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CHAPTER V

TECHNICAL STUDY

A. Manufacturing Process

I. Pre operating activities

Start A B

Secure a
Register with Consult the building permit
SEC product with
chemists and
agriculturists
Construct
Obtain the
Barangay building
Clearance Application for
Fertilizer and
Pesticide
Secure water
Authority (FPA)
and electricity
permit
Register with connection
SSS,
Philhealth,
and HDMF Purchase land Secure and
and settle any obtain
legal issues occupancy
related to its permit
Register and acquisition.
obtain City
Mayor’s Office
permit Purchase of
Consult with tools, supplies,
engineers and machineries,
architects for and
Register the equipment
with Bureau of construction of
Internal office and
Revenue factory building
Hiring of
employees

A B
End
II. Production Process

Composting refers to the natural and biological decomposition of organic matter by

bacteria and other organisms (ATC Government, n.d.) “Green Waste Fertilizer” will

undergo various steps which will require both manpower and machine processes to

produce a high quality output for commercialization.

Start A

Acquire raw Harvest the


materials compost

Turn and aerate


Gather and sort
C the compost pile
green and
brown compost
O
materials
M
Screening
P
Pretreatment
process O

S Crushing R
E
T F
Pile the compost
materials I I
Granulation
N
N I

G N
Moisten
G
the pile Packaging

Cover End
the bin

A
a. Composting Process

Step 1: Gather and sort the materials.

Green compost and brown compost materials will be gathered and stored

in the wooden crate in the storage room. Vegetable scraps acquired from Gapan

public market will be sorted whether it is leafy or starchy vegetable.

Green Compost Materials Brown Compost Materials

Vegetable
Rice Straw
scraps

Coffee
Rice Hull
grounds

Source: Google images

Step 2: Pretreatment process

Compost materials will be shredded using a

chipper and shredder machine for easier

decomposition. For rice straw, it must be soaked in

water for 12 hours before shredding.

Sample Procedure 1
Step 3: Pile the materials

CloverDise Inc. will use batch pile composting method in order to achieve

sufficient amount of wastes to fill the compost bins. Applying this method will

hasten the decomposition time compared to cold or passive composting method

where waste are continuously added, thus preventing the pile from heating up

quickly to start the decomposition process.

a. Start by spreading a layer rice straw which will serve as the base of the

pile.

Sample Procedure 2

b. Add a layer (2-3 inches) of green materials.

c. Add another layer (2-3 inches) of brown materials.

d. Repeat the layering of green and brown materials until the pile reaches at

least 2 feet high. This is the ideal height to heat up the materials for

efficient decomposition process.


Sample Procedure 3

The ideal ratio of green and brown materials is 1:1. One part of green

materials must be combined with one part of brown materials. This will allow to

attain the ideal Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio of 25-30: 1, the ideal CN ratio to quickly

heat the pile (Composting, University of Illinois, n,d.).

Step 4: Moisten the pile

Water the compost pile to ensure adequate moisture. Moisture is essential for

the compost materials to break down.

Step 5: Cover the bin

Covering the compost bins will help retain moisture and heat which are

essential in decomposition process.

Step 6: Turn and aerate the compost pile.

After 7 days of initial decomposition, turn pile using a shovel by bringing the

outside portion of the pile to the center. Then aerate it using a compost aerator to
allow moisture and oxygen penetrate the pile. It must be done at least once a

week.

Step 7: Harvest compost

Harvest the compost after 6 to 8 weeks of decomposition. Mature compost will be

transported using a wheelbarrow from the composting area back to the inside to

the manufacturing building.

b. Refining Process

After the composting process, the decomposed materials will undergo refining

process to improve its quality and appearance. The compost will be picked up from the

compost bins using a shovel and wheel borrow and put it in a processing area to

undergo the following processes:

Screening Grinding Granulation

Using a chain crusher, The process of


The process of sifting
screened compost will converting ground
large particles and
be processed to compost into granules.
unwanted debris
produce a fine Granulation of compost
mixed in the compost
material to be used for allows simplification of
using a rotary
the granulation storage and reduces
compost sifter.
process.. nutrient runoffs when
applied to rice crops.

c. Packaging

CloverDise Inc. agrees on using spout pouches as the product’s final packaging.

