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countercurrent extraction system that contains a number of ideal stages. The waxed paper

contains, by weight, 25% paraffin wax and 75% paper pulp. The extracted pulp is put

through a dryer to evaporate the kerosene. The pulp, which retains the unextracted wax

after evaporation, must not contain over 0.2 kg of wax per 100 kg of wax free pulp. The

kerosene used for the extraction contains 0.05 kg of wax paper per 100 kg of wax free

kerosene. Experiments show that the pulp retains 2.0 kg of kerosene per kg of kerosene

and wax free pulp as it is transferred from cell to cell. The extract from the battery is to

contain 5 kg of wax per 100 kg of wax free kerosene.

a Find the overflow stream.

b Find the underflow stream

c Kg wax / kg kerosene in the underflow

d No. of stages

V1:Overflow Vbyb

S: Solvent

5 kg wax Vaya V2y2 0.05 kg wax

100 kg kerosene 100 kg kerosene

Lbxb

Feed : 4 Tons Wax paper

25% wax L1: Underflow

2 kg kerosene

75% pulp

5 kg wax 1 kg pulp 0.2 kg wax

L1xkerosene

100 kg 1 100 kg free pulp

Solutions:

F+ S=V 1 + L1

OMB :

1000 kg

4 Ton x =4000 kg

1Ton

Wax balance

0.05 kg wax 5 kg wax 0.2 kg wax

1000 kg+ V b= V a+ ( 0.75 x 4000 kg )

100 kg kerosene 100 kg kerosene 100 kg pulp

Solvent Balance

2 kg kerosene

V b=V a+ ( 0.75 x 4000 kg ) =V a +6000 kg

1 kg pulp

undeflow=6000 kg kerosene

0.2 kg wax

x 0.75 x 4000 kg pulp

100 kg pulp kg wax

x b= =0 .001

6000 kg kerosene kg kerosene

Wax balance:

5

20081.4141 y 2 +1000= ( 20141.4141) +6000 x 1

100

kg wax

equilibrium condition x1 = y a= y 2=0.05 y 2=0.01529

kg kerosene

0.001−0.0005

N=

ln ( 0.05−0.01529 )

+1=4 .5398 ≈5

0.01529−0.0005

ln (

0.05−0.001 )

2 In a single step solid-liquid extraction soybean oil has to be extracted from soybean

flakes using hexane as solvent. 100 kg of the flakes with an oil content of 20 wt% are

contacted with 100 kg fresh hexane. 1.5 kg of inert material hold back a constant value of

1 kg solution.

V1 V2

extraction

step

L0 L1

feed underflow

Total balance:

Balance for compound A:

with the feed concentration wA,L0 = 0.8 and the suggestion, that no solid particles are included in

the overflow, so wA,V2 = 0 follows:

wA,M = 0.4

with the feed concentration wB,L0 = 0.2 and with the knowledge, that pure hexane is used as

solvent, wB,V2 = 0, follows

wB,M = 0.1

The concentration of compound C (solvent) in the mixing point M can be determined either by a

mass balance for compound C

with wC,L0 = 0, because no solvent is included in the feed, and with wC,V2 = 1, pure hexane,

follows

wC,M = 0.5

or by the rule, that the sum of the mass percent of each compound in the point M has to be 1.

wC.M = 0.5

With these concentrations the mixing point M can be drawn in the diagram, which has to be on

the connection line of feed point F and solvent C.

It is given, that 1 kg inert material retains 1.5 kg solution (extractable substance + solvent =

miscella = overflow). Therefore the concentration of the underflow is

inert m

w

A,Underflow =

1.5

w

A,Underflow =w A,L1 =

1.5 + 1

The amount of the leaving flows L1 and V1 can be calculated from the mass balance for

compound A

with wA,V1 = 0 (no solid material in the overflow) and wA,L1 = 0.6 (underflow)

W A ,M 0.4

L1=M =200

W A , L1 .0 .6

L1=133.333 kg

M = L1+V1

follows

V1 = M - L1 = 200 - 133.333

V1 = 66.666 kg

The concentrations of B and C in the overflow V1 are calculated with the suggestion that no inert

material A is included in the overflow.

B 20

W B ,V 1= =

A+ B+C 0+ 20+100

C 100

W C , V 1= =

A +B+ C 0+20+100

B ,V 1=0.1667

¿

W¿

W C , V 1=0.8333

The composition of the underflow can be calculated by mass balances for compound B and C.

