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BC Science CHEMISTRY 11 Chapter 3 EDVANTAGE @ @e@ INTERACTIVE Everything Digital @ www.edvantageinteractive.com/sciencemoodle BE UNIQUE 3 The Mole — The Central Unit of Chemistry By the end of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Explain the significance and use of the mole Perform calculations involving the mole Determine relationships between molar quantities of gases at STP Perform calculations involving molecular and empirical formulas to identify a substance Describe concentration in terms of molarity + Perform calculations involving molarity By the end of this chapter you should know the meaning of these key terms + empinical formula + molarity + molar mass + molar solution + molar volume + mole ‘molecular formula + molecular mass + percentage composition relative atomic mass + standard solution + stoichiometry ste volume of solution (Ly number of items (items) e e volume of substance (L) mass (g) ATI molar mass Theme ix at the centre ofthe chemical measurement (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter. The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 107 3.1 Relative Atomic Mass Warm Up 1. Complete the grocery lst by filing inthe missing units Figure 1a), One __eggs, Two___milk, Three flour 2. Fromyour answer to 1, what ae the tree ways that we Weerpressamountsofmateiak in typically express amounts of materials? diferent ways, (a) vawndber of tems —(b) ©) Experimental chemistry Is essentially figuring out things about matter that cannot be “observed directly. The joy of experimental chemistry les in figuring out how te fgure it out. Consider the fllowing ingenious method for determining the relativemasses of objects without needing to know their actual masses. Mass isthe amount of matter \When you say that one object has twice as much mass as another you are expressing the object’ relative mass. You are comparing one object's mass to the other’. Suppose you wanted to determine the reativemass ofa staple and a grain of ice, = each of which s too small to register a mass on your balance (Figure 3.1.1), Why not ca ‘weigh 100 of each? If 100 identical staples weigh twice as much as 100 identical grains Rag eave etal welt oon arr arvana itcarctoh bf this technique's that we don't even need to know how many objects we are weighing! staples wil weigh twice as muchas that number of ice grains ‘This technique for determining relative mas stil works even the tems being weighed arenotidentical the items being weighed for comparison arenotidentica then the rato provided is that oftheir average masses rather than the ratio of the masses saplsardonchandet of theindlidual tems since this would depend on which individual items. For example, See ee ioe, ifavarietyof pens weighs 52 tes as much as the same numberof a variety of pels oe rain otre 2 then the average mass ofthese pensis 1.52 times the average mass ofthese encls Figute3.t.1 Onehundred Themass ratio of any equal number of tems equals the average mass ratio of those Individual terns \While you should never confuse the terms “weight" and "mass,'the word “weigh" serves double duty.To weigh sto find the weight or compare the weights of Since scales, Work by comparing weights, you are by definition Weighing” objects and materials with ‘a scale In fact, a weighing scale Is a measuring Instrument for determining the mass of weight of an object Quick Check 1. What does relative mass’ mean? 2. Youhave two bags of candy from a bulk food store: a bag of gumdrops and a bag of ujubes. You Intend todetermine the relative masses of ajujube and a gumdrop by weighing the contents of each bag. What ‘condition is necessary for this to work? 108 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 EEE this book, as n most chemistry textbooks, much of our current chemical knowledge Law of Constant ‘will be presented in historical context. Instead of ust telling you what we know (or Composition think we know), well tell you how chemists came to this understanding. This is because chemistry s more than just an accumulated ist of facts about matter: tis also the processes that lead us to such information. By learning and assessing these processes, as ‘well as the facts, some of you will decide to continue this quest. In addition, people often acquire a better understanding of a concept by learning the concept in the same manner ‘thatit was originally developed. ‘Tose the technique just described to determine the relative masses of different types of atoms, chemists needed to be able to weigh an equal number of diferent types cof atoms. In the ealy 1800s, chemists discovered that all samples ofa given compound have the same mass ratio of thelr constituent elements. For example, there ate 8 g of ‘oxygen for every 1 g of hydrogen in every sample of water. Thisis called the law of constant composition, in 1804, John Dalton, a sclentistin England, argued thatthe law of constant composition natonly supported the concept of atoms but also provided thelr relative masses. He reasoned that the mass ratios in which ferent elements combine are the mas ratios of thelr individual atoms or a simple multiple thereof If one atom ‘of magnesium weighs 1.5 times as much as ane atom af oxygen then any number of magnesium atoms would weigh 1.5 times as much as the same number of oxygen atoms, Dalton argued that this was the reason all samples of a compound contained the same mass ratio of ts elements ‘Sample Problem — Determining Relative Atomic Mass ‘A chemist carefully heats 0.350 g of magnesium powder ina crucible. The magnesium reacts with atmospherlc ‘oxygen to produce 0.580 g of magnesium oxide (MgO), What s the mass of a magnesium atom relative to the mass fof an oxygen atom? What to Think out How to Dolt 1.0350gMg musthave combined with | o,5¢0 9 MgO - 0.350 9 Mg = 02209 0 0209 0 toproduce 0580.9 MgO. 2. Since magnesium oxide has the formula MgO, 0.3509 of maghesim andl 0.230 3g of oxygen contain equal numbers of atoms. mass of Mg atone of 0 ations 0.8509 4 3. 1f' some number of Mig atoms weighs 1.52 times as much as the same number of Oatoms then any number of ig atoms weighs 1.52 times as muchasthe | 4 wig atom weighs 1.52.times as much as an O atom same number of atoms, even one of ~ . each. © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 109 Practice Problems — Determining Relative Atomic Mass 1. dozen identical AA batteries have amass of 276 g and a dozen Identical watch batterles havea mass of only 264g The mass ofan AAatteryis___ times the mass of a watch battery. 2. Asample of strontium oxide (510) s found to contain 2.683 g Sr and 0.490 g 0. Whats the ‘mass ofa strontium atom relative to that of an oxygen atom? 3. 4218 g sample of daltontum bromide (DBr) is decomposed and 0.337 g of Dis recovered. (@) Whatis the atomic mass of daltonium given that the atomic mass of bromine is 799 w? (6) This question uses the fictitious element, daltonium, so you can't just look up the element’ atomic mass. What element does daltonium represent? WEEE cording to the sample problem, if all the atoms ofan element are identical then the Relative Masses of mass ofa magnesium atoms 1.52 times the mass of an oxygen atom. fall the atoms of Atoms {an element do not have the same mass then the average mass of a magnesium atom is 1.52 times the average mass of an oxygen atom. The issue of whether all the atoms of an ‘element are identical wasnt resolved for another century but, as described, weneed only Insert the word, “average"if they are not ‘The element hydrogen was discovered to have the least massive atoms soits atoms ‘ere originally assigned an atomic mass of 1 u (atomic mass unit) and the mass of al the ‘other types of atoms were expressed relative to this. The discussion of atomic mass and atornic mass units will continue in chapter 5, Oxygen’s atomic mass of 16umeans that ‘the mass of an oxygen atom is 16 times the mass of a hydrogen atom (or that the average. _mass of an oxygen atom is 16 times the average mass ofa hydrogen atom) (Figure 3.1.2. Ifthe mass ofa magnesium atomis 1.52 times the mass of an oxygen atom then the ‘mass of a magnesium atom s 1.52 x 16.0 u~= 24.3 u The periodic table ofthe elements ‘confirms that magnesium has a relative atomic mass of 243 u. Determining the relative masses of the basic Units of matter was a remarkable feat, Dalton bridged the gap between the world we experience and the invisible world of atoms by deriving, the relative masses of atoms from laboratory ‘observations, But how did Dalton know that the {formula of magnesium oxide was MgO? Recall Dalton’ important qualification: ‘or a simple multiple thereof! ifthe formula of magnesium oxide Is Mgo, then the mass ratio of Mg to 0 in the compound would need to be doubled to determine their atomic mass ratio. Ths is necessary because ‘we are weighing half as many magnesium atoms. ‘Therefore, the same number of magnesium atoms. ‘would weigh twice as much, Similar adaptations ‘would be required for other possible formulas Figure3.12 Themassofan oxygen atoms equaltothe massof "6 hytrogen atoms. 