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SlimCity sustainable buildings

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SlimCity urban mobility
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in collaboration with
knowledge cards
January 2009 | First edition
SlimCity urban mobility

SlimCity smart energy

SlimCity sustainable buildings


SlimCity
Editor Editor

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World Economic Forum

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World Economic Forum
Research
Susan Thomas, Arup
Research
Design Susan Thomas, Arup
Jeremy Clark, Jacob Dunn, Sarah Khalid, Marcus Morrell, Arup

urban mobility
urban mobility
Printing and packaging Design
1st-packaging Jeremy Clark, Jacob Dunn, Sarah Khalid, Marcus Morrell, Arup

urban mobility
urban mobility
Project Management
Marcus Morrell, Arup Printing and packaging
Stefano Ammirati, Johanna Lanitis, World Economic Forum 1st-packaging
Project Direction
Chris Luebkeman, John Miles, Arup Project Management
Christoph Frei, John Moavenzadeh, World Economic Forum
Marcus Morrell, Arup
Thanks to Stefano Ammirati, Johanna Lanitis, World Economic Forum
Members of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on the Future of
Mobility and to all contributing photographers.
Project Direction
Printed January 2009 Chris Luebkeman, John Miles, Arup
© Text: the authors; © Images: the authors
Christoph Frei, John Moavenzadeh, World Economic Forum

Thanks to in collaboration with ARUP

Members of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on the Future of
Mobility and to all contributing photographers.

Printed January 2009

© Text: the authors; © Images: the authors


SlimCity urban mobility

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urban mobility city issue map urban mobility
Mobility has become a key concern in cities throughout both the developed and developing world, as it profoundly This graph shows the results from Mobility has become a key
affects the livelihoods and lifestyles of many millions of urban dwellers. The 20th century was a period of rapid a survey asking a selection of city Traffic Greenhouse affects the livelihoods and l

High
motorization, bringing with it enormous social and economic benefits. Motor vehicles have enabled people to be Mayors, Deputy Mayors and urban congestion gas emissions motorization, bringing with
flexible with regards to where they live and work, providing ready access to a variety of services and leisure options. planners what issues are of most Financing of flexible with regards to whe
Consumer interest transport infrastructure
They have also been instrumental in facilitating the rapid and timely distribution of manufactured goods. But the concern. They were each asked to They have also been instrum
in sustainability
widespread use of vehicles also brings real environmental and economic costs. These costs have risen dramatically in rank thirty pre-determined issues widespread use of vehicles
the past few decades and vehicles now represent a major source of air pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. according to importance (high/low), the past few decades and v
The increase in the use of vehicles also represents a genuine threat to economic security for many nations, due to the level of uncertainty (high/low) and The increase in the use of v
need to import oil to fuel them. timescale within which to address Energy need to import oil to fuel the

Uncertainty
the issue (1-5 years). The survey was efficiency
City authorities have sought to address these problems by encouraging people to use more sustainable methods of conducted in collaboration with the City authorities have sough
travel such as public transport, cycling and walking. Measures to cut demand and rein in car use are an important World Economic Forum’s partner, Mass transit travel such as public transp
component in seeking to achieve a modal shift away from oil-dependent transportation. Urban transport measures systems component in seeking to ac
ICLEI. The objective of the survey Freight distribution
can also assist in achieving wider objectives. Pricing structures, for example, can contribute towards a city’s equity was to ensure that the Forum’s work can also assist in achieving
and transportation
objectives. The promotion of cycling and walking can bring about considerable benefits in terms of health and on SlimCity is relevant in the global objectives. The promotion o
well-being, which could reduce costs associated with healthcare provision. Social inclusion should be an important context. well-being, which could red
consideration in every city’s transport policy, to ensure that all citizens have access to transport options, including those ICT infrastructure consideration in every city’s
with disabilities, the elderly and other vulnerable groups. Fifty cities took part in the survey, with disabilities, the elderly
conducted in 2008, from the

Low
Investment in urban transport and communications infrastructure is critical for balanced regional development and for following countries: Australia, Brazil, Investment in urban transpo
the enhancement of economic potential in urbanized areas. In the developing world, targeted investment in transport Canada, Estonia, France, Germany, Low Importance High the enhancement of econo
and communications infrastructure continues to drive significant growth and economic development. Ireland, Italy, Japan, Namibia, and communications infras
Fig. ICLEI city issue map for Urban Mobility 1 year timeline
The following knowledge cards cover these and other aspects of global urban mobility. They provide examples of Nigeria, Portugal, South Africa, The following knowledge ca
The size of each circle corresponds to the perceived timescale within
best practice and have been designed to inspire and inform. Please note that given our chosen area of focus is urban South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, which each issue should be addressed. 5 year timeline best practice and have bee
mobility, we have not included best practice in inter-urban and longer distance transportation – airports, ports, intercity the United Kingdom, the United mobility, we have not includ
rail and other modes of long distance travel are not examined. States of America and Uruguay. rail and other modes of long
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bus rapid transit
bus rapid transit bus rapi
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a high-capacity, relatively low-cost Fig. Bus system speed comparison
public transport solution that can improve urban mobility. It is a
40

Miles per hour


permanent, integrated system that uses buses or specialized
vehicles on roadways or dedicated lanes to efficiently transport
35
passengers to their destinations, while offering the flexibility to
meet transport demand. BRT systems can be customized to
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30
community needs and incorporate state-of-the-art, low-cost
technologies that result in more passengers and less congestion.
25
The bus system of Curitiba, Brazil, exemplifies a model BRT
system. It is one of the most heavily used, yet low-cost, transit 20
systems in the world, offering many of the features of a subway
system – vehicle movements unimpeded by traffic signals and 15
congestion; fare collection prior to boarding; quick passenger
loading and unloading – but it is above ground and visible. The 10
Curitiba system pioneered the use of bus-boarding tubes. Around
70% of Curitiba’s commuters use the BRT to travel to work. 5

Many other cities have followed Curitiba’s lead, including Bogotá


0
and Mexico City. The TransJakarta busway is a 12.9 km corridor
through the city’s centre; it opened in 2004, and since then six
further lines have been added to the system. It was built in nine Urban transit buses
The Bogotá Transmilenio has reduced months and was inspired by the BRT systems in Bogotá and
Arterial median busways
travelling time by 32%, cut gas emissions by Curitiba. It has reduced CO2 emissions and improved safety and
40% and decreased accident rates by 90%. efficiency. Many cities are now considering the introduction of BRT Grade-separated busways
Source: http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/transport/bogota_ systems, for example Cape Town in South Africa.
bus.jsp
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rail/metro
rail/metro rail/met
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Rail systems can be an important component of urban mobility, Fig. Cost vs capacity of different
and they are well suited to carrying a high volume of passengers. transport modes
Greater Tokyo has the world’s most extensive urban rail network,

Increasing capacity
run by a variety of operators, with feeder buses and monorails
playing a secondary role. Greater Tokyo is currently served by
121 passenger train lines, and some 20 million people use rail
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daily as their primary means of transport in the metropolitan
area. Tokyo also has the world’s most extensive metro system,
opened in 1927, with substantial expansion in the 1970s. It is
used by more than 80% of Tokyo’s population to get to work.
This comprehensive system has developed as a result of organic,
incremental growth.
In Berlin there has been a sustained programme of transport
infrastructure investment, resulting in a transport system
offering a wide and well-integrated variety of modal choices. A
comprehensive tram network connects with the city’s U-Bahn
(metro) and S-Bahn (rail) routes.
Increasing cost
The German government strongly supports rail investment,
including tramways, and has made substantial investment in tram-
Community Bus Bus Rapid Transit
train schemes, which allow trams and trains to run on the same
Shinjuku Station in Tokyo is the busiest train
track. Changes have been made to the legal framework to allow Local Bus Light Rail Transit
station in the world, which transports
tram-train operations in a number of towns in Germany. Four tram- Express Bus Metro/Heavy Rail
3.6 million people daily.
train routes operate from the centre of Kassel, a city considered to
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transportation_in_ be a leader for tram-train schemes. Commuter Rail
Greater_Tokyo#Railway_and_subway
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road pricing
road pricing
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road pri

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Road pricing measures have been used for a number of years as a Fig. Bus passengers entering
demand-management tool to improve urban mobility and reduce central London (07:00-10:00)
congestion. Singapore was the first city in the world to implement 120

Number of passengers in thousands


electronic road toll collection for congestion charging. An area Congestion
licensing scheme was introduced in the 1970s, replaced by the charging starts
automatic electronic system in the 1990s.
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100

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The congestion charging scheme introduced in London in 2003
is the most comprehensive of its kind. Congestion charging
contributes directly to the achievement of four transport priorities 80
set out in the Mayor’s Transport Strategy, to: reduce congestion;
make radical improvements to bus services; improve journey-
time reliability for car users; and make the distribution of goods 60
and services more efficient. By reducing traffic levels, it has also
facilitated wider transport, safety and environmental improvements
to central London. Net revenues from the scheme must, by law, be 40
invested in advancing the transport strategy.
A congestion charging scheme was implemented in Stockholm 20
in 2007, following trials in 2006, with the primary aim of reducing
traffic congestion and improving the environment in central
Stockholm. It is intended that the revenue generated by the 0
The Stockholm congestion charging trial reduced

1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
scheme should partly fund a new bypass and inner city traffic
CO2 emissions by 14% and traffic by 22%, while improvements. The acceptability of the scheme among citizens
travel times inside the zone reduced by 30-50%. was achieved by holding a trial and then a referendum.
Source: http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/transport/stockholm_
congestion.jsp Congestion charging schemes are currently under consideration in
03 a number of cities around the world. 03

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car-sharing
car-sharing car-shar
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Car-sharing is a car rental model in which people rent cars for short Fig. Car-sharing benefits by region
periods of time, often by the hour. Such a scheme is attractive
100

Percent
to customers who make only occasional use of a vehicle, as
well as to those who wish to rent a different type of vehicle on
different occasions. Car-sharing schemes are also attractive to 80
city authorities as they can help tackle congestion, pollution and
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parking pressures, while recognizing the role of the car.
60
The organization renting the cars may be a commercial business
or the users may be organized as a democratically controlled
company, public agency or co-operative grouping. In some 40
new residential developments, there is reduced car parking and
residents instead have access to vehicles by means of a car-
sharing club. Such a practice can be encouraged through a city’s 20
planning system.
In Berlin, the car-sharing schemes in operation were originally 0
marketed as environmentally-friendly, alternative lifestyle schemes.

Participants who sold


private vehicle after
joining car-sharing

Participants who postponed


or avoided vehicle purchase
due to car-sharing

Reduction of vehicle
Kilometres due
to car-sharing
However, most companies now emphasize cost-saving benefits;
some car-sharing companies waive monthly car-sharing fees for
people with annual bus and train season tickets.
“Over 40% of our members decide against The Berlin example has inspired many car-sharing schemes
purchasing a car, or end up selling their car. elsewhere. There are more than 600 cities in the world where
Car use by individuals is reduced by as much people can car-share. City authorities can encourage the take-up
as 50%.” of such schemes through the planning process as well as by giving Europe
Source: www.zipcar.com/carsharing-greenbenefits priority to shared vehicles for parking. North America
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voluntary programmes
voluntary programmes voluntar
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Some urban transport policies rely on voluntary programmes to Fig. Percentage of participants by day
change people’s behaviour. An example of this is No-Driving Day for Seoul’s No-Driving Day programme
in Seoul, where people choose one working day a week as a 30

Percent
no-driving day. The scheme was introduced in July 2003, aimed at
improving air quality and congestion, and saving energy.
People who are taking part in the scheme select a weekday, 25
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register it on a website and receive an e-tag for their windscreen.
Paper stickers were used initially, but it was difficult to confirm if
20
participants actually refrained from driving on the indicated day. To
address this problem, the city government introduced a system of
electronic tags with machine readers to check vehicles.
15
Car owners participating in the No-Driving Day programme
are eligible for a range of benefits, including: a 5% discount on
vehicle tax; a 2.7% reduction in car insurance premiums; a 50% 10
reduction in tolls for passage through the Namsan Tunnels 1 and
3; discounts at public parking lots (and monthly discount coupons
from parking lots); parking privileges in their villages; and discounts 5
at gas stations and car washes.
As a result of Seoul’s weekly No-Driving Day
programme, two million cars stay off the road Many cities now have annual car-free days when they encourage 0

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri
every year – decreasing traffic volume by 3.7% and their residents and visitors not to use a car.
vehicle CO2 emissions by 10%. The improved air
quality is also benefitting the health of residents,
saving the city millions annually.
Source: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/transport/seoul_driving.jsp
© Theodore Boermans © Theodore Boermans
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energy-efficient public transport
energy-efficient public transport energy-
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Well-utilized public transport, already much less carbon-intensive Fig. Illustration of a hybrid bus
than private cars, can gain from more energy-efficient technology.
It is also an area where cities are able to lead by example with their Lead acid
municipal fleets. battery packs
Power
In San Francisco, there has been policy action and a commitment electronics
from municipal agencies to reduce carbon emissions in fleets by
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acquiring sustainable vehicles. More than half of the city’s bus
and light-rail fleet now comprises zero-emission vehicles, with fire
trucks and ambulances running on biodiesel. The city is working
with a waste-haulage company to convert the garbage truck fleet
to clean fuel vehicles.
Electric
Stockholm has the highest percentage of clean vehicles in Europe. traction motor
The city’s push for reduced vehicle emissions started with a pilot
Generator
project in 1996, when it removed market barriers to improve
access to alternative fuels. The municipal fleet was used to lead by Diesel
example, demonstrating that clean vehicles are reliable. engine

In Mexico City there is a government-sponsored programme to


New York’s MTA now has a fleet of replace city taxis that are over eight years old with more efficient
hundreds of hybrid buses, with 40% better models. Money is provided to taxi drivers, with loans available
fuel efficiency than the MTA’s conventional to meet (cost) shortfalls. This demonstrates the benefits of
buses, which saves about 19,000 litres of government departments working together, and involving financial
diesel for each bus every year. institutions, to bring about a change in urban transport.
Source: www.siemens.co.uk/pool/news_press/news_
archive/june_2008/sustainableurbaninfrastructure- Portugal has also stated that one-fifth of all its public fleet vehicle
studylondon.pdf purchases will be zero-emission, starting in 2011.
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low-carbon private vehicles
low-carbon private vehicles low-carb
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In developed countries, transport is the second largest producer Fig. Transport CO2 emissions by
of CO2 emissions, after power generation. Better fuel efficiency mode in 2000
in cars is the single most important means of reducing carbon
Water
emissions, and most measures reap the benefits – better engines,
Domestic Air
start-stop technology, advanced aerodynamics, lighter materials,
lower rolling-resistance tyres, etc. International Air
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Rail
In a few years’ time, cars could emit 30% less CO2 per kilometre
than they do currently. The largest contribution to the reduction is
likely to come from vehicle technologies, including battery-electric
hybrids, with small cuts from lower carbon fuels (including limited
introduction of sustainable biofuels) and more environmentally-
aware consumer behaviour. Israel has announced a nationwide
electric car project. The private plan, backed by the President,
involves installing 500,000 recharging points and battery-swap
stations. Australia has also planned a comprehensive charging
network to power electric cars in the country’s largest cities
– namely Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane. Portugal is to build
1,300 charging stations for electric cars by the end of 2011, as part
of a deal with two car manufacturers to promote zero-emission
vehicles; tax incentives are likely to encourage vehicle purchase.
Freight Trucks Cars and Vans
Japan plans to build hundreds of quick-recharge City authorities can do much to encourage the take-up of electric
stations before plug-in hybrids enter the market in Buses 2-3 Wheelers
vehicles, such as providing recharging points, reducing parking
2009. Japanese drivers will be the first in the world to fees and giving parking priority to smaller, more space-efficient
be offered plug-in cars by the major carmakers. vehicles and waiving or reducing congestion charges, if such
Source: www.peakoiltaskforce.net schemes apply.
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low-emission schemes
low-emission schemes low-emi
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Schemes to reduce vehicle emissions can work over a wide Fig. General form of a speed-related
area. For example, a range of policies to prohibit specific types of emissions curve for road traffic
vehicles could be implemented throughout a city or across a wider 20

Emissions of NOX (g/km)


geographic area.
In Freiburg various measures have been implemented to reduce
emissions, including regulation, incentives, bespoke design, policy
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reform and, above all, long-term commitment. The old town centre 15
became car-free in 1973, and the city now has more than 500 km
of cycle paths. Over 10 years there has been a 100% increase in
public transport and around one-third of residents who live in the
city do not own a car. Freiburg’s sustainable transport policies,
combined with additional solar energy initiatives, have reduced 10
emissions significantly.
Low emission zones have been introduced in a number of cities
to improve air quality, by deterring the most polluting vehicles from
5
driving in a particular area. The vehicles affected are generally older
diesel-engine lorries, buses, coaches, large vans and minibuses;
together with heavy vehicles derived from lorries or vans, such
as motor caravans and motorized horse boxes. Tokyo has had a
In London, road transport is the single biggest low emission zone since 2003, and there are a number of similar
source of Particulate Matter (PM10) and oxides 0 10 20 30 40 50
schemes in Europe, particularly in Sweden (Gothenberg, Lund, Speed (km/hr)
of nitrogen (NOX). These are the primary causes Malmö and Stockholm) and Germany (Berlin, Cologne, Hanover
of air quality-related health problems, including and Stuttgart). London introduced such a zone in 2008.
worsening symptoms of asthma.
Source: www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/lez/about/2524.aspx
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intelligent transport systems
intelligent transport systems intellige
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Urban Traffic Control (UTC) systems are a form of traffic Fig. Intelligent transport systems
management that can improve traffic performance within a city’s
road network by reducing delays to vehicles and cutting down
on the number of times they have to stop. Reduced idling and
acceleration leads to less fuel consumption and fewer emissions.
UTC systems work by coordinating traffic signals, normally
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through a centrally located computer. Areas where signals are
relatively close together and traffic flows are high lend themselves
to coordination, as there are benefits to progressing platoons of
traffic in an organized fashion. UTC can be enhanced with an
adaptive control feature that gathers data from detectors installed
throughout the network, and alters traffic signals in response
to real-time traffic conditions. Such systems are currently used
in cities including London, Beijing, Sao Paulo, Cork, Santiago,
Sydney, Auckland, Shanghai, Kowloon, Manila, Dublin and Mexico
City.
Intelligent transport systems can also be used for a wide variety of
purposes, such as: providing real-time bus scheduling information
The city of Portland, Oregon, has optimized
to passengers and bus priority at signal junctions; detecting and
traffic signal timing at 135 intersections on
monitoring incidents; providing emergency vehicle priority; and
16 streets in the city. It is estimated that
disaster recovery. In-car Global Positioning System navigation
this relatively low-cost investment saves
units can also provide live traffic updates. Vehicles are currently
over 1,750,000 gallons of fuel per annum,
being developed by a variety of car manufacturers that can
equivalent to 15,460 tonnes of CO2 each year.
warn of approaching vehicles, road hazards and red lights, and
Source: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/transport/
portland_traffic.jsp
automatically stop the car if drivers do not halt them themselves.
© Julie Bélanger © Julie Bélanger
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car parking
car parking car park
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Parking policies can be one of the most powerful tools for city Fig. Parking spaces per 1,000 central
authorities to encourage a change in travel behaviour. Public car business district (CBD) jobs
parking can be managed by restricting the supply of spaces, the 800

Parking spaces
length of time that people can park and by increasing the price,
to encourage travel by more sustainable modes. Certain drivers
700
may also be given parking priority – for example, people with
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disabilities, or people who car-share – or certain vehicles may be
600
given preferential treatment, such as low-carbon cars or small cars.
A city’s planning policies can also restrict the number of parking
spaces at private developments, such as office buildings and 500
shopping centres, thereby encouraging non-car trips.
400
On the outskirts of urban areas, Park & Ride or Park & Share
schemes can reduce the amount of traffic entering a city centre 300
by enabling people to transfer from car to public transport for the
most congested part of their journey, or to car-share for the last
200
journey stage.
Many cities use on-street variable message signing schemes to 100
manage car parks and direct motorists to spaces. San Francisco is
running a trial using technology to manage the city’s kerbside and 0

Zurich

Rome

Lyon

Perth
off-street parking. Sensors will detect when a space is occupied
San Francisco is implementing an on-street and information about vacant parking spaces will pass to drivers
variable charging scheme, where parking rates by a variety of means.
vary depending on time of day and parking
supply.
© Siew-Yau Cheng Source: www.worldchanging.com/archives/008113.html © Siew-Yau Cheng
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goods transport
goods transport goods tr
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The delivery of goods in towns and cities is often overlooked Fig. City Logistics Problems
in consideration of urban mobility. Urban goods transport
(also referred to as “freight” or “logistics”) is now complex and Pollution
fragmented, with an increasing number of operators. Over the
years, there has been a separation of passenger and goods Noise
transport; for example, passenger trains now rarely carry goods.
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Freight now accounts for a significant percentage of vehicle Congestion
movements in cities, and there are concerns about air pollution,
noise, accidents and congestion. Some European cities Safety and intimidation
(particularly in Germany and the United Kingdom) have sought of pedestrians
to rationalize goods transport in cities by introducing Urban
Consolidation Centres. The key purpose of these centres is to Mono-modal dominance by road
avoid vehicles delivering part-loads into the middle of cities or transport using fossil fuels as the
other large developments, such as airports or shopping centres. primary energy source
The centres enable deliveries to be consolidated for subsequent
final delivery in an appropriate vehicle with the optimum level of Time losses and
load-utilization. energy wastage

Transport for London’s Freight Operator Recognition Scheme


Damage and intrusion into
(FORS) is a unique membership scheme set up to establish the urban core of cities
industry benchmarks and acknowledge operational efficiency
More than 80% of today’s road freight trips in within the freight industry. By encouraging and recognizing the
European conurbations are of distances below good working practices of individual operators, the scheme aims
80 km and can be defined as urban or urban- to improve all areas of freight distribution in London, including
regional transport. safety, and to reduce CO2 emissions, congestion, collisions and
operator costs. FORS is one of the four elements of the London
Source: www.bestufs.net/bestufs2_bp_handbook.html
11 Freight Plan, published in 2008. 11