W B , L1= =

L1 133.333

W B , L1=0.067

W A ,L 1+ W B , L 1+W C , L1=1

W C , L1 =1−0.6−0.67

W C , L1 =0.333

Feed LO 100 80 20 0

Situation for problems no. 23-28

By extraction with kerosene with 0.05 lb wax per 100 lb kerosene, 2 tons of waxed paper per day

is to be dewaxed in a continuous countercurrent extraction system that contains a number of

ideal stages. The waxed paper contains, by weight, 25 percent paraffin wax and 75 percent paper

pulp. The extracted pulp is put through a dryer to evaporate the kerosene. The pulp, which retains

the unextracted wax after evaporation, must not contain over 0.2 lbs of wax per 100 lbs of wax-

free kerosene-free pulp. Experiment show that the pulp retains 2.0 lb of kerosene per lb of

kerosene and wax-free pulp as it is transferred from cell to cell. The extract from the battery is to

contain 5 lb of wax paper per 100 lb of wax-free kerosene. Per 100 lb of wax-free kerosene-free

pulp,

a. 150 lb c. 117 lb

b. 200 lb d. 212 lb

24. The kerosene in the strong solution is equal to

a. 561 lb c. 761

b. 651 lb d. 671 lb

25. The wax in the strong solution is equal to

a. 35.35 lb c. 55.33 lb

b. 33.55 lb d. 53.53 lb

26. The wax in the underflow to unit 2 is equal to

a. 8 lb c. 12 lb

b. 10 lb d. 14 lb

27. The wax in the overflow from the second cell to the first is

a. 10.22 lb c. 12.11 lb

b. 11.12 lb d. 13.19 lb

28. The total number of ideal stages is equal to

a. 3 c. 5

b. 4 d. 6

Given:

Solute = Wax

Solvent = Kerosene

Inert = Pulp

Y1 Y2 YN+1

1 2 N

XN

X1

F= 2 Tons

25% Solute

75% Inert

Solution:

In Feed:

Inert = 100 lb

100 lbinert

=133.3333lb

Feed = 0.75

In Final Underflow:

Inert = 100 lb

0.2lb solute

x 100 lb inert =0.2 lb

Solute = 100 lb inert

2 lb solvent

x 100 lb inert=200lb

Solvent = lb inert

0 + VN+1 = V1 + 200 Equation 1

0.05 lb solute 5 lb solute

33.3333 + ( 100 lb solvent x VN+1) = ( 100 lb solvet x V1) + 0.2 Equation 2

From Equation 1:

VN+1 – V1 = 200

From Equation 2:

VN+1 = 871.3798 lb

V1 = 671.3798 lb

Solute in V1:

5 lb solute

100 lb solvent x 671.3798 = 33.5690 lb

0 + V2 = 671.3798 +200

V2 = 871.3798 lb

5 lb solute

( x 200 lb solvent )

33.3333 + solute in V2 = 100 lb solvent +

5 lb solute

( 100lb solvent )

x 671.3798lb solvent

Solute in V2 = 10.2357 lb

5 lb solute

x 200 lb solvent =10 lb

Solute in Y2 = 00lb solvent

Solving for Number of Stages:

Y N+1 −X N

ln [ ]

Y 2−X 1

N=1+

Y −Y 2

ln [ N +1 ]

XN− X1

where:

0.05 lb solute −4

=5 x 10

YN+1 = 100 lb solvent

0.2 lb solute −3

=1 x 10

XN = 200 lb solvent

10.2357 lb solute

=0.0117

Y2= 871.3798lb solvent

10 lb solute

=0.05

X1 = 200 lb solvent

5 x 10−4 −1 x 10−3

ln [ ]

0.0117−0.05

N=1+ 5 x 10−4 −0.0117

ln [ ]

1 x 10−3−0.05

N = 3.9396 = 4 stages

Problems no. 29-31.

100 kg of solid containing 50% of a soluble material were treated with 200 kg of a solvent

containing the same solute at 3% concentration in a vessel under the constant agitation. After a

long time, pressing separated in the solution and the solid. The solid analyzed 0.75 kg of solvent

per kg of inert solid.

a. 10.82 kg c. 2.78 kg

b. 8.54 kg d. 7.16 kg

a. 106.2 kg c. 178.3 kg

b. 216.0 kg d. 156.5 kg

a. 201.68 kg c. 216.08 kg

b. 106.21 kg d. 192.86 kg

Given:

Overflow, V1 Vo = 200 kg

(Extract) 3% solute

97% solvent

0.75 kg solvent

50% solute solid = kg inert solid

50% solid

30.) amount of solvent in the extract

31.) V1

Solution:

solvent =Vi−a

Solute balance:

Continuation...

Inerts balance:

inerts∈F=inerts∈L1=50 kg

Solution balance:

solution ∈F +Vo=solution ∈ L1+V 1

( 50+0 ) +200=93.5−a+V 1

156.5+a=Vi

At Equilibrium:

solute solute

( solution ) =( solution

V1

) L1

a 56−a

( 156.5+ a ) ( 37.5+56−a )

=

V1 L1

a=45.1753 kg

solute=56−a=56−45.1753=10.8247 kg

31.) V1:

1 1

Situation for problems no. 32-34

x A=0.25 x B=0.75

A solid B, contains a soluble component, A, of mass fractions , and is

to be recover A by a solvent extraction with C. Solid B and solvent C are mutually totally

insoluble. The extracted solid is to be screw passed to a 0.75 kg of solution/kg of B underflow.

The entrainment of B in the overflow can be neglected. Per kg of feed and to obtain 85% of A in

the extract overflow.