110 Chapter The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 ‘Sample Problem — Determining Relative Atomic Mass (Non 1:1 Formulas) Barium chloride has a mass rato of 1.934 g Ba:1.000 g Cl. Chlorine has an atomic mass of 35.5 ‘Whats the atomic mass of barium ifthe formula of barlum chloride! BaCl What to Think about How to Dolt ifthe formulas BaCl, then weneed to doublethemass | 2(1.924) x 25.5 « of barium so that we can compare the masses of equal - rumbers of atoms Practice Problems — Determining Relative Atomic Mass (Non 1:1 Formulas) ‘Alurninum fodide has a mass ratio of 1.000 g Al 14.100 g|. Given that the atomnic mass of iodine is 126.9 u, ‘what is the atomic mass of aluminum ifthe formula of aluminum iodide is: Lally ALL? Dalton assumed that atoms combined in the simplest manner possible. He believed that Cannizzaro’s Paper _ fa pair of elements (A +8) formed only one compound, the formula for the compound ‘would be AB If they formed a second compound, its formula would be either A,B or AB,, Dalton was well aware that he had no evidence for his “ules of simplicity’He conceded that some of his formulas and resulting atomic mass determinations might be incorrect. As you may recall ftom Science 9 and Science 10, the formulas of fonic compounds are simple ratios butnot quiteas simple as Dalton supposed. On September 3, 1660, many of Europe’ leading chemists met in Karlsruhe, Germany. At this meeting, the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro presented a remarkable paper in which he solved the mystery of atomic masses. For example, Dalton hadn't understood how two particles of hydrogen gas could react with one particle of ‘oxygen gas to produce two particles of water vapour He thought that couldn't happen because it would require splitting the oxygen particle, which he thought was an atom, Cannizzaro showed that Dalton’s atomic model was still valid if the hydrogen and oxygen {gas particles were made up of paits of atoms. Hydrogen and oxygen molecules are called diatomic molecules because they are formed of two atoms of the same element (‘dl" means 2), Zhydrogen molecules + 1 oxygen melecde —» 2 water molecules 33 oe 9» Figure 3.13 Clatomicmmolecules ef hydrogen and oxygen combine 0 form water molecules. Cannizzaro's paper went on to describe and explain three other techniques for determining atomic mass: one for metals, one for liquid or gaseous non-metal, and one for solid non-metals. Dalton is called the father of the atomic theory because he explained how the law of constant composition provided support forthe concept of atoms. However, additional ‘methods were required to determine the relative atonnic masses, These atomic masses "were in turn, used ta determine the correct formulas of compounds, Dmitri Mendeleev, ‘who published his frst periodic table of the elements in 1869, was at Katlstuhe. The correct atomic masses were a prerequisite to Mendeleev's famous table. © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole The Central Unitof Chemistry 111 3.1 Activity: The Relative Mass of Paper Clips Question What isthe mass of a large paper clip relative to that ofa small paper clip? (Well answer this question without weighing only one paperclip of elther type) Background |fsome numberof large paper clips weighs twice as much as the same number of small paper clips then any ‘number of large paper clips will weigh twice as much as the same number of small paper clips, including one of ‘each, Remember we don't need to know how many paper clips we are weighing: we just need to know that were ‘weighing the same number of each, The mass ratio of any equal number of identical items equals the mass ratio of theindividual items, Procedure 1. Weigh a pile of small paper clips. Record this mass in the table provided below. 2. Attach a large paper clip to each small paper clip and measure the total mass of these coupled clips Record this mass inthe table provided below, 3. Calculate the total mass of the attached large paper clips and record this mass in the table below, Results and Discussion objects Mass (a) Small paper clips Coupled paper clips, Large paper clips mass of some number of large paper clips 9 ‘mass ofthe same number of small paper clips 9 The mass ofa large paper clip is times the mass ofa small paper clip. 2. Ifwe assign a small paperclip a mass of 1.00 smu (stationary mass unt), whatis the mass ofa large paper clip? 3.__Let' check this result by weighing one small paperclip and one large paper clip. mass of one large paper lip 9 ‘mass of one small paper clip a 4, Why might the ratios calculated in steps 1 and 3 be slighty afferent? Interactive 2011 ISBN 976-0:9864778.2.9 112 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty OE dvanta 3.1 Review Questions 1. Acertain number of identical glass marbles has a ‘mass of 825 g. The same number of identical steel marbles has a mass of 2245 g (a) Assigning a glass marble amass of 1.00 mmu (marble mass unit, calculate the mass ofa ste! marble, (b) Why don't you need to know the number of marbles that were weighed? 2. 1.965 goof sodium s placed in a flask containing chlorine gas. 5,000 g of NaClis producedin the resulting reaction. (2) Asodium atoms mass atoms mass, times a chlorine (b) Chlorine has an atomic mass of 35.5 u. What Is theatomic mass of sodium? 3, 410.0009 sample of zubenium fluoride (ZuF) is decomposed and 8.503 g of 2uts recovered. (@)Whatis the atomic mass of zubenium? (b) This question uses the fictitious element zubenium so you cantjust look up the element's ‘atomic mass. What element does zubenium tepresent? 4, Zinc sulphide has a mass ratio of 2037 g Zn: 1.000 gS. Given that the atomic mass of sulphur is 32.1 u, whats the atomic mass ofzinc ifthe formula of zinc sulphide is (2) zns? (0) 25,7 (zns7 5. Acompound of copper and oxygen contains 13.073 {9 Cu and 1.647 g 0, Oxygen has an atomic mass of teou RU (2) Whats the atomic mass of above compound is Cu? im copper ifthe formula of the (©) What is the atomic mass of copper if the formula of the above compounds Cu,” (€) What is the atomic mass of copper ifthe formula of the above compound is CuO,? 6. In 1819, Dulong and Petit noted a relationship between the presumed atomic mass of most metals and their specific heats. The specificheat of a metal divided into 25.0 provides the appreximate atomic ‘mass of the metal. The specific heat ofa substance fs the amount of heat requited to aise 1 g of the substance by 1°C, The specific heat of copper is 0.3864 J/o°C (2) Calculate the approximate atomic mass of ‘copper using Oulong and Petits method, (©) Knowing the approximate atomic mass of the metal allowed chemists to determine which of the more accurate atomic masses derived by ‘composition analysis was correct Which of the atomic masses and corresponding formulas ‘calculated in question 5s cortect for the ‘compound that was analyzed? (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter’. The Mole —The Central Unitof Chemisty 113. 7. Determine the percent error of Dulong and Petits ‘method of approximating a metal’s atomic mass for aluminum (0.903 J/g°C), magnesium (1.05 1/g°C) and silver (0.23772 1/9°C). 8. In 1811 Amedeo Avogadro proposed that equal volumes of any gas atthe same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles Cannizzaro realized this allows scientists to weigh ‘equal numbers of atoms of different gaseous ‘elements and determine thelr relative atomic masses. Complete the following data table showing the mass of equal volumes of two different gases at the same temperature and pressure Element | Mass of Gas(g) | Relative Atomic Mass(u) H 0210 10 7.455 wel 9, Potassiumhas an atomic mass of 39.1 u What does this mean? 10, Look up the following elements in the periodic table and report each element's atomic mass we wea (ou 11, Eight identical forks have amass of 213.1 g Fight identical knives havea mass of 628.2 9. 1 Whats themes fake i fenwetoimcteen RSE] (b) Why did you not need to divide the supplied ‘masses by 8 to answer 10(a)? (9) What could you conclude from this data ifthe Utensis of each type were not identical? 12, Amintis advertising a special set of silver coins containing a 104 coin, a 20g coin and a 30 coin. One of these coins is accidentally being made 1 g lighter than its advertised mass. You have two sets of these coins and have been challenged to identify the undersized coin by weighing only one ple of coins. The single pile may include any combination of the coins that you wish. What combination of the coins would you weigh? Haw can you use that mass toidentify the undersized coin? LLM Chapter The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage Interactive 2011 ISBN 976.0.9964778-2.9 3.2 Introducing the Mole — The Central Unit of Chemistry Warm Up 1._ takes 15 gulps to drink a bottle of water What information would allow you to calculate how many slups it would take to drink an identical botle of water? 2. ifasturps 1 gulp, how many slurps would ittake to consume 15-guip drink? 3,5 slurps equal 1 gulp, how many gulps would it take to consume a 20-slurp drink? EEE What mass of oxygen has the same number of atoms as 1 g of hydrogen? An oxygen The Mole Concept atom (16 u) weighs 16 times as much as a hydrogen atom (1 u) Therefore, it would require 16 g of oxygen to have the same number of atoms as 1 g of hydrogen. Chemists extended this reasoning to all the elements, Fr example, 55.89 Fe, 355 9 Cl, 23.09 Na, and 12.0 Call contain the same number of atoms since these masses aren the same ratios as their individual atomic masses. How many atoms are there in the atomic mass of any element expressed in grams? Originally chemists didn't know and even now they only havea very rough estimate but they nevertheless gave a name to that number. They called this number a"mole” ‘Amole isa quantity equal to the number of atoms in the atomic mass of any element expressed in grams (eg, the number of atoms in 1.0 gH, 160g 0, 6359 Cu). ‘The definition ofthe mole is under continuous review ttis“fine-tuned” periodically iinresponse to new information about atomic structure and to changes in the definition ofthe atornic mass unit on which the definition ofthe moles based. ‘The number of things in a mole! also referred to as Avogadro's number in honour ofthe Italian scientist whose insight regarding gases led toa technique for determining ‘the relative atomic masses of non-metals Just as the word “dozen'refers to a number of something, so does the word mole’The chief difference Is that we know that a dazen is 12 of something but we only have a rough estimate of how many things are in a mole of something. There have been many independent deivations ofthe number of tems in amole. Chemists currently estimate that a mole is 602214179 x 10 give or take afew rillon billon (Figure 3.2.1) The actual number sn'timportant unless youte working at the atomic evel because whatever the number sit’ the same fora mole of anything. Just asa dozen is 12 of anything, a moles approximately 602 x 10 of anything, \Whilea dozen is fairly small number, a mole's an absurdly large number. A mole of peas ‘would cover the entire Earths surface with a layer over 200m deep. Atoms are so small however that ou can hold a mole of atoms in the palm of your hand. Just as a dozen Isa convenientunit of quantity fora baker to group buns and doughnuts, amole isa ‘onwenient unit of quantity fr a chemist to group atoms and molecules. The number of Items is one way to express the amount of a material so chemists often refer to.a mole of a substance rather than a mole ofthe substance’ particles (eg, a mole of copper instead of a mole of copper atoms). Figure 3.2.1 5.02276179% 10° carbon ats (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 115 Quick Check ‘The mole was introduced in the early 1900s by Wilhelm Ostwald. troniclly, Ostwald developed the mole concept as an alternative to the atomic theory, which he did not accept. Today, the mole's used throughout madern chemistry asthe central unit through which all other quantities of materials ae related, but twas not common before the mid 1950s, just two generations of chemists ago. Before that, chemists related quantities of chemicals through their atomic masses without reference to the mole. 1. (@) Howisamoletike a dozen? (b) Haw is a mole different than a dazen? 