A spout pouch is a stand-up foil bag made of laminated layers of barrier films. Unlike the

traditional burlap sacks used for fertilizers that fail to control the unpleasant odor of the
fertilizer, the barrier packaging of spout pouches locks the smell inside. Moreover, the

packaging will keep the fertilizer moisture-free, even under worst weather conditions.

The pouch also comes with a handle for portability and a valve to prevent spills and

serve as puncture resistance.

Figure 1.4 Spout Pouch Sample

Ready-made spout pouches will be placed in filling and sealing machine. Once

the filling process is done, the pouches will flow into the capping section for sealing.

Green Waste Fertilizers have indefinite shelf life.


A. Equipment, Tools, and Machineries

OFFICE SUPPLIES

Total
Item Unit Price Quantity
Amount

Copy paper sub 20- Letter


190.00 5 950.00
(500 pcs. per ream)
Copy paper sub 20- Legal
225.00 5 1,125.00
(500 pcs. per ream)
Filing folder -Legal 190.00 12 2,280.00
Office stapler No. 35 with remover 90.00 5 450.00
Staple wire No. 35 30.00 10 300.00
Multi-purpose scissors 50.00 5 250.00
Heavy duty puncher 130.00 3 390.00
Black crystal ballpen (3 pcs. per pack) 20.00 10 200.00
Pencil medium (12 pcs. per box) 85.00 2 170.00
Permanent marker 38.00 10 380.00
Scotch tape (24mm x 20m) 7.00 10 70.00
Packaging tape (72mm x 40m) 40.00 10 400.00
Binder clip 1-1/4" (12pcs. per box) 30.00 10 300.00
Record book (200 pages) 45.00 3 135.00

TOTAL
7,400.00
OFFICE FURNITUES AND FIXTURES

Total
Item Unit Price Quantity
Amount

Conference table (200 x 120 x 76 cm) 14,950.00 1 14,950.00

Office secretarial chairs 1,300.00 20 26,000.00

Office desk tables (47 x 22 x 29) 2,500.00 10 25,000.00

Filing cabinet ( 35 x 15 x 72) 8,000.00 2 16,000.00

Pantry stools 250.00 10 2,500.00

Pantry rectangular table 1,200.00 2 2,400.00

Kitchen cabinet 3,500.00 1 3,500.00

TOTAL 90,350.00

OFFICE EQUIPMENT

Item Unit Price Quantity Total Amount

Printer 6,000.00 1 6,000.00

Desktop calculator 300.00 3 900.00

Desktop computer 25,000.00 6 150,000.00

Photocopy machine with scanner 30,000.00 1 30,000.00

Projector 19,500.00 1 19,500.00


White projector screen 1,200.00 1 1,200.00

Split type air conditioner 25,000.00 3 75,000.00

Electric water dispenser 3,600.00 1 3,600.00

TOTAL 286,200.00
DELIVERY EQUIPMENT
Total
Item Unit Price Quantity
Amount
Delivery vehicle (Elf truck) 750,000.00 1 750,000.00
TOTAL 750,000.00

FACTORY FURNITURES AND FIXTURES


Total
Item Unit Price Quantity
Amount
Locker door cabinet 10,000.00 1 10,000.00

Steel work table 10,000.00 10 100,000.00

Steel shelve (Storage) 5,500.00 3 16,500.00


TOTAL 126,500.00

FACTORY SUPPLIES
Total
Item Unit Price Quantity
Amount
Pouch bag (packaging)

Carton box (shipping)

Latex Gloves (composting) 30.00 50 1,500.00


TOTAL 126,500.00
FACTORY EQUIPMENT

Equipment Process involved Specifications Price

 Dimensions:
35x29x46 in.

 Fuel Capacity: 3 liters


Php 50,000.00
Pretreatment Process  Shredder Opening:
19x13in.

 Chipper Opening:13x8
Shredder and Chipper in.

Machine

 Motor: 220V/60Hz

 Drum Rotation: 45rpm

 Dimensions:
1080*652*1350mm
Php 25,000.00
Screening  Drum Diameter:
375mm

 Drum Length: 785mm


Rotary Compost Sifter  Noise: 89dB

 Dimensions: 30x28x24

Grinding  Motor power : 11


kilowatt
Php 40,000.00
 Max. production
capacity: 1 ton/hour

Fertilizer Chain Crusher


 Power: 75 kw

 Voltage: 220 v
Granulation
 Production capacity:
0.5- 1 ton/hour Php 50,000.00

Fertilizer Granulator

 Dimensions:
2600X1350X1360mm

Packaging  Capacity: 20-50 kg.