32. The composition of the solution in the underflow is

a. 0.04 c. 0.01

b. 0.07 d. 0.10

a. 0.44 c. 0.88

b. 0.53 d. 1.33

a. 3.5000 kg c. 1.7000 kg

b. 2.5712 kg d. 5.2311 kg

GIVEN:

REQUIRED:

32. x1 in L1

33. solvent in L1

34. solvent C

SOLUTION:

In Feed, F:

F = 1 kg

Solute (A) : (0.25)(1) = 0.25 kg

Inerts (B) : (0.75)(1) = 0.75 kg

In Underflow , L1 :

Inerts (B) : 0.75 kg

Solution (A + C) : (0.75)(0.75) = 0.5625 kg

Solute : (1 - 0.85)(0.25) = 0.0375 kg

Solvent : (0.5625 - 0.0375) = 0.5250 kg

solute 0.0375

x 1= = =0.0667

solution 0.5625

In Overflow , V1 :

Solute (A) : (0.85)(0.25) = 0.2125 kg

V1 = ? ? ?

Solution Balance:

(0.25 + 0) + C = V1 + 0.5625

V1 = C - 0.3125

@ equilibrium:

solute solute

( solution ) =( solution

V1

) L1

0.2125

( C−0.3125 ) =( 0.0375

0.5625 )

V1 L1

C = 3.5000 kg

Situation for problems no. 35-38

Seeds containing 30% weight oil are extracted in a countercurrent plant and 88% of the oil is

recovered in a solution containing 55% by weight of oil. The seeds are extracted with fresh

solvent and 1 kg of solution is removed in the underflow in association with every 1.5 kg of

insoluble material.

35. The amount of solvent in final extract is approximately equal to

a. 26.4 kg c. 46.67 kg

b. 21.6 kg d. 43.07 kg

36. The amount of solvent in final underflow is approximately equal to

a. 26.4 kg c. 46.67 kg

b. 21.6 kg d. 43.07 kg

37. The concentration of oil in the solvent stream for stage 1 is approximately equal to

a. 0.55 c. 0.18

b. 0.08 d. 0.34

38. How many ideal stages are needed to attain the desired separation?

a. 4 c. 8

b. 6 d. 10

GIVEN:

REQUIRED:

35. Solvent in V1

36. Solvent in LN

37.Concentration of oil V2

38.N

SOLUTION:

Basis: 100 kg of Feed

In Feed, F:

Insoluble = 0.70(100 kg) = 70 kg

Oil = 0.30(100 kg) = 30 kg

In final Overflow, V1:

Oil = 0.88 (30 kg) = 26.4 kg

45

( )

Solvent = 26.4 kg 55 = 21.6 kg

y1=x1=0.55

Oil= 0.12(30 kg) = 3.6 kg

Insoluble = 70 kg

Solution = 70 kg ( 1.51 kkgg solution

insoluble ) = 46.6667 kg

3.6

=0.0771

xN= 46.6667

Solvent = 21.6 kg + 43. 0667 kg = 64.6667 kg

Solute = 0

yN+1 = 0

Solute Balance around Stage 1:

30 kg + 64.6667 kg (y2) = 26.4 kg + 46.6667 kg(0.55)

y2= 0.3412 = x2

0−0.0771

1+

ln ( 0.3412−0.55 )

N= 0−0.3412 = 4.05

ln (

0.0771−0.55 )

Situation for problems 39-42

Calcium-carbonate precipitate can be produced by the reaction of an aqueous solution of

sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. The by-product is aqueous sodium hydroxide.

Following decantation, the slurry leaving the precipitation tank is 5 wt% calcium carbonate,

0.1 wt% sodium hydroxide, and the balance water. One hundred thousand lb/h of this slurry is

fed to a two-stage, continuous, countercurrent washing system to be washed with 20,000 lb/h

of fresh water. The underflow from each thickener will contain 20 wt% solids.

39. The amount of extract

40. The amount of sodium hydroxide in final extract

41. The amount of sodium hydroxide in final underflow

42. The percent recovery of sodium hydroxide in the extract

Given:

20,000 lb/h

(V1) (V2) (V3)

1

2

)

5 wt% Calcium 20wt% solid

Carbonate

Hydroxide

Solution:

In Feed:

Calcium Carbonate=0.05(100,000)=5000 lb/h

Sodium Hydroxide=0.001(100,000)=100lb/h

Water=0.949(100,000)=94900 lb/h

Solid Balance:

Solid ∈F=Solid ∈L 2

lb

5000 =0.20 ( L2 )

h

lb

L2=25000

h

OMB:

F+V 3=V 1+ L 2

100,000+20,000=V 1+25,000

lb

V 1=95000

h

Stage 1 (@ equilibrium)

Solute Solute

( ) =( )

Solution (V 1) Solution ( L1)

Solute Solute

( ) =( )

95,000 (V 1 ) 20,000 (L 1)

Stage 2 (@ equilibrium)

Solute Solute

( ) =( )