2. What does a mole of chlorine atoms weigh? 3. What mass of sulphur has the same number of atoms that arein 1.0 gH? Conversions Using Avogadro's Number ‘Many chemistry problems can be solved by examining the units of the values provided and considering the units that the answer must have. This technique of manipulating units is called “dimensional analysis’ While it’s important to understand the mathematical ‘operation youre performing, its reassuring to see that the units work out (Le, that the answer has the appropriate units) ‘Most chemical conversions involve the mole. The key to conversion is the ‘conversion factor. Chemists know or know where to find the conversion factors they reed, Atthis point in the course, welll use only two conversion factors: Avogadro's ‘number the number of items per mole) and molar mass (the number of grams per mole) Theitems that a chemist would normally be concerned about are chemical species such as atoms, molecules, ions, and formula units. The abbreviation forthe unit mole is mol (Figure 322) Equivalence statement ‘Conversion Factors Avogadro's number 6.02 102 items Amol 02 x 10 Items: Tmo) “6.02 107 items Figure3.22 Converting the moles and the number oftems fa substance 116 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty OE dvanta Interactive 2011 ISBN 976-0:9864778.2.9 ‘Sample Problem—Converting Moles to Number of Items How many oxygen atoms arein 32 mol of oxygen atoms? What to Think about How toDolt 1. Convert: molO—> atoms 2. Setu Seer on 2atomso “Tmalo 3. Conversion factor: £02 10 atoms O per 1 mol 0 rn 4, Count thenumber of significant figures of each value n the operation and then round the answer to the least of these Note: Theres no uncertainty in the 1 mol 0. The uncertainty of the conversion factor Is expressed in the 6.02 x 10% atoms 0. Practice Problems—Converting Moles to Number of Items 1. Chromium ions are responsible forthe beautiful colours of rubies and emeralds. How many chromium ions (CP) arein 3.5 mol of chromium ions? 2, 300molH,0 = molecules H,0 3, How many atoms of sodium are in 0.023 mol Na? ‘Sample Problem—Converting Number of Items to Moles 7.3 10 catbon monoxide molecules (CO) represent how many moles of carbon monoxide? What to Think about How toDolt 1. Convert! molecules CO —* mol CO & Beam: Amol CO (FE K 10" weet SS) x. + moleces i (73 1 melee = (734104 molecdes CO)x-y-1CO rs 3. Conversion factor: ‘1 mol CO peer 6.02 x 10°? molecules CO 12 ml CO © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 117 Practice Problems — Converting Number of Items to Moles 1. Incandescent lights are filed with argon to prevent the glowing filament from burning up. ‘How many moles of argon do 1.81 x 10" atoms of argon represent? 2, 225 10" molecules CO, mol co,? 3. A1-Lintravenous bag of saline solution contains 927 x 10® formula units of NaCl How many moles of NaClis this? = ‘The mass of one mole of an element's atoms is called that element's molar mass (Figure Molar Mass 3.2.3) It follows from simply restating the definition of a mole that the molar mass of an elements its atomic mass expressed in grams. For example, one mole is the number ‘of atoms in 16 g of oxygen” can be restated as one mole of oxygen atoms welghs 16” ‘The atomic masses ofthe elements can be found in the periodic table. The atomic mass of oxygen is 16 u and thus the molar mass of oxygen Is 16g, This s better expressed as 2 conversion factor for calculation purposes: 16 g per mole of oxygen of 16 g/mol O, ‘The molecular mass or formula mass of a ‘compound is the sum of ts constituent atomic masses (9, H,0:2(1 w)+ 16 u= 18 u), One mole of water molecules consists of 1 mol of oxygen atoms (16 g) and 2 mol of hydrogen atoms (2 g) and therefore weighs 18 9 Similarly, 1 mol of NaCl formula units consists of 1 mol of sodium atoms (23.g) and 1 mol of chlorine atoms (35.5 9) fora total mass of 585 g (Figure 3.2.4), Figure3.2.3 Themaseot mol afachemical depend onthe stome thot mate tup formula unt & 1a¢ 5 c~) A 2:6) =@c@o FT 0@0® (a) y Figures.2.4 (6) The molecular mass ofwateris thesum ofthe masses ofthe oxygen and hydrogen ‘toms (6) The formula mass ofNclisthe sum ofthe master ofzodnum andhlonne are Just as the molar mass of an elements simply its atomic mass expressed in grams, the molar mass of compound is simply its molecular ar formula mass expressed in grams, LIS Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 ‘Themolarmass ofa substance is its atomic, molecular, or formula mass expressed in grams, Sample Problem — Determining a Compound’s Formula Mass and/or Molar Mass What are the formula mass and molar mass of Al(50,),? What to Think About How to Do It Formula Mai (s2.4u) + 12(16.0u) 1. 1 ALSO), consists of 2Als, 355, and 1205. Molar mass = 21209) + 2. 1 mol AL{SO,), consists of g) + 12(1609) Amol AL3 mol S and 12 mol. | Expressed as a conversion factor, itis 342.3 g/ml. Practice Problems — Determining a Compound’s Formula Mass and/or Molar Mass 1. Whats the molecular mass of nitrogen dioxide? 2, Whats the molar mass of Na,Cr,0,? 3, Whats the molar mass of irri sulphide? Name Equivalence Statement Conversion Factors Conversions Using 2 ‘mol Molar Mi = : 7 jolar Mass Molar mass tmol=7g T mol 79 1809 1 mol Example: H,0 Imol= 1809 Tmol 180g ‘Sample Problem — Converting Moles to Mass ‘Whats the mass of 3.2 mol of oxygen atoms? WhattoThinkabout | HowtoDelt 1. comet malo-90 2amatox 22%, 2: conten ator Te0g Ope Tmolo © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 119 Practice Problems — Converting Moles to Mass 1. What does 2.65 mol of table salt (NaCl) weigh? 2. 087 mol NH, NH? 3. Very large quantities of chemicals are produced in the chemical industry. Worldwide production of sulphuric acid (H,S0,) is estimated at two tllion (2.0 x 102) moles annually. How many tonnes of H,SO, Is this? (1 tonne = 1000ka) ‘Sample Problem — Converting Mass to Moles How many moles of water arein 1.8 g of water? What Think about How to Dole 1. convert: gH0-r molto 2 setup: | _1molH,0 trol HAC ON Tg MESHES epg Hp — Oto maLHE 3. Conversion factor ‘Iimol H,0 per 18gH,0 Practice Problems — Converting Mass to Moles 1. Goldis the most malleable metal. Itcan be hammered into sheets that are only several hundred atoms thick In 2010, Vancouver's Science World covered an entire billboard with Just two troy ounces (62.2 g) of gold to «dramatize this fact. How many moles of golds this? 2. 388gC0, mol co; 3. Smelling salts are used to revive an unconscious athlete. A capsule of smelling sats contains $00.0mg (NH));CO,, How many moles of (NH),CO, is this? 120 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 3.2 Activity: A Mole of Pennies Question How long and massive would a stack of 1 mol of pennies be? Background ‘The mole sa convenient and useful erm for counting very large quantities of things. You know that 1 mol of pennies is approximately 6.02 x 10" pennies but can you picture just how many that rally is? Suppose you stacked 1 mol of pennies, How tall do you think that stack would be? How much would itwelgh? Just for fun, try jquessing by completing the tables below In pencil befare you do the necessary calculations. Procedure 1. Makea stack of 10 pennies. 2, Measure and record the stack’s height in centimetres, 3, Measure and record the stack’s mass in grams, Results and Discussion 1. Calculate the heightin kilometres of a stack of 1 mol of pennies. ‘Would the stack reach. Distance km) | Wor X ‘our Moon? 39x10 Pluto? 59x10 Proxima Centaur (the nearest sta)? 41x10" ‘Andromeda the nearest galaxy)? 19x10 41. Cafeulate the mass in lograms of 1 mol of pennies. * | Woutd the stack weigh as much as. Massikg) | Wor X the USS. Ronald Reagan (the world’s Flt heaviest craft carter? ‘the totl ofall ving things on Earth? 2x 1085 ‘our Moon? 74x10" earth? 60x10" (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter. The Mole -The Central Unitof chemistry 12 3.2 Review Questions 1. (@) What isthe definition of amole? (b) What s our best estimate of the number of things in a mole? (©) What do chemists call this number? 2. (a) What mass of carbon would have the same number of atoms as 1.0 g H? (b) What mass of carbon would have the same number of atoms as 20g H? (€) What mass of sulphur would have the same ‘number of atoms as 32.09 0? 3. (@) What does a mole of iron weigh? (6) Chemists cal this value the ofiron. 4, (a) What s themolecular mass of propane. C,H,? (©) Whatis the formula mass of calcium hydroxide, calor, (0) Whatis the molar mass of carbon tetrachloride, cay 5. 32molc= atoms ¢ 6. How many molecules are in 0.0085 mol of CH,? 7. 1x 10! Ag atoms represent how many moles of atoms? 8 299gNa= ‘mol Na 9. Whatis themass of 5.2 mol of fluorine? 10, Airline regulations prohibit ithium metal batteries ‘that contain over 2.0 of lithium on passenger aircraft, How many moles of ithium arein 20g LP 11, What isthe mass of © 32 mol of sodium nitrite? 12, Acan of cola contains 58 mg of caffeine, GH,,N,0,, How many moles of caffeine are in a can of cola? 122 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage Interactive 2011 ISBN 976.0.9964778-2.9 13, Carbon dioxide, produced by respiration in plants and animals, causes the slightly acidic nature of normal rain. How many molecules of CO, arein 0725 mol co,? 14, Themale luna moth can detect specialized chemicals known as pheromones in order to locate a mate, Amoth can detect 1.70 x 10° molecules of the pheromone, How many moles ofthe pheromone is this? 15, Gling enthusiasts often prefer bicycles made with {tanium fares. Titanium stesistant to corrosion and fatigue, has sigan lowe density than steel and seems to have anatural shock absorbing ability. Suppose a high-quality titanium frame Contains 1300 g of titanium How many moles of {tana does this frame contain? Bh ler 16, Bluestone:is an attractive mineral with the chemical name copper sulphate pentahydrate. Whats the ‘mass ofa 1.75-mol sample of bluestone? 