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transit-oriented development
transit-oriented development transit-o
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Virtually every city in the world is experiencing a rise in urban Fig. Mode shares for total trips,
sprawl. Such dispersed urban form means that it is difficult to within 1/2 mile of rail or ferry stop
serve transport needs by public transport and private transport (San Francisco Bay Area)
becomes the dominant mode. Transit-oriented development
Vehicle driver Walk
(TOD) is the creation of compact, walkable communities centred or passenger
around high-quality public transport systems, with the objective
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of ensuring higher quality of life without complete dependence on
a car for mobility. By focusing compact development on public
transport, TOD capitalizes on the value of public infrastructure
investments and promotes sustainable mobility through walking,
public transport and bicycle use. This in turn encourages local
economic development, helping communities plan for sustainable
growth, and increasing the overall quality of life in a region.
The principal components of TOD generally include: a walkable
design where pedestrians are given highest priority; a train
station as a prominent feature of the town centre; a regional node
containing a mixture of land uses in close proximity, including
office, residential, retail and civic uses; high-density, high-
quality development within a 10 minute walk of the train station; Other
supporting feeder public transport services, including trolley Bicycle
buses, streetcars, light rail and buses; the area designed to allow Transit
If you plan cities for cars and traffic, you get cars easy use of bicycles, scooters and rollerblades as daily support
and traffic. If you plan for people and places, you transportation systems; reduced and managed parking in the
get people and places. area around the train station; and high-quality urban design and
streetscapes.
Source: www.pps.org/transportation/info/transportation_approach
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ticketing
ticketing ticketing
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Electronic ticketing schemes for public transport have been in use Fig. Use of Oyster card for bus travel
for a number of years. Such systems have become increasingly
150

Journey stages (thousands)


flexible in terms of their use and operation. Electronic tickets that
can be used on different modes of transport can encourage public
transport use. Such tickets also speed up boarding, increasing the
efficiency and attractiveness of public transport. They also bring 120
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benefits in terms of reducing fare evasion and eliminating waste
from paper tickets. Electronic tickets now commonly take the form
of credit card-sized, stored-value cards. 90
Perhaps the best known example is the Octopus card in Hong
Kong, which is a fast, efficient and convenient electronic fare
payment mechanism. The card, launched in 1997, is now the 60
payment method of choice for public transport (trains, buses,
trams, ferries and minibuses) and it is also widely used at parking
meters, convenience stores, supermarkets, fast-food restaurants
and some vending machines. 30

In London, the Oyster electronic payment card was introduced


in 2003. There are now more than 10 million Oyster card holders;
0
more than 80% of all journeys on services run by Transport for

Apr 03
Jul 03
Oct 03
Jan 04
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May 05
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Mar 05
The Octopus card can be used to pay fares for London use the Oyster card. As well as providing convenience
all public transport in Hong Kong and to make for the user, the card offers substantial discounts, and this has Four week period ending
purchases for consumer products at many stores encouraged its use.
in the city, being accepted by more than 1,000 Other Oyster Cash fares
merchants. tickets
Oyster pay Other non-
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octopus_card
as you go Oyster tickets
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information provision
information provision informa
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The provision of transport information can actively assist people Fig. Indicative allocation of personal
in changing their travel behaviour. Many cities now provide travel planning budget
information on a website, with a journey planner tool to explain
Staffing
the mode options for – and the travel time and cost of – a specific
Publicity and marketing
journey. Information can also be provided by means of Internet
search engines, as is the case in Perth. Information
urban mobility
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Incentives
A reliable information system can also play a valuable role in
the resilience of a transport network, for example by informing
residents about planned and unplanned events (such as strike
action, problems on the transport network, etc.), and the
alternatives that are available to them.
Specific, personalized travel planning has proved a powerful tool
for local authorities to influence the modes of transport used by
citizens. Portland’s SmartTrips awareness campaign informs the
city’s residents of the various modes of transportation available.
It is a comprehensive approach aimed at reducing single-person
trips, and increasing cycling, walking and public transport use
Portland area residents submit annually an average of in specific areas of the city. It incorporates an individualized
1,000 comments praising the SmartTrips awareness marketing methodology, where residents who wish to learn more
campaign, some describing how it prompted them to about public transport are hand-delivered the information. Key Contact, field
change the way they get around and how much they components include the distribution of maps and the organizing officers and training
love living in Portland because of such programmes. of activities to demonstrate how many trips can be made easily, Monitoring evaluation
This kudos helps make it a popular programme with conveniently and safely without using a car. Success is tracked by and research
politicians, agency staff and neighbourhood leaders. evaluating results from surveys and other performance measures. Other costs
Source: www.walkinginfo.org/library/details.cfm?id=3961
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personalized rapid transit
personalized rapid transit persona
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Personalized rapid transit (PRT) is a public transport concept Fig. Personalized rapid transit
based on non-stop, on-demand, small vehicles typically carrying concept vehicle
up to four passengers on a network of specially-built guideways.
Front Rear
The vehicles, sometimes called podcars, are designed to be
lightweight with zero local emissions, and they can be powered by
wind or solar energy. Currently, there are no true podcar schemes

1.8m
urban mobility
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urban mobility
urban mobility
running anywhere in the world, but there are some variations being
planned or in operation, including:
• Morgantown, West Virginia, US – a “people mover” was built
in 1974;
• Rivium, Holland – a business park group rapid transit shuttle Software
3.7m
service, introduced as a pilot in 1999 and made permanent in
2001;
• Heathrow – Terminal 5;
• Masdar, Abu Dhabi – planned to be the world’s first 100% Length - 3.7 m (12 ft)
carbon-neutral and car-free community with 1,500 businesses, Width - 1.4 m (5 ft)
70,000 jobs and 50,000 residents – a solar-powered podcar Height - 1.8 m (6 ft)
Payload - 500 kg (0.5 tonnes)
network is part of the plan.
Average speed - 40 km/h (25 mph)
The Heathrow system will use low-energy, battery-powered, Passenger presses destination button at station.
driverless vehicles which travel along a dedicated guideway to Software in vehicle linked to central computer
More than a dozen cities in Sweden are planning which controls it.
transport passengers around Heathrow Airport. Phase 1, which
podcar systems as part of the country’s comprises 3.8 km of guideway and 18 vehicles, is due to open
commitment to be fossil fuel free by 2020. at Terminal 5 in 2009. The system should be 50% more energy-
Source: www.ioltechnology.co.za/article_page.php?iArticleId= efficient than traditional buses. The system will be the world’s first
© Paul Schilperoord 4670732&iSectionId=2890 commercial PRT system. © Paul Schilperoord
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door-to-door transport
door-to-door transport door-to-
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Taxis are a form of public transport, available to a single passenger Fig. Modes of public transport in India
or a small group of passengers. They can contribute to reduced
car ownership, as well as decreasing demand for parking spaces, 5% Cycle Rickshaw
and they are a more efficient use of a vehicle than a private car,
9% Auto Rickshaw
which typically remains parked for the majority of the time. Taxis
can therefore contribute to sustainable transport policies, and 6% Taxi
urban mobility
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urban mobility
authorities can encourage their use by providing taxi ranks and
giving taxis priority over private cars.
Taxis can also play a vital role in meeting the needs of people
with disabilities who may not be able to use the public transport
services or walk or cycle. City authorities can also provide adapted,
dedicated vehicles.
In many less developed countries, door-to-door transport is
provided by rickshaw services. Rickshaws traditionally took the
form of a two-wheeled cart pulled by a runner, although in many
cities runner-pulled rickshaws have been replaced by bicycle
India’s cycle rickshaw modernization project rickshaws, sometimes referred to as pedicabs or eco-cabs.
made rickshaws lighter, more comfortable and Pedicabs are also popular in many developed cities, for example,
55% Bus
easier to handle. It also cleaned the air and Toronto. Motorized rickshaws also operate in many cities in South
increased employment and income among the and East Asia (also referred to as auto rickshaws or tuk-tuks). 25% Rail
poor. Today, over 300,000 modernized cycle They are particularly popular in congested cities, as they take
rickshaws are operating in nine of India’s major up less space than a conventional car, but they can also add
cities. to congestion, particularly when stopping to pick up or drop off
Source: www.itdp.org/index.php/projects/detail/india_rickshaw_ passengers.
modern/
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motorcycling
motorcycling motorcy
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Motorcycles and scooters are a popular form of transport in cities. Fig. Historical and projected increases
They take up less road and parking space than cars, which is in global motor vehicle numbers
beneficial when such space is at a premium. Motorcycles can 3.0

Number of motor vehicles (billions)


provide quicker travel in congested traffic conditions and they also
offer an affordable alternative to the car, providing independence
and mobility, and widening employment opportunities, especially 2.5
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
where or when public transport is limited. Motorcyclists are,
however, vulnerable road users, and the challenge for city 2.0
authorities is to facilitate motorcycling as a choice of travel within a
safe and sustainable transport framework.
1.5
The provision of separate lanes where there are large numbers
of motorcycles can reduce the potential for conflicts with larger
vehicles. Such lanes can be installed on the existing road, 1.0
separated from the rest of the road by painted lines or physical
barriers (referred to as inclusive lanes). Alternatively, motorcycle 0.5
lanes can be exclusive, provided on a carriageway completely
separate from that used by other vehicles.
0.0
Exclusive motorcycle lanes were introduced in Malaysia in

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030
Studies have shown that cities in the United
States of America could significantly reduce the 1980s to reduce motorcyclist fatalities, and they seem to
CO2 emissions and cut fuel consumption, while be effective. In 2007 the Prime Minister of Malaysia called for
saving a great deal of time lost to congestion, motorcycle lanes to be built on all highways in Kuala Lumpur to
Motorcycles and Scooters
by simply incorporating more motorcycles and reduce the number of road accidents.
motor scooters into the commuting vehicle mix. Trucks and Buses
City authorities can also encourage the use of motorcycles by
allowing motorcycles and scooters to use bus lanes and by Cars
Source: http://exclusivemotorcyclelanes.blogspot.com/
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cycling
cycling cycling
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Cycling should have a major role to play in any urban mobility Fig. International comparisons of
strategy. It helps tackle congestion and air pollution. A significant modes of transport
proportion of car trips in cities are relatively short and of a distance 100

Percent
that could easily be cycled. Encouraging more people onto
bicycles brings benefits to local congestion and pollution levels
and can also promote exercise, leading to fitness benefits. 80
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
Copenhagen has had strong pro-cycling policies for a number
of years, with the result that more than one-third of city residents 60
cycle to work. The city has placed a strong emphasis on
segregated cycle tracks, cycle lanes on the highway, cycle parking
facilities, giving cyclists priority at traffic signals and allowing 40
bicycles on public transport. Information campaigns have also
reinforced the policy. In addition, Copenhagen operates a cycle
hire scheme, and similar schemes are now in operation in a 20
number of other European cities such as Barcelona, Berlin and
Paris.
0

Bellingham
US

Preston
UK

Freiburg
Germany

Basel
Switzerland
In Bogotá, the CicloRuta is one of the most extensive cycle path
networks in the world, covering over 340 km and connecting with
Copenhagen provides a safe, secure and major bus rapid transit routes, parks and community centres.
efficient cycling environment for its citizens. Cycling is an important mode of transport for poorer citizens,
There has been a dramatic growth in the and the scheme has helped to recover public space. Cycling can Cycling Car as driver
use of bicycles during the last 10 years, and achieve faster travel speeds than some public transport in the city,
the number of accidents has substantially and the cycle modal share increased from 0.2% to 4% between Walking Car as passenger
decreased. 2000 and 2007. Motorbike Public transport
Source: http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/transport/
© Marc van Woudenberg, amsterdamize.com © Marc van Woudenberg
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walking
walking walking
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Walking accounts for a significant number of journeys in most Fig. Illustration of a diagonal
towns and cities. It is an essential part of most public transport pedestrian crossing
journeys, and of some journeys made by car. Better walking
conditions benefit communities and streets are safer with people
in them. Walking also offers health benefits, in terms of physical
exercise, and is a free mode of transport.
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
Many European cities are well-suited to walking, due to their
compact urban form. Amsterdam and Barcelona are often cited
as good examples of “walking cities”. In the Netherlands, areas
known as “woonerven” have been introduced to give pedestrians
legal priority over motorized vehicles. In some other cities, road
space has been reallocated to give more space for walking. In
Asia, Singapore and Seoul are examples of cities that are good for
walking.
Enhanced crossing facilities can improve the pedestrian
environment. Some cities are following the example of the Shibuya
district in Tokyo by having diagonal pedestrian crossings at busy
intersections to save pedestrians having to cross two streets
separately. Guayaquil, the largest and most populous city in
Ecuador, has been following an urban regeneration policy that
In London, the rephasing of the traffic signals has seen many city centre streets made into pedestrian zones.
to allow greater pedestrian crossing time Many cities have walking tours, like Osaka City in Japan, and
contributed to a 35% reduction in pedestrian such walking routes can encourage people to walk for other city
road deaths and serious injuries. journeys.
Source: Greater London Authority, Information London, 2008, p 31
© Kent Kanouse © Kent Kanouse
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legislation
legislation legislatio
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Legislation can play a powerful role in shaping urban mobility. Fig. Proposed 800 mile high speed
One example of this comes from California – the Global Warming rail network, California, US
Solutions Act 2006. The Act aims to get greenhouse gases back to
1990 levels by 2020 – representing a 28% reduction from current San
business as usual. The Act applies across all sectors – according Francisco
to the proposed scoping plan of October 2008, the rules would Sacramento
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
take effect from January 2012. The intent is not to create a unique, Oakland Stockton
stand-alone set of policies, but to encourage others to follow Modesto
California’s example, with the hope of creating compatibilities. Merced
San
Jose Fresno
The Act has six key aims: to stimulate innovation – in terms Gilroy
of technology, behaviour and institutions; to target specific
greenhouse gas reductions, eg. energy efficiency standards; to Visalia
overlay the cap-and-trade programme (and offsets) to create a
price signal for carbon and to equilibrate costs across sectors (and Bakersfield
gain additional reductions); to create strong partnerships between
Palmdale
governments, industries and non-governmental organizations
Sylmar
to motivate action by individuals and organizations; to achieve Ontario
roughly proportional reductions across all sectors; and to leverage Los Angeles
“When I campaigned for governor three co-benefits such as reduced oil use, public health improvements, Irvine
years ago, I said I wanted to make California greater travel choices and improvements to urban quality of life 200 miles
number one in the fight against global and economic development. San Diego
warming. This is something we owe our In California, 38% of greenhouse gases come from transportation,
children and our grandchildren.” Train stop
and there are three areas for reduction in transport: vehicles
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (40 MMT reduction); fuels (15 MMT reduction); and distance Recommended route
© Susan Speers Source: www.gov.ca.gov/index.php?/press-release/4111/ travelled (6 MMT reduction). For further study © Susan Speers
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safety
safety safety
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Around 90% of road traffic accident deaths occur in low- or Fig. Pedestrian fatality risk as a
middle-income countries. Unless action is taken urgently the function of the impact speed of a car
number of injuries and deaths is likely to continue to rise in most 1.0

Probability of death
regions of the world. As motorization increases, road traffic injuries
are predicted to rise to become the 8th leading cause of death by
2030. The World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention states
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
that many countries have shown sharp reductions in the number of 0.8
accidents and casualties by taking actions including:
• Setting, raising awareness of, and enforcing laws governing
speed limits, alcohol impairment, use of seat-belts, child 0.6
restraints and crash helmets;
• Formulating and implementing transport and land use policies
that promote fewer, shorter and safer trips; encouraging 0.4
the use of safer modes of travel, such as public transport; and
incorporating injury prevention measures into traffic
management and road design;
• Making vehicles more protective for occupants, pedestrians 0.2

Road traffic accidents are the 11th leading and cyclists, and more visible using daytime running lights,
cause of death globally, killing nearly 1.2 million high-mounted brake lights, reflective material on cycles, carts,
people each year. This means they account rickshaws and other non-motorized forms of transport. 0.0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
for 2.1% of all deaths, costing US$ 518 billion Making a road traffic system less hazardous requires an Impact speed (km/h)
per year. Between 20 and 50 million people are understanding of the system as a whole, an understanding of the
injured or disabled each year as a result of road interaction between its elements – vehicles, roads, road users
traffic accidents. and their physical, social and economic environments – and
Source: www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention identification of areas where there is potential for intervention.
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institutional issues
institutional issues institutio
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Long-term planning and the effective implementation of sound Fig. Joint bus procurement in
policies, strategies and infrastructure projects are critical in Ontario, Canada
enhancing urban transport. However, the transport systems
in many cities have grown complex and fragmented in their Province
management and operation. When urban transport systems are of Ontario
left to market forces and the private sector, a city authority can
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
York Region Barrie
have relatively little influence over the way they are run. Conversely,
a city authority with full control over urban mobility is able to
formulate and implement policies in a planned and effective way. New
transit bus
Cooperation between private operators and public authorities is saving of C$ 15,000
crucial in building sustainable cities. The success of urban projects Windsor per bus Burlington

relies on decisive public sector policies that set clear parameters


for operators to produce workable solutions. Seoul Metro System
and Bogotá Transmilenio are both based on successful business Durham
London
models of cooperation between strong local governments and a Region
public transport operator.
People’s travel patterns rarely coincide with political or institutional
boundaries, and many people travel from city to city. There are
benefits to cities working in collaboration in terms of their transport
Where once the city was a unified urban area, systems and having consistent transport arrangements. Cities can
the majority of today’s cities have grown beyond also collaborate in terms of joint procurement. The Clinton Climate
their original limits. They have become ad hoc Initiative (CCI) has negotiated discounted pricing agreements with
urban amalgams, spanning multiple political more than 25 manufacturers of energy-efficient products, including
jurisdictions. traffic lights. More than 1,100 cities worldwide now have access to
Source: Global Asia, Volume 3, Number 3, Fall 2008 these commodities through CCI’s purchasing alliance.
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governance
governance governa
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Innovative city mayors have demonstrated that it is possible to Fig. Top voting issues in London's
achieve change and maintain social stability even under the most 2008 Mayoral election
challenging of situations. City leaders in Beijing, London, Milan and 90

Percent
Mexico City have all implemented comprehensive urban mobility
measures. Such policies require a long-term vision as development
and implementation usually exceeds the political time frame of city 80
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
leaders.
With half the world’s population living in urban areas – a proportion
that is forecast to increase to 70% by 2050 – there is a potential 70
for cities to bring about a change in travel habits. Cities need to be
the driving force of quicker practical actions to improve the urban
60
environment. City authorities can help to bring about a shift in
mindset by raising public and industry awareness. Cities can also
be the catalyst for cooperation through partnerships with industry,
50
foundations and academia.
Residents can also help to bring about change. In 1973 in Zurich
there were proposals to construct an underground network of 40

Policing
Public transport provision
Health provision

Protection from terrorism

Immigration
Availability of affordable housing
Levels of council tax

The environment

Economic sustainability
trams and trains, and hand over street space to the car. This
“Urban transport is a political and not a
was met with public outcry to renovate the tram system, and
technical issue. The technical aspects are very
subsequently hundreds of new tram cars were added to the
simple. The difficult decisions relate to who is
transport system. There has since been a dramatic transition from
going to benefit from the models adopted.”
a city reliant on the private car to one committed to public transport
Enrique Peñalosa, former Mayor of Bogotá
where 76% of work-related and recreational trips are made by
Source: www.pps.org/info/placemakingtools/placemakers/ public transport.
epenalosa
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integrated planning
integrated planning integrat
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Urban mobility is rarely satisfied by a single mode of transport. Fig. Twenty-four hour trips to
Most journeys involve a number of elements, like links in a chain downtown Vancouver
– if any link is incomplete, the whole chain is broken. It is therefore
50

Percent
important to think of urban transport policy in this way: looking
not at improving just one mode of transport in isolation, but at
improving all aspects of the urban transport system.
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
40
In Canada, Vancouver’s Downtown Travel Plan consisted of a
total of 83 specific initiatives, many as minor as wider pedestrian
crossing zones at specific busy intersections or the creation of 30
cycle lanes on 10 major roads. As a whole, the plan and its various
predecessors have contributed to an important modal shift in the
city.
20
It is also important that urban transport policies fit with other city
policies relating to land use planning, economic development,
environmental policies etc. Policies need to work together to 10
support each other. This has not always been the case, for
example, with transport policies seeking to minimize the need
for travel, while land use planning policies permitted dispersed
0
development such as out-of-town retailing and business parks.