Solution (V 2) Solution ( L2)

Solute Solute

( ) =( )

20,000 (V 2) 20,000 (L2 )

Solute ∈V 2=Solute∈L 2−−−eqn(2)

Solute L 1+ SoluteV 3=Solute V 2 +Solute L 2

Solute F + Solute V 3=SoluteV 1 + Solute L2

100=4.75 Solute L1 + Solute L2−−−eqn(5)

100=4.75 ( 2 ) Solute L2 +Solute L 2

lb

Solute L 2=9.52

h

Using eqn 4:

100+0=Solute V 1+ 9.52

lb

Solute V 1=90.48

h

SoluteV 1−SoluteV 3

Percent Recovery ( R )=

Solute F

( 90.48−0 )

R= x 100

100

R=90.48

PROBLEM 43-46

Ground roasted coffee contains 8% soluble solids, 2% water, and 90% inert insoluble solids.

In order to obtain an extract with high soluble solids content without having to concentrate it

for spray drying, a countercurrent extraction process is to be used to prepare the extract. It is

desired that the final extract contain 0.15kg soluble/kg water and that the soluble of the spent

coffee grounds not to exceed 0.008 kg/kg dry inert solids. The coffee grounds carry 1 kg

water/kg of soluble-free inert solids and this quantity is constant with the solute concentration

in the extract.

REQD:

44) The concentration of the solution adhering to the extracted solids is approximately equal

to

a. 5 b. 6 c. 7 d. 8

SOLUTION:

V2 V3 V4

Y2 Y3 Y4

0.15 kg solute

Yn+1

kg H2O Solution:

1 2 3 N

R1 R2 R3

Final Underflow, Ln

Feed, F

L1 L2 L3

8% Solute In the feed: basis(100 Xn kg)

Solute/Inerts = 0.008

2% H2O Solute: 0.08(100)= 8kg

R= 1 kg H2O/kg

Solvent: 0.02(100)=

Inerts

2kg

Inerts: 0.9(100)=90kg

In final underflow:

Solute=0.008(90)=0.72kg

Solvent=90(1)=90 kg

XN= 0.008

Solute 0.72

( Solution ) in LN = 90+0.72 =0.0079 (#44)

Solute

=0.15

Y1= X1= Solvent

Final Overflow(extract)=solute+solvent

= 7.28+48.5333kg=V1

Yn+1=0(pure water)

Solvent= Vn+1=?

2+Vn+1=90+48.5333

Vn+1=136.5333

Ratio:

Vn+1 136.5333

= =1.3653

F 100 (#45)

8+ V2Y2=L1X1+7.28

V2= Vn+1=136.5333

Y2=?

L1=LN=90

X1=Y1=0.15

8+136.5333=90(0.15)+7.28

Y2=0.0936

Solve for N:

0.008

ln( 0.0926−0.15 )

N=1+ 0−0.0936 =5.69=6 stages(#46)

ln (

0.008−0.15 )

Problem 47

Given:

V1 V2

YN+1

Y1 1 Y2 2 N

L1 LN

48% H2O

3 tons H 20

40% Pulp R= tons Pulp

12%Sugar

Required: N = ?

Solutions:

tons

In Feed: H2O = 0.48(50) = 24 hr

tons

Pulp = 0.40(50) = 20 hr

tons

Sugar = 0.12(50) = 6 hr

In Final Overflow:

tons

Sugar = 0.97(6) = 5.82 hr

5.82 tons

Solution = 0.15 = 38.8 hr

tons

H2O = V1 = 38.8 – 5.82 = 32.98 hr

5.82

Y1 = 32.98 = 0.1765

X1 = Y1 = 0.1765 at equilibrium

In Final Underflow:

tons

Sugar = 0.03(6) = 0.18 hr

tons

H2O = LN = 20(3) = 60 hr

0.18

XN = 60 = 0.003

In Fresh Solvent:

OMB (Solvent): LN + V1 – Lo

VN+1 = 60 + 32.92 – 24

tons

H20 = VN+1 = 68.98 hr

tons

V2 = V3 = V4 = ….. = VN+1 = 68.98 hr

tons

L1 = L2 = L3 = L4 = ….. = LN = 60 hr

Y2 = 0.1509

Solving for N:

0−0.003

ln

0.1509−0.1765

N= 0−0.1509 +1

ln

0.003−0.1765

N = 16.36 = 17

Problem 48

In Feed:

In Final Overflow:

Y1 = 0.15

5.82

Solution = V1 = 0.15 = 38.8 tons/hr

X1 = Y1 = 0.15 (@ equilibrium)

In Final Underflow:

3 tons solution

R= ton dry pulp

0,18

XR = 60 = 0.003

In Fresh Solvent

YN+1 = 0 (pure solvent)

L1 + L2 + L3 = . . . = LN = 60 tons/hr

6 + 68.8Y2 = 60(0.15) + 38.8(0.15)

Y2 = 0.1282

Solving for N:

0−0.003

ln [ ]

0.1282−0.15

N= 0−0.1282

ln[ ]