17, An environmental assessment predicts thata coal plant would emit 8.18 x 10° mol of ammonia into the atmosphere annually. How many tonnes of ammonia is this? 18, Ammonium phosphate sa fertlizer containing nitrogen and phosphorus for healthy plant growth, How many moles of ammonium phosphate are ina bag containing 2.640 kg of t? 19, The movie Erin Brockovich dramatizes the efforts of the title character (played by Julia Roberts) to prove ‘that the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. contaminated the water supply of Hinkley, California, with hexavalent chromium. Tint) dichromate is 3 hexavalent chromium compound. What is the mass ‘f 5925 mol of tin(l) dichromate? (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter. The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 123 3.3. The Wheel Model of Mole Conversions Warm Up 1. Which contains more toms 309 or 159 2. Which welghs more, 1 mol Zn or 3 mol N? 3. Which contains more molecules 349 GH of 5600,” = The mole serves asa link between the invisible world of atoms and observable quantities Two-Step Mole ‘of chemicals. The mole’ toa chemist what the dollar isto an accountant. Just a the Conversions dollars the central unit of commerce and allows usto keep track of money, the moles the central unit of chemistry and allows us to keep track of atoms and molecules. A quantity ofa substance can only be related to another quantity of the same substance thraugh the mole. How would you solve the following problem? How many atoms arein 5.0.9 of copper? ‘You might spit the problem into two parts, each of which you learned how to solve in ection 32: 1. How many moles of capper aren 5.0.9 Cu? 2. How many copper atoms this? Thisis how chemists solve this typeof problem. Think of themoleas thehub of a wheel with the spokes leading out all the otherunits. In our wheel model the spokes represent the conversion factors Figure 33.1 For now, our conversions are limited to those number of items between moles and items and between moles and grams. (items) Mass and the numberof tems mustbe related to each other through the moe: rams to moles totems or tems tomolesto grams. The beauty ofthe wheel models that 2 you lean more chemical quantities they can spy beadded to therim ofthe heel. In order to reate ot mass “Connect’a new chemical quant tal ofthe others (B) _youonlyneed to connectitto theme. In other words if you wanted t convert grams into snesbugs you would Convert gamsinto‘oles and then moles into sneebugs. Figure3.3.1 Thewheelisausefulmodel fr representing conversion factors 124 Chapter3 The Mole “The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 ‘Sample Problem — Two-Step Conversion: Mass to Number of Items (Atoms) CChemists count by weighing, How many atoms arein 5.0.9 of copper? What to Think about How toDolt 1. Plan yourroute. Convert: gCu-> mal Cu» atoms Cu Chemists usually perform these two calculations in ane continuous sequence. Imolcu | ? atoms cu 7gcu“~Tmol cu Cicems) 2. Setup: 5.09 Cux Cre ae > oa 7) Thenumerators show the route: in this case, crams to moles to atoms. Each numerators units cancelled by thenext denominator’ unit until you arive at your 3, Conversion factors: I mol Cuper 635g Cu 6.02 x 10 atoms Cu per 1 mol Cu ‘As Avogadro's number Is an estimate, $0 Is the above answer. Nevertheless, being able to estimate the numberof atoms in any sample ofa substance is remarkable. This s ppethaps even more evident forthe reverse conversion, which allows us to estimate the mass ofa single atom in grams. ‘Sample Problem — Two-Step Conversion: Number of Items (Atoms) to Mass ‘Whats the mass of an oxygen atom in grams? What to Think about How to Dolt 1. Convert: atomO-> molO + gO melo 7 atoms 0 290 2. Setup: Tatom 0 aie 3. Conversion factors: ‘1 mol Oper 6.02 x 107 atoms 0 160g per} molO 4, Allthat we've done heres divide themass of mole of oxygen atoms by the number of atornsin a mole to determine themass of each atom. Always check to make sure that your answer is reasonable, 2.66 x 10"? gis a reasonable answer because an atom would have avery small mass umber of Rome (items) Cre = (co © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 125 Practice Problems — Two-Step Conversions 1. Filin the missing entries to determine the mass in grams of a bilionbilion (1 x 10") sulphur dloxide molecules. (1x 10!* molecules 50,) x 2. How many atoms arein 2.1 gBr? 2. What is the mass in grams of one atom of Ag? Imol $0, so, 950, molecules 50, 1 mol $0, Two Wheel Conversions (Composition Stoichiometry) A Chemists often relate a quantity of one chemical substance to a quantity of another. ‘Stoichiometry s the branch of chemistry that deals with the quantiative relationships between elements in a compound (composition stolchiometry) and between the reactants and products in a chemical reaction reaction stoichiometry). (‘Stoichiometty” {s from the Greek words stoicheion meaning element” and metron meaning ‘measure”) ‘Our presentation here i limited to composition stolchiometry. To accommodate such conversions, we simply add another whee! to our model. Each wheel in our model tepresents a diferent substance of species and, of course, the only functional way to connect two wheels with an axle. An axle runs between the hubs of wheels and in our ‘model, connects moles of one substance or species to moles of another (Figure 3.3.2) quantity ofa substance or species can only be related toa quantity of another substance or species through themole. We already know how to move about (convert units using B single wheels. The only new step added here is represented by the axle which helps you to corwert moles of one substance into moles of another The conversion factors found in the ‘compound’ formule, There are two oxygen atoms in a CO, Figure 3.32 Thetwornhechand-alemodelfercomvering molecule, so there are two dazen oxygen atoms in a dozen CO, between species molecules and there are... walt fort... 2mol of oxygen ators in I mol of CO, molecules Name Equivalence statement Conversion Factors t molecule A=? atoms 8 7molB Chemical Formula {mol A=? mol 8 Tmal & I molecule CO, =2 atoms 0 2molO emmelsss I mol CO, = 2 mol 0 Tmol CO, 126 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty OE dvanta Interactive 2011 ISBN 976-0:9864778.2.9 ‘Sample Problem — One-Step Conversion: Moles of A to Moles of B How many moles of hydrogen arein 6.0mol of water? What to Think about 1. Convert: mol H,O— mol Ht 3. Conversion factor: There are2Hs in an HO; therefore there are 2 mol of Hin 1 mol of H,0. 6. 4. Thevaluesin the conversion factor (2 mol H per 1 mol H,0} do not limit the significant figuresin the answer as these values have no uncertainty. There are exactly 2HSin an H,0, How toDolt mol H 2, Setup: 6OmdlHLO XT HLS B A are requited to get 0.860 g of hydrogen? Sample Problem — Two-Step Conversion: Mass of A to Moles of B Hydrogen fuel cells are batteries that are continually supplied or “fuelled” with reactants Their hydrogen sometimes comes from a process that “scrubs" it off methane molecules. How many moles of methane (CH) What to Think about 1. Convert: gH mol H+ mol CH, molt 1 mol CH, gH * ?molH 2. Setup: 0860gH x 3. Insert the conversion factors: Amol Hper L0gH 1 mol CH, per 4 mol H (given by the formula, CH,) How toDolt Qe 4 ual CH. a (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter. The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 127 ‘Sample Problem — Three-Step Conversion: Mass of A to Mass of B How many grams of oxygen arein 14.69 CO,? What to Think about How to Dolt 1. Convert: g CO, + mol CO, + molO-+ gO 2. Setup: Amolco, moo 7g 146900,* 7 9c0,° * TmolCO, * TmolO B 3. Insert the conversion factors A ‘i mal CO, per44.09 CO, BB B won 2mol 0 pert mal CO, 16.0 0 per | mol O Taleo, THe Practice Problems — One-, Two-, and Three-Step Conversions 1. Fillin the missing entries in these “axle” conversion factors _——moto mol GH ° mol St mol H 2. How many moles of KNO, contain 14 g of oxygen? 3. Fillin the missing entryin each conversion factor to determine how many oxygen atoms arein 25 9 K,Cr,0, Imol K,C1,0, malo atoms 9KCr,0, — TmOlK,Cr,0, mol 25.4K,C1,0,* 4. What mass of sodium ions is contalned in 1.23 10 formula units of sodium sulphide? 128 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 3.3 Activity: The Evaporation Rate of Water Question Whatis the evaporation rate af water In molecules pet second? Background Evaporation accurs when a molecule on the surface ofa liqud is struck with enough force by neighbouring molecules to break away from its attractions to those around it and enter the gas phase, Evaporation soften depicted lke popcom being popped. Pop...PoP, Bop op... pop, pop, etc Let's use the mole concept to calculate the actual rate at which water molecules evaporate. Procedu 1. Half a small beaker with water and weigh it Record its mass and the time of day 2. Putthe beaker na place where itwon't be disturbed. 3. Imabout 30 min, weigh the beaker and its contents again, once more recording itsmass and the time of day. Results and Discussion Mass of Beaker and H,0 (a) Time of Day Initia Final Change rnin 1. Calculate the number of water molecules evaporated during the tral 2. Calculate the duration of the trial in seconds. 3, Calculate the waters average evaporation rate during the tral in molecules per second, 4 Besultably amazed, Oh come on, more amazed than that! (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 ‘Chapter The Mole The Central Unitof Chemistry 129 3.3 Review Questions 1. Acticoat dressings, developed in 1995 by Robert Burrell ofthe University of Alberta, are impregnated With crystals of sver that are only 15 nm (nano- metres) in size. These nanocrystals are remarkably ‘mate effective athealing burns and other severe Wounds than any treatment previously available, ‘Acticoat bandages are credited with saving the lives and limbs of dazens of victims of the World Trade Center attack in New York City n 2001. What Is the ‘mass ofa crystal containing 1.0% 10* sver atoms? 2. Diamond is one way of arranging carbon atoms. The “Star of Africa’ diamond, displayed with the crown Jewels in the Tower of London, weighs 106.0 g and hhas an estimated value of over $400 millon. How ‘many carbon atoms compose the'Star of Africa” dimen . Gael a 3, Whats themass in grams ofa chlorine atom? 4, How many propane molecules arein 72.6 g propane, C,H,? @ 10, Ona particular day, 31.1 9(1 troy ounce) of gold cost $1300. (@31gAu atoms of Au (b) How many atoms of gold could you buy for 1 cent on that day? Complete the following “axle* conversion factors by filing in the appropriate numbers mol () rato, mol NO, ©) natn 23mol CO, melo Calclum oxalateis @ polsonous compound found in rhubarb leaves. How many moles of carbon arein 52.4 mg of calcium oxalate? Sodium phosphate is sold asa cleaner at most hardware stores. How many moles of sodium ions are there in 680 x 10 formula units of Na,PO,? Sulphuric acidis used to produce a tremendous hhumber and variety of materials including fertilizers, pigments, textiles, plastics, and explosives. What mass of sulphuric acid, H,S0,, contains 1.4 mol 0? 130 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage Interactive 2011 ISBN 976.0.9964778-2.9 11, How many carbon atoms are in 0.85 mol of the “pain-kller“acetarinophen, CytiNO,7 12, How mary mercury) ions arein 100.0 g HgC,? 13, How many grams of chloride ons are in 8:3 g of copperti) chloride? 