Php 240,000.00
 Bag Range: 5-50
kg.

 Voltage: 220 v

Filling Machine
FACTORY TOOLS

Tool Use Price

It will serve as a
container of the
wastes during the Php 800.00
decomposition
process.
Wooden compost bin

A mechanical tool
used to aerate the
compost pile by
Php 1,300.00
thrusting it in the
center of the compost
pile,
Compost aerator

It will be used to
transfer the finished
compost to the Php 500.00
wheelbarrow for the
refining process.

Shovel

It will be used to
transport the finished
compost from the
composting area back
to the factory. In like
Php 2,000.00
manner, raw materials
inside the storage
room will be
transported using a
Wheelbarrow wheelbarrow to the
composting area
Tool Use Price

It will be used as a Php 50.00


container for soaking
rice straw before
Basin piling it in the
compost pile.

It will be used for


moistening the Php 100.00
compost pile.

Watering Can

It will be used for


reading the pH level
of the compost Php 1,200.00
samples.

pH calibrated meter

Quality Control
B. Moisture Monitoring

Moisture is an essential component in the compost in order to break down

materials. According to Cornell Waste Management Institute, low moisture level limits

microbial activity and slows down the decomposition process. On the other hand, high

moisture level emits foul odor. To mitigate these problems, moisture level must be

properly monitored.

The ideal range of moisture for rapid composting is 50% - 60% (Rynk, 2008). To

get a reasonably accurate measure of moisture, CloverDise Inc. will adopt the

gravimetric method which was proposed by the US Composting Council.

1. A sample from the compost pile will be weighed using a weighing scale to

determine its wet weight. The amount of sample varies, for instance, 10 g, 20

g, or 50 g.

2. The sample is dried to the extent that the water content of the sample has

evaporated. Air drying method will be used in this procedure. It simply involves

exposing the sample from the air and sunlight until it is completely dried.

3. The dried sample will be weighed to get the dry weight.

4. Calculate the moisture content using the computation below:

Percent Moisture= 100% x (water weight/wet weight)

Where:

Water weight= wet weight - dry weight


C. PH level monitoring

The ideal pH level for compost during the decomposition process is between 5.5

to 8.0, which is acidic to neutral. Microbial activity is at optimum level within this

range. Meanwhile, mature compost generally have pH level between 6.0 to 8.0

(Cornell Composting, n.d.).

For proper pH monitoring the following procedures will be performed:

1. Determine the amount of water to be added to the sample of compost based

from the calculated moisture percentage.

Illustration: If the compost sample has 55% moisture, add 45% of the water

based on the weight of the sample converted into milliliters.

For instance, 45% x 10 ml =4.5 ml on the assumption that 1g=1ml.

Therefore the amount of water needed for a 10 g compost sample is

4.5 ml.

2. Mix the compost sample with the calculated amount of water and let stand for

10 minutes.

3. Measure the pH level using a calibrated pH meter.


https://www.environment.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/576932/Commercial_C
omposting_Guide.pdf

http://www.homecompostingmadeeasy.com/compostactivator.html

http://www.carryoncomposting.com/416920203

https://web.extension.illinois.edu/homecompost/building.cfm

http://www.homecompostingmadeeasy.com/batchpile.html
https://www.drpower.com/power-equipment/chippers/chipper-shredders/prompt-for-11-
5-cs3-new.axd

https://www.drpower.com/power-equipment/chippers/chipper-shredders/prompt-for-11-
5-cs3-new.axd

http://organicfertilizermachine.com/faqs

http://www.sigmainstrumentation.com/fertilizer-bag-packaging-machine.html

Carton Box- New Era boxes mfg.

http://www.alcanada.com/index_htm_files/Compost_Handbook.pdf-
TROUBLESHOOTING

http://compost.css.cornell.edu/monitor/monitormoisture.html

http://compostingcouncil.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/7-MonitoringMoisture.pdf
FOR MOISTURE

http://compost.css.cornell.edu/monitor/monitorph.html

FOR PH

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