0.003−0.15

N = 15.49 = 16

Situation for problems no. 49-52

A seashore sand contains 85% insoluble sand, 12% salt and 3% water. 1000 lb/hr of this

mixture is to be extracted in a countercurrent washing system with 2000 lb/hr of pure water

so that after drying it will contain only 0.2% salt. The sand retains 0.5 lb of water per pound

of insoluble sand.

a. 1.7 lb/hr c. 2.3 lb/hr

b. 1.2 lb/hr d. 2.5 lb/hr

50. The concentration of salt in the final overflow is equal to

a. 0.03 c. 0.07

b. 0.05 d. 0.09

51. The concentration of salt in the solvent stream for stage 1 is approximately equal to

a. 0.023 c. 0.07

b. 0.015 d. 0.19

52. The number of washing is approximately equal to

a. 3 c. 5

b. 4 d. 6

Given:

2000 lb/hr

Y1 Y2 YN+1

1 2 N

LN

L1

F= 1000 lb/hr

12% Solute

85% Inert after drying = 0.2% sa

3% Solvent

Solution:

In Feed :

Solute = 1000 lb/hr (0.12) = 120 lb/hr

Solvent = 1000 lb/hr (0.03) = 30 lb/hr

In Final Underflow :

0.5lb solvent

×850 lbinert =425lb solvent

Solvent = lbinert

Solute :

0.2

solute ∈LN = ( inert + solute∈ LN )

100

0.2 0.2

solute ∈ LN = inert + solute ∈ LN

100 100

0.2 lb 0.2

solute ∈LN = (850 )+ solute∈ LN

100 hr 100

Final underflow = inert +solvent + solute

lb

¿ ( 850+425+1.7034 )

hr

F+V N +1=LN +V 1

lb lb lb

1000 +2000 =1276.7034 +V 1

hr hr hr

lb

V 1=1723.2966

hr

lb lb

120 +0=V 1solute +1.7034

hr hr

lb

V 1solute=118.2966

hr

118.2966

concentration of solute∈V 1=

1723.2966

lb lb

solvent ∈V 1 =( 1723.2966−118.2966 ) =1605

hr hr

In Stage I :

lb/hr

F= 30 LN= 425

lb/hr lb/hr

solute

solvent

¿

¿

¿

lb

118.2966

hr solute ∈L1

=

lb lb

1605 425

hr hr

lb

solute ∈L1 =31.3246

hr

F solute +V 2solute =V 1solute + L1solute

lb lb lb

120 +V 2solute =118.2966 +31.3246

hr hr hr

lb

solute ∈V 2=29.6212

hr

29.6212

concentration of solute∈V 2=

2000

Y N+1 −X N

ln [ ]

Y 2−X 1

N=1+

Y −Y 2

ln [ N +1 ]

XN− X1

where:

YN+1 = 0

1.7034 lb solute

=4.008 x 10−3

XN = 425 lb solvent

29.6212 lb solute

=0.01481

Y2= 2000 lb solvent

31.3246 lb solute

=0.07370

X1 = 425lb solvent

0−4.008 x 10−3

ln [ ]

0.01481−0.0737

N=1+ 0.01481−0

ln [ ]

0.07370−4.008 x 10−3

N = 2.7352 = 3 stages

55. A slurry of flaked soybeans weighing 100 kg contains 75 kg inert solids and 25 kg of

solution 10 weight % oil and 90 weight % solvent hexane. This slurry is contacted with 100

kg pure hexane in a single stage so that the value of retention for the outlet underflow is 1.5

kg on insoluble solid per kg solvent in the adhering solution. The composition of underflow

leaving the extraction stage in percent by weight oil is

GIVEN:

V1 V0 = 100 kg hexane

y1 y0

F = 100 kg L1

Inert = 75 kg x1

Sol’n = 25 kg

REQUIRED:

SOLUTION:

In Feed:

F = 100 kg

Inert = 75 kg

Sol’n = 25 kg

Oil (solute) = .10(25 kg) = 2.5 kg

Inert balance:

Inert in feed = Inert in L1

Inert in L1= 75 kg

In Underfeed (L1):

Inert = 75 kg

Solvent = ? = 50 kg

75 kg inert

solvent =

kg inert

1.5

kg solvent

Solute = ?