114 What mass of carbon is present in 48 x 10® molecules of ethanol, C,H,OH? 15, Hydrogen fluoride, HF can be used to etch glass. The white lines on the glassware in your lab may have been made by this acidic gas. Determine the mass in kilograms of 39 x 10 molecules of HF. 16, Upto 1.44 x 10° kg of various oxides of nitrogen are emitted by a gas-burning electrical plantin one year. ‘Assuming this entire mass to be nitrogen dioxide, how many oxygen atoms would be presentin this gas sample? 17, How many molecules arein 1.000 mg of the organic solvent, carbon tetrachloride? 18. Glycerol, C,H,(OH), isa viscous, colourless liquid found in cough syrup toothpaste, soaps. and ie [a] many other household products, Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in 45 mol of alycerol = 19, How many atoms aren 14.56 g of sodium hydrogen sulphate, the active ngredlentin some tollet cleaners? (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter’ The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 131 3.4 Molar Volume Warm Up fecal fom section 14 thatthe prefix ili" means one-thousathor1 x 10% 1. Amitigram img) is one: ofagram 2A ¢ Jis 1x 107 moles, B.A namin Gol) onecthincancih of 4 0ox2L 512m Justas the mass of a mole ofa substanceis calle its molar mass the volume of a mole Molar Volume ‘of a substanceis called its molar volume. The molar volume of asubstanceis the space ‘occupied by a mole ofits particles. A solid’ or aliquid’ molar volumeis determined by the size and spacing of its patticlesThe size of the particles has little effect on a gass ‘molar volume because the average distance between the particles is so much greater than their size. Solids, liquids, and gases under constant pressure all expand when heated, Kinetic ‘molecular theory explains that matter is composed of moving partici. Ata higher ‘temperature a substance’ particles are moving faster and are thereby hitting each ‘other harder and bouncing farther apart. Since its particles have spread farther apart, a substance’s molar volumeis greater at higher temperatures. Liquids and gases are more frequently measured by volume than by mass, A Figures.4.1 Goyuussacwas Gnandhovarboloonse substance’ molar volume allows you to convert the volume ofthe substance into its ‘nd conductedsemeathe number of moles. exponents aor. Quick Check 1, What does the term ‘molar volume’ mean? 2. Asolld ora liquid’s molar volume is determined by the and ofits particles 3, Agas'smolar volume is determined mainly by the: ofits particles, 4, What generally happens to the molar volume of a material as tis heated? Alot Dalton’ evidence forthe atomic theory céme fom combining mas ftios. Dung The MolarVolume of — tnesame time pes when Dalton ved, other sclentsts were following asepaate tine of Gases research gathering data on combining volume ratios called volumetrc dts 1808, the W French chemist, Joseph Gay-Lussac found that gases measured atthe same temperature and pressure always reacted in whole-number volume ratios (Figure 3.4.1), For example, te Volumes ofhydrogen gas and one vlume of angen gasreactto produce two volumes of gaseous water. 778 132. Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 Using Gay Lussac’s ndings the_Italian chemist Amedeo Avogadro hypothesized that equal volumes of different gases, measured at the same temperature and pressure, have equal numbers of particles. Modern chemists stil refer to this as Avogadro's hypothesis {At ow pressures, the different sizes and attractive forces of different particles have little effect on the gas’ volume because the particles are so far apart on average. As an ‘example, 1 mol of any gas at 0°C and 101.3 KPa occupies approximately 22.4 L. Chemists refer to 0°C and 101.3 kPa as standard temperature and pressure or STP for short. The standard pressure 101.3 kPa isriormal atmospheric pressure at sea level “The molar volume of any gas at STP is approximately 224 L, Name Equivalence Statement Conversion Factors 2aL mal Tmot @STP | a2q_ OST Molar gas volume | tmol=224L@ STP ‘While all gases at the same temperature and pressure have approximately the same ‘molar volume, each solid and liquid has its own characteristic molar volume. In questions: requiring volumetric conversions, you will be given either the molar volume of any solid, liquid, or gas not at STP, or you will be given a means to calculate it Sample Problem — Converting Moles to Volume [Atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen react during lightning storms to produce nitragen monoxide that is quickly converted to nitrogen dioxide. What isthe volume of 1.3 mol af NO, at STP? What to Think about How toDolt 1. Convert: mol NO, -» LNO, 2 setup Ne 13 malNO, x ye 3. Conversion factor: 22.4 NO, per 1 mol NO, Lof substance © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 133. ‘Sample Problem — Converting Volume to Moles {600.0 of ar at STP is compressed into a scuba tank, How many moles of air are inthe tank? What to Think about How to Dot 1. Convert: Lalr+ mol air Amol alr Smale, 26.8 mol atr 7Lalr 2. Setup; 60001 airx 3. Conversion factor: mol ar per 224 Lait Practice Problems — Converting Moles to Volume and Volume to Moles 1. What volume of oxygen gas at STP contains 133 mol of 0,7 2. InBiritish Columbia, the burnt-match odor of sulphur dioxide is often associated with pulp and paper mil How many moles of SO, arein 9.5L of SO, at STP? 3. Silicon dioxide, better know as quart, has a molar Volume of 22.8 cm"/mol What s the volume of 0.38 mol ofsio? —— Recall from section 3.3 that as you learn more chemical quantities welll add them to Multi-step therim of the wheel Youll relate or connect the volume of a substance tothe other Conversions ‘quantities through the mole, For example, if you wanted to convert the volume of a Involving the substance into its mass, you would convert litres into moles and then males into grams. Volume of a ‘Substance items) to cr) volume of (3) w Figure3.42 Use the wheel model to help ou do conversions Involving the volume ofa substance 134 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 ‘Sample Problem — Two Step Conversion: Volume to Number of Items (Atoms) ‘The gasin neon signsis at extremely low pressure, How many neon atoms are presentin a sign containing 75 mL. of hheon gas ata molar volume that i 100 times greater than the molar volume at STP? What to Think about 1. Converts mL-+L 2. Convert: Ne mol Ne— atoms Ne 3. Setup: ‘LmolNe , 2atoms Ne 2075 LN Ne Te 4, Conversion factors 2240L Ne per 1 mol Ne 6.02 « 10°* atoms Ne per 1 mol Ne How toDolt 4.0L 7600 wel me ‘Sample Problem — Two Step Conversion: Volume to Mass Natural gas s used to heat many homes and may fuel the Bunsen burners in your laboratory. Natural gas consists primarily of methane, CH, What s the mass of &0L of CH, at STP? What to Think about 1. Convert: LH, = mol CH,—+ 9 CH 2. Setup ImolcH, 29 CH, BOLCH XT GH” * Tmol CH, 3. Conversion factors: 2.4L CH, per 1 mol CH, 16.09 CH, per mol CH, vavawen 24 Oa, tml OH SV (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter’. The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 135 ‘Sample Problem — Three Step Conversion: Jass of A to Volume of B People often refer to the amount of CO, produced as the carbon “footprint” ofa process. What volume of CO, at STP contains 0.20 of carbon? What to Think about How to Dolt 1. Convert: O20 fe LMS. LOE, , 9¢— molC> mol co, +L. €0, 0g8 "i wele osF Leo, 2. Setup: iimolc 1molCo, 7L CO, 0209 Cx 9€ ~ ?mole “ tmolco, 3. Conversion factors: fs Tmol Cper 120g B I mal CO, per I mol ¢ 2241.0, per I mol CO, K Converting mass ofone substance to volume of another Practice Problems — Conversions: Volume to Number of Items or Mass; Mass to Volume 1. HS gas|s released from rotten eggs. What volume of H,S gas at STP contains 17 g H,S? 2. Fillin the missing entry in each conversion factor below to determine the mass of carbon in 1.0L of propane, Hy, at STP mol GH, mol ¢ LOLGH,x TmaCH, 3. Ethylene glycol (C,H,0,) is widely used as an automotive antifreeze. The molar volume of C,H,0, is 0.0559 Umol. How many hydrogen atoms are in 200.0 mL of C, 136 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 Molar Volume and Density Density is the amount of matter ina given volume of an object or material In other ‘words, itis the mass per unit volume. Density isa conversion factor that relates a substance's mass directly to its volume without any reference to the mole. In terms of our ‘wheel model, density is the section of the rim between grams and litres, (items) «w 3) Figure3.A.3interconverting the mats and he volume ofa substance ‘Sample Problem — Converting Volume Directly to Mass ‘The density of methanol, CH,OH, at20°Cis 0.813 a/mL What isthe mass of 05001 of the alcohol at 20°C? ‘What to Think about 1. Convert: L CH,OH > g CH,OH 2. Setup: OS00L CHLOH x TT oESE 3. Conversion factor: 813 gf. How toDoit 500 L- CH OH x 2.9 CH,OH Itis the densities of substances, rather than their molar volumes, that are usually published in reference texts and tables. Molar volume and density ae related through ‘molar mass, An examination of thelr units (dimensional analysis) reveals that: Bet ok, mol ““g" ~ mat molar mass density (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter’. The Mole —The Central Unitof Chemisty 137 ‘Sample Problem — Calculating Molar Volume from Density In an episode of the television show “MythBusters” the team floated an aluminum foll boat on the invisible gas, sulphur hexafluoride, SF. SF, has a density of 6.0 g/L at room temperature and pressure, about six times that of al, What isthe molar volume of SF, under these conditions? What to Think about How toDolt molarmass density Post, 1LSF, 2 Setup: Tanase, * 6.009 5F, 1. molar volume: 3. Conversion factors: 146.1 9SF, per Tmol SF, Practice Problems — Calculating Molar Volume and Density 1. Gold hasa density of 19.42 g/cm® The standard gold bar held as gold reserves by central banks weighs 124k, Whats the volume of the standard gold bar? 2. Mercury has a density of 13.534 g/mL at room temperature What s the mass of 127 mL of mercury? 3.._Although ethanol (C,H,OH) Is best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, its largest use Is asa fuel or fuel additive. The density of ethanol is 0.789 g/mL. What s the molar volume of ethanol? 138 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 3.4 Activity: The Atomic Radius of Aluminum Question Whats the radius ofan alurninurn atom? Background We can’t even see an individual atom with the naked eye but we can stil derive an atoms radius from the molar volume and packing arrangement ofa substance’ atoms, Molar volume: Is the actual amount of space required to “house” 1 mol of the atoms and includes the space betiveen them in a technique called X-ray diffraction, chemists reflect X-rays off the substance. The scattering (diffraction) pattern allows chemists to determine how the atoms are arranged. Aluminum atoms are packed in such 4 way that 74% ofthe metal’s volume s the volume of the ators themselves and the res s space, Procedure |. Weigh and measure the dimensions of small aluminum block and fil in the table below. Mass Length width Heignt Volume Density (o) (em) (em) (em) (em?) Igier?) Results and Discussion 1. Calculate the molar volume of aluminum in cm?