Driver

Passenger

Transit

Walk or Bike
The overarching strategy is to make greener City authorities can help to avoid such conflicts by focusing on
travel more convenient. This usually includes a wider ideas of accessibility and mobility and by working across
range of approaches, rather than a single, “silver all city departments, recognizing that very few single discipline
bullet” solution. solutions remain that meet the challenges of present-day cities. 1992
Source: www.siemens.co.uk/pool/news_press/news_archive/ 2004
june_2008/sustainableurbaninfrastructure-studylondon.pdf
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future urban accessibility
future urban accessibility future u
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While there is rapid urban growth in less-developed countries, Fig. Infrastructure area most important
many developed countries are experiencing urban population in attracting economic investment
loss. Smart planning for growth needs to be combined with smart
30

Percent of respondents selecting


planning for contraction if more harmonious urban development is
to be achieved – this includes the planning of urban mobility.
25
Targeted investment in transport and communications
urban mobility
urban mobility

urban mobility
urban mobility
infrastructure is considered the most significant driver of urban
growth and economic development. There has, however, been a 20
tendency to gear transport investments around financial return,
such as time savings and accident savings. Future investment
15
should instead focus on outcomes, not outputs, and consider its
contribution towards improving citizens’ experiences. For example,
rather than measuring the number of additional kilometres of 10
cycle lane provided, it is more important to consider the use of
such lanes and their effect on increased accessibility, reduced
congestion, improved health, etc. 5

Future urban mobility policies are likely to focus on the wider


Transportation emerges as the top megacity concept of accessibility, recognizing that mobility is a means 0
infrastructure challenge by a large margin. It is to an end, and that people’s access requirements to services
the infrastructure area that stakeholders believe Water Energy supply
may increasingly be met by means such as information and
has the biggest impact on city competitiveness. communications technology (ICT) rather than transport. The Healthcare Communications
They are also keenly aware of its environmental resilience of urban transport systems in the face of concerns over Environment Education
impact (eg. air pollution) and are keen to move peak oil, climate change, demographic changes and security
to greener mass transit solutions. concerns is also likely to be of increasing prominence as cities plan City management Safety and security
© James Mans http://w1.siemens.com/en/megacities/megacity_challenges.htm their futures. Leisure and culture Transportation © James Mans
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12 transit-oriented development Logistics and Transport Focus, xi-xii,
Volume 10, Number 11, Nov 2008
Fig: Sperling, Daniel and Gordon,
Deborah, Two Billion Cars, Oxford
21 safety urban mobility Fig: Based on Transport for London,
Central London Congestion
06 energy-efficient public
transport
Fig: Transport for London, LEZ
Impacts Monitoring Baseline Report,
glossary
www.transitoriented www.who.int/violence_injury_
development.org www.2getthere.eu/Group_Transit/ University Press, 2009 prevention/publications/road_traffic/ 01 bus rapid transit Charging, Impacts monitoring: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ July 2008, Figure 3.3, p 31
Sixth Annual Report, July 2008, www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/lez/
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Fig: Based on Metropolitan Projects/ 18 cycling world_report/factsheets/en/index. National Bus Rapid Transit Institute, transport/sanfran_vehicles.jsp
html Figure 5.3, www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/ about/2027.aspx
Bus Rapid Transit
Transportation Commission, New (BRT) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ULTra København Urban Traffic Control (UTC)
Kommune www.nbrti.org downloads/sixth-annual-impacts- http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/
www.kk.dk/FaktaOmKommunen/ Fig:traffic
Pasanen, E, 1991, in World 09 intelligent transport systems
Places, New Bus rapidTransit-
Choices: transit is a high Fig:
capacity,
Advanced relatively low Systems
Transport cost public Urban traffic control is a form of management that can obtain www.urbanhabitat.org/node/344 monitoring-report-2008-07.pdf transport/stockholm_vehicles.jsp
transport insystem;
Oriented Development the Sanit is a permanent,
Ltd in Rodgers, integrated
Lucy, Aresystem
driverless better traffic performance fromHealth
which usesCityOfCopenhagen/ Organization,
a city’s Road
road network bySafety-
reducing http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/ www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/
Speed of facts,
timespthey
1, www.who.int/ http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/ 04 car-sharing
Francisco Baybuses
Area, or specialized
Nov 2006, p 8 vehicles
podson roadways
the future?, http://news.bbc. delays to vehicles and the number
or dedicated lanes to Designed%20for%20life/ have to stop. UTC transport/mexicocity_taxi.jsp transport/portland_traffic.jsp
quickly and efficiently transport
www.mtc.ca.gov/library/TOD/ systems work by coordinating entity/violence_injury_prevention/
passengers to their destinations. GreenUrbanMobility.aspx traffic signals, normally through a transport/jakarta_bus.jsp Burdett, Ricky and Sudjic, Deyan
co.uk/1/hi/uk/7148731.stm www.guardian.co.uk/business/ www.foxnews.com/
index.htm centrally located
Vélib’, www.en.velib.paris.frcomputer. publications/road_traffic/world_ Fig: Data drawn from Transportation (eds)., The Endless City, Phaidon, story/0,2933,454190,00.html
16 door-to-door transport report/speed_en.pdf 2008 feedarticle/8059893
13 ticketing Central Business District (CBD) Research Board, Transit
is the commercial and often geographichttp://uk.franceguide.com/press/
A central business districthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 22 institutional issues Cooperative Research Program http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fig: Based on Environmental Fig: Arup
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ Velib-Paris-new-bike-transit-system.
urban mobility
urban mobility

heart of a city, usually typified


Rickshawsby a concentration of retail and Report 118: Bus Rapid Transit Car_sharing Transport Association 10 car parking
smart_cards commercial buildings. html?nodeID=422&EditoID=88863 World Urban Forum 4, Private Practitioner’s Guide, 2007 www.eta.co.uk/London-hybrid-bus-
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto_ Sector Consultation, Corporate www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail. www.carplus.org.uk/carclubs/ www.economist.com/science/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ rickshaw http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/ fleet-to-reach-300/node/11517 tm/displaystory.cfm?story_
Octopus_cardInformation and Communications Technology (ICT) transport/bogota_cycling.jsp Social Responsibility Towards asp?id=7848 international.htm
Harmonious Cities, Summary, 4 07 low-carbon private vehicles id=12236749
ICT is an umbrella term www.bangladesh.com/blog/
that includes all technologies for the 02 rail/metro Fig: Data drawn from Shaheen,
Fig: Based on Transport for London, bangladesh-dhaka-land-of-the- www.worldwatch.org/node5462 November 2008 HM Treasury, www.hm-treasury.gov. Fig: MVA Consultancy, World Cities
manipulation
Travel for London Ticket Salesand communication
Data of information. ?emc=el&m=168333&l=6&v=6d Susan and Cohen, Adam,
rickshaw www.clintonfoundation.org/what- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Worldwide Carsharing Growth: An uk/pbr_csr07_king_index.htm Research Report on Comparable
and GLBPS, 2007, Chart 3.3.4 ff121caa Transportation_in_Greater_ Medium Sized Cities, March 2005,
International Council for Local
www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/ EcoCab, Environmental
www.spesend. Initiatives (ICLEI) we-do/clinton-climate-initiative/ International Comparison, 2006, World Business Council for
Fig: Based on Socialdata, 2006, what-we-ve-accomplished Tokyo#Railway_and_subway Table 1, p 4, www.carplus.org.uk/ p 16, www.cfit.gov.uk/docs/2005/
ICLEI is an international association
corporate/london-travel-report- of local governments and
net/Spe404.aspx?aspxerrorpath=/ Sustainable Development
worldcities/worldcities/pdf/
their associations that have made a commitment
gomobile.gomobile/ to sustainable in Department for Transport, A Burdett, Ricky and Sudjic, Deyan carclubs/pdf/worldwide_carsharing_ www.wbcsd.org/Plugins/
2007-data.xls Sustainable Future for Cycling, Fig: Drawing on data from Ministry comparablemediumcitiesfinalreport.
development. IC080717081040/speasapage. of Transportation, Province And (eds)., The Endless City, Phaidon, an_international_comparison_06.pdf DocSearch/details.
14 information provision 2008, p 12, www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/ 2008 pdf
aspx#free Municipalities Partner to Reduce 05 voluntary programmes asp?ObjectId=MzIwODc
Personalized Rapid Transit (PRT)
www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ sustainable/cycling/cyclingfuture.pdf 11 goods transport
Fig: Umrigar, Farokh et al, PRTC Transit Costs, http://ogov.newswire. Chartered Institute of Logistics www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ www.guardian.co.uk/business/
transport/portland_alternative.jsp
Personalized rapid transit Education
is a publicand transport concept based on 19 walking ca/ontario/GPOE/2007/02/22/ and Transport, Focus magazine, Best Urban Freight Solutions
Research Services, transport/seoul_driving.jsp feedarticle/8059893
non-stop, on-demand small
www.theaustralian.news.com. Urbanvehicles typically
Transport carrying up to four www.city.osaka.jp/english/osaka_
in Developing c3436.html?lmatch=&lang=_e.html Passenger Transport Report, www.bestufs.net
passengers on a network of specially built guideways. September 2008, pp 38-40 Seoul Metropolitan Govermnent Fig: HM Treasury, Annex 7.c
au/story/0,25197,23400012- Countries in Urban Renaissance walking/index.html 23 governance http://westminsterresearch.wmin.
www.ciltuk.org.uk http://english.seoul.go.kr/today/ Emissions from the transport sector,
643,00.html Institute, Transportation Statistics Fig: Arup Figure 1, www.hm-treasury.gov. ac.uk/5160/
Transit-Oriented Development - India,(TOD)
www.urban-renaissance.org/ www.pps.org/info/newsletter/ news/traffic/1243036_3327.html
Fig: Department of Transport, march2008/zurich_switzerland Fig: Arup uk/d/Transport_annex.pdf
Transit-oriented development is the creation of compact, walkable20 legislation
urbanren/transtats/india.htm http://carfreedays.com/about/ www.tfl.gov.uk/freightplan
Making Personal Travel Planning 03 road pricing 08 low-emission schemes
communities centered around high quality public transport systems,
17 motorcycling Talk by Professor Daniel Sperling, Fig: Drawing on data from www.worldcarfree.net/wcfd/ Fig: Based on Best Urban Freights
Work: Practitioner’s Guide,
with the objective of making it possible to live a higher quality life Director, Institute of Transportation London Policy Institute, Policy not Transport for London http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/ Solutions, BESTUFS II Best Practice
November 2008, p 21 International Road Assessment Fig: Based on Yeong-Man, Mok,
without complete dependence on a car for mobility. Studies, University of California, personality: Londoners speak their www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/ transport/freiburg_ecocity.jsp Handbook Year (2005), Figure 1
www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/ Progamme, www.irap.net/toolkit/ Environment-Friendly Traffic Policies
travelplans/ptp/practictionersguide. Davis mind on issues that really matter, sixth-annual-impacts-monitoring- www.bestufs.net/download/
Urban Consolidation default.asp?p=treatment&i=86
Centres (UCC) Nov 2007 report-2008-07.pdf in Seoul, www.iges.or.jp/jp/ www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/lez/2021.
pdf Fig: Based on The Chartered aspx BESTUFS_II/key_issuesII/
Urban consolidation centres provide facilities where deliveries
http://thestar.com.my/news/story. www.londonpolicyinstitute.org/ est2007/pdf/day01/23_1120_1b_ BESTUFS_BPH.pdf
15 personalized Institute of Logistics and Transport, http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/
can rapid transit
be consolidated for subsequent delivery
asp?file=/2007/6/2/nation/ into an area in an Proposed 800 mile high speed rail
LPI_YouGov_release.doc
transport/stockholm_congestion.jsp
Seoul-final(2).pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_
BAA Heathrow appropriate vehicle; this is17913699&sec=nation
done with a high level of load utilization. Emission_Zone
network, www.cilt-international.com
www.heathrowairport.com iv
iii
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12 transit-oriented development Logistics and Transport Focus, xi-xii,
Volume 10, Number 11, Nov 2008
Fig: Sperling, Daniel and Gordon,
Deborah, Two Billion Cars, Oxford
21 safety urban
urban mobility
mobility Fig: Based on Transport for London,
Central London Congestion
06 energy-efficient public
transport
Fig: Transport for London, LEZ
Impacts Monitoring Baseline Report,
www.transitoriented www.who.int/violence_injury_
development.org www.2getthere.eu/Group_Transit/ University Press, 2009 prevention/publications/road_traffic/ 01 bus rapid
24 integrated transit
planning Charging, Impacts monitoring: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ July 2008, Figure 3.3, p 31
Projects/ 18 cycling world_report/factsheets/en/index. Sixth Annual Report, July 2008, transport/sanfran_vehicles.jsp www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/lez/
Fig: Based on Metropolitan National Bus Rapid Transit Institute,
http://vancouver.ca/dtp/ Figure 5.3, www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/ about/2027.aspx
Transportation Commission, New http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ULTra København Kommune html www.nbrti.org http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/
http://www.siemens. downloads/sixth-annual-impacts- 09 intelligent transport systems
Places, New Choices: Transit- Fig: Advanced Transport Systems www.kk.dk/FaktaOmKommunen/ Fig: Pasanen, E, 1991, in World www.urbanhabitat.org/node/344
co.uk/pool/news_press/ monitoring-report-2008-07.pdf transport/stockholm_vehicles.jsp
Oriented Development in the San Ltd in Rodgers, Lucy, Are driverless CityOfCopenhagen/ Health Organization, Road Safety- news_archive/june_2008/ http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/ www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/
Francisco Bay Area, Nov 2006, p 8 Designed%20for%20life/ Speed facts, p 1, www.who.int/ http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/ 04 car-sharing transport/portland_traffic.jsp
pods the future?, http://news.bbc. sustainableurbaninfrastructure-
transport/jakarta_bus.jsp transport/mexicocity_taxi.jsp
www.mtc.ca.gov/library/TOD/ co.uk/1/hi/uk/7148731.stm GreenUrbanMobility.aspx entity/violence_injury_prevention/ studylondon.pdf Burdett, Ricky and Sudjic, Deyan www.foxnews.com/
index.htm publications/road_traffic/world_ Fig: Data drawn from Transportation (eds)., The Endless City, Phaidon, www.guardian.co.uk/business/
16 door-to-door transport Vélib’, www.en.velib.paris.fr Fig: Based on Board,
TransLink’s Trip feedarticle/8059893 story/0,2933,454190,00.html
13 ticketing report/speed_en.pdf Research Transit 2008
http://uk.franceguide.com/press/ DiaryCooperative
Survey and Research
VancouverProgram Fig: Arup
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 22 institutional issues http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fig: Based on Environmental
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ Velib-Paris-new-bike-transit-system. Transportation
Report 118: Plan,
BusTable
Rapid2,Transit
in 10 car parking
Rickshaws Car_sharing Transport Association
smart_cards html?nodeID=422&EditoID=88863 World Urban Forum 4, Private City Practitioner’s
of Vancouver,Guide,
2006, 2007
p 6,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto_ www.eta.co.uk/London-hybrid-bus- www.economist.com/science/
Sector Consultation, Corporate http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/
www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail. www.carplus.org.uk/carclubs/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ rickshaw http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/ fleet-to-reach-300/node/11517 tm/displaystory.cfm?story_
Social Responsibility Towards cclerk/20060530/documents/
asp?id=7848 international.htm
Octopus_card transport/bogota_cycling.jsp 07 low-carbon private vehicles id=12236749
www.bangladesh.com/blog/ Harmonious Cities, Summary, 4 rr1b.pdf
Fig: Based on Transport for London, www.worldwatch.org/node5462 02 rail/metro Fig: Data drawn from Shaheen,
bangladesh-dhaka-land-of-the- November 2008 25 future urban accessibility Susan and Cohen, Adam, HM Treasury, www.hm-treasury.gov. Fig: MVA Consultancy, World Cities
Travel for London Ticket Sales Data rickshaw ?emc=el&m=168333&l=6&v=6d http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ uk/pbr_csr07_king_index.htm Research Report on Comparable
and GLBPS, 2007, Chart 3.3.4 ff121caa www.clintonfoundation.org/what- UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Worldwide Carsharing Growth: An
we-do/clinton-climate-initiative/ Transportation_in_Greater_ International Comparison, 2006, Medium Sized Cities, March 2005,
www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/ EcoCab, www.spesend. CitiesTokyo#Railway_and_subway
2008/2009, Harmonious World Business Council for
Fig: Based on Socialdata, 2006, what-we-ve-accomplished Table 1, p 4, www.carplus.org.uk/ p 16, www.cfit.gov.uk/docs/2005/
corporate/london-travel-report- net/Spe404.aspx?aspxerrorpath=/ Cities Sustainable Development
in Department for Transport, A Burdett, Ricky and Sudjic, Deyan carclubs/pdf/worldwide_carsharing_ worldcities/worldcities/pdf/
2007-data.xls gomobile.gomobile/ Fig: Drawing on data from Ministry www.wbcsd.org/Plugins/
Sustainable Future for Cycling, Fig: Based on Globescan
(eds)., The andPhaidon,
Endless City, an_international_comparison_06.pdf comparablemediumcitiesfinalreport.
IC080717081040/speasapage. of Transportation, Province And DocSearch/details.
14 information provision 2008, p 12, www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/ MRC2008McLean Hazel, Megacity pdf
aspx#free Municipalities Partner to Reduce 05 voluntary programmes asp?ObjectId=MzIwODc
sustainable/cycling/cyclingfuture.pdf Challenges: A stakeholder 11 goods transport
www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ Transit Costs, http://ogov.newswire. Chartered Institute
Fig: Umrigar, Farokh et al, PRTC
19 walking perspective, 2006, p 22of Logistics www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ www.guardian.co.uk/business/
transport/portland_alternative.jsp Education and Research Services, ca/ontario/GPOE/2007/02/22/ and Transport, Focus magazine, feedarticle/8059893 Best Urban Freight Solutions
http://w1.siemens.com/pool/en/ transport/seoul_driving.jsp
www.theaustralian.news.com. Urban Transport in Developing www.city.osaka.jp/english/osaka_ c3436.html?lmatch=&lang=_e.html Passenger Transport Report,
about_us/megacities/MegaCity- www.bestufs.net
September 2008, pp 38-40 Seoul Metropolitan Govermnent Fig: HM Treasury, Annex 7.c
au/story/0,25197,23400012- Countries in Urban Renaissance walking/index.html 23 governance Report_1439020.pdf http://westminsterresearch.wmin.
www.ciltuk.org.uk http://english.seoul.go.kr/today/ Emissions from the transport sector,
643,00.html Institute, Transportation Statistics Fig: Arup Figure 1, www.hm-treasury.gov. ac.uk/5160/
- India, www.urban-renaissance.org/ www.pps.org/info/newsletter/ news/traffic/1243036_3327.html
Fig: Department of Transport, march2008/zurich_switzerland Fig: Arup uk/d/Transport_annex.pdf
urbanren/transtats/india.htm 20 legislation http://carfreedays.com/about/ www.tfl.gov.uk/freightplan
Making Personal Travel Planning 03 road pricing 08 low-emission schemes
Work: Practitioner’s Guide, 17 motorcycling Talk by Professor Daniel Sperling, Fig: Drawing on data from The publishers have made every www.worldcarfree.net/wcfd/ Fig: Based on Best Urban Freights
November 2008, p 21 Director, Institute of Transportation London Policy Institute, Policy not effortTransport
to contact forthe
London
copyright http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/ Solutions, BESTUFS II Best Practice
International Road Assessment Studies, University of California, personality: Londoners speak their www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/ Fig: Based on Yeong-Man, Mok, transport/freiburg_ecocity.jsp Handbook Year (2005), Figure 1
www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/ owners of the texts and images
Progamme, www.irap.net/toolkit/ Davis mind on issues that really matter, sixth-annual-impacts-monitoring- Environment-Friendly Traffic Policies www.bestufs.net/download/
travelplans/ptp/practictionersguide. published in these cards. In certain www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/lez/2021.
default.asp?p=treatment&i=86 Nov 2007 report-2008-07.pdf in Seoul, www.iges.or.jp/jp/ BESTUFS_II/key_issuesII/
pdf Fig: Based on The Chartered cases it has not been possible and aspx
http://thestar.com.my/news/story. www.londonpolicyinstitute.org/ est2007/pdf/day01/23_1120_1b_ BESTUFS_BPH.pdf
15 personalized rapid transit Institute of Logistics and Transport, we invite any such copyright owner
http://c40cities.org/bestpractices/
asp?file=/2007/6/2/nation/ LPI_YouGov_release.doc Seoul-final(2).pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_
Proposed 800 mile high speed rail to get in touch.
transport/stockholm_congestion.jsp
BAA Heathrow 17913699&sec=nation Emission_Zone
network, www.cilt-international.com
www.heathrowairport.com
v iv
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SlimCity
Editor Editor

SlimCity
SlimCity
World Economic Forum

SlimCity
SlimCity
World Economic Forum
Research
Lee Thomas, Arup
Research
Design Lee Thomas, Arup
Jeremy Clark, Jacob Dunn, Sarah Khalid, Marcus Morrell, Arup

smart energy
smart energy
Printing and packaging Design
1st-packaging Jeremy Clark, Jacob Dunn, Sarah Khalid, Marcus Morrell, Arup

smart energy
smart energy
Project Management
Marcus Morrell, Arup Printing and packaging
Espen Mehlum, Johanna Lanitis, World Economic Forum 1st-packaging
Project Direction
Chris Luebkeman, David Singleton, Arup Project Management
Christoph Frei, World Economic Forum
Marcus Morrell, Arup
Thanks to Espen Mehlum, Johanna Lanitis, World Economic Forum
Members of the Global Agenda Council on Alternative Energy
and to all contributing photographers.
Project Direction
Printed January 2009 Chris Luebkeman, David Singleton, Arup
© Text: the authors; © Images: the authors
Christoph Frei, World Economic Forum

Thanks to in collaboration with


Members of the Global Agenda Council on Alternative Energy
and to all contributing photographers.

