Xsolution =
tons/day 0.32

Xoil =0.25 Xsand =

Xsand = 0.75
Overall efficiency = 80%

Required:

Number of stages

Solution:

Assume: 1 day
*in the feed* *amount of raffinate*

tons 75 tons of sand


(100 day of mixture)(1 day) = 100 tons of mixture 0.68 =

110.29

Sand = 100(0.75) = 75

Oil = 100(0.25) = 25

*OMB*

Feed + naphtha = raffinate + extract

100 + 75 = 110.29 + extract

Extract = 64.71

*Naphtha balance*

Amount of naphtha entering = amount of naphtha extract + amount of naphtha raffinate

Let X = mass fraction of naphtha in raffinate

75 = (64.71) (0.65) + (110.29) (X)

X= 0.2986

Mass fraction of oil in raffinate = 1- 0.2986 – 0.68 = 0.0214

The further solution will be subjected to a graphical method


65. A copper ore containing 10.3% by mass copper sulfate, 85.4% by mass inert and 4.3 % by
mass water is to be extracted with pure water in a counter current extractor. The daily feed
consist of 281 tons. The final extract produced contains 10% by mass copper sulfate and 90% by
mass water. The underflow from each stage consist of 66.7% by mass solution and 33.3% by
mass inert. The process is to recover 92% of the copper sulfate from the ore. Assume the
extractor has reached equilibrium conditions in each stage the minimum number of stages
required to effect the desired separation of copper sulfate from the inert.

Given:
Overflow
10% CuSO4, 90% water
Solvent
%recovery = 92

Feed
281 tons
10.3 % CuSO4 66.7 %
solution
85.4 % inert 33.3 % inerts
4.3 % water

Solution:
Basis: 281 tons feed

.103(281) = 28.943 kg CuSO4


.854(281) = 239.974 kg inert
.043(2810 = 12.083 kg water

Inert in feed = inert in underflow

Amount of solution in underflow


239.974
( .667 ) =480.6686 tons solution
.333
Amount of overflow
0.92(28.943)
=266.2756
0.10

%solute in underflow

28.943−(28.943 x 0.92)
=4.817 x 1 0−3
480.6636

Solvent balance

12.083 + solvent stream = 0.90(266.2756) + 480.6636 – 2.31544

Solvent stream =705.9182

At stage 1

266.2756 tons solution 705.9182 tons solution

28.943 tonsCuSO4 480.6686 tons solution


12.083 tons water

At equilibrium

solute solute
( ) =( ) =0.10
solution overflow solution underflow

Solute balance; let x be fraction of solute at solvent stream


.10(266.2756) + .10(480.6686) = 28.943 + 705.9182x
X = 0.0648
−3
0−4.817 x 1 0
ln ⁡[ ]
0.0648−.10
Number of stages =1+ 0−0.0648
ln ⁡[ ]
4.817 x 1 0−3−.10

= 6.1727 = 7 stages

1. 60 tons per day oil sand (25 wt% oil and 75 wt % sand) is to be extracted with 40 tons per
day of naphthalene in a counter current extraction battery. The final extract from the
battery is to contain 40 wt% oil and 60 wt% naphthalene and the underflow from each
unit is expected to consists of 35 wt% solution and 65 wt% sand. If the overall efficiency
of the battery is 50%, how many stages will be required?