/mol 2, Caleulate the volume of 1 mol of Al atoms (excluding the space between them) Volume =074 x cmm'/mol an*/mol 3, Calculate the volume of one Al atom. cm? Al mol Al ‘Atomic volume cm*smol imal atoms 4. Caleulate the radius of spherical aluminum atom, Given 5. Convert the radius ofthe atoms into nanometre 6. Theaccepted value for the radius of an aluminum atom is 0.143 nm. What ls your percent error? You ust figured out the radius ofan atom. How amazing Is that! Cu (8.96 g/em) atoms are packed the sameway a5 Alatoms if youd like to repeat this activity for copper. © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 139 3.4 Review Questions 1, Liquid octane, C,H,,, has a molar volume of 82.4 mL/mol. Whats the volume of 250 millimoles of Hi? 2, How many moles of ar are therein a human lung With a volume of 24 | at STP? 3. 275LN,atsTP 4. Airis approximately 21% oxygen. How many moles ‘of oxygen are in 5.0L of air at STP? 5. Diphosphorus pentoxidels a gas produced each time you strike a match. What Is the mass of 257 L of this gas at STP? 6 A525 mb flask contains 0.935 g of anoble gas at STP Identify the gas from ts molar mass, 7. Acetylene gas, C,H, isused as a fuel in welding torches. How many acetylene molecules arein a cylinder that delivers 1400 L of acetylene at STP? 8. 5x 10" molecules PH, mL PH, at STP 9. Propane gas, C,H,(a), is easily compressible to a storable liquid, A standard barbecue tank holds 9.1 kg of propane. How many ltres of gas wll the tankless at STP? meee a 10, Soft rinks are bottled under pressure forcing CO, Into solution. Theindstry expresses the amount of atbonation in volumes of CO, at ST per volume of solution The carbonation ofa iypical soft cinkis 3.7 vjveneaning that 355 mL can contains 37x 355 ml. CO, at STRWhat is the mass of CO, in 355m can? 11, How many moles of hydrogen are in 83.9L of ammonia gas, NH, at STP? 140 Chapter The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage Interactive 2011 ISBN 976.0.9964778-2.9 12, Nitrous oxide, N,©, is commonly called “laughing .gas"Itis sometimes used by dentists as a partial anaesthetic. How many grams of nitrogen aren 384L of N,O atSTP? wi 13, Dinitrogen tetroxide's one of the most important rocket propellants ever developed. How many ‘oxygen atoms arein 27.2 Lof the gas at STP? 14, Disposable lighters often contain butane, Gy. (density = 0.601 g/mL). How many grams of butane are there in alighter containing 15 mL of the fuel? 15, Mercury is liquid metal with a density of 13.546 g/ml at 20°C What's the molar volume fof mercury at 20°C? 16, Gold has a density of 19.42 g/cm’. How many moles ‘of gold are there in a 5.0 cm’ strip? 17. Liquid bromine, Br, hasa density of 353 g/ml. How many bromine molecules arein 15.0 mL of bromine? (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter’. The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 11 3.5 Composition Analysis — Determining Formulas Warm Up Forensic investigators collect samples from crime scenes. How do technicians identify the unknown samples? ‘An instrument called amass spectrometer can identify the vast majority of compounds. Each compound has ‘@ unique mass spectrum; much ike each person hasa unique fingerprint. Amass spectrometer breaks most of ‘themolecules nto fragments In so doing, it creates a variety of particles from individual atoms to the intact ‘molecule itself and then matks the mass of each ofthese particles along a graph’ horizontal axis The height of theline in the spectrum indicates the relative abundance of that particle Below isa simplified mass spectrum of ‘compound called pentane (,H,;) HHH HOH bord H-C-C1C-C-€-H TT | HHH HH Relative abundance 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Mass (u) Moss spectrum analss ofpentane 1, The last spectal line represents the intact molecule. What sits molecular mass? 2. Draw an arrow to point to the spectral in that represents the mass ofthe outlined fragment, 3. Why do you think there are more of some fragments than others? ‘Theimportant point hereis that one of the most sophisticated tools in a chemist’ arsenal identifies compounds solely from thelr'mass profile” In this section, youll leatn to determine a compound's formula from Its ‘composition by mass, kx Percentage Percentage composition is the percent of « compound's mass contributed by ‘Composition ‘each type of atomin the compound. ‘Acompound’s percentage composition can be determined theoretically from ts formula Interactive 2011 ISBN 976-0:9864778.2.9 12 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty OE dvanta ‘Sample Problem — Determining Percentage Composition Whats the percentage composition of a sugar with the formula C, H,,0, What to Think about How to Dolt 1. Calculate the sugar's molar mass imo ,120g0___ 44090 Twol ©,,H5,0,, * tmol& ~ Twal 6,,H.,0,, 2. ‘Thus one mole ofthis sugar contains 144.9 ¢, 22 gH, and 176g. zamalH , 109H 22.094 Twol C,5AyO,, * TmolH twal C5H.35, 3, Express each elements percentage of ‘the molar mass. HimdO 16090 176.090 @ cain Twal C,H,,0,, “imal © @ ong ‘i aa Total =__ 144.090 8 CO" 39209 O40, Asugarmelecue with 12 carbon atoms, 22bytkogen atoms, end 1} oxygen atoms Practice Problems — Determining Percentage Composition 1. Ibuprofen is a common pain reliever and ant’inflammatory. Its formula is C,H, What Is its percentage composition? 2.__Ammonium sulphate, (NH,},S0, Isa common fertlizer used to lower the pH of soll Calculate its percentage composition 3. Many salts are hydrated, which means they have water molecules incorporated Into their ionic crystal lattice ina fixed ratio. Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate, MgSO, -7 H,0, has seven water molecules incorporated into the crystal lattice for each magnesium ion and sulphate ion. Calculate the percentage of water by mass In MgSO, -7 H,0. © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 143. Empirical, Molecular, and Structural Every molecular compound has three formulas; an empirical formula, a molecular {ormula, and a structural formula. They become more speciicin that order. Formauilax + The empirical formula is the simplest integral ratio ofthe different types of atoms in the compound + Themolecular formula is the actual number of ezch type of atom in each molecule of the compound + The structural formula shows how the atomsin a molecule are arranged. Itis a diagram that shows the pattern ofthe atoms’ connections. ‘Organic chemistry fs the study of compounds and reactions involving carbon. There are millons of organic compounds. Glucose s an organic compound with a molecular formula of C,H,,0, The subscripts 6 12,6 can be reduced or simplified to 1,2, 1. We don't show thenumber 1 asa subscriptin a formula so the empirical formula of glucose is CH,O. ‘Many compounds have the same empirical formula but different molecular formulas, Their molecular formulas all reduce to the same ratio, For example all alkenes such as ethene (C,H,), propene (C,H,), and butene (C,H), have an empirical formula of ‘CH, because each of thelr molecular formulas can be reduced to a 1 to 2 ratio. ‘Compounds with the same molecular formula but with different structural formulas, ice the same atoms ate put together differently are called structural isomers, For example, ‘GiHy has tvo structural somers. You will learn more about structural isomers in chapter 8 Quick Check 1. Complete the following table. Structural Formula ‘Molecular Formula Empirical Formula HO Lo H-C.C-0-H 7 H oo nt H-O-C-C-O-H x Determining an Empirical Formula from Percent Composition A 48, Insection 3.1 youteamed how to determine an element’ relative atomic mass from a ‘compound's percent composition and formula. Earlier in this section (3.5) youlearned how to determine the percent composition of a compound from Its formula and the atomic masses ofits component elements. There’ only one more arrangement of these variables to leatn, That's how to determine the formula of a compound fromits percent ‘composition and the atomic masses ofits component elements, ‘The word “emplrical’is an adjective meaning that something is based on ‘observation or experiment: Empirical formulas are determined from the mass ratios of a ‘compound's component elements: in other words, from its percent composition, The most, direct, but not always easiest, way to experimentally determine a compound's percent ‘composition sto decompose a sample of the compound into its component elements LAM Chapter The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty OE dvanta Interactive 2011 ISBN 976-0:9864778.2.9 ‘Sample Problem — Determining an Empirical Formula Determine the empirical formula of a compound that 48.65% carbon, 8.11% hydrogen, and 43.24% oxygen, What to Think about 1. In 100.09 of the substance, there would be 48.65 gC, B.11.gH, and 43.24,g 0. Convert these amounts into moles. 