Printed January 2009

© Text: the authors; © Images: the authors


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smart energy city issue map smart energy
The world’s cities are forecast to account for a large proportion of the projected growth in global energy consumption This graph shows the results from The world’s cities are forec

High
and related carbon emissions. City authorities can ameliorate this impact by taking ownership of local energy practices, a survey asking a selection of city and related carbon emissio
working in collaboration with the private sector to deliver solutions. More energy efficiency measures are likely to Mayors, Deputy Mayors and urban Greenhouse working in collaboration wi
be welcomed by an increasing number of consumers, as new ways are sought to reduce energy bills and carbon planners what issues are of most gas emissions be welcomed by an increas
footprints. concern. They were each asked to Consumer interest footprints.
in sustainability
rank thirty pre-determined issues
Solutions and best practices exist that can lead to more intelligent, cleaner and more efficient energy systems - offering Solutions and best practice
according to importance (high/low),
new services and more choice to consumers. Pioneering cities like Boulder in the US, Woking in the UK and Växjö, new services and more cho
level of uncertainty (high/low) and
Sweden, demonstrate that cities are indeed leading the way towards a smarter energy future. A proven technique for Energy Sweden, demonstrate that
timescale within which to address

Uncertainty
the improvement of energy systems is the decentralization of electricity generation, which reduces the energy losses efficiency the improvement of energy
the issue (1-5 years). The survey was
associated with transmission and distribution. Heat that would otherwise be wasted can also be put to better use. associated with transmissio
conducted in collaboration with the Energy
Many cities have established district heating which distributes heat by-product to buildings. Many cities have establishe
World Economic Forum’s partner, Energy demand
Most cities have considerable potential to increase their share of energy production from renewable sources. This may ICLEI. The objective of the survey supply Most cities have considera
be done by harnessing natural resources such as solar, wind or biomass. The development of distributed, small-scale was to ensure that the Forum’s work be done by harnessing nat
renewable energy facilities will require robust yet flexible electrical infrastructure. In the future, such infrastructure may on SlimCity is relevant in the global renewable energy facilities
need to accommodate a growing fleet of plug-in electric vehicles. SmartGrids – a concept which merges information context. ICT infrastructure need to accommodate a g
and communication technologies with electricity networks – provide a plausible technological framework to achieve and communication techno
Fifty cities took part in the survey,
just this, whilst realizing substantial energy efficiency gains. Manufacturers and electricity companies are beginning to just this, whilst realizing sub
conducted in 2008, from the

Low
trial SmartGrids in urban areas, often making use of established communications systems. One major problem with trial SmartGrids in urban ar
following countries: Australia, Brazil,
many established energy systems is that energy delivered to the end-user is essentially invisible. There is often no Low Importance High many established energy s
Canada, Estonia, France, Germany,
way of knowing how much is being used or where it comes from. Smart metering monitors gas, electricity and water way of knowing how much
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Namibia, Fig. ICLEI city issue map for Smart Energy 1 year timeline
supplies and makes available data for manipulation. Smart meters can improve general awareness and understanding, supplies and makes availab
Nigeria, Portugal, South Africa,
and can create price incentives for consumers. The size of each circle corresponds to the perceived timescale within and can create price incent
South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, which each issue should be addressed. 5 year timeline
The following set of knowledge cards describes ideas, initiatives and best practice case studies for urban energy the United Kingdom, the United The following set of knowle
systems. It is hoped that these cards will provide a useful stimulus to improve local energy practices in cities across States of America and Uruguay. systems. It is hoped that th
the globe. ii the globe.

i
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decentralized energy
decentralized energy decentr
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Most electricity networks were originally designed to generate Fig. Denmark’s progress towards
power in central locations for distribution to consumers over decentralization over the past
a distance. However, when electricity is transmitted over long two decades
distances, significant energy losses can result. Furthermore, heat Large CHP
(Combined Heat & Power)
created during the generation process itself is often wasted. If
Small CHP
electricity were to be generated closer to the consumer, this waste (Combined Heat & Power)
heat could be used, to heat homes, for example. The shorter
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
Wind
distance to the consumer would also reduce power losses in
transmission.
There are often good reasons to site large-scale power plants
outside towns and cities; for instance, for proximity to a primary
source or to mitigate certain health risks. Nevertheless, there
are many opportunities for a city to generate electricity within its
boundaries or limits. By developing smaller energy systems in a Centralized System of the mid 1980’s
more widespread and dispersed manner considerable efficiency
gains can be made, as experienced in Denmark.
Cities can produce energy using local resources such as solar,
wind, geothermal or waste. Furthermore, the generation of power
on a smaller, localized scale could result in substantial reductions in
urban carbon dioxide emissions.

In 2006, transmission costs accounted for 4% Projects such as the Barkantine CHP project in London is one
and distribution costs for 17% of the average example of localized generation. The project serves 600 homes
annual electricity bill of the United Kingdom. and saves 1,700 tonnes of CO2 per year.
Source: www.berr.gov.uk/files/file39385.pdf
01 More Decentralized System of Today 01

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smartgrids
smartgrids smartgr
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The SmartGrid is an emergent concept that combines information Fig. The SmartGrid as enabling engine
and communications technology (ICT) with electrical power
networks. Distribution substations in conventional networks Allowing
Enabling
typically rely on uniform central control to match supply to local nationwide
the seamless
integration of
use of plug-in
demand. The SmartGrid would also allow local distribution hybrid electric
renewable
energy sources
substations to become semi-autonomous. As such they would vehicles like wind
be able to react more intelligently to dynamic changes in grid
smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy
stability or generation and consumption patterns. In the context
Making Ushering
of fluctuating renewable energy, self-regulating electricity systems large-scale in a new era
energy storage SmartGrid of consumer
take on a heightened importance. a reality choice

Boulder, Colorado is widely thought to be the first city to


implement a SmartGrid. Once finished, it will comprise Exploiting
Making the use of
autonomous substations powering smart homes fitted with use of solar green building
energy – 24 standards to
intelligent appliances that monitor and react to shortages in power hours a day help “lighten
supply. These devices may display real time pricing information, the load”

to encourage efficient consumer behaviour. The city will also


upgrade power lines with broadband to enable two-way “real-
time” communications for more robust energy management. The
roll-out of hybrid electric vehicles, small-scale generation facilities
and battery storage technologies are also proposed. Further
advantages are likely to become apparent once the infrastructure
is in place. For example, once the communication hardware and
The global value at stake from SmartGrids is
open-protocols are established, significant potential may result
estimated at €79 billion.
for new software applications which enable more intuitive energy
Source: The Climate Group, SMART 2020, Enabling the low management or improved information interfacing and display.
© Cameron Khan carbon economy in the information age, 2008 © Cameron Khan
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electric vehicles
electric vehicles electric
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Improved battery technology has helped accelerate the Fig. Timeline for the introduction
development of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric of electric vehicles with battery
vehicles (PHEVs) in recent years. EVs are particularly suited to a technology, UK
city environment because battery life is limited and most journeys Lead

Battery technology
Li-ion (when cost and
acid size have been reduced)
are short. They also help reduce urban air and noise pollution.
Internal Combustion Engine
continued development throughout period
The increased uptake of EVs poses challenges for the electricity
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
Future battery
networks that support them, particularly those that are already technology?
stretched to their limits. In such cases methods must be developed High
to ensure that EVs and PHEVs are less likely to be charged at capability EVs

peak times. The probable need for widespread charging points Lead-acid,
Some Li-ion,
mainly future
at car parking facilities will mean that local networks may need Molten Salt,
All Li-ion
battery
technology?
reinforcement. some Li-ion
Commuter EVs
A number of solutions have been proposed to manage the
anticipated peaks in energy demand, including real-time pricing Possibly all Li-ion
before HEVs are
where the consumer sets a price level below which the car can be Ni-MH / Li-ion phased out
As batteries become
recharged. The convergence of information and communications HEVs more capable and
cost effective a migration
technology with electrical networks can help models such as these to PHEV after 2015
to succeed. Ni-MH

A programme for the roll-out of EVs has been planned in Israel, Mainly Li-ion, Future battery
Mainly Ni-MH / Li-ion some Ni-MH All Li-ion technology?
with the adoption of a system that combines a battery replacement Ni-MH, Low capability
Based on the current grid mix in the United scheme and charging stations. The city of Berlin is also developing some Li-ion PHEV up PHEVs
to 2015
Kingdom, as much as 40% of CO2 emissions could its EV infrastructure with plans to install 500 charging stations.
be saved through the take-up of electric vehicles.

2010

2020

2030
Source: Re-worded from www.berr.gov.uk/files/file48653.pdf
03 03

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smart metering
smart metering smart m
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Energy is often invisible. Consumers rarely see how much energy Fig. Electricity and hot water
they consume at the point of use, and the price of energy is consumption of Växjö apartments
typically only ever communicated to customers in their monthly with and without smart metering
bills. Electricity
50

Consumption (kWh/m2)
This is also the case from the perspective of the network operator.
There is often no way of ascertaining energy use at the periphery 40
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
-24%
of a network. Supply could be better managed if more accurate
information were available in realtime. This would also allow for 30
controlled reductions in online backup generation capacity. 20
Until recently, electricity or gas consumption at a consumer’s
10
property has been manually read from meters at the intake for
the building or premises. Many utilities are now installing “smart” 0
meters with the ability to communicate load-use back to a control
Domestic hot water
or administration point. Some smart meters can communicate with
50

Consumption (kWh/m2)
home area networks or mobile devices, allowing the consumer
more intuitive access to their energy information. This enables 40 -43%
consumers to better manage their energy consumption to reduce
demand as and when appropriate. 30

Since smart metering was first introduced into apartments in Växjö, 20


It is estimated that smart metering and information Sweden, customers have reduced their electricity consumption 10
display installations in Växjö, Sweden, have by 24% and their hot water usage by 43%. The system includes
resulted in a 24% drop in electricity consumption a web portal that allows users to see hourly rates of consumption 0
when compared to average use. and make comparisons to others in the neighbourhood. Reference Reference
Source: www.vaxjo.se/vaxjo_templates/Page.aspx?id=33649 apartment apartment
© www.smartwater.com.au © www.smartwater.com.
04 with display 04

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real-time pricing
real-time pricing real-tim
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Imagine trying to optimize your grocery bill if your local store Fig. Real-time pricing impact on
refused to display prices for their goods in the store, choosing electricity consumption, August 1, 2006
instead to send you a monthly statement showing only the total 800 12

Kilowatts

Megawatts (thousand)
expenditure. This is the situation in which many energy consumers
find themselves today.
700
The use of modern information and communications technology,
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
already prevalent in many cities in more developed countries, 600 9
allows the consumer to see accurate pricing information nearer to
the time of use. 500
$471 $480 peak
Trials of various methods of direct visual display have resulted in $437
energy savings of 5-15% while itemized electricity billing shows 400 6
savings of 0-10%. As more monitoring and sensory devices are
installed across networks, more detailed information will become 300
available and may lead to new pricing schemes. Real-time pricing
encourages consumers to be more flexible with their energy use, 200 $200
3
subject to the availability of supply. $172

The city of New York trialled real-time pricing in four volunteer 100 $104 $99
$116

buildings, one of which was an apartment block. The electricity


price changed on an hourly basis, allowing consumers to adjust 0 0
During a heat wave in July 2006, a New York

1 am

12 am
3 am

6 am

9 am

3 pm
4 pm
6 pm

9 pm
12 pm
building’s occupants cut their energy use their behaviour if they so wished. By using electricity at off-peak
by 42% and sold the unused capacity. The times, residents found they could save money. The trial showed
residents were part of a real-time pricing trial. that real-time pricing can have a pronounced effect on peak energy Real time pricing pilot in kilowatts
use. New York has committed to the expansion of real-time pricing New York city total in megawatts
Source: www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/downloads/pdf/report_
energy.pdf with a goal of having 50% of small businesses and residents
Day ahead market price of energy
05 enrolled in the scheme by 2015. $
05

05
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demand response
demand response demand
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Electricity demand can fluctuate significantly over the course of an Fig. California Daily Peak Loads 2000
average day. These peaks and troughs are usually managed from
50

GW
the supply-side. For example, large plants are often kept running in Peak Day August 16
43.5 GW
order to facilitate demand peaks. 45
The demand response concept lowers these peaks by postponing
40
energy consumption until the off-peak. This can be done by
smart energy

smart energy
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smart energy
offering incentives to customers who choose to reduce their peak 35
demand.
30
Traditionally, demand response is achieved by switching these
plants off completely. However, the technology is available to help 25
consumers automatically reduce consumption in numerous subtle
ways, such as increasing temperature set-points on fridges. This 20
ability to regulate a large number of small-scale devices can result
in substantial energy savings across the network – the equivalent, 15
perhaps, of a new power plant. In other words, if scaled up
enough, demand response could add a “virtual power plant” to a 10
city’s generation portfolio.
5
In 2007 in the US, Washington and Oregon carried out a year-long
trial of 150 autonomous appliances, each capable of responding 0

Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
It is estimated that a 5% reduction in energy to drops in the availability of energy supply. Rather than turning
demand would have reduced the highest off, the devices reduced their load during a fall in energy supply. Commercial air conditioning
wholesale prices in California by 50% during the A tumble dryer, for example, would switch to a lower temperature
peak hours of the electricity crisis in 2000/2001. cycle. The trial surveyed residents in both states, who claimed to Residential air conditioning

Source: www.iea.org/textbase/speech/2003/phbilling.pdf have experienced little or no inconvenience. Other


06 06

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combined heat and power
combined heat and power combine
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Cities such as Copenhagen and Stockholm demonstrate Fig. Historical and projected
that retrofitted district heating systems are feasible, and that development of district cooling
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can offer substantial in Helsinki
improvements in efficiency. 250

MW
CHP plants produce both heat and electricity, typically for local
use. There are two main approaches to CHP installation. The first
smart energy

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smart energy
uses waste heat, such as that arising from the process of electricity 200
generation itself, to heat buildings. The second approach outputs a
specific heat load and exports the electrical energy it generates to
the local network.
150
The Finnish capital, Helsinki, uses CHP to generate more than
enough electricity to meet the needs of the city, so Helsinki
Energy sells surplus energy to the Nordic grid. At the same time, 100
it produces 92% of the city’s district heating. Furthermore, the
system was established as a viable business that did not need
subsidies.
50
A more recent development in this area is Combined Cooling,
Heating and Power (CCHP), where heat-driven cooling processes,
The city of Helsinki, Finland, generates 84% of such as absorption chilling, are used to cool a refrigerant to
air-condition buildings. In addition to its district heating network, 0
its heating and more power than it consumes

1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2010
2015
2020
from combined heat and power systems. Excess Helsinki has a district cooling system, as part of a new CCHP
electricity is sold onto the Nordic market. scheme. At present, it is only located in the most densely
populated areas of the city, with 90 connections as of 2008. The Historical cooling load
Source: IEA Combined Heat and Power, Evaluating the Benefits
of Greater Global Investment, 2008 total connected cooling load is expected to grow to approximately Projected cooling load
© Timo Noko © Timo Noko
07 250 MW by 2020. 07

07
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district heating
district heating district h
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District heating networks link heat sources to multiple end-users, Fig. Overall CO2 emissions,
typically on a large scale. If systems are built around co-generation Copenhagen, Denmark
(also called Combined Heat and Power), where heat is generated 4000

1,000 tonnes
as a by-product of electricity generation, then high efficiencies can
be achieved.
District heating systems are best suited to long-term timeframes.
smart energy

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smart energy
It took 30 years to connect 95% of buildings to the district heating 3000
system in Copenhagen, Denmark, and it was accomplished only
with the help of planning laws requiring buildings to comply and
connect.
However, once a district heating system is in place, multiple 2000
sources of heat can be chosen to best suit local economic or
environmental conditions. Copenhagen’s network was originally
built around its coal-fired power stations, which had been the most
cost-effective heat source at the time. The versatility of the district
heating system allows the city to transfer to a much broader mix of 1000
heat source - from natural gas, oil and coal to waste incineration,
geothermal energy, wood pellets and straw.

The district heating network covers 97% of the Similarly, district cooling systems use a variety of sources to
total heating needs of Copenhagen city – the provide a cool-temperature refrigerant for networks of buildings. 0

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000
equivalent of a floor area of approximately Such systems can use heat-driven tri-generation systems or
50 million square metres. CCHP (Combined Cooling, Heating and Power). Low temperature
sources such as lake water can even be used, as is the case in Energy Waste
Source: www.project2degrees.org/Pages/BestPractices/Energy/
CopenhagenHeat.aspx Toronto, Canada, and Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
Traffic
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biomass
biomass biomass
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A popular form of renewable energy is sustainable biomass, Fig. Geographical bioenergy use
fuelled by replaceable, naturally occurring inputs such as plants, vs bioenergy potential
wood, animal dung or sewage sludge. Biomass systems combust
25

EJ/year
processed biological matter to provide heat or electricity, much like
conventional oil and gas-fired power plants.
20
One of the more efficient ways of producing clean energy from
smart energy

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smart energy
biomass is through the use of anaerobic digestion, where the
biomass substances are broken down by bacteria in digesters. 15
The output biogas is then used for the production of heat and
electricity.
10
Another method to produce energy from biomass is known as
gasification. This involves mixing the biomass substances with
oxygen and steam at a high temperature to create biogas. 5

The town of Jühnde in Germany obtains the majority of its energy


from local biomass installations. Renewable biomass materials, 0

North America

Latin America
and Caribbean

Asia*

Africa

Europe

Former USSR
such as manure and plant silage, are fermented at a biogas
A switch from traditional food crop production plant. The resultant gas is then combusted to supply the town’s
to non-food biomass production can potentially electricity and heating needs. A separate boiler, fired by locally-
help reduce the decline of jobs in agricultural sourced wood chips, is available for use when maintenance is
regions. It is estimated that Europe-wide, over required on the plant or for peak-load and low-supply periods. Bioenergy use (EJ/year)
300,000 jobs could be created from biomass fuel Jühnde clearly demonstrates that biomass heating and electricity Bioenergy potential (EJ/year)
production by 2020. can be particularly effective. * In Asia the actual use of biomass is higher than the potential.
The value for potential and actual use refer to sustainable use,
Source: www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/energy/sources/renewables/ indicating that in the case of Asia the actual use is not sustainable,
© Ange Halle explained/biomass/community/page17019.html ie. it can not be sustained over a long period, due to limiting © Ange Halle
09 factors such as land availability. 09

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energy from waste
energy from waste energy f
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There are various ways in which energy can be obtained from Fig. Greenhouse gas performance
waste. A report comparing the net CO2 emissions for various of waste management scenarios
waste recovery techniques has been compiled by the city of
300

kgs of carbon dioxide per tonne of waste treated


London in the United Kingdom. It concluded that anaerobic
digestion and gasification linked to CHP plants result in the
200
greatest reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
smart energy

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smart energy
Gothenburg, Sweden, operates an integrated waste system that 100
Incineration
collects, sorts and burns 345,000 tonnes of rubbish annually.
Waste-to-energy production saved the city an estimated 205,060 0
tonnes of CO2 in 2006, when compared to a hypothetical oil-based
generation scenario. -100
The city authority of Freiburg, Germany, has, for the last decade,
operated its own municipal anaerobic digestion plant. It converts -200
annually 36,000 tonnes of household organic waste into
4 million m3 of biogas and 15,000 tonnes of fertiliser. The biogas -300
is cleaned and then burned in a CHP engine generating 7 GWh
of electricity annually – a third of the cities renewable electricity -400
capacity - and feeding heat into the city’s district heating network.
-500
At the Hammarby development in Stockholm, Sweden, sewage
The city of Gothenburg, Sweden, gets 27% sludge is collected and digested in large tanks. The resultant Mechanical biological Gasification
biogas is then used as a fuel source for inner city buses, treatment/biostabilisation
of its electricity and heat energy from the Biomass boiler (incineration Incineration
incineration of its waste. garbage trucks and taxis. In addition the biogas is distributed to of biodegradable waste)
approximately 1,000 gas stoves in Hammarby apartments. Mechanical biological Landfill
Source: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/waste/
gothenburg_system.jsp
treatment followed
© Benjamin Pender by anaerobic digestion © Benjamin Pender
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thermal storage
thermal storage thermal
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Thermal storage makes use of available energy to heat or cool Fig. Cool storage design options
substances that retain high or low temperatures over time. These Full storage
can then be used at a later time for space heating or cooling,

Tonnes (kW)
Chiller off
which can improve systemic efficiency. An example can be found Chiller on
in Dallas, US, where off-peak electricity is used for cooling water at
Charging Cooling load
night to fill a 3.3 million gallon tank. The chilled water is then used storage (met by storage)
in the daytime to air-condition a local hospital.
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
Chiller
meets
Thermal storage makes up part of a district heating scheme in load
directly
Friedrichshafen, Germany. Approximately 4,300 m2 of solar thermal Time of day
collectors are used to heat water. The water is then transferred to Partial storage - load leveling
a long-term underground thermal storage facility for later use. The

Tonnes (kW)
Chiller runs
system supplies 600 residential dwellings with heated water. continuously

(met by storage)
Ice stores can also be used to reduce the scale of the chiller plants
required for air-conditioning systems. In off-peak or unoccupied Charging
Cooling load
hours, chillers maintain the low air temperature of the ice store. storage
This can then be used to supplement air-conditioning at peak (met by chiller)

times. These schemes work to redistribute the electrical energy Time of day
required for air conditioning and can be coordinated to operate at Partial storage - demand limiting
off-peak hours. This system is used at the Escondido Arts Centre

Tonnes (kW)
Reduced on-peak
in California, US, and in the Wales Millennium Centre in Cardiff, demand
In the summer of 1997, thermal storage at the United Kingdom. (met by storage)
VA Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, reduced peak
Charging
demand by approximately 3 MW, substantially storage
Cooling load

reducing the electricity bill.