GIVEN:

Final Vo Vn+1

F Final Ln

Final Vo ( Final Overflow) Final Ln ( Final Underflow)

X oil= 0.40 X naphthalene+ X oil= 0.35

X naphthalene= 0.60 X sand= 0.65

Feed= 60 tons/day Vn+1= 40 tons/day

X oil= 0.25 X naphthalene= 1

X sand= 0.75

Required:

N (Number of Stages) =?
Detailed Solution:

Let A= Oil (Solute)

B= Sand (Insoluble Solid)

C= Naphthalene (Solvent)

In the Feed

F= 60 tons/day

A= 0.25(60) = 15 tons/day

B= 0.75(60) = 45 tons/day

Overall Insoluble Solid Balance:

(B)FEED=(B)UNDERFLOW

(B)UNDERFLOW= 45 tons/day

In the underflow

(B)UNDERFLOW= 45 tons/day=0.65 (underflow)

Underflow= 69.53 tons/day

Ln=(69.23)(0.35)= 24.23 tons/day


Liquid Balance: ( Solute+Solvent)

15+40=24.23+Vo

Vo= 30.67 tons/day

Solvent Balance:

40= (C)UNDERFLOW + (0.60)(30.67)

(C)UNDERFLOW= 21.598 tons/day

In the Underflow:

Xc = ((C)UNDERFLOW/ Ln)= 21.598/24.23= 0.89

Xn= Xa= 1-0.89= 0.11

No. of Stages:

N THEO= 1+ ln( (Yn+1- XN)/ (Y2-X1))/ln(((Yn+1- Y2)/ (XN-X1)))

Balance at Stage 1:

0.25(60)+ Y2(40)= 0.40( 30.77)+0.40(24.23)

Y2= 0.175

Substitute:

Yn+1= 0

XN= 0.11
Y2= 0.175

X1= 0.40

N THEO = 1+ ln( (Yn+1- XN)/ (Y2-X1))/ln(((Yn+1- Y2)/ (XN-X1)))

N THEO= 2.42 stages

N ACTUAL= N THEO/EFFECIENCY= 2.42/ 0.50

N ACTUAL= 4.84= 5 STAGES

(Principles of Mass Transfer and Separation Processes by Binay K. Dutta)

A solid feed containing 22% of solute, 3% water and 75% inerts (insoluble) is to be leached a
rate of 1 ton per hour with water in a countercurrent leaching cascade. The strong leachate
leaving the unit should have 16% of the solute in it. Desired recovery of the solute in the feed is
99%. The overflow does not have any entrained inert in it, and the amount of solution retained in
the sludge is 0.45 kg solution per kg inert. Analytically determine the number of stages required
for the separation.

Given:

Final V1 Vn+1

F Final Ln

Solution:

Basis: 1 hour operation

1 ton = 1000 kg
In Feed

Solute: 1000(0.22) = 220 kg

Water: 1000(0.03) = 30 kg

Inert: 1000(0.75) = 750 kg

In Underflow:

0.45 kg solution
x 750 kg inert =337.5 kg
kg inert

LN = 337.5 kg solution

Mass of solute leaving with the sludge (99% recovery) = (220)(0.01) = 2.2 kg

Solute = 2.2 kg

Solvent = 335.3 kg

2.2
xN = =0.00652
337.5

In Overflow:

Solvent balance:

Solvent in

F + VN+1 = LN + V1

30 + VN+1 = 335.3 + V1

V1 = VN+1 – 305.3

Solute balance :

Solute in

F + VN+1 = LN + V1

220 + 0 = 2.2 + (VN+1 – 305.3) (0.16/0.84)


VN+1 = 1448.75 kg

V1 = 1143.45 kg

Solute in V1 = 182.95 kg

Solvent in V1 = 960.5 kg

Solute Balance at Stage 1:

VN+1 = 1448.75 = V2

X1 = Y1 = 0.16

YN+1 = 0 Pure solvent

220 + V2y2 = L1x1 + 182.95

220 + 1448.75y2 = 337.5 (0.16) + 182.95

Y2 = 0.0117

x N =0.00652

Using the equation:

y N +1−x N
ln ⁡( )
y 2−x 1
N−1=
y N +1− y 2
ln ⁡( )
x N −x1

0−0.00652
ln ⁡( )
0.0117−0.16
N−1=
0−0.0117
ln ⁡( )
0.00652−0.16

N= 2.2

N= 3 STAGES
N = 3 stages