2. Divide each molar quantity by the smallest one and ‘then multiply by whatever factor is necessary to find thei integral ratio (as shown in a conventional formula), ‘The mole ratio and the individual atom ratio are of course the same. This means the subscripts Ina formula can be read either as moleratis or as individual atom ratios. this compound has 3 mol of cation atoms for every 2 mol of oxygen atoms then It has 3 dozen carbon atoms for every 2 dozen oxygen atoms, and 3 carbon atoms for every 2 oxygen atoms. How to Delt : 1m 4 peroy 48.05 gx Ta = Hos4e mal C = 8.2100 mol 4 Practice Problems — Determining an Empirical Formula 1. A compounds 18.7%, 16.3% and 65.5% O. Determine its empirical formula 2. Acompound is 9.93% C, 58.6% Cl, and 31.4% F. Determine Its empirical formula, 3. Asample of a compound contains 5.723 g Ag, 0:852 g 5, and 1.695 g O. Determine its empirical formula (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter. The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 145 Recall the difference between the empirical formula and the molecular formula of a Determining the ‘compound. The empirical formulas the simplest integral ratio ofthe different types of Molecular Formula toms in the compound. The molecular formula is the actual number of each type of ofa Compound atom in each molecule. A compound's molecular formula is an integral multiple ofits ‘empirical formula, Its molecular formula’s molar massis that same integral multiple ofits ‘empirical formula’s molar mass. For example, butane has an empirical formula of GH, (29,g/mol) and a molecular formula of C,H, (58 g/mol), The “molecular formula’s molar smass"is just another way of saying the compound!’s molar mass" Therefore, we can determine the compounds molecular formula from Its empirical formula and its molar ac mass compound's molar mass molec forma = empl fom clon ‘There are many ways to experimentally derive a compound's molar mass Ifthe ‘compound is volatile, meaning its easly evaporated, then you know from section 3.4 that | mol of any gas occupies 224 Lat STP, The mass of 2.4L at STP thus provides the ‘compound's molar mass ‘Sample Problem — Determining a Molecular Formula ‘A.compound has an empirical formula of CH, and a molar mass of 42.0 g/mol Determine its molecular formula, What to Think about How toDo lt 1. Calculate the molar mass of the ial ¢ ‘empirical formula Tmat CH, 2molH y io9H __200H Twol CH “mat H ~ Tmo CH, Total 4.0 G/mol CH 2. Divide the molar mass of the molecular formula by the molar mass of the empirical formula 3. Multiply the empirical formula itself by this factor, 1G Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 Practice Problems — Determining a Molecular Formula |. Vinegars a dilute solution of acetic acid. The molar mass of acetic acid is 60.0 g/mol and it has an empirical {formula of CH,0. What s the molecular formula of acetic acid? 2. _Acompound has an empirical formula of C,H, Which of the following are possible molar masses of the compound: 20 g/mol 55 g/mol, 80 g/mol 120 g/mol? 3. Asmall sample of antifreeze was analyzed. It contained 4.51 g G 1.13.gH, and 601 g 0 From the elevation of ‘waters botling point, It was determined that the antifreeze’ molar mass s 62.0 g/mol. What isthe molecular formula of antifteeze? © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 147 3.5 Activity: Determining the Empirical Formula of Butane from the Percentage Composition of Its Model Question What isthe empirical formula of butane? Background Recall that “empirical“s an adjective meaning ‘based on observation or ‘experiment’ Empirical formulas are determined from the mass ratios of a compound's component elements {Ge from its percent composition as determined by analysis). The empirical formulas the simplest integral rato of the different types of atoms in the compound. Procedure 1, Use #1 (regula sized) paper clips to represent hydrogen atoms. Jumbo paper clips represent carbon atoms. ‘As a prelude to this exercise, someone must weigh 48 of each type of paperclip and divide by 4 to obtain the mass per dozen. Provide these values to the students to enter in column 3. 2. Forma group of two to five students Each student links 4 jumbo paper clips together with 10 regular paper clips 4. Unlink all the clips and weigh all your groups jumbo clips together. Record the mass of your groups jumbo clips as the mass of carbon In the table below. '5. Weigh all your group's regular sized clips together. Record the mass of your groups regular clips as the mass ‘of hydrogen in the table below, Results and Discussion mass | MassperDozen | number Empirical Erement ( {g/dor) (doz) Doren Ratio | Formula carbon 10 hycrogen 1. Galeulate how many dozens of each type of paper lip are in your groups sample. 2. Calculate the dozen ratio to find out how many dozens of hydrogen atoms there are for each dozen carbon, atoms 3, By whatlinteger do you need to multiply this ratio in order to obtain an integral dozen ratio? 4. What isthe empirical formula of butane? 5, Given the molecular models you made, what is the molecular formula of butane? LAS Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 3.5 Review Questions 1. Menthol a strong-smelling compound that is 5 used in cough drops. thas a formula ofC,H2,0. Calculate its percentage composition, 2. Sodium acetate tihydrate (NaCH,COO 34,0) 1s a salt commonly used in pickling foods. Calculate the percentage of water by massin this compound. 3. Tinitrotoluene (C,H,0,N,)is an explosive ‘commonly referred to as TNT. Calculate the 2 percentage of nltragen by massin this compound, 4. Complete the following table (a) Explain why the empirical formula alone is not ‘enough to identify a compound, (©) What other piece of information will allow you ‘to determine its molecular formula? [Aplgmenton a suspected forgery Is analyzed using ay fluorescence and found to contain 0.5068 mol Ba, 0.5075 mol G and 1.520 mol 0, Determine its empirical formula ‘Asample of caffeine analyzed and found to contain 1.4844 g C, 0.1545 g H, 04947 g O and 0.8661 gN. Determine the empirical formula of affeine Structural Formula ‘Molecular Formula Empirical Formula HH HH nee HH HH OHHH Head H-0-C-C-C-C-H HHH (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter. The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 149 8 10, (@) InaTV series, a forensic anthropologist uses X-ray fluorescence to analyze a dental filing found in skeletal remains. The results ofthe analysis ate provided as atomic percentages’ 2.85% Al, 87 4%5i, and 9.75% Yb. Convert these results into mass percentages. (©) These results identified the filing asa ‘commercial restorative material called Heliomolar. How mightidentifying the material be useful in helping to identify the remains? ‘A.compound has an empirical formula of NH, anda ‘molar mass of 32.1 g/mol. What isthe compound’ ‘molecular formula? ‘Asample of ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, ‘was analyzed and found to contain 1.080 9G, 0,121 gH, and 1.4399 0. Ascorbic acid has a molar mass of 176.1 g/mol, Determine the molecular formula of ascorbic acid. 2 ‘Abydrocarbon is a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. One particular hydrocarbon is 92.29% carbon by mass. Ifthe compounds ‘molar massis 78.0 g/mol then what sits molecular forrnula? Cannizzaro determined that a certain compound ‘of carbon and oxygen had a molecular mass of 440. This meant that a certain volume ofthis {gaseous compound weighed 44.0 times as much as the same volume of hydrogen gas at the same temperature and pressure, This compound was analyzed and found to be 27.39% carbon by mass. (a) Whatis the total mass of carbon in 3 molecule of this compound? (b) Cannizzato repeated this experiment on many carbon compounds. Because he never found 1a molecule with less carbon than this one, Cannizzaro assumed that this molecule had only one carbon atom. Was this assumption correct? 150 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage Interactive 2011 ISBN 976.0.9964778-2.9 3.6 Molar Concentration Warm Up 1. Uist three products in yourrefigerator that are solutions. 2. Name some substances that are dissolved in these solutions, Examples ofcommon hhoveeholsiqnde 3, Where else in yourhhome are solutions kept? x Molarity—A Useful Unit of Concentration ‘Many chemicals ae dispensed in solution and most chemical reactions occur in solution, Recall from chapter 2 that a solution Is atype of mixture in which the chemical species, are completely mixed, A solute Is a minor component of the mixture, generally what has bbeen dissolved. The solvent s the major component of the mixture, generally what the solute was dissolved In. Concentration is any expression of the proportion of a chemical in a solution, Chemists need to know the amount of solute presentin any volume of solution they ‘might dispense. Therefore, concentration Is most usefully expressed as an amount of solute per volume of solution rather than per volume of solvent. There are many units of concentration. Common units of concentration express the amount of solute n grams. “These include grams per tre of solution, percent my, which Is the number of grams (mass) per 100 mL (volume) of solution, and parts per million (ppm), when expressed as the number of grams per millon grams of solution, A.seful unit of concentration for chemists expresses the quantity f solutein moles, ‘Molarity (Wi) isthe number of moles of the chemical per ltreof solution. For example, 1.8 MHClmeans 1,8 mol HCl per litre of solution. Molar concentrations allow chemists to directly compare the number of particles in the same volume of different solutions. For example, 10 mL of 2 MLI* contains twice as many lons as 10 mL of TM Nat. Name Equivalence Statement ‘Conversion Factors 2molsolute | 1Lsolution Molar concentration | 1 Lsolution=? molsolute | {Taremte. | JL SSUEON. 3molHCN | 11 solution Example 3MHEN | 1 Lsolution=3molHCN | -preanetion” | Sans (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter The Mole The Central Unitof Chemistry 151 Quick Check 1. Give one reason why solutions ate important in chemistry. 2. What does 2M NaOH mean? Lof solution 3. Why Is molarity a useful unit of concentration? ‘Sample Problem — Converting Volume of Solution into Moles of Solute The average salinity (total salt concentration) of seawater Is 0.60 M. How many moles of salt aren a toy bucket containing 435 mL of seawater? What to Think about How toDolt 1. Convert: mL L 2. Convert: Lsoln—> mol salt Pmol salt 3. Setup: 0435 L soln « Pmelsalt 4. Conversion factor: 0.60 mol salt per 1 L soln ‘Note: There is no conventional abbreviation for “solution” but we will useSoln"In our calculations. ‘Sample Problem — Converting Moles of Solute into Volume of Solution What volume of 3.0 M HCI should a chemist dispense to obtain 0.25 mol HCI? What to Think about How to Dolt 1. Convert: mol HCI—L soln TLsoln 2. Setup: 0.25 mol HCL ey 3. Conversion factor: TL soln per 3.0 mol HCI 152. Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 Practice Problems — Converting Moles of Solute to/from Volume of Solution 0.72Lof25 MNaOH = mol NaQH [An intravenous bag of saline solution contains 0.154 M NaCI. How many moles of NaCl does a 500.0 mL bag contain? Lofoso MCI |Aperson's urinemay havea distinct odor as soon as 15 min after eating asparagus. Methanethiol, one of the metabolic products responsible for this odor, can be detected by some people in concentrations as low as 4.0 x 10M, At this concentration, what volume of urine contains 1.0 mmol of methanethiol? —_ ‘solution of known concentration is called a standard solution. To prepare 2 1M Prepari ga NaCl(aq solution, you could measure out 1 mol (58.5 q) of NaCl and then add water up Standard Solution to 1 L of solution so thatthe 1 mol NaC! I dlssolved inthe resulting ! L solution, Note froma Solid that you’add water up to 1 L’not ‘add up to 1Lofwater! hich means something entirely different Adding water upto 1L of solution won't quiterequire 1L of water because the solute wll displace a small amount of water. You won't always want 1 L of solution, however. To prepare a particular valume and concentration of solution requires calculating the mass of solute to weigh out: Chemists generally memorize the formula for ‘this calculation through countless repetitions in the ab, Sample Problem — Converting Volume of Solution into Mass of Solute Describe how to prepare 0.055 L of 0.20 M KCI from the sold 2. What to Think about How toDolt Convert: Lsoln —» mol KCI—> g KCl Setup: O055L soln MAKE , 79 KC) “Tosoin * Tol KT Conversion factors: 0.20mol KC per 1Lsoln 748 qKCIper 1 mol KCI Measure out 0.82 9 KCL and add water upto 55 nil (0.055 L} of selutfon. 