(met by chiller)
© Todd Augustyniak Source: www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/uesc_cs_3.pdf © Todd Augustyniak
11 Time of day 11

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geothermal
geothermal geother
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Geothermal energy taps into sources of heat within the earth’s Fig. 1. Comparison of energy prices
core, much of which is at temperatures of 1,000°C or above. While for residential heating in Iceland,
some geographic areas are more pre-disposed to geothermal than September 2005
others, there is potential for low-temperature installations in regions 8

Icelandic krona (ISK)/kWh


with no obvious geothermal characteristics. 7
6
Installations can range from large-scale systems supporting city
smart energy

smart energy
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smart energy
heating networks to small, building-specific systems known as 5
ground-source heat pumps. In Southampton, United Kingdom, a 4
combined geothermal heating and cooling plant exports hot and 3
cold water into the city’s district heating and cooling network. 2
The geothermal well provides 18% of the heating mix into the city’s 1
district heating system, with the remainder coming from natural 0

Geothermal
(low price)
Geothermal
(average price)
Geothermal
(high price)
District heating
from electric boilers
Electrical heating
(subsidised)
Electrical heating
(not subsidised)
Oil heating
(subsidised)
Oil heating
(not subsidised)
gas and fuel oil. The scheme initially had one customer only, but it
now has thousands of customers and saves over 12,000 tonnes of
carbon emissions per year.
In Iceland, 90% of the country’s housing stock is heated with
geothermal energy. Reykjavik’s electrical and heating energy needs Fig. 2. Utilisation of geothermal
energy in Iceland, 2004
are substantially supported by geothermal sources. This particular
Industry Snow
energy source is so plentiful that roads and pavements are even melting
heated during the winter months. A “thermal beach” has also been Greenhouses
Swimming
In the UK, Southampton’s geothermal well is more created, where hot water is mixed with sea water in a lagoon. Fish pools
than a mile deep and reaches a source of water that is Reykjavik shares best practice in this area through a partnership farming
Electricity
heated to 76°C by rocks deep within the earth. with the Chinese city of Xian Yang, which is set to become China’s Space generation
first “geothermal energy city”. heating
Source: www.managenergy.net/products/R124.htm
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solar power
solar power solar po
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Urban rooftops receive a significant amount of energy in the form Fig. Evolution of the solar heat surface
of solar radiation and many authorities have started to harness this. area in Barcelona due to the ordinance
When the city of Barcelona, Spain, assessed the spatial footprint 40

total area processed (thousand m2)


required to provide the city with domestic energy, it concluded
that 1 m2 per person was needed to heat water using solar 35
thermal, and that 10 m2 per family was required for electricity
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
using photovoltaics. A study looking at all of Barcelona’s housing
30
topologies in 1999 found that between 19 m2 and 43 m2 of terrace
was available for each existing apartment. In light of their findings,
the authorities stipulated that solar water heating must provide all 25
new buildings with 60% of their hot water needs. Despite some
resistance, the ordinance proceeded. The legislation has resulted 20
in a significant year-on-year increase in the utilization of rooftops
for solar energy generation.
15
Advances in solar photovoltaic technology has meant that city
amenities such as parking meters or traffic signalling equipment 10
can operate without, or reduce reliance on, a grid connection. In
Rizhao, China, most of the city’s traffic signalling, street lighting and
park illumination are powered with solar photovoltaics. 5

The total solar energy received by Barcelona has In San Francisco, US, a solar incentive programme aims to
0
been calculated to be 28 times more than the significantly reduce the cost of installing solar panels for city

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006
energy consumed. residents. The scheme provides rebates for solar installations on
buildings owned and operated by non-profit organizations and for
Source: Droege, Peter, Urban Energy Transition: From Fossil Fuels
to Renewable Power, Chapter 19, Elsevier, 2008 low-income single and multi-family residential applicants.
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feed-in tariffs
feed-in tariffs feed-in t
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The concept of giving consumers the opportunity to produce Fig. Influence of feed-in tariff on an
their own electricity could help catalyse the development of annual PV installation in Germany
decentralized electricity networks.
400
Solar-specific feed-in tariffs were first established in Aachen, New feed-in
law
Germany, in the 1990s. Credited with stimulating growth in
renewable generation, they were later rolled out nationwide. Feed- 350
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
in tariffs put a legal obligation on utility companies to buy electricity
from renewable energy producers at a premium rate, usually over 300
a guaranteed period, making the installation of renewable energy
systems a worthwhile and secure investment for the producer. 250
The extra cost is shared among all energy users, making the price
differential barely noticeable. The revenue-neutral scheme covers
200
its costs by charging all energy consumers a small surcharge. Feed-in
law
It offers a fixed payment for long periods, usually 20 years, and
provides a potentially lucrative business model for small-scale 150
100,000 rooftop
producers. As a result, installations of solar photovoltaic energy program
KfW
systems in Germany have increased significantly, most notably in 100
1000 rooftop
the town of Freiburg. Some of the adopters of the scheme have program
(2.5x3kW)
already paid back their investment and are now making a regular 50
Twelve percent of Germany’s current electricity
income.
production is achieved with photovoltaic
generation, and at least 25,000 jobs are created In 2008, the city of Los Angeles announced it would be introducing 0

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
each year in the solar energy sector of its a feed-in tariff programme called “Solar LA”. The initiative includes
economy. separate provisions for residential customers and city-owned
Source: www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/jul/23/germany. spaces. The city aims to meet 10% of its energy demand from Note: KfW = Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau - a German
government-owned development bank which gave
greenbusiness solar power by 2020. low-interest loans to fund the programme
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hydro power
hydro power hydro po
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Rivers flow through many cities and can offer a reliable, efficient Fig. Regional shares of hydro
source of energy. Hydro power is traditionally associated with production, 1973 and 2005
large-scale projects requiring a high capital expenditure. However, 1973 - 1,295 TWh
there are opportunities for smaller “run-of-the-river” schemes,
which generate electricity by diverting water to a generator. 2.9% China 4.3% Asia*
2.1% 7.2% Latin
The United Kingdom’s largest run-of-the-river scheme is the Non-OECD America
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
Beeston weir hydro scheme in Nottingham, which generates Europe
2.2%
approximately 5.3 gigawatt-hours of electricity each year (GWh/yr) 9.4% Africa
– enough to support around 1,200 households. A similar- Former USSR 71.6%
sized 5.2 GWh/yr scheme was built in 1996 in Xanthi, Greece. 0.3% OECD
Commissioned in 1996, the run-of-the-river hydro plant in Cottbus, Middle East
Germany, generates 2.5 GWh/yr and makes effective use of
waterways previously used to drive the millstone for an old cereal 2005 - 2,994 TWh
mill.
13.3% China 7.3% Asia*
The city of Hastings, US, operates a substantial run-of-the-river
2.0% 20.7%
scheme on the Mississippi River. The city is proposing to add Non-OECD Latin
further generation capacity within the footprint of the existing Europe America
facility. On a canal connecting Manchester, UK, to the sea, a 8.3% 3.1%
disused pump-house has been refurbished to house hydro- Former USSR Africa
generation equipment. The installation supports the electricity 0.7% 44.6%
needs for 600 homes, and needed to be incorporated within an Middle East OECD
existing water level management system to allow safe navigation
Vietnam has over 2,500 micro-hydro schemes for the 3,000 vessels that use the waterway each year. * Asia excludes China.
supplying over 200,000 households.
Source: www.british-hydro.org/hydrofacts.html
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tidal power
tidal power tidal pow
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Tidal power is often overlooked as a source of energy, but Fig. Distribution of tidal conversion
represents one of the most reliable of all renewable resources. technologies being developed
The tide maintains predictable rises and falls throughout the worldwide
year, guided by the gravitational pull of the moon. This natural 30

Ocean energy technologies in development


phenomenon has been harnessed for 40 years at the estuary
of the River Rance, near St Malo in France. Owing to its high
tidal range, the site is perfectly suited for a barrage and reservoir
smart energy

smart energy
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smart energy
25
scheme.
The construction of the River Rance tidal barrage was completed 20
in 1966 and has since produced over 600 billion kWh. The price
per kWh is lower than that of nuclear or oil-fired power stations,
and the tidal barrage has generated enough income to cover its 15
construction costs. The facility is estimated to support the energy
demands of 250,000 households. The barrage also acts as a road
link between St Malo and nearby Dinard, and has a lock to allow 10

the passage of small boats.


There are many other technologies purporting to take advantage 5
of tidal energy, many of which do not depend on the construction
of an expensive barrage. For example, the first commercial
standalone tidal turbine was recently installed at Strangford 0

Australia
Belgium
Canada

France
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Spain
Sweden

US
India
Mexico
Finland
UK
Denmark
Since its construction in 1966, the River Rance Narrows, Northern Ireland, UK.
tidal barrage in St Malo, France, has produced
over 600 billion kWh. There are a number of other technologies currently under trial with
commentators likening the current state of play to the early days of Ocean Wave OTEC
Source: www.edf.fr/html/en/decouvertes/voyage/usine/
retour-usine.html wind power.
Tidal Current Salinity Gradient
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urban wind
urban wind urban w
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slimcity
Wind turbines can be integrated into the urban landscape in a wide Fig. Global annual installed wind
variety of ways; for instance on rooftops, alongside roads or rail generation capacity, 1996-2007
routes, in combination with lighting columns, in docklands or on

MW
20,000
industrial sites.
Merchant Wind Power (MWP) is a framework for the installation 18,000

of wind turbines on industrial or brownfield sites: the site owner


smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
16,000
leases the land to a wind power installer and/or operator, then
purchases back the electricity produced at reduced rates. In 14,000
negotiations for one such scheme, in Dagenham, United Kingdom,
an electricity supply company offered a large manufacturing firm a 12,000
“no capital, no risk” solution for the installation of wind turbines in
return for a supply agreement. 10,000

A similar scheme was implemented at Avonmouth, UK, featuring 8,000


an installation of three wind turbines in a port area. It provides
around 75% of the port’s energy needs, and exports spare 6,000
capacity to the local community when available. A further three
turbines are planned so that it can meet 100% of the port’s energy 4,000

needs.
2,000
Small-scale urban wind technology is not as established as the
Denmark already achieves 21% of its gross large windfarm technologies. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) 0

1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
electricity demand from wind power. In the west are sometimes used in the urban environment. They do not need
of the country, this at times rises to over 100%. to rotate to face the wind and they can absorb energy from the
turbulent air created around buildings. Five VAWTs have been
Source: Global Wind Energy Council and Greenpeace, Global
Wind Energy Outlook 2008, p 16 installed at the BT Convention Centre, Liverpool, UK.
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electricity storage
electricity storage electrici
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A greater reliance on naturally fluctuating renewable energy Fig. Technology development status
sources, such as wind and solar, will mean that methods will be
needed to generate more energy output or reduce consumption Commercial Pre- Demonstration Developmental
commercial phase
during peak periods. Electricity networks will increasingly need to
dynamically dispatch backup generation, store energy and reduce Pumped hydro Flywheel Electro- Lithium
demand. Energy storage can be used for peak-lopping – lowering chemical ion (grid
capacitor applications)
the generation capacity required at peak times.
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
Flywheels Flywheel Hydrogen Super-
Many storage technologies are currently available. The most (local power (grid device) loop magnetic
mature is hydro-storage, where water is pumped to a mountain quality) energy
reservoir when energy is abundant. When electrical power is (storage
applications)
required, the stored water is then allowed to flow back to a lower
reservoir via a turbine. Denmark has achieved an average of 20% Compressed Zinc-
wind energy penetration by making use of hydro-storage capacity air energy bromine
in the Norwegian mountains. A pumped water storage system is storage (CAES) battery
also in operation in the city of Hamburg, Germany. Lead acid Vanadium
battery redox
Several other technologies have been put forward as viable battery
models for energy storage, such as hydrogen storage. Water is
split using electrolysis to create hydrogen and oxygen at off-peak Ni-Cd
times, and recombined in fuel cells when electricity is needed. battery

Other techniques include fly-wheels, compressed air and batteries. Sodium


Some 3% of the world’s electricity generation sulphur battery
capacity is available through pumped water Large-scale batteries, often used in conjunction with wind turbines,
storage. are widely used in Japan. A 6 MW eight-hour battery system is
operational in Ohito, Japan.
Source: www.electricitystorage.org/tech/technologies_
© Ondrej Nespor technologies_pumpedhydro.htm © Ondrej Nespor
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microgrids
microgrids microgr
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Microgrids are small-scale electricity networks that operate with a Fig. Microgrid diagram
degree of autonomy. This may apply to an “islanded” section of an
Interface
established electricity system or a small system operating in a rural protection Photovoltaics
area; or on an island with no connection to a centralized system.
The operation of a microgrid, just as in main networks, relies on the Micro-grid
management
RTU Converter
system CATV and
coordination of supply and demand using methods such as energy Communications
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
RTU
storage. This has been achieved in remote places such as Fair Isle,
United Kingdom, via demand management, smart appliances and Data
RTU

regulation of supply. The island relies on wind power for its energy Control Acquisition Sensitive Load
RTU
needs. When the wind drops, its systems automatically reduce Static
the supply to the island’s heating loads. Homes are fitted with Fuel cell conditioner

autonomous washing machines that reduce the electricity they Variable


speed
drives
consume on detection of reduced generating capacity. Converter Interface
protection
Interface
Modern grid visions for urban areas aspire to move away from protection
Converter Microturbine/generator
centralized models towards a more distributed approach. It is
postulated that a reliable supply of electricity can be retained by
allowing small sections of the network to behave like a microgrid.
A United Kingdom report found that a microgrid Will need the rights
consisting of around 1.4 kWp PV array per The SmartGrids model builds on the autonomous microgrid
to use this diagram
household and 45% household ownership of system implemented on Fair Isle, integrating modern information
micro-CHP generators will maintain energy and communications technology standards with network sensors
balance on a yearly basis if supplemented by and controls. This enables portions of the network to control
energy storage of 2.7 kWh per household. the availability, generation, storage of and demand for energy. A
SmartGrid trial is underway in Boulder, Colorado.
Source: www.tyndall.ac.uk/research/theme2/final_reports/
© Darren C. Anderson, Solar Electric Light Fund it1_33.pdf © Darren C. Anderson, S
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energy security
energy security energy s
SlimCity
SlimCity

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SlimCity
Trends suggest that a growing proportion of energy consumed Fig. Interdependence of energy and
is likely to be supplied by electricity networks. This could be other sectors
compounded by the growth in electric road vehicles. This Losing power in even one region damages the
increased reliance on electricity will mean that the capacity for loss whole economy
of supply is higher. Oil / Gas Compressor
Station
Centralized networks route power through critical nodes that are
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
Fuel Supply
expected to operate without interruption, often resulting in points
Electric
of weakness. In an attempt to counter this, many cities such as Communications
Power
Plant
Power
Supply Power
New York, US, are embracing the concept of energy resource End Switching
decentralization. Decentralized energy systems can help improve Office Office
Substation

overall efficiencies. The option for districts to operate in “island Traffic


Transportation
Water Light
mode” – perhaps on a reduced-demand basis – could also help to
ensure increased protection of energy supply. Reservoir Transport
Substation

In the US, the 2007 Energy Security and Independence Act Banking
Hospital Emergency
and Finance
explicitly introduced directives and incentives for the creation Bank
Ambulance Services

of SmartGrids as a means of improving energy security. The Check


Processing ATM Federal Fire Emergency
Reserve Station Call Centre
Act promotes the adoption of smart meters, smart appliances Centre

and renewable energy technologies. It also called for greater Government


Pension/Service Services
electrification of vehicular transport. In its “modern grid systems Payments
Treasury Dept.
Legislative Military
view” report, the US Department of Energy supports the concept Offices Installations
In the US, the average age of a substation of a decentralized mesh-like network topology, with sections able
transformer is 42 years – two years over the to operate autonomously in extraordinary circumstances. It points
expected life span. out that such schemes, while improving security, will bring about
Source: www.smartgridnews.com/artman/publish/Overviews_ multiple benefits in efficiencies and system robustness.
Misc/The_Smart_Grid_An_Introduction.html
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partnerships
partnerships partners
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The London Energy Partnership (LEP) is a partnership between Fig. CO2 emissions reductions achieved
the Greater London Authority (GLA) and energy suppliers and by electricity companies as a result
infrastructure owners. The LEP aims to create “energy action of the TMG programme, Tokyo, Japan
areas” in order to achieve energy efficiency gains.

kg-CO2/kWh
0.8
The GLA is collaborating with a leading energy supplier to offer a
heavily discounted home insulation service to London’s residents.
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
The energy supplier, obliged to undertake energy-saving actions
0.6
under a national scheme, provides the insulation service while the
GLA runs an extensive advertising campaign.
Twenty per cent of Tokyo’s electricity is to come from renewable
sources by 2020. Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) has 0.4
adopted simple strategies in order to achieve this in a city with
a liberalized electricity market in which consumers choose their
supplier.
0.2
TMG requires that all energy companies reveal their carbon
emissions figures as well as details of plans to install and scale up
renewable energy generation capacity. They are also required to
set targets for emissions reductions. If an energy company should 0.0

Average factor

TEPCO

E REX

Ennet

Summit Energy

GTF Green Power

Nippon Steel Engineering

Nippon Oil Corporation

Diamond Power

Marubeni
fail to submit the appropriate information, TMG withholds the right
to name and shame it publically as a non-participant. The strategy
Tokyo is asking energy companies to supply proved successful in the first year of operation, with six out of nine
20% renewable energy by 2020. electricity companies successfully reducing emissions by a total of
680,000 tonnes of CO2. 2004
Source: www.project2degrees.org/Pages/BestPractices/
© Unumediastudio Energy/TokyoCompanies.aspx 2005 © Unumediastudio
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city co-operatives
city co-operatives city co-o
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Cities can save significant sums of money by leveraging their Fig. Procura+ Milestones action
collective purchasing power. This can also help stimulate new plan framework
markets for energy-efficient products, which could lead to further
cost reductions. One of the Clinton Foundation’s core objectives 2
is to pool the purchasing power of cities. To date, it has negotiated Target setting
discounted pricing agreements with more than 25 manufacturers 1
Preparation
of energy-efficient products, giving 1,100 cities access to these
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
prices. ICLEI’s Procura+ campaign advises and helps cities to
make sustainable procurements. ICLEI’s campaign has already
helped the city of Kolding, Denmark, and Zurich, Switzerland, 3
Develop
procure energy-efficient IT equipment. Action Plan

In Australia, Darebin and Whitehorse city councils have set up a 5


co-operative under the banner Community Power. Together, they Monitor progress
and report results
were able to broker a deal for electricity from renewable sources
at a reduced rate. They also shared knowledge and resources to 4
Implement
produce educational guides promoting energy efficiency practices Action Plan
among their citizens.
The public sector in the EU is estimated to buy Cooperation between cities can go further than buying power. The
approximately 150,000 GWh of electricity per year, Australian Solar Cities initiative, including Adelaide, Townsville,
representing about 6-7% of the market. Shifting to Blacktown, Alice Springs and Central Victoria, encourages partner
green electricity could save up to 60 million tonnes cities to share best energy practices and compare new emergent
of CO2 emissions, equivalent to the emissions of a technologies. ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection campaign,
city the size of London. supported by over 800 local governments, provides a platform for
Source: Procura+ and ICLEI, The Procura+ Manual, A Guide to Cost- shared resources and methodologies to reduce carbon emissions
Effective Sustainable Public Procurement, 2nd edition, 2007 in cities.
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lighting
lighting lighting
SlimCity
SlimCity

SlimCity
SlimCity
The intelligent control of street lighting can lead to large savings Fig. Comparison of source and system
and a reduction in energy consumption. In Oslo, Norway, a efficacies (LPW) lighting technologies
system has been installed where 10,000 High Pressure Sodium
140

Lumens per Watt (LPW)


(HPS) street-lighting columns can be individually controlled from
a central location. This is achieved using existing power cables
as communication links. The lighting can be dimmed when 120
appropriate, which helps to reduce energy consumption and
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
extend lamp life. 100

Tougher efficiency standards for street lighting and lighting controls


can impact significantly the totality of a city’s energy consumption. 80
Although the most efficient light source for streetlights is generally
considered to be HPS, more efficient sources are emerging. The 60
Light Emitting Diode (LED) has a significantly longer life-rating
when compared to standard HPS sources. Pilot tests have found 40
that people prefer the colour output of LEDs to that of HPS, and
that they are happy to accept a drop in overall light output if
necessary – thereby helping to ensure reduced lighting demand. 20
Many pilot schemes are underway that compare these two
sources, including a project conducting a direct comparison in 0

Incandescent

Hallogen

CFL

400W Mercury

400W HPS

400W MH

1 Watt LED
Oakland, US.
The introduction of high-efficiency lamps and LEDs have been installed in place of incandescent lamps in traffic
an intelligent lighting control system reduced signalling lights in Thekwini, South Africa. The replacement realized
energy consumption in Oslo by 70%. an energy saving of 73% for these systems, mirroring the results of
other schemes undertaken in Portland and Chicago, US. Source LPW (rated)
Source: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/lighting/oslo_
streetlight.jsp System mean LPW
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energy education
energy education energy e
SlimCity
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Energy waste often results from the unintentional misuse of Fig. Responses to energy-saving
equipment. Energy savings forecast to arise from the installation actions
of energy-efficient appliances may be negated if such appliances 120
are not used as intended (eg. leaving the lights on when an office
is empty). Peer-to-peer educational programmes such as those
offered by the Building Owners and Managers Association offer 100
frameworks for the promotion of energy-efficient behaviour.
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
Educational programmes can raise awareness among young 80
people. A project called “Discover Energy and Talk About it”,
implemented by the Pamplona City Council in Spain, teaches
60
children about basic energy efficiency and encourages them to
pass on any information to their families.
40
A further avenue for the dissemination of information relating
to energy efficiency and conservation is community activism,
bringing together those who share a desire to improve energy 20
practices locally. Chicago’s Conservation Corps aims to tap into
this sentiment with its stated mission “to recruit, train and support
volunteers to save energy” in collaboration with other conservation 0

Not leave
on standby
Dry clothes
outside
Full load
to wash
Wash clothes
lower temp
Defrost fridge
regularly
Let food cool
before fridge
Keep fridge
closed
Adjust fridge
not so cold
Minimum water
in kettle
Microwave
not stove
Lids on pans
Cook oven
things together
schemes. The energy-saving trust in the United Kingdom runs
a network known as Community Action for Energy (CAfE). The
In Massachusetts, for every US$ 1 invested in agency acts as a support group for small-scale community
energy efficiency programmes, more than US$ 3 projects, providing educational and technical support as well as Never Fairly often Always
has been saved. recommending funding sources where required. The project’s
Sometimes Usually
Source: www.env-ne.org/public/resources/pdf/ENE_MA_Energy_ website lists numerous projects, from initiatives to educate local
EE_Opportunity_June_2007_061107.pdf primary school children to “eco” home improvements groups.
24 24

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empowered city
empowered city empowe
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SlimCity
In what started as a drive for energy efficiency in 1991, and has Fig. Comparison of grid and private
since incorporated the roll-out of Solar PV and Local Combined wire supply prices in the UK
Heat, Cooling and Power systems, Woking’s Borough Council 100

Percent
Scheme in the UK has enabled the city to reduce its CO2
emissions by 82%.
80
In 1999, the Council set up Thamesway, a jointly funded public-
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
private Energy Services Company (ESCo) to facilitate the roll-out
of distributed energy resources. The company sources schemes 60
of various sizes, suitable for the installation of combined heat and
power systems, often with complementary solar photovoltaics.
Electricity and heat from these systems are then distributed to 40
local energy networks, again installed and owned by the ESCo.
Thamesway would typically match electricity prices charged to
customers and make up any cost shortfalls with a district heating 20
system service provided from the same plant.
The efficiencies gained are multifaceted. The generation of 0

Grid
supply

Private
supply
electricity close to the area of use reduces transmission losses;
and the use of private networks means that the ESCo is exempt
from “use of system” charges and associated fees. In addition, the
Electricity Supply margin
use of the heat from the generation process provides an additional
In 2001/2002, the town of Woking achieved revenue stream not available to more centralized power producers. Transmission losses TUOS
99.85% independence from the national
Although Thamesway is still physically reliant on the wider grid Distribution losses DUOS
electricity grid of the United Kingdom.
system, the more efficient, decentralized and independent concept Renewable obligation Private wire
Source: Action Energy - Carbon Trust, An integrated approach to
energy services at Woking Borough Council GPCS434, Jan 2004 realized by the Woking scheme has allowed the council to prevent
© Nick Hider Climate change levy VAT © Nick Hider
25 144,380 tonnes of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere. 25