Solute balance:

2.5 kg + 0 = Solute in V1 + Solute in L1

Eq. 1

solute ∈V 1=2.5−solute∈L1

Solvent balance:

Solvent in F + Solvent in V0 = Solvent in V1 + Solvent in L1

22.25 kg + 100 kg = solvent in V1 + 50 kg

Solvent in V1 = 72.5 kg

At Equilibrium:

solute ∈V 1 solute∈ L1

=

solution∈V 1 solution∈L1

Eq. 2

=

solute∈V 1 + solvent ∈V 1 solute∈ L2+ solvent ∈L2

2.5−solute ∈ L1 solute∈L1

=

( 2.5−solute∈ L1 ) +solvent ∈V 1 solute ∈L1 + solvent ∈ L1

Solute in L1 = 1.0204 kg

Subs to Eq. 1

Solute in V1 = 1.4795

V

¿ 1

L1

1.4795 kg

¿

1.0204 kg

= 1.45

56. Tung meal containing 55% oil is to be extracted at a rate of 4000 kg per hour using n-

hexane containing 5% wt oil as solvent. A counter current multiple stage extraction system is

to be used. The meal retains 2 kg of solvent per kg of oil free meal while the residual charge

contains 0.11 kg oil per kg oil free meal while the product is composed of 15 weight percent

oil. The theoretical number of ideal stages is

(A) 3 (C) 5

(B) 4 (D) 6

Given:

V1

V n+1

1 2 3 n

15% oil

5% oil

kg

F=4000

hr

Ln

55% oil

0.11 kg oil

kg oil free meal

2 kgsolvent

R=

kg free meal

Required:

Theoretical number of ideal stages

Solution:

Basis: 1 hr

In the Feed,

kg oil : 0.55 x 4000=2200 kg

0.11 kg oil

kgoil : x 1800 kg=198 kg

kg oil free meal

2 kg solvent

kg solvent : x 1800 kg=3600 kg

kg free meal

kg meal :1800 kg

Overall Solution Balance:

V n+1 =V 1+1598 eq. 1

2200+0.05 V n+1 =198+0.15 V 1

Overall Solute Balance: eq 2

V 1=20819 kg

V n+1 =22417 kg

At equilibrium condition,

solute solute

( solution ) (

V 1= L

solution 1 )

( 0.1520819

x 20819 kgoil∈ L1

)=( 3600+kg oil∈L 1 )

Solute balance in stage 1:

Kg oil in V2= 1558.14 kg

0+kg solvent ∈V 2=3600+ 0.85 x 20819

1558.14

y2 : =0.0682

1558.14+21296.15

198

xn : =0.0521

3600+198

635.29

x1 : =0.15

635.29+3600

At constant underflow,

y n+1 −x

log n

y 2−x 1

N−1=

y n+1− y 2

log

x n−x 1

0.05−0.0521

log

0.0682−0.15

N−1=

0.05−0.0682

log

0.0521−0.15

N= 3.1665 ≈ 4 stages

57. Coconut oil is to be produced from dry copra in two stages. First, through expellers to

squeeze out part of the coconut oil and then through a counter current multi stage solvent

extraction process. After expelling, the dry copra cake contains 20% residual oil. In the

solvent extraction operation, 90% of the residual oil in the expeller cake is extracted as a

solution containing 50% by weight oil. If fresh solvent is used and on kg of solution with

every 2 kg of insoluble cake is removed with the underflow, the number of ideal stages is

(A) 4 (C) 6

(B) 5 (D) 7

Given:

V1

V n+1

90% recovery 1 2 3 n

V n+1

50% oil

Ln

F

Copra

1 kg solution

R=

20% oil 2 kg cake

Required:

Number of Ideal Stages

Solution:

Basis: 100 kg Copra

In the Feed,

F= 100 kg

Kg oil: 0.20 x 100= 20 kg

Kg inert: 0.80 x 100= 80 kg

solute

y n+1= =0

solution

Kg inert= 80 kg

1 kg solution

x 80 kg inert =40 kg

Kg solution: 2 kg inert

solute 2

: =0.05

solution 40

y 1=0.50

18 kg

V 1: =36 kg

0.50

solute

= y 1=0.50

solution

Kg inert: 80 kg

Kg solution: 40 kg

L1 :80 kg +40 kg=120 kg

OMB on stage 1,

F+V 2 =L1+V 1

100+V 2=120+36

V 2=56 kg

solute ∈F + solute∈V 2=Solute∈ L1+ solute∈V 1

20+ y 2 x 56=20+18

y 2=0.3214

y n+1 −x

log n

y 2−x 1

N−1=

y n+1− y 2

log

x n−x 1

0−0.05

log

0.3214−0.50

N−1=

0−0.3214

log

0.05−0.50

N= 5

stages

58. Roasted copper ore containing the copper as CuSO4 is to be extracted in countercurrent

stage extractor. Each hour, a charge consisting of 10 tons gangue, 1.2 tons CuSO4 and 0.5 ton

water is to be treated. The strong solution produced is to consist of 90% wt. water and 10%

wt. CuSO4. The recovery of CuSO4 is to be 98% of that in the ore. Pure water is to be used

as fresh solvent. After each stage, one ton inert gangue retained 2 tons of water plus the

copper sulfate dissolve in that water. Equilibrium is attained in each stage. The number of

stages required is.