0229RCL © Edvantage Interactive 2011 |SBN 978.0.9864778.29 Chapter. The Mole -The Central Unitof Chemisty 153 ‘Sample Problem — Determining Molar Concentration What molar concentration of CIs produced by measuring out 1.09 KCl and adding water up to 0350 of solution? What to Think about 1. Convert: 9 KCI—> mol KCL Amol kel 2 Setup: LOg Kel x yg 3. Conversion factor: ‘Timol KCl per 74.6 9 KCI 4. Molarity is oles per litre meaning the number of moles divided by the number oflitres. How toDolt om tmol KCL 10 gah x SE 0.012 mol KCL Molar Concentration, 0.023 mol KL Kr "0.250L Solu = o.08gM KCL Practice Problems — Converting Volume of Solution into Mass of Solute and Determining Molar Concentration 1. Deseribe how to prepare 500.0 mL of 1.5M CaCl, from CaCl). 2. Whatmass of KCI would he recovered if 55 mL of 0.20M KCI were“evaporated to dryness"? Mint: this is the same as asking how many grams of KCl are in $5 mL of 0.20 M KCL] 3. Whatmolar concentration of sve nitrate Is produced by measuring out 1.8 g and then adding water to make 75 mL of solution? 154 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage Interactive 2011 ISBN 976.0.9964778-2.9 WEEE Recall om chapter 2 thationic compounds have no net charge Thelons associate Ionsin Solution together in the ratio that results in their charges canceling For exemple: 2AI(aq) + 350,2-(aq) > A150), (9) ‘The onic compound is neutral because the ons havea net charge of zero: 2(34) + 3(2-)=0.The ons, however remain unchanged in the crystal. By convention, chemists dont show the charges ofthe ions nthe formulas of onic compounds The charges are implicit (plied) rather than explicit (shown). When an nic compound aisolves the same lons that associated together to form the compound now dissoclate (disassociate) and travel independently through the solution For example, AL{50,) (6) 2AF*(aq) +350,7-(ag) Sample Problem — Two-Step Conversion: Volume of Solution to Number of lons Some communities fluoridate their water to reduce tooth decay. HealthLinkBC reports that the most effective F> concentration for water supplies in B.C. s between 0.042 M and 0.053 M. How many fluoride ions would a person Ingestby drinking 20 of 0047 MF-? What to Think about How toDolt 1. Convert: L soln mol F—* ions F~ 2. Setup: n ons 20L soln x 7MOlF” , FonsF TLsoln “Tt mol 3. Conversion factors: 0.047 mol F- per 1 L soln 6.02 10°*fons F> per 1 mol F (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter. The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 155 Being able to relate the concentration of dissolved ions tothe concentration of their parent compound is extremely important in chemistry. Although it may be misleading, 2 label isnot necessarily intended to indicate what s actually presentin the solution. Some knoviledge of chemistry is required to realize how a solute behaves in solution. 1 M ‘AL{50,), means that 1 mol ofA, (50,), was dissolved per litre of solution. There sno such thing as an Al,(50,), particle. The dissociation equation provides the rato ofthe released {ons to each other and to their parent compound; thus 1M Al,(50,), actually contains 2 AP* and 3M S02 ‘Sample Problem — Relating the Concentration of Dissolved lons to the Concentration of ‘Their Parent Compound What concentrations oflons are present in 30M CaCl,(aq)? What to Think about ‘The ratios in the dissociation equation show that 1 mol Ca** and 2 mol Cr are formed for each mole of CaCl, dissolved, How toDolt caci,(s) = ea*(aq) + 2CKaq) 3.0mo\/L | dissolves to form 2 z 3.0moI/L | dissolvesto form | 30M 60m This tablets shown for teaching purposes only —you don't need to show itin your work. The molar concentration of a chemical isindicated by putting square brackets [1 around the chemicals formula, For example, INa“] means the molar concentration of Na*. A couple of precautions: + ’M already means mol per ‘therefore don't write*M per L” because that would mean “moles per lite per itr” which doesn't make sense + You can write"? M Na“ or"INa“] = 2 M"but dont write"2 M INa“T because that would ‘mean “two molar the molar cancentration of Na*' which doesn't make sense. ‘The dissociation equation provides the conversion factor represented by the axlein ‘our wheel model 156 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty OE dvanta Interactive 2011 ISBN 976-0:9864778.2.9 ‘Sample Problem — Thre‘ “Step Conversion: Volume of Solution to Number of Ions ‘Aluminum chloride can be used to produce aluminum chlorohydrate, an active ingredient In antiperspirants, How many chloride ions aren 0.025 L of 030M ACL? What to Think about 1. Convert Lsoln > mol Alc, > mol C-—> ions cr Pmol Alc, | ?mol c~ _ rions 2 Setup: 00251 soln | gain *Tmol AlCl,“ TemeT C= 3. Conversion factors: B 0.30 mol AICI, per 1 Lsoin 3 mol Cl-per 1 mot AICI, 6.02 x 10% Cr ions per 1 mol cl- A How toDolt O20 tethehch SB Hweheh 6.02 x *Tvaol Lae ~ 0.025 scene Practice Problems — Three-Step Conversion: Volume of Solution to Number of lons 1. What concentrations of ons are present in 1.5 M CaCl, (aq)? 2, What concentration of sodium phosphate contains 0.60 M Na¥? 3. Write the relationship between the concentrations ofthe ions present in a solution of lithium phosphate. (careful this s tricky. in a Cac, solution, [C1] =2 a"). 4, What mass of potassium lons isin 0.75 L of 28 MK"? 5. lroniil) nitrate solutions are used by jewellers to etch silver. How many NO,~lons are dissolved in a 525 ml bath 0f3.0M iron(l) nitrate? (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter. The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 157 3.6 Activity: Building a Scale Model of a Solution Question I What isthe ratio of solute fons to water molecules in a solution of 1 M Nacl(ag)? Background ‘Models are very important in sclence. A model, sclentiic or otherwise, Is anything that represents something else ‘Chemists can use models to explain and predict the behaviour of matter The American chemist Linus Pauling, figured out the spiral structure of proteins using paper cut-outs as models. He was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prizein ‘chemistry partly for this accomplishment In this activity, you wll constructa scale model of a solution, Procedure 1. Calculate how many moles of H,O molecules occupy one. (Density of H,0= 1000 g/L) gH,0 Imo! Ho 1TH“ gH,0— mol H,0f1 H,0 Although its units are moles per itr this value is nota concentration; is not molarity. It does not describe the proportion of a chemical in a mixture. It describes the number of moles of water in 1L of the substance ands, simply the Inverse of water's molar volume. 2. Determine the ion concentrations in 1.0M NaCKag). Nact > Ne + ot 10M dissolves to form, 3, For simpliaty, lets assume that each mole of ions displaces a mole of water molecules. state the rato of water ‘molecules: sodium tons: chloride lons in 1 M NaCl (29) Ho: Nats cr 4. Asa dass, decide which kind or colour of bead will represent each chemical species. H,0 molecules Natlons crtons 5, Count out the beads in the ratio shown In step 3 and pour therm Into the SOO-mL graduated cylinder provided bby your teacher for the lass, Results and Discussion 6 State three ways your mode! differs from an actual 1 MINaCI solution 158 Chapter3 The Mole The Central Unit of Chemisty (©Edvantage interactive 2011 ISBN 978.0.9868778-29 3.6 Review Questions 1. What does 15 MHCI mean? 2. Acough syrup contains 0.011 M dextromethorphan, How many moles of the cough suppressant are in ‘one teaspoon (5.0mL) of the cough syrup? Lofo.20m cat? 4, The fluid inside ving cells called cytosol. Ahhuman hepatocyte (a type of liver cel) with a volume of 500A. (Vf. femtolite) = 10" L) contains 12M Na*. How many sodium ions arein the cytosol of this cell? 3. 75.0mmol Ca? = 5. Consumer products express concentrations in mg/volume or g/volume because the general public Isnt familiar with molarity (a) Amedium sized (296 mL) cup of Tim Horton's coffee contains 0.10.9 caffeine, GJH,,N,O, Express this concentration in molarity, (b} A355 mL can of pop contains 42.6 g sugar, H,,O, Whats the sugar’s molar concentration? Humans have an average blood volume of 5.0L with ‘an average blood sugar (C,H,,0,) concentration. ‘of 40 mM, What s the average mass of glucose ‘coursing through the human bloodstream? Describe how to prepare 250 mL of 0.50 M sodium nitrate Be sure to answer in a complete sentence, fle ‘As aglass of cold tap water warms up, small ait bubbles will come out of solution on the inner wall fof the glass. A glass of cold water contains 0.45 mM. (©, How many millitres of oxygen gas at STP are dissolved in 300.0 mi ofthis water? \What concentrations ofions are present in: (@) 0.35 MFe,(cr,0,),7 (b) 1.6 mol/L strontium cyanide? (2 Edvantage interactive 2011 SBN 978.0.9868778-29 Chapter’. The Mole The Central Unitof Chemisty 159 10. In eflected ight iron(i) chloride crystals appear dark green but in transmitted ight they appear ‘maroon. What concentration of onl) chloride contains 0.038 Mc? 11. tmasolution of Fe,(50,), {@)ifthe iFe#]= 15 M then whatis the 50,27 EAE) 4 ss oi LOM then what Is the fFe™*P wyittheiso,* 12. Write the relationship between the concentrations. ‘of the lons ina solution of (@)2ine chromate () strontium hydroxide 14, How many Na* ions are dissolved in 1.5 Lof3.0M Na,coy 15, Ittakes 145 drops from a pipette to reach the 50 mt mark on a graduated cylinder. How many grams of bbromide ions arein one such drop of 0.10 M iron) bromide? 16, Phosphoricacid, H,PO, Is added to soft drinks to Increase thetrtartness and to act asa preservative ‘The concentration of H,PO, in Pepsis proprietary (@ company secret) but can be determined from Its phosphorus content sinceH,PO, Is the only source ‘of phosphorus in the beverage. There are 49 mg of phosphorus in 355 mL can of Pepsl, What isthe 1H,PO,)In Pepsi2 17, Draw the plot representing a 1.5 MNaC! solution on, the graph provided. Amount of NaCl vs. Volume of Solution Aeount of 13. miknas a [4 of about 314 mM, what mass of yes a lonsareina 250m serving of mil? otaa4 Volume f Soktion ® 160 chaptr3 The Mole-The Cental Unf chemistry tévamage trai 2011504 978.0980477829