25
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glossary glossary
SlimCity
SlimCity

SlimCity
SlimCity
absorption chilling gasification kilowatt-hour (kWh) absorption chilling
The heat-driven cooling process typically used in CCHP systems. Process by which carbon-based materials such as coal, petroleum Unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hour (Wh); one Wh is consumed The heat-driven cooling proc
or biomass can be converted into carbon monoxide and hydrogen when one W of power is used for a period of one hour.
anaerobic digestion by reacting the raw material at high temperatures with a controlled anaerobic digestion
The process used to create biogas from biomass substances or amount of oxygen and/or steam. kilowatt peak (kWp) The process used to create b
waste, involving the use of bacteria to break down material in vats Unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hour (Wh); one Wh is consumed waste, involving the use of b
known as digesters. gigawatt-hour (GWh) when one W of power is used for a period of one hour. known as digesters.
A unit of electrical energy consumption.
biogas Light Emitting Diode (LED) biogas
smart energy

smart energy
smart energy

smart energy
Gas created from biomass or waste materials. grid An emerging lighting technology, usually has long-rated life. Gas created from biomass o
A common name for the electrical distribution system; can also
Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) refer to the patterned metal contact on the top of a PV cell. megawatt (MW) Combined Cooling Heat and
The process in which the generation of both useful heat and Unit of power equal to 1,000,000 watts (W). The process in which the gen
electrical power is combined; an amount of the heat is typically High Pressure Sodium (HPS) electrical power is combined
used to provide cooling in a heat-driven cooling process. Widely accepted as the most efficient light source for street lamps; megawatt-hour (MWh) used to provide cooling in a
produces a yellow/orange light. Unit of energy equal to 1,000,000 watt-hours (Wh).
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Combined Heat and Power (
The process in which the generation of both useful heat and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) photovoltaic (PV) The process in which the gen
electrical power is combined. ICT is an umbrella term that includes all technologies for the A reference to the electrochemical process by which electricity is electrical power is combined
manipulation and communication of information. produced from solar radiation.
ESCo ESCo
Energy Systems Company or Energy Services Company often set International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) real-time pricing Energy Systems Company o
up as a part of a public private partnership. ICLEI is an international association of local governments and Energy-pricing concept whereby a commodity price is set up as a part of a public priva
their associations that have made a commitment to sustainable according to availability/demand in real time and communicated
feed-in tariff development. to the consumer; thought to be able to aid system robustness by feed-in tariff
A financial incentive for generators of electricity, the cost of which is increasing the flexibility of the supply and demand balance. A financial incentive for gene
often shared among all consumers within a system; typically used incandescent lamps often shared among all cons
to encourage uptake of clean renewable technologies. Traditional light source; light emitted by passing current through SmartGrid to encourage uptake of clean
thin wire (or filament); generally considered inefficient as it gives off A concept that merges modern ICT systems with electrical power
fuel cell a large proportion of input energy as heat. networks to achieve a more intelligent, dynamic and robust power fuel cell
A semiconductor device that converts light to electricity via an system with which users and operators can intuitively interact. A semiconductor device that
electrochemical process known as the photovoltaic effect; a kilowatt (kW) electrochemical process kno
hydrogen fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce Unit of power equal to 1,000 watts (W). use of system charges hydrogen fuel cell combines
electricity with water as a by-product. A construct in which electricity transmission and distribution electricity with water as a by
companies in the United Kingdom receive income from the use of
their infrastructure.

iii
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smart energy 04 smart metering Fig: Helsingin Energia, Development
of district cooling in Helsinki
10 energy from waste 12 geothermal http://www.sfsolarsubsidy.com/sf-
solar-news/san-francisco-solar-
www.energie-cites.eu/db/xanthi_
140_en.pdf
18 electricity storage smart energy 04 sm
Energy Efficiency in Buildings www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ www.discoversouthampton. www.electricitystorage.org/tech/ Energ
01 decentralized energy – Business Realities and www.helen.fi/sljeng/kj_kehitys.html waste/gothenburg_system.jsp co.uk/sections/ incentive-video/ www.energie-cites.eu/db/cottbus_ technologies_technologies.htm 01 decentralized energy – Bus
www.guardian.co.uk/ Opportunities, http://www. 08 district heating www.london.gov.uk/mayor/ southampton%20geothermal.aspx Fig: Barcelona Energy Agency, 140_en.pdf www.prod.sandia.gov/cgi- www.guardian.co.uk/ Oppo
society/2006/mar/15/ vaxjo.se/vaxjo_templates/Page. www.project2degrees. environment/waste/docs/ www.greenpeace.org.uk/climate/ Jan 2007, www.barcelonaenergia. www.energie-cites.eu/db/boulder_ bin/techlib/access-control. society/2006/mar/15/ vaxjo
guardiansocietysupplement1l aspx?id=33649 org/Pages/BestPractices/Energy/ greenhousegas/summaryreport.rtf case-study-southampton cat/eng/observatory/ost/ost5.htm colorado_570_en.pdf pl/2002/020751.pdf guardiansocietysupplement1l aspx
www.localpower.org/ Fig: Based on City of Växjö and CopenhagenHeat.aspx www.hammarbysjostad. www.renewableenergyworld.com/ 14 feed-in tariffs www.ecotricity.co.uk/about/source_ www.electricitystorage.org/tech/ www.localpower.org/ Fig: B
Energie-Cités, Intelligent and Arup Intranet Mechanical Skills se/inenglish/pdf/HS_miljo_bok_ rea/news/story?id=46757 www.guardian.co.uk/ hydro.html technologies_technologies_nas.htm Energ
www.lcca.co.uk/server. communicative metering, p 1 www.lcca.co.uk/server. comm
php?show=nav.005009 Network Forums eng_ny.pdf www.os.is/page/english/ business/2007/jul/23/germany. www.caddet.org/infostore/display. www.economy-point.org/p/ php?show=nav.005009
www.vaxjo.se/upload/29082/ greenbusiness www
Fig: US Department of Energy metering.pdf www.ctr.dk/images/publikationer/ TCPA and CHPA, Community www.or.is/English/ php?id=4624 pumped-storage-power-station- Fig: US Department of Energy mete
Office of Electricity and Energy 3folder2006.pdf energy: Urban Planning for a low EnergyandEnvironment/Geothermal/ http://mayor.lacity. www.hgenergy.com/hastings.html geesthacht.html Office of Electricity and Energy
05 real-time pricing carbon future, 2008 org/villaraigosaplan/ 05 re
Reliability. The Smart Grid: An www.project2degrees.org/ www.windpower.org/en/ Reliability. The Smart Grid: An
Introduction, 2008, p 9, www. www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/ www.urbed.coop/journal_docs/ www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ EnergyandEnvironment/ Fig: International Energy Agency, Introduction, 2008, p 9, www. www
Pages/BestPractices/Energy/ renewables/reykjavik_geothermal.jsp Key World Energy Statistics, 2007, didyouknow.htm
smartgridnews.com/artman/publish/ downloads/pdf/report_energy.pdf AmsterdamCooling.aspx UrbedReport_LoRes.pdf ClimateChange/LACITY_004983. smartgridnews.com/artman/publish/ down
Overviews_Misc/The_Smart_Grid_ www.managenergy.net/products/ p 18, www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/ Fig: Delta Energy and Environment Overviews_Misc/The_Smart_Grid_
www.eci.ox.ac.uk/research/energy/ Fig: Large Cities Climate Fig: Greater London Authority, www.wind-works. free/2007/Key_Stats_2007.pdf in Cogeneration and On-Site www
An_Introduction.html downloads/smart-metering- Greenhouse gas balances of R124.htm org/FeedLaws/USA/ An_Introduction.html down
Summit, LCCS: Energy-District 16 tidal power Power Production, Emerging
02 smartgrids report.pdf Heating System, Figure 2 waste management scenarios, Jan www.hochtief.com/hochtief_ ContinentsLargestMunicipalUtility electricity storage technologies, 02 smartgrids repor
Fig: Energy Investment Systems, www.nycclimatesummit. 2008, Chart A, www.london.gov. en/9134.jhtml ProposesSolarFeed-inTariff.html www.edf.fr/html/en/decouvertes/ Table 1, www.cospp.com/ Fig: E
Phone conversations, Peter Corsell, uk/mayor/environment/waste/docs/ Phone conversations, Peter Corsell,
Randy Huston, Sandy Simon Inc., City of New York - Mayor’s com/casestudies/energy/energy_ Figures 1 and 2: Orkustofnun www.worldfuturecouncil.org/ voyage/usine/retour-usine.html display_article/341386/122/CRTIS/ Randy Huston, Sandy Simon Inc.,
Office of Long-Term Planning heating_copen.html greenhousegas/technicalreport.pdf fileadmin/user_upload/Rob/press/ none/none/1/Emerging-electricity- Office
Fig: Based on US Department of National Energy Authority, http://kn.theiet.org/magazine/ Fig: Based on US Department of
and Sustainability, PlaNYC 2030: 09 biomass 11 thermal storage Energy Statistics in Iceland, Oct publications/Feed-inGuidePrint.pdf issues/0816/tidal-0816.cfm storage-technologies/- and S
Energy Office of Electricity and Progress Report 2008, A Greener, Energy Office of Electricity and Prog
Energy Reliability, The Smart Grid: www.eere.energy.gov/ 2005, pp 8-9, www.os.is/Apps/ Fig: EPIA, 2005, in World Fig: International Energy Agency 19 microgrids Energy Reliability, The Smart Grid:
Greater New York, 2008, p 109 www.german-renewable-energy. WebObjects/Orkustofnun. Grea
An Introduction, 2008, p 15 com/Renewables/Navigation/ www.managenergy.net/products/ Future Council, Feed-In Tariffs Ocean Energy Systems (IEA-OES), www.fairisle.org.uk/FIECo/renewed/ An Introduction, 2008, p 15
www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/ woa/swdocument/3879/ - Boosting Energy for our Future: www
www.smartgridnews.com/artman/ downloads/pdf/report_energy.pdf Englisch/Biomasse/case- R430.htm Policy Report, 2006, www.iea- introduction.htm www.smartgridnews.com/artman/ down
publish/Overviews_Misc/The_ Orkutölur+enska+2005.pdf A guide to one of the world’s best oceans.org/ publish/Overviews_Misc/The_
studies,did=132912.html www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/ Fig: Hatziargyriou, Nikos, National
Smart_Grid_An_Introduction.html 06 demand response 13 solar power environmental policies, June 2007, Smart_Grid_An_Introduction.html 06 d
Droege, Peter, Renewable City: A uesc_cs_3.pdf p 9, www.worldfuturecouncil.org/ 17 urban wind Technical University of Athens
03 electric vehicles http://gridwise.pnl.gov/docs/gfa_ Comprehensive Guide to an Urban www.sfsolarsubsidy.com/wp- 03 electric vehicles http:/
project_final_report_pnnl17079.pdf Fig: American Society of Heating, fileadmin/user_upload/Maja/Feed- www.gwec.net 20 energy security proje
http://kn.theiet.org/news/sep08/ Revolution, John Wiley and Sons, content/uploads/2008/06/san- in_Tariffs_WFC.pdf http://kn.theiet.org/news/sep08/
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning francisco-solar- www.ecotricity.co.uk/wind-parks www.netl.doe.gov/moderngrid/
berlin-emobility.cfm Fig: PIER Demand Response 2007 Engineers, Inc., www.ashrae.org, in berlin-emobility.cfm Fig: P
Research Center, http://drrc.lbl.gov 15 hydro power opportunity/vision_characteristics. Rese
www.anaerobic-digestion.com/html/ Pacific Northwest National Library, www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ www.quietrevolution.co.uk
www.berr.gov.uk/files/file48653.pdf www.emra.gov.uk/ html www.berr.gov.uk/files/file48653.pdf
07 combined heat and power ad_plants_in_the_uk.html Thermal Energy Storage for Space renewables/rizhao_solar.jsp Fig: Global Representation for 07 co
www.betterplace.com/israel Cooling, Figure 14, p 11 publications/documents/ http://home2.nyc.gov/html/om/pdf/ www.betterplace.com/israel
Helsingin Energia Fig: Kaltschmitt, 2001, at European Droege, Peter, Urban Energy viewpointsonsusenergy_ the Wind Energy Sector and Helsi
Fig: BERR: Department for www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/ Transition: From Fossil Fuels to Greenpeace, Global Wind Energy energy_task_force.pdf Fig: BERR: Department for
www.helen.fi/sljeng/kj_kehitys.html Biomass Industry Association, appendices.pdf www
Transport, Investigation into the Biomass resources and production FTA_coolstorage.pdf Renewable Power, Chapter 19, Outlook 2008, Oct 2008, p 16 Transport, Investigation into the
Scope for the Transport Sector to IEA, Combined Heat and Power: Elsevier, 2008 BERR Energy Trends 2007 UK www.gwec.net/fileadmin/images/ Scope for the Transport Sector to IEA, C
Evaluating the Benefits of Greater potential, www.eubia.org/215.0.html Evalu
Switch to Electric Vehicles and Plug- www.berr.gov.uk/files/file43304.pdf Logos/Corporate/GWEO_A4_ Switch to Electric Vehicles and Plug-
in Hybrid Vehicles, Oct 2008, p 3 Global Investment, 2008 www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ 2008_lowres.pdf in Hybrid Vehicles, Oct 2008, p 3 Glob
www.berr.gov.uk/files/file48653.pdf www.iea.org iv renewables/rizhao_solar.jsp www.berr.gov.uk/files/file48653.pdf www
SlimCity urban mobility

SlimCity smart energy

SlimCity sustainable buildings


smart energy Fig: ICLEI Europe, The Procura+ Fig: Action Energy - Carbon Trust,
Milestones, 2007, www.iclei- An integrated approach to energy
Calvin, Robert and Yeager, Kurt, europe.org/index.php?id=4584 services at Woking Borough Council
Perfect Power: How the microgrid 23 lighting GPCS434, Jan 2004, Figure 7
revolution will unleash cleaner, www.carbontrust.co.uk/
greener, and more abundant energy, www.samferdselsetaten.oslo. Publications/publicationdetail.
McGraw Hill 2009. kommune.no/arbeidsomrade/ htm?productid=GPCS434&metaN
losartikler/article63385-8990.html oCache=1
Fig: Science Applications
International Corporation in National Fig: Based on BetaLED and
Energy Technology Laboratory, KramerLED, LEED Certification
Appendix A3: A Systems View of Guide: LED Lighting Systems In
Sustainable Building Design, 2008, The publishers have made every
the Modern Grid, Resists Attack, effort to contact the copyright
Jan 2007, Figure 2, p A3-3 p 6, www.betaled.com/docs/LEED_
042408-web.pdf owners of the texts and images
www.netl.doe.gov/moderngrid/ published in these cards. In certain
opportunity/vision_characteristics. 24 energy education cases it has not been possible and
html www.managenergy.net/download/ we invite any such copyright owner
21 partnerships nr233.pdf to get in touch.
www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/ www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/cafe
energy/tokyo_companies.jsp www.fypower.org/bpg/module.
www.london.gov.uk/view_press_ html?b=institutional&m=Education
release.jsp?releaseid=11351 http://egov.cityofchicago.org
www.london.gov.uk/insulate/ Fig: Association for the
Fig: C40 Cities, Energy: Tokyo, Conservation of Energy (UK)
Japan, 2008, www.c40cities. in World Business Council for
org/bestpractices/energy/tokyo_ Sustainable Development, Energy
companies.jsp Efficiency in Buildings Facts &
22 city co-operatives Trends: Business realities and
opportunities, 2008, Figure 5.21,
www.clintonfoundation.org/what- p 73, www.wbcsd.org/plugins/
we-do/clinton-climate-initiative/our- DocSearch/details.asp?type=DocD
approach/green-technologies et&ObjectId=MjU5MTE
www.communitypower.org/ 25 empowered city
www.environment.gov.au/ www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/
settlements/solarcities/ energy/woking_efficiency.jsp
www.iclei.org/index.php?id=811 www.project2degrees.
www.procuraplus.org/index. org/Pages/BestPractices/Energy/
php?id=6263 WokingEfficiency.aspx
v
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Editor Editor

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World Economic Forum

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World Economic Forum
Research
Anne Sharp, Arup
Research
Design Anne Sharp, Arup
Jeremy Clark, Jacob Dunn, Sarah Khalid, Marcus Morrell, Arup

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
Printing and packaging Design
1st-packaging Jeremy Clark, Jacob Dunn, Sarah Khalid, Marcus Morrell, Arup

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
Project Management
Marcus Morrell, Arup Printing and packaging
Darren Wachtler, Johanna Lanitis, World Economic Forum 1st-packaging
Project Direction
Chris Luebkeman, Tristram Carfrae, Arup Project Management
Christoph Frei, Alex Wong, World Economic Forum
Marcus Morrell, Arup
Steering Board Darren Wachtler, Johanna Lanitis, World Economic Forum
Arup, BASF SE, The Dow Chemical Company, DuPont, Hines Jones LaSalle Inc.

Thanks to Project Direction


Members of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Councils on Sustainable Chris Luebkeman, Tristram Carfrae, Arup
Construction and Real Estate and to all contributing photographers.
Christoph Frei, Alex Wong, World Economic Forum
Printed January 2009
© Text: the authors; © Images: the authors Steering Board in collaboration with ARUP

Arup, BASF SE, The Dow Chemical Company, DuPont, Hines Jones LaSalle Inc.

Thanks to
Members of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Councils on Sustainable
Construction and Real Estate and to all contributing photographers.

Printed January 2009


© Text: the authors; © Images: the authors
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sustainable buildings city issue map sustainable bui
It has been estimated that over 70% of the average city’s greenhouse gas emissions come from buildings. If urban This graph shows the results from It has been estimated that
Greenhouse

High
buildings continue to be planned, designed, built and operated without a transformational change, the energy a survey asking a selection of city buildings continue to be pl
gas emissions
consumption of buildings is forecast to triple by 2050. A series of radical and integrated initiatives are needed to curb Mayors, Deputy Mayors and urban consumption of buildings i
the projected growth in consumption and reduce urban dependence on fossil fuels. Sustainable buildings are not just planners what issues are of most the projected growth in con
energy-efficient; they form part of a city’s positive infrastructure, contributing positively to the community and to the concern. They were each asked to Consumer interest energy-efficient; they form
in sustainability
environment. They coexist within an integrated system and run on clean, renewable energy. They make the best use rank thirty pre-determined issues environment. They coexist
of local resources, using materials which are recycled and reused. They aim to be regenerative, actively contributing according to importance (high/low), of local resources, using m
to local biodiversity and food security. They strive to adapt and evolve with climatic, economic and social change and level of uncertainty (high/low) and to local biodiversity and foo
safeguard human health and well-being. Sustainable buildings are also a celebration of both form and function. Policy timescale within which to address Energy safeguard human health an

Uncertainty
Supply of efficiency
and adopted practices must ensure that all these aspects are considered and actively encouraged. the issue (1-5 years). The survey was housing and adopted practices mu
conducted in collaboration with the Sustainable
It is imperative that city authorities reduce the CO2 output of existing buildings through extensive refurbishment. This World Economic Forum’s partner, Energy urban planning It is imperative that city aut
may be the primary focus in more economically developed countries. They must also ensure that all new buildings demand may be the primary focus i
ICLEI. The objective of the survey
aim to be carbon-neutral, or as close to it as feasibly possible. This may be the priority in less economically developed was to ensure that the Forum’s work Water supply aim to be carbon-neutral, o
countries. Across all regions, City Hall can lead the way by tackling the public stock of buildings, and by influencing management countries. Across all region
on SlimCity is relevant in the global
the private stock through policy and incentive schemes. In addition, city masterplans must incorporate decentralized context. the private stock through p
infrastructure and green spaces, and take into account appropriate levels of urban densification. City Mayors and ICT infrastructure infrastructure and green sp
Buildings and
Governors can incentivize owners and occupiers to meet low-carbon and efficiency targets using renewable energy, Fifty cities took part in the survey, construction Wastewater Governors can incentivize
and by installing water and waste management schemes. They can promote more efficient ways of occupying conducted in 2008, from the standards management and by installing water and