Given:

OverFlow Solvent(Pure

water)

90% water, 10% CuSO4

Feed Underflow

1 ton gangue

R=

10 tons gangue 2 tonsolution

0.5 tons water

Solution:

2ton s olution

10 ton inert x =20 ton solution

1 toninert

Amount of overflow

1.2 tons x 0.98

=11.76 tons

0.10

11.76 + 20 = 0.5 + solvent stream

Solvent stream = 30.06 tons

Solute in underflow = 1.2 – 1.2x0.98

=0.024 tons

0.024 −3

=1.2 x 1 0

%wt. = 20

For stage 1

11.76 tons 30.06 tons

0.5 tons Water

At equilibrium

solute s olute

( ) =( ) =0.10

solution overflow solution underflow

1.2 = 30.06 x =1.176 + 2

X = 0.065735

0−1.2 x 1 0−3

ln [ ]

0.065735−.10

Number of stages =1+ 0−0.065735

ln [ ]

1.2 x 1 0−3 −.10

= 9.226 = 10 stages

Situation for Problems 59-63

Oil is to be extracted from meal by means of benzene using a continuous countercurrent

extractor. The unit is to be treat 1000 kg of meal (based on completely exhausted solid) per

hour. The untreated meal contains 400 kg of oil and is contaminated with 25 kg of benzene.

The fresh solvent mixture contains 10 kg of oil and 655 kg of benzene. The exhausted solids

are to contain 60 kg of unextracted oil. Experiments carried out under conditions identical

with those of the projected battery show that the solution retained depends on the

concentration of the solution, as shown in table below. All quantities are given in an hourly

basis.

oil/kg solution kg/kg solid oil/kg solution kg/kg solid

0.0 0.500 0.4 0.550

0.1 0.505 0.5 0.571

0.2 0.515 0.6 0.595

0.3 0.530 0.7 0.620

a. 0.56 c. 0.60

b. 0.58 d. 0.62

60. The concentration of the solution adhering to the extracted solids is approximately equal

to

a. 0.193 c. 0.021

b. 0.218 d. 0.118

61. The mass of the solution leaving with the extracted meal is approximately equal to

a. 507 kg/h c. 418 kg/h

b. 306 kg/h d. 621 kg/h

a. 583 kg/h c. 536 kg/h

b. 512 kg/h d. 571 kg/h

a. 3 c. 6

b. 4 d. 7

Given:

1 y2 2 yN N 10 kg oil

655 kg benzene

Feed, F = 1000 kg meal/hr L1, L2, LN

400 kg oil x1 x2 60 kg unextracted oil

25 kg benzene

575 kg solid

Solution:

In the feed: F = 1000 kg meal/hr

Solute: 400 kg oil In the Solvent: VN+1 = 10+655 = 665 kg

Solvent: 25 kg benzene Solute: 10 kg oil

Inert Solid: 1000 – (400+25) = 575 kg Solvent: 655 kg benzene

Solution: 400 + 25 = 425 kg/h solution

400 In the Final Underflow: LN

af = 425 = 0.941

Solute: 60 kg unextracted oil

Benzene: Ln – 60 OMB Solute: Feed + Solvent = Final

(Underflow + Overflow)

Oil: 400 + 10 = 60 + Final Overflow

Let:

Final Overflow Solute: 350 kg/h

a = mass fraction of oil in final underflow

OMB Solvent: Feed + Solvent = Final

b = mass fraction of oil in final overflow (Underflow + Overflow)

10 Benzene: 25 + 655 = 447 + Final Overflow

bVn+1 = 665 = 0.015

Final Overflow Solvent: 233 kg/h

Vi = 350 + 233 = 583 kg/h extracted

By trial and error, 350

b= 583 = 0.60

Assume aVn+1 = 0.1,

from table, Solution in Ln = 0.505 At equilibrium:

kg

kg solid a = bvi = 0.60,

kg

LN = 0.505 (1000) = 505 kg/hr from table, Solution = 0.595 kg solid

60

avn+1 = 505 = 0.119 At stage 1:

MB: Feed + V2 = V1 + L1

@ avn+1 = 0.119,

425 + V2 = 583 + 595

from table, Solution Ln = 0.507

kg V2 = 953 kg

kg solid

Oil Balance:

Ln = 0.507(1000) = 507 kg/h 595 (0.60) + 583 (0.6) = 425 (0.) + 753Y2

60 y2 = 0.408

avn+1 = 507 = 0.118

0.015−0.118

ln [ ]

0.408−0.6

@ Final Underflow, Ln: N=1+ 0.015−0.408 = 4.05 = 4

ln [ ]

Benzene: 507 – 60 = 447 kg/h 0.118−0.6

@ Final Overflow

64. An oil-sand mixture that is 25% (by mass) oil and 75% (by mass) sand is to be extracted or

leached with 75 tons/day of naphtha in a countercurrent extractor. The feed consists of 100

tons/day of mixture. The final extract (overflow) produced contains 35% (by mass) oil and 65%

(by mass) naphtha, and the underflow from each unit consists of 32% (by mass) oil and 68% (by

mass) sand. The overall efficiency of the extraction is 80% (by mass). Assume the solvent is

miscible with the oil in all portions and the extractor has reached equilibrium conditions in each

stage. Assume there is no sand in the overflow. The number stages required to effect the desired

separation of oil from sand is

a. 3 c. 5

b. 4 d. 6

Given:

75

OverFlow

tons/day

Yoil = 0.35 of

Ynaphtha =

0.65

Feed, F

100 Xsolution =

tons/day 0.32

Xsand = 0.75

Overall efficiency = 80%

Required:

Number of stages

Solution:

Assume: 1 day

*in the feed* *amount of raffinate*

(100 day of mixture)(1 day) = 100 tons of mixture 0.68 =

110.29

Sand = 100(0.75) = 75

Oil = 100(0.25) = 25

*OMB*

Extract = 64.71

*Naphtha balance*

X= 0.2986

65. A copper ore containing 10.3% by mass copper sulfate, 85.4% by mass inert and 4.3 % by

mass water is to be extracted with pure water in a counter current extractor. The daily feed

consist of 281 tons. The final extract produced contains 10% by mass copper sulfate and 90% by

mass water. The underflow from each stage consist of 66.7% by mass solution and 33.3% by

mass inert. The process is to recover 92% of the copper sulfate from the ore. Assume the

extractor has reached equilibrium conditions in each stage the minimum number of stages

required to effect the desired separation of copper sulfate from the inert.

Given:

Overflow

10% CuSO4, 90% water

Solvent

%recovery = 92

Feed

281 tons

10.3 % CuSO4 66.7 %

solution

85.4 % inert 33.3 % inerts

4.3 % water

Solution:

Basis: 281 tons feed

.854(281) = 239.974 kg inert

.043(2810 = 12.083 kg water

239.974

( .667 ) =480.6686 tons solution

.333

Amount of overflow

0.92(28.943)

=266.2756

0.10

%solute in underflow

28.943−(28.943 x 0.92)

=4.817 x 1 0−3

480.6636

Solvent balance

At stage 1

12.083 tons water

At equilibrium

solute solute

( ) =( ) =0.10

solution overflow solution underflow

.10(266.2756) + .10(480.6686) = 28.943 + 705.9182x

X = 0.0648

−3

0−4.817 x 1 0

ln [ ]

0.0648−.10

Number of stages =1+ 0−0.0648

ln [ ]

4.817 x 1 0−3−.10

= 6.1727 = 7 stages

1. 60 tons per day oil sand (25 wt% oil and 75 wt % sand) is to be extracted with 40 tons per

day of naphthalene in a counter current extraction battery. The final extract from the

battery is to contain 40 wt% oil and 60 wt% naphthalene and the underflow from each

unit is expected to consists of 35 wt% solution and 65 wt% sand. If the overall efficiency

of the battery is 50%, how many stages will be required?

GIVEN:

Final Vo Vn+1

F Final Ln

X sand= 0.75

Required:

N (Number of Stages) =?

Detailed Solution:

C= Naphthalene (Solvent)

In the Feed

F= 60 tons/day

A= 0.25(60) = 15 tons/day

B= 0.75(60) = 45 tons/day

(B)FEED=(B)UNDERFLOW

(B)UNDERFLOW= 45 tons/day

In the underflow

Liquid Balance: ( Solute+Solvent)

15+40=24.23+Vo

Solvent Balance:

In the Underflow:

No. of Stages:

Balance at Stage 1:

Y2= 0.175

Substitute:

Yn+1= 0

XN= 0.11

Y2= 0.175

X1= 0.40

A solid feed containing 22% of solute, 3% water and 75% inerts (insoluble) is to be leached a

rate of 1 ton per hour with water in a countercurrent leaching cascade. The strong leachate

leaving the unit should have 16% of the solute in it. Desired recovery of the solute in the feed is

99%. The overflow does not have any entrained inert in it, and the amount of solution retained in

the sludge is 0.45 kg solution per kg inert. Analytically determine the number of stages required

for the separation.

Given:

Final V1 Vn+1

F Final Ln

Solution:

1 ton = 1000 kg

In Feed

Water: 1000(0.03) = 30 kg

In Underflow:

0.45 kg solution

x 750 kg inert =337.5 kg

kg inert

LN = 337.5 kg solution

Mass of solute leaving with the sludge (99% recovery) = (220)(0.01) = 2.2 kg

Solute = 2.2 kg

Solvent = 335.3 kg

2.2

xN = =0.00652

337.5

In Overflow:

Solvent balance:

Solvent in

F + VN+1 = LN + V1

30 + VN+1 = 335.3 + V1

V1 = VN+1 – 305.3

Solute balance :

Solute in

F + VN+1 = LN + V1

VN+1 = 1448.75 kg

V1 = 1143.45 kg

Solute in V1 = 182.95 kg

Solvent in V1 = 960.5 kg

VN+1 = 1448.75 = V2

X1 = Y1 = 0.16

Y2 = 0.0117

x N =0.00652

y N +1−x N

ln ( )

y 2−x 1

N−1=

y N +1− y 2

ln ( )

x N −x1

0−0.00652

ln ( )

0.0117−0.16

N−1=

0−0.0117

ln ( )

0.00652−0.16

N= 2.2

N= 3 STAGES

N = 3 stages

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