Low
buildings using smart technology, and insist on building assessments at regular intervals during a building’s lifespan. following countries: Australia, Brazil, buildings using smart techn
To help cover the costs involved in implementing such strategies, city authorities can establish business initiatives, Canada, Estonia, France, Germany, Low Importance High To help cover the costs inv
possibly in collaboration with the private sector. Ireland, Italy, Japan, Namibia, Fig. ICLEI city issue map for Sustainable Buildings 1 year timeline possibly in collaboration w
Nigeria, Portugal, South Africa,
The following knowledge cards provide examples of sustainable buildings best practice with particular focus on South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland,
The size of each circle corresponds to the perceived timescale within The following knowledge c
which each issue should be addressed. 5 year timeline
planning, design and operation of new and existing buildings. Please note that they are not wholly independent of the United Kingdom, the United planning, design and opera
energy and mobility, which are addressed in full in the two accompanying knowledge card sets. States of America and Uruguay. energy and mobility, which

ii

i
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city hall
city hall city hall
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City Hall, home to the Mayor’s Office and administrative offices, is Fig. Mind map of building issues
the ideal venue to demonstrate to city residents a commitment to important to the city of
sustainable building, operation and occupation. Melbourne’s staff
Inspiring
Several cities, including London and Melbourne, have opened new
sustainable offices for authority staff. Melbourne City Council’s new Ownership & pride Adaptability (Flexibility)
CH2 office, Australia’s first 6-star Greenstar rated office building,
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
Space
incorporates a number of sustainable design features (including Light Security
exposed thermal mass, night purging, phase change material, PV Thermal
and solar thermal energy systems). The council’s website provides Comfortable People Health & safety
design snapshots documenting the integrated approach taken by Noise
staff and the design team. Monitoring and feedback of these iconic
Air Productivity
buildings will also provide knowledge-sharing opportunities.
Psychological
Demonstration projects do not have to be new buildings, and the Accessibility Functionally efficient
extensive refurbishment of the City Hall Annex in Cambridge, US, Welcoming Interactive
has proved as much. Combining sustainable design and historic
Legibility Socially-effective
preservation, the annex, built in 1871, has achieved a LEED Gold
rating. The design has led to a 43% reduction of greenhouse
gas emissions; it has reduced water usage by 50% and has
In 2008, 417 m2 of photovoltaic panels incorporated numerous sustainable materials. A collaborative
were retrofitted to London’s City Hall. It venture has seen a 26.5 kW photovoltaic array incorporated into
is estimated that this energy generation the roof, providing 10% of the building’s power. No boiler has been
of 50,000 kWh/year will reduce CO2 provided; instead, a ground source heat pump provides all the
emissions by 33 tonnes a year. building’s heating and cooling needs.
Source: www.lcca.co.uk/upload/pdf/CityHall_
Integrated_PV_system.pdf
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global certification
global certification global c
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Certifying sustainable buildings challenges the market to deliver, Fig. World map showing countries using
and there are now numerous building assessment rating systems the four predominant ranking systems
worldwide. Sustainable building certification systems evaluate
and differentiate buildings that achieve sustainable design levels
beyond local regulation and design code standards. With the
globalization of construction and real estate sectors, there is
sustainable buildings
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sustainable buildings
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a need for a set of common metrics that are easy to measure
and viable for any context. Such cross-compatibility may
require increased transparency and a rationalisation of systems.
Essentially, the certification schemes must remain ahead of the
market, setting carbon reduction targets in line with the trajectories
LEED
required for an ecological age.
BREEAM
Several city authorities now require certification for public and
private building schemes, both for refurbishment and for new GREEN STAR
builds. Seattle has improved its performance by requiring all new CASBEE
buildings larger than 5,000 ft2 to meet new state LEED building
OTHERS
ratings. Similar commitments have been demonstrated in the
UK by authorities in Leeds and Manchester, requiring new major
developments to meet minimum BREEAM standards.
Sustainable buildings that achieve significant carbon savings or a
By 2015, it is estimated that energy savings from particular certification level at design completion must maintain this
LEED certified projects will equate to 25.8 million level during occupation. Mechanisms such as granted certification
tonnes of coal, enough to fill 15 football stadiums. one year after completion would function to ensure buildings
Source: www.greenerbuildings.com/greenbuildingimpactreport/ meet the initial design criteria, and further regular evaluation would
html?page=0%2C8 ensure buildings continue to operate as designed.
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carbon policy
carbon policy carbon p
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Numerous cities have now developed policies detailing changes Fig. Projected impacts of greenhouse
to building codes, carbon reduction targets and engagement gas reduction strategies in New York
programmes to reduce their carbon footprint. In 2007, the Mayor 90

Millions of metric tonnes of CO2e


of London released a Climate Change Action Plan detailing CO2
reduction targets of 60% below 1990 levels, by 2025. The plan 80
focuses on the next decade, detailing what needs to be achieved ual”
70 ss as us
sustainable buildings
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to meet the 2025 target and beyond. The UK carbon reduction “Busine
target has since increased to 80% reduction by 2050. 60

New York’s “PlaNYC 2030” has five focal areas: land, air, water, 50 30% PlaNYC
2030
energy and transportation, and provides strategies to reduce 40
greenhouse gas emissions by 30% below 2005 levels, by 2030.
Annual greenhouse gas inventories are now being completed; 30
the 2008 inventory showed a 2.5% reduction in CO2 emissions
20
compared with 2005 levels. These inventories will provide valuable
information on emission trends as well as the effects that weather, 10
population, infrastructure investments, policy decisions and
0
consumer behaviour have on levels.

2005

2030
Copenhagen has a vision to be the world’s leading eco-metropolis
If every lightbulb in every London by 2015. The vision has four themes: to be the world’s best city for Avoided sprawl Efficient buildings
cycling, to be a centre for climate policy, to be a green and blue 15.6 mil tonnes/yr 16.4 mil tonnes/yr
home was energy-efficient, London
capital city and to be a clean and healthy major city. Significant Clean power Sustainable
could save 575,000 tonnes of CO2 10.6 mil tonnes/yr Transportation
and £139 million per year. savings have already been achieved through the district heating 6.1 mil tonnes/yr
Source: Greater London Authority, Action Today
network and generating stations using cleaner fuels. By 2015,
to Protect Tomorrow, The Mayor’s Climate Copenhagen’s CO2 emissions will have reduced by at least 20%
© Raphael Vignes Change Action Plan, 2007 compared to 2005 levels. © Raphael Vignes
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informal settlements
informal settlements informal
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Strategies to improve the lives of slum dwellers – one of the Fig. The Actors, taken from the
Millennium Development Goals – are successfully being Action Planning Methodology
implemented in cities experiencing informal development. Diagram published by the Slum
Upgrading Facility
In Jaipur, India, the provision of land lease deeds for slum residents
has helped establish a framework for slum improvement. The Communities
Clients
Community Groups
creation of records and deeds, alongside the provision of rightful
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
CBOs (+NGO support)

People
Enumeration
ownership, has reorganized slum areas with more efficient land use Savings Schemes
freeing up space for better infrastructure provision. With a model Co-operatives
Project Land
for land ownership established, all stakeholders can now focus on Coordination with Local
the delivery of sustainable building and development. Government/Municipality

The Favela-Bairro neighbourhood improvement programme in Enablers


Capital Markets
Micro-credit Institutions
Rio de Janeiro has helped integrate poor neighbourhoods with Banks:

Finance
the rest of the city. A quarter of the city’s 5.5 million inhabitants live UÊœ>˜Ã
UÊœÕȘ}Ê
Ài`ˆÌÊ*Àœ`ÕVÌÃ
in inadequate environmental and household conditions. Rather UÊœÀÌ}>}iÃ
Investment Finance
than unsettling communities by providing replacement housing, Pension Funds/Unit Trusts
Infrastructure Finance
the programme has looked to provide neighbourhoods with Bonds
basic infrastructure and social services. Relying on beneficiary
participation throughout the project life, services such as water and Enablers
Local Government
Urban Governance
In 2005, an estimated 934 million people sanitation, waste collection, street cleaning and public lighting are Land Use Controls
lived without secure tenure in urban informal introduced. Planning

Politics
settlements in developing countries. This Regulations/Legal
Secure Tenure
number is projected to increase to 1.5 billion Similarly, the Mayor of Guatemala launched “Guatemala 2020” to Environment
by 2020, and to two billion by 2030. address a number of priorities such as environmental responsibility Infrastructure
and awareness, economic competitiveness, protection of water Judiciary Support
Source: UN-HABITAT, Secure Land Rights for All, National Government
UN Human Settlements Programme, 2008 resources, the productive use of land in an orderly fashion, social Policies, Guidelines
and Frameworks
04 solidarity and traffic control. 04

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density
density density
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Rapid economic growth and the need to curb urban sprawl are Fig. Energy intensity and urban sprawl
leading to the densification of cities. Making cities more inhabitable
80

Annual gasoline use per capita (thousands)


within current increases in urbanization and density pressures
will require coordinated strategies, of which building design Houston

codes are only one part. Cities must allow for compact and smart
development in the future. Detroit
sustainable buildings
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sustainable buildings
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Paris has recently relaxed a 30-year planning ban on buildings 60 LA
greater than 37 metres tall, allowing high-rise buildings to be
constructed within the city.
Chicago
The social impact of changing city densities must be considered NYC
particularly in less economically developed cities where high-rise 40 Melbourne
buildings have formed a part of slum resettlement strategies. Sydney
Experiences at Dharavi, Mumbai, one of Asia’s largest slums, Toronto
have shown how controversial such resettlement of established
communities can be. In Toronto, the Mayor’s “Tower Renewal Zürich
Project” is looking to rejuvenate existing residential towers so that 20 Paris Frankfurt
Today’s cities consume three-quarters of they can cater for changes in demographics and improve energy- Copenhagen London
Vienna
the world’s energy, and are home to at least efficiency and community interaction. The project will develop the Amsterdam
Tokyo
three-quarters of the world’s pollution. The potential for reinvestment, with energy retrofits, green roofs, and Singapore
Hong Kong
Moscow
urbanization process dramatically affects thermal over-cladding in the city. “Tower Renewable Leaders”
0
energy consumption; research indicates – local residents with expertise – are now working on four pilot

50

100

150

200

250

300
that an increase of 1% in urban population studies across Toronto. The leaders provide advice on a number
increases energy consumption by 2.2%. Urban density (persons per HA)
of topics, including: renewable energy, building renewal design,
Source: WBCSD, Energy Efficiency in Buildings; Business biodiversity and natural environmental features, education and
realities and opportunities, p 28 community engagement.
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living streetscapes
living streetscapes living st
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Incorporating plants into the built environment provides numerous Fig. Sketch of an urban heat island
benefits. It reduces stormwater run-off while improving biodiversity profile
and ecology, offering psychological benefits and reducing air
34 93.2

Late afternoon temperature o C


pollution. Plants can also benefit cities by reducing the urban heat
island effect – where a metropolitan area is significantly warmer 33 91.4
than its surrounding rural areas – as they create a microclimate
sustainable buildings
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around a building and district. 32 89.6
Numerous cities such as Basel, Linz and Toronto are promoting
31 87.8
green roof installations through planning mechanisms, for example
by obliging all new buildings with flat roofs to incorporate a green 30 86.0
roof, or by refurbishing the city’s public building roofs. Chicago
City Hall has a demonstration rooftop garden containing plants 29 84.2
native to the region. The project is being monitored to give data o
F
on energy savings, air quality improvements and psychological
benefit. Following the installation, research has shown that rooftop
planting can decrease the amount of direct sunlight on the roof

Rural

Suburban
residential

Downtown

Suburban
residential
Rural
farmland
Commercial

Urban
residential
Park
by 25%. The roof can also retain 75% of a one-inch rainfall before
stormwater begins to flow into the sewers.
Several cities, including Chicago and Los Angeles, have initiated
Following two green roof campaigns in 1998 tree-planting programmes. In Los Angeles, the Mayor’s “Million
and 2005, approximately 20% of Basel’s flat Trees LA” programme will see new, native and drought-tolerant
roof area is now green roof. trees planted by city departments as well as by individuals and
Source: Greater London Authority, London Climate Change
businesses. Green façades and street planting can provide natural
Partnership, Adapting to climate change: Lessons for deciduous shading, reducing solar gains into a building, providing
© Peter French London, 2006 energy savings, and improving wellbeing and biodiversity. © Peter French
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masterplanning
masterplanning masterp
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City masterplans must encourage sustainable buildings and Fig. Virtuous Cycle: Integrated
development so that, in the context of increasing urbanization, Urbanism
greenhouse gas emission reductions can be realized. A masterplan
needs to balance social, economic and environmental parameters, Air quality
Inclusion
and also consider the interaction of issues such as: culture, Land use

efficient land use, infrastructure and resource efficiency (water Health


sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
and waste), microclimate, ecology, hydrology and energy usage.
Buildings
How buildings interrelate, the spaces created between them, the Form
parks, rivers and transport routes, must all be considered. Tokyo Transport and
space
is establishing a green road network using roadside trees to link
Viability
major parklands to promote cool ocean breezes through the city
centre. Curitiba, Brazil, is often cited as a model for sustainable
development, having developed integrated urban planning policies Energy
Employment
over several decades. Within this integrated plan, individual /skills
Land take
schemes have improved the city’s environment, cutting pollution
and waste and enhancing citizens’ quality of life. Despite major
challenges associated with rapid growth, strong leadership has
By 2050, the urban population of the resulted in successful long-term implementation by following this
developing world is forecast to be 5.3 billion; integrated approach.
Asia alone will host 65% of the developing Increasingly, virtual modelling is used to inform planning policy,
world’s urban population (3.4 billon people), refurbishment programmes or grant provision. Modelling the
while Africa, with an urban population of energy use and associated carbon emissions of particular building
1.2 billion, will be home to nearly a quarter of types can help predict the impacts of future planning decisions,
the developing world’s urban population. from a single street to a whole city. Virtual simulation can also help
Source: www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wup2007/ identify energy use “hot spots” so that measures can be targeted
© Carlos Oliveira Reis 2007WUP_Highlights_web.pdf © Carlos Oliveira Reis
07 where intervention is most needed. 07

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integrated design
integrated design integrat
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Integrating all design disciplines into the early development of the Fig. The benefits of early integration
client’s brief and expectations leads to a more sustainable building.
Research shows that certified projects are within the same cost

Increasing impact
range as non-certified projects of similar characteristics. Design Preliminary
design
Design Construction Operation
and construction teams must see certification and sustainable
design as central to the whole project – rather than as a separate
sustainable buildings
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sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
feature. Sustainability, incorporated at project inception, should
not involve additional costs. The new California Academy of
Sciences in San Francisco was certified LEED Platinum, owing to
an integrated design approach. Coordination between architects
and engineers has created a building that is largely ventilated
naturally, and enjoys extensive natural daylight and 2.5 acres of
green roof. The building also demonstrates sustainable materials.
For example, the structural steel content is nearly 100% recycled
and the wall insulation is made from recycled blue jeans. The
building’s concrete utilizes fly ash (a by-product of coal-fired power
plants) and slag (waste product from metal smelting) preventing
the release of 5,375 tonnes of carbon emissions.
The new California Academy of Sciences in By integrating the supply chain into the design team, alternative Time
San Francisco will use 30-35% less energy each methods can be identified. Modern methods of construction Building performance
year than a typical building of its size. It will also techniques like modularization and off-site construction may
generate up to 10% of its own energy and the Cost and disruption
also produce numerous efficiencies. Lifecycle assessments of
museum’s living roof will absorb nearly 3.6 million off-site construction elements should be carried out on a project-
gallons of rainwater per year. by-project basis as the effect of transportation may negate any
Source: www.calacademy.org/newsroom/releases/2008/leed_ potential carbon or economic savings.
© Michael Layefsky platinum.php © Michael Layefsky
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risk management
risk management risk man
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Cities need to prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate Fig. Global weather-related losses
change. The impacts of a flood, for example, could be lessened if from “great” events: 1986-2005
city inhabitants are prepared and buildings appropriately protected
220

Million US$
and adapted to reduce damage. Buildings must avoid excessive
overheating, and adaption projects to reduce the effects of the 200
“urban heat island” phenomenon should be carried out. Initiatives 180
sustainable buildings
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sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
are already underway to promote green roofs and create natural
ventilation paths around Tokyo, and “heat health” warning systems 160
are in operation in Philadelphia, Shanghai and Lisbon, to reduce 140
the effects of overheating.
120
There may also be risks associated with sustainable buildings 100
which incorporate innovative design, new technologies
or operating practices. Liability must be considered by all 80
stakeholders in a project, and management tools must be used 60
so that innovation and sustainable design are not restricted. In
40
Abu Dhabi, the Masdar Initiative is providing financial support to
near-commercial technologies, through joint ventures with partners 20
who are willing to share the risks and rewards of advancing new 0
technologies.

1986

1990

1995

2000

2005
More than two-thirds of the world’s large
cities are in areas vulnerable to global The insurance industry may not yet be fully focused on supporting
warming and rising sea levels; 634 million the sustainable building market. Research shows that certified Economic losses
people live in threatened coastal areas sustainable buildings could result in fewer claims, because of Insured losses
worldwide. the increased performance and standard of care applied during
construction. Market perception that sustainable buildings could Economic losses, Trend
Source: www.livescience.com/environment/070328_ap_
sea_rise.html be less risky is a positive development. Insured losses, Trend
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incentives
incentives incentiv
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There are several strategies that could be implemented by cities Fig. LEED points allocation for
to encourage more sustainable buildings. There are a number New Construction (version 2.2)
of incentive mechanisms that are particularly compelling such
as accelerated permit processing, tax reductions and density 7% Innovation and 20% Sustainable
bonuses. In San Francisco, an accelerated permitting scheme design process sites
was introduced for private developments that meet the LEED
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
Gold standard. Results have been positive with an increase in
sustainable building applications being received by the authority.
Reduced development fees, or reimbursement of certification
fees, also provide economic incentives for developers. These
mechanisms have been deployed in a number of American cities
including Sacramento and San Diego.
Density bonus mechanisms, whereby a developer can build more
floor area if a sustainable design criteria is to be met, are operating
in Hong Kong and Seattle. In 2006, Seattle’s Mayor issued new
regulations allowing greater heights and/or floor area if a project
achieves a LEED Silver rating or higher. The Seattle incentive has
two steps:
19% Materials 25% Energy
i) Submission of commitment letter to achieve a LEED Silver rating and resources and atmosphere
Launched on Earth Day 2008, the Los Angeles or above, prior to any permits being issued by the City. 22% Indoor 7% Water
Green Building Program incorporates three ii) Proof of LEED certification within 90 days of receiving the final environmental efficiency
initiatives, including expedited services for quality
Certificate of Occupancy.
projects that will achieve LEED Silver or higher.
Source: www.lacity.org/ead/environmentla/greenbuilding/
If LEED certification is not provided within the 90 days, then the
incentives.htm applicant will be required to pay a US$ 500 per day penalty fine.
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implementation
implementation impleme
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While robust and coherent policy is vital, it is equally important that Fig. San Francisco’s summary of
unwanted outcomes are anticipated and mitigated where possible. recommended certification levels
Any desired effects must also be measurable.
2008 2010 2012
During 2008, the Mayor of San Francisco launched a new Green
Building Ordinance, billed as one of the most progressive policies New large LEED LEED LEED
in the US. The ordinance requires newly constructed commercial commercial Certified Silver Gold
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
buildings greater than 5,000 ft2 as well as all new residential New high-rise LEED LEED LEED
buildings to be subject to green building requirements. This also residential Certified Silver Silver
applies to existing buildings where renovations are planned for
Large CTIs and LEED LEED LEED
areas larger than 25,000 ft2. The Mayor’s Green Building Task major alterations Certified Silver Gold
Force used existing rating systems to develop the ordinance.
In launching this challenging policy, the Mayor established a Mid-size commercial: LEED LEED LEED
programme of free training sessions (for both public and private new and alterations Checklist Checklist Checklist
sector staff) to ensure successful implementation. Acknowledging New mid-size GPR 50 pts 75 pts
that the residential sector may be less familiar with green rating multi-family Guidelines GPR GPR
systems, 2008 was seen as an orientation year for the sector.
New small GPR 50 pts 75 pts
Mandatory credits will then be introduced in 2009, with increased residential (1-4 units) Guidelines GPR GPR
levels set for each year to 2012. Providing policy milestones for
implementation gives all sectors time to undergo training and for
sequential improvements to be made.
San Francisco’s Green Building Ordinance will, by Launch days for new policy changes are opportunities to raise
2012, reduce CO2 emissions by 60,000 tonnes, awareness and educate city residents and the construction
saving 220,000 MWh of power, and increasing industry. Opinion leaders or celebrity endorsement could raise the
green power generation by 37,000 MWh. profile of new policy so that the wider public is aware of the targets
© Roland Halbe Source: www.sfgov.org/site/Mayor_index.asp?id=85918 and importance of reducing carbon emissions. © Roland Halbe
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procurement policies
procurement policies procure
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The sustainable use of materials in construction can present Fig. Competitive product substitutions
carbon savings and financial benefits to a project. Sustainable with greater recycled content,
material selection and use involves: education (awareness of new Bristol City Council, UK
materials and their applications); using less material (lean design);
avoiding and reducing waste (site management practices); reusing Material type Lower recycled Higher recycled
content content (brand)
materials (for example, demolished material reused in new build);
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
recovering wastes by recycling them into new applications (for Clay facing 5% 16%
example, using waste blast furnace slag or fly ash as cement bricks £250/1000 £232/1000
(Hanson)
replacement materials); selecting manufactured projects with
higher recycled content (for example, recycled flooring products). Dense concrete 0% 50-80%
blocks £5.65/m2 £5.30/m2
Changing building procurement policies to embrace more (Tarmac)
sustainable materials can reduce the volume of construction waste
Wall 10% 80%
reaching landfill, and bring new products to the market, as well as insulation £3.65/m2 £2.82/m2
supporting local manufacturers and suppliers. There is a need to (Superglass)
close the loop on recycling building components and increase the
demand for materials recovered from the waste stream. Bristol City Concrete 0% 15%
roof tiles £570/1000 £560/1000
Public authorities in Europe spend Council, UK, conducted market research and found that across (Marley)
€1.5 trillion a year on goods and services half of the materials used in a typical secondary school, alternative
– equivalent to 16% of EU GDP. From cost-competitive mainstream brands could be sourced locally with
constructing energy-efficient public an above-average recycled content. As a result, the Council gained
buildings to buying low-emission vehicles the confidence to set a minimum requirement for recycled content
and installing water-saving toilets, public in selected schools’ procurement without risking a cost premium.
procurement can have a huge impact in Different procurement models, such as the C40 partner cities
driving the market towards sustainability. initiative to pool collective purchasing power, could also catalyse
© Jeff Werner Source: www.iclei.org/index.php?id=796 the uptake of new technologies and products. © Jeff Werner
12 12

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supply chain management
supply chain management supply c
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The supply chain is changing and adapting in response to an Fig. BASF eco-efficiency analysis
increased demand for sustainable materials and buildings. method for a selection of materials
Sustainable building rating methods take into account building Energy
material components, their life cycle analysis and responsible consumption
1,0
procurement. The calculation methods used in these assessments,
however, are considered by some suppliers to be inadequate.
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
Building component manufacturers are now using their own Material 0,5
validated methods to demonstrate the eco-efficiency of their consumption Emissions
products. The programming implications, sequencing and
lead times of new technologies can sometimes be seen by the 0,0
supply chain as an obstacle to the delivery of a sustainable
building. At other times, the supply chain itself can introduce
positive programme benefits to a project. For example, off-site
construction, modulation and “plug-and-play” solutions can
reduce site waste, leading to faster construction and improved
Risk Toxicity
performance. potential potential

The programming implications, sequencing, planning and


New Zealand puts 3.5 million tonnes of procurement policies can also play a part in encouraging local Solution, Granules
waste into its landfills annually, which electrochemically synthetically
supply chains to become established. Green procurement
equates to approximately one tonne of initiatives developed by cities such as Christchurch, New Zealand Solution, 40% Granules
biotechnologically
lost potential resources for every New and London, United Kingdom, are replicable models (both of
Zealander. Identifying ways to reuse Powder
which, among other requirements, call for FSC certified timber). from plants
products or their constituent parts is a Other examples include Newport (UK) City Council’s request for
challenge for all industry. contractors to contribute to local training and employment, with a
Source: NZBCSD, Business Guide to a Sustainable provision for trainee apprenticeships on public sector construction
Supply Chain: A Practical Guide, 2003 sites.
13 13

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construction
construction constru
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Construction sites bring economic benefits, but there can be Fig. Code of considerate
unwanted environmental and social impacts if management plans construction practice
are not developed and regulated. Contamination of land, water or
Considerate
air, noise pollution and dust can all affect nearby neighbourhoods
and the health and safety of site personnel.
Environment
Various voluntary “considerate contractor” schemes now
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
operate nationally or at city level (eg. Hong Kong, Cambridge and Cleanliness
London). These schemes rate contractors for good site safety
and environmental practices for both public and non-public Good Neighbour
construction sites. The site management credits within LEED and
BREEAM can also help contractors to monitor the environmental
Respectful
effects of site work.
Contractors are now developing their own business models, Safe
pre-empting regulatory changes. Through their own CSR or
ISO 140001 commitments, contractors are recording their Responsible
environmental impacts, setting targets, and reporting on a site-
by-site basis. Targets, for example, on energy (kgCO2/£million of Accountable
contract) and water use (targets of m3/£million of contract) are set.
Waste created from demolition, excavation or “skip waste” is more
open to influence from outside factors. But “skip waste” can still be
During the construction of Seattle’s limited to m3/£million of contract (by volume) as well as targets to
new City Hall, over 75% (by weight) of reduce waste volume sent to landfill.
all construction waste was recycled.
City regulations could provide regulatory frameworks to require
Source: www.seattle.gov/dpd/GreenBuilding/
CapitalProjects/Resources/CaseStudies/default.asp contractors and developers to undertake monitoring and reporting
© BAM Construct UK Ltd © BAM Construct UK Lt
14 to promote considerate construction practices. 14

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sharing energy
sharing energy sharing
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By sharing energy and decentralizing heat and power infrastructure Fig. Principles of CHP energy
systems, greater efficiencies and carbon emission reductions can efficiency compared with separate
be realized. energy provision

Understanding the wider city context in which a sustainable single Total primary energy inputs with
or multi-use building will function (whether a refurbishment or new heat and power produced separately
140 units
build) is critical. A project could improve existing infrastructure
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
or alternatively trigger development in an area that has little Boiler fuel Power station
input: 63 fuel input: 77
infrastructure. By adopting a sustainable development approach a
city could also leapfrog to new efficient low-carbon technologies.

Electricity
A more decentralized approach to city infrastructure is now Boiler Power

Heat
losses: station and
emerging. Numerous cities, including Barcelona, Freiburg, and 13 distribution
London, are moving towards decentralized energy systems and Building services losses: 47
the implementation of SmartGrids could help facilitate this shift. total energy demand
50 30
for heat and power
Freiburg has developed a strong solar economy, building upon the 80 units
success of Germany’s national feed-in tariff model.

Electricity
Heat
The city context also allows for a scale of implementation to be
Over 10 years CO2 emissions in Freiburg, analysed. Low-carbon technologies such as cogeneration (CHP)
Germany, have decreased by more than 10% or district heating become more viable if installed at a precinct CHP
per capita. Almost 50% of the city’s electricity is or community scale, as in Copenhagen. For multi-use precinct losses:
buildings there is also the opportunity to balance energy loads 20
supplied through a CHP steam and gas plant and
throughout the building over the course of a day. These technology CHP Fuel
the city’s total PV installations now cover over input: 100
12,000 m2. and design solutions can also utilize low-carbon supplies such as
biomass or waste heat. Total primary energy inputs with
Source: www.project2degrees.org/Pages/BestPractices/Energy/
heat and power produced simultaneously
FreiburgEcocity.aspx
100 units
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encouraging renewables
encouraging renewables encoura
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Numerous renewable or low-carbon energy technologies are Fig. Energy efficiency measures
now available. City incentive schemes (eg. grant provision or promoted by Oxford Solar Initiative, UK
assistance with capital costs) and known contract agreements,
such as Germany’s feed-in tariff, are providing financial certainty for
investors and leading to an increase in installations.
Photo voltaics
In 2008, the Mayor of Marburg, Germany, imposed a new Solar
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
Condensing
boiler in
Code to promote solar collector installations. Any new buildings
or renovation works which improve a building’s roof or heating Old
boiler
Solar hot
Loft water
system must now incorporate solar collectors (either solar thermal out insulation

or photovoltaic) on the roof. The code requires at least 1 m2 of Heating


controls Energy
efficient
solar energy collector per 20 m2 of roof surface to be installed, and light bulbs
Cavity wall
provides a small subsidy to assist homeowners with the associated insulation

costs. External
wall
insulation
In the UK, the Oxford Solar Initiative has proved a successful Draft proofing doors
partnership between the City Council, Oxford Brookes University Brushes and
In Rizhao, China, 99% of the city’s and local companies. This partnership has lead to numerous foam strips

households now use solar water heaters energy-efficiency measures and solar systems being installed in
following a mandatory retrofit programme. private homes. Financial support is provided from central funding Will need the rights
In partnership with the provincial grants and partnership with a utility company. to use this diagram
government, research and development
has improved technologies, so that solar Authorities in both Oxford and Freiburg have published
water heater prices are now equal to the “Solar Maps” of their cities, allowing people interested in installing
price of electric water heaters. a solar system to view installations and speak directly with the
residents. Freiburg’s Solar Trails include self-guided walks for
Source: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/renewables/
rizhao_solar.jsp families and young people.
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water management
water management water m
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Clean water and adequate sanitation are critical for the health and Fig. Drinking water supply coverage
wellbeing of citizens. Water quality, availability and cost are not only
100

Coverage Percent
determined by natural conditions, but by human activities such as
over-abstraction, pollution and poor infrastructure. In the informal
settlements of Kibera, Nairobi, local communities and NGOs
have developed the Biocentre concept. Each Biocentre provides 80
sustainable buildings
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water supply outlets, toilet and bathroom facilities, and community
facilities for hire. Biocentres have stimulated partnership among
communities and NGOs, as well as the private and public sector, 60
to improve water and sanitation services.
In cities with established potable infrastructure, focus has moved 40
to improving water management, reducing leakage and removing
inefficiencies. In India, a partnership between the owners of a
cement facility and the public sector is modifying the facility 20
to operate on greywater rather than clean water. Infrastructure
management in Tokyo has transformed the leakage rate from 20%
in 1956 to 3.6% in 2006, reducing CO2 emissions by about 0
73,000 tonnes CO2 annually. Leak detection and repair means

1990

2006

1990

2006

1990

2006
Tokyo now has one of the most efficient water systems in the
The leakage from degraded pipes provides “unaccounted Developing Developed World
world. In Austin, US, residencies account for over 50% of the city’s regions regions
for” water that results in both physical shortage and reduced
water consumption. The city’s Water Conservation Strategy raises
revenue. In terms of inefficiency of resources and operations,
awareness for the need to reduce consumption. Initiatives such as
losses are routinely reported as 40%, and as high as 70% in Unimproved
a toilet-replacement strategy, the provision of free water-efficient
some major cities. Other improved
showerheads and rebates for rainwater-harvesting installations, all
Source: UNESCO, Water: A shared responsibility: The United Nations World encourage water-efficient technologies to be retroffited in homes.
Water Development Report 2, 2006, p 150 Piped water on premises
© bifyu © bifyu
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waste
waste waste
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Buildings and neighbourhoods must provide adequate space for Fig. Scales of waste management
waste separation to encourage inhabitants to sort and recycle solutions
their waste. In 2000, waste accounted for 3.6% of the world’s

Technology level
greenhouse gas emissions. Resource and waste management

High
strategies need to employ behavioural and technical interventions,
as occupant attitudes to waste management vary from city to
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
city, dependent on culture, climate, policies and ease of use.
Enabling waste separation at source will increase the viability of

Medium
energy-from-waste and waste-to-food solutions. Automatic waste
collection systems pneumatically transport separated recyclables
and residual waste from individual buildings or neighbourhoods

Low
to a central hub. In Stockholm, Sweden, the Hammarby Sjöstad
district has incorporated a vacuum system for solid waste into a
new development. Palma de Mallorca, Spain, has fitted a waste Small Medium Large

collection system that allows residents to recycle, when previously Scale


narrow streets and historic features made conventional vehicular
collection impossible.
Less technical solutions can also reap benefits. Research from the
Asia/Pacific region estimates that 2% of the population subsists
Will need the
by recovering materials from waste to sell for reuse or recycling.
rights to use
Less than 20% of household waste in Sweden Organic waste collection schemes in Dhaka, Bangladesh, provide
this diagram
today is deposited as landfill. In Stockholm, 75% such an example, where organic solid waste is composted and
of all waste is collected for recycling or used as then sold to fertilizer companies. This model is helping to reduce
fuel. For household waste, this figure is 95%. the 52% of generated waste that remains uncollected in Dhaka.
Social and economic benefits are also being realized, as the
Source: www.symbiocity.org/?pageId=27
18 schemes have generated over 400 new jobs for the urban poor. 18

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smart buildings
smart buildings smart b
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Smart buildings will reduce urban carbon emissions if technologies Fig. Energy performance readouts
and control strategies are integrated appropriately. Buildings must from Oberlin College, Ohio, US
be designed with the local microclimate and environment in mind,
using appropriate materials and providing shade to reduce solar
gain. The incorporation of technologies and control strategies can
then optimize the operation of passive design strategies
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
(eg. windows that open) and building services systems.
This approach is demonstrated at The Hub, London, which
incorporates sustainable technologies such as a roof-mounted
photovoltaic array, eight ground bores and a rainwater harvesting
tank. Metering displays in The Hub’s reception allow staff and
visitors to monitor their on-site renewable technologies. The Centre
for Environmental Studies at Oberlin College, Ohio, US, is a real
living building. The interactions between the built and natural
environment can be determined through an extensive metering
network and real-time displays. Oberlin College is also developing
a system to monitor and display electricity and water consumption
in student dormitories. Such feedback encourages energy
conservation, and provides a valuable educational resource.
With over 150 environmental Will need the rights
sensors installed throughout the Information and communications technology (ICT) is the to use this diagram
building and landscape, the Centre fourth utility for buildings. Smart technologies such as Building
for Environmental Studies provides Management Systems (BMS) or software that switches off all
an opportunity to visualize real-time computers once occupants have left, can be retrofitted or used
energy and resource consumption. in new buildings. Smart buildings will form part of a connected
urban development where ICT links services, buildings and
© Arup Source: www.oberlin.edu/ajlc/ajlcHome.html © Arup
19 neighbourhoods. 19

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smart occupation
smart occupation smart o
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Occupant behaviour is key to realizing sustainable and Fig. Integrated digital communications
resource-efficient buildings. Buildings operated and occupied in the built environment
with smart controls and management practices will achieve
energy efficiencies and CO2 savings. The promotion of smart 24/7
Security Monitoring Access
occupation, whereby occupants are aware of energy and resource
consumption, will see lower fuel bills, reduced greenhouse gas
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
emissions, improved comfort levels and productivity. Regular
monitoring will identify fuel inefficiencies and potential for
operational savings, as demonstrated in Chicago, where gas-fired
boilers accounted for 75% of gas consumption. Post-occupancy
Fire Lifts
evaluation is critical, and creates a feedback loop from occupant to
building operator. In Melbourne, post-occupancy evaluation of the
CH2 building has shown that staff productivity has increased. This
may be attributed to good building design and provision of a high-
quality, healthy, comfortable and functional interior environment. Communications Lighting
Voice/Video/Data Schedules
Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, has its own Environmental Occupancy sensing

Information Centre, housed in the Glashusett building. Its double-


glazed façades and advanced control system should reduce Energy HVAC
Utility monitoring Air handling unit
energy consumption by 50%, compared to that of an equivalent
Chicago has improved the efficiency of its gas- (Elec/water/gas/oil) Boilers
building with glass façades. The Glashusett displays information Tenant building Pumps
fired boilers through the installation of monitoring Air/water Fans
to help residents occupy their homes efficiently. Some Hammarby
devices, with some boilers now seeing energy Heat Energy control
Sjöstad apartments have metering recording cold and hot water, Lighting Variable air volume
savings of up to 12% and reductions in CO2 Back-up generation Air quality
electricity, heating and biogas consumption, allowing residents
emissions by almost 8,000 tonnes every year.
to monitor and alter their consumption levels. Meter readings are
Source: www.project2degrees.org/Pages/BestPractices/Energy/ compared against environmental goals, and presented by the
© Urban Exposure ChicagoBoiler.aspx © Urban Exposure
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refurbishment - commercial
refurbishment - commercial refurbis
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Existing office buildings will need to be refurbished in line with Fig. Average age of commercial stock
rising tenant expectations, otherwise they risk becoming obsolete.
Refurbishment may involve the recommissioning of building A Grade Total stock
services, improvement of lighting systems and controls, or a

last refurbishment

last refurbishment
complete building overhaul with improved building fabric and

construction or

construction or
Avg. age since

Avg. age since

Avg. age since

Avg. age since


insulation. Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney have

construction

construction
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
partnered to promote the “CitySwitch Green Office” scheme. The
scheme requires energy-efficiency measures to be taken and a
City
NABERS energy tenancy assessment rating of four stars or higher
to be achieved and maintained annually. By using actual annual Sydney 20 13 28 19
energy bills and greenhouse gas emissions data, the NABERS
assessment evaluates a tenant’s energy efficiency. CitySwitch now Melbourne 19 10 31 17
represents approximately 70% of Australia’s office space. The
scheme is successful because both tenants and building owners
Brisbane 17 9 25 13
are motivated to reduce energy consumption. Tenants benefit from
reduced running costs, and building owners benefit from a more
marketable and competitive building. Adelaide 18 14 31 19

The average age of office stock in Demonstration projects within a city’s own offices can show that
the world’s major cities is increasing. interventions need not involve major building works. Adelaide
The average age of Melbourne’s City Council completed an energy-efficiency review in 2002.
existing office stock is 31 years, Focusing on the building’s lighting system, the offices now use
creating an estimated 1.6 million T5 fluorescent tubes with additional controls so that lights only
tonnes of CO2 per year. provide top-up to natural light levels or operate when a room is
Source: www.davislangdon.com/upload/ occupied. These modifications reduced lighting power density
StaticFiles/AUSNZ%20Publications/ from 24 W/m2 to 6 W/m2, saving over 200 tonnes of greenhouse
© Gary Sauer-Thompson Thoughtfactory Info%20Data/Deep-Emission-Cuts.pdf © Gary Sauer-Thompson
21 gas emissions annually. 21

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refurbishment - residential
refurbishment - residential refurbis
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Residents need to be encouraged to reduce their carbon Fig. Contribution to projected CO2
emissions, water use and waste through innovative schemes. savings by 2025, London, UK
Retrofit technologies that improve efficiencies are now widely (by sector)
available, but awareness and incentive campaigns need to
19.6 million tonnes CO2
motivate home owners and tenants to refurbish their homes. In
Berkeley, US, the Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance Ground based
transport
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
states all residences (homes, apartment buildings or mixed use 22%

Contribution to saving
buildings) that are sold, transferred, or renovated exceeding a
total permit value of US$ 50,000 must comply with its energy and Commercial and
water efficiency requirements. In 2006, Houston, US, launched a public sector
39%
retrofitting programme, which has reduced energy consumption in
over 600 homes in the city’s poorer communities. Energy efficiency
measures such as insulating attics and lagging hot water pipes,
weather-stripping windows and doors and caulking windows have Domestic
39%
resulted in 1,100 tonnes of CO2 emissions being saved and annual
household savings of US$ 870.
A number of cities have begun to provide “one-stop shops”,
Breakdown of domestic
where residents can ask for advice, access financial schemes, and sector’s contribution
source approved manufacturers and installers. London’s Green
Berkeley’s long-established city ordinance has
Homes Concierge service provides experts to undertake energy
reduced residential energy consumption by 44% Energy
assessments of a property, provide improvement plans, offer
over 13% annually, reduced CO2 emissions by supply
information on grants, and oversee renovations to help property
over 5,000 tonnes and allowed households to 5% 10% Thermal
owners realise energy and financial savings. Vancouver runs a New build efficiency
save up to US$ 450 on their energy bills.
similar scheme, with the C$ 150 energy assessment fee being
Source: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/buildings/berkeley_ 18% 23%
refunded if refurbishment works are carried out within 18 months Behavioural Lighting and
standards.jsp
22 of the first assessment. change appliances 22

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real estate partnerships
real estate partnerships real esta
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Initiatives such as “Building Better Partnerships” are running Fig. Toronto’s BBP-EB results, 2007
successfully in Toronto and London. Since 1996, The city of
Toronto’s Energy Efficiency Office has led the “Better Buildings Buildings registered 636
Partnership – Existing Buildings” (BBP-EB) initiative, providing
energy-efficiency retrofits and building renewal for public and
Retrofit floor area 47 million ft²
private sector buildings. Toronto’s scheme provides a “one-stop
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
shop” solution. Energy Management Firms oversee the process,
identifying energy and water efficiency measures, monitoring Job creation 2,530 person years
results and providing training for operators.
Total operations savings $19 million per year
Model “green leases” have also been developed for the (for all buildings)
commercial sector. Australia has implemented leases in which the
landlord and tenant relationship fulfils mutual sustainable goals. Economic impact $176 million
(energy savings,
Sydney provides template green lease documentation, together job creation)
with checklists for building owner and tenant commitments. An
“Efficient Building Scheme” has also been developed in Australia, CO2 reduction 200,500 tonnes/year
recognizing efficiency improvements rather than emissions
avoided. Using fuel bills and official greenhouse gas co-efficients
and total net lettable figures, a building’s annual tonnes
CO2 e/m2 is calculated. This is compared to a predetermined cap
set in advance by the governing body, and the avoided or excess
As of 2006, Toronto’s “Better Buildings Partnership emissions are calculated. Permits are then allocated or acquitted.
- Existing Buildings” has reduced CO2 emissions By dictating the quantity of abatement, the scheme would unlock
by 194,500 tonnes annually – equivalent to taking innovation in the building sector, stimulating economic activity and
38,200 cars off the road. delivering better buildings able to adapt to the effects of climate
change.
© Mani Mobini Source: www.toronto.ca/bbp/results.htm © Mani Mobini
23 23

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collaborative schemes
collaborative schemes collabor
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As “tenants of the city”, local businesses can provide finance, Fig. Performance contract economics
innovation and a platform for sustainable building construction

Building energy operational costs


and occupation to succeed. Now over 10 years old, the Energy
Partnership Scheme in Berlin (involving the City Authority and
the Berlin Energy Agency), continues to target refurbishment
projects. By writing carbon emission reductions of 26% into public Energy
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
retrofit tenders, the winning energy savings company is forced savings
to provide sustainable energy solutions (eg. increased insulation,
CHP, lighting, heating control systems and energy consumption
regulators). The company pays for the retrofit up-front, and building
owners pay back over an agreed period; once the contract is
completed, the building owner realises the full energy saving.
The Vienna City Administration’s innovative EcoBusinessPlan
training modules promote sustainable business management.
Their EcoBonus module presents waste prevention and waste
management, climate protection and energy-efficiency topics,
empowering local businesses to take on sustainable operations.
The EcoBusinessPlan is now being implemented in Chennai,
India and Athens, Greece. In London, the Mayor’s “Green500”

Before
project

After
project
programme targets 500 of London’s largest organizations,
Through Berlin’s Energy Partnership Scheme
providing practical support for them to become more carbon-
1,400 buildings have so far been upgraded, Energy cost
efficient. Each Green500 member receives an assessment of its
delivering CO2 reductions of more than
London carbon footprint by a designated carbon mentor. An action ESCo
60,400 tonnes per year.
plan is then provided, offering estimated energy, cost and carbon
Source: www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/buildings/berlin_ Organization
savings, and information on an expected payback period for each
efficiency.jsp
24 proposed action. 24

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raising profiles
raising profiles raising p
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City Mayors must raise the profile of sustainable buildings and Fig. Per capita CO2 emissions in
lifestyles, educating and engaging with residents to ensure selected cities
collaboration in working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
12

CO2 Per capita (tonnes)


Cities can demonstrate that urgent action is required by all
stakeholders, through the dissemination of information relating
10
to carbon and ecological footprinting. The overall global footprint
sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings

sustainable buildings
sustainable buildings
now exceeds the world’s capacity to regenerate by about 30%.
When Calgary participated in an Ecological Footprint in 2005, 8
the result showed that the city’s footprint was 9.86 hectares per
person, exceeding the national average by 30%. This has sparked
an awareness campaign in the city, and city leaders now use the 6
Ecological Footprint project as an important tool in their decision-
making. 4
Community forums and workshops were integral to the research
process while Chicago was developing its Climate Change Action 2
Plan. This allowed stakeholders to gain knowledge of the risks
associated with inaction. The city’s Climate Change Action Plan
website now asks citizens to take the US$ 800 Savings Challenge 0

San Diego (2004)


Toronto (2004)
Shanghai (1998)
Tokyo (1998)
Stockholm (2005)
Seoul (1998)
Mexico City (2000)
Rio de Janeiro (1998)
São Paulo (2003)
by presenting a number of saving initiatives and indicative
carbon and cost savings. By providing maps and public tours of
Currently, the average Chicagoan causes sustainable public buildings, citizens are given an opportunity to
approximately 12.7 metric tonnes of greenhouse see sustainable design in practice – ideas that could potentially
gases to be emitted each year. be applied to their own home or office. For example, Boston
Source: www.chicagoclimateaction.org/pages/climate_change_ has developed a Green Trail of its public buildings, which include
© Daniel X. O’Neil 101/21.php Boston’s City Hall and Science Museum. © Daniel X. O’Neil
25 25

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glossary glossary
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