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Exp No: ME 2032-P02

BASIC HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS

INSTRUCTED BY:
Mr. INDIKA
GROUP MEMBERS
1. EKANAYAKA, L.R.
2. EKANAYAKA, H.M.S.C.
3. T.ELLILRAJ
4. ERANDA, M.L.A.H.
5. FERNANDO, K.R.T.
NAME : T.ELLILRAJ
6. FERNANDO, W.W.S.G.
COURSE : MECHANICAL ENG.
7. GUNARATHNE, P.G.G.M.
GROUP : ME03
8. GUNARATNE, A.M.B.S.
INDEX NO : 150156E
9. GUNARATNE, M.L.L.U.
DATE OF PER : 18-05-2018
10. GUNAWARDANE, M.A.S.V.
DATE OF SUB : 01-06-2018
INTRODUCTION

Fluid power is the technology that deals with the generation, control and transmission of forces and
movement of mechanical element or system with the use of pressurized fluids in a confined system.
Both liquids and gases are considered fluids. Fluid power system includes a hydraulic system and a
pneumatic system.

Stationary hydraulics or Hydrostatic


A hydrostatic system uses fluid pressure to transmit power. Hydrostatics deals with the mechanics
of still fluids and uses the theory of equilibrium conditions in fluid. The system creates high
pressure, and through a transmission line and a control element, this pressure drives an actuator if it
is linear or rotational. The pump used in hydrostatic systems is a positive displacement pump.

• Machine tools and transfer lines.


• Lifting and conveying devices.
• Metal-forming presses.
• Plastic machinery such as injection-molding machines.
• Rolling machines.
• Lifts.
• Food processing machinery.
• Automatic handling equipment and robots.

Mobile hydraulics or Hydrodynamics


Hydrodynamic systems use fluid motion to transmit power. Power is transmitted by the kinetic
energy of the fluid. Hydrodynamics deals with the mechanics of moving fluid and uses flow theory.
The pump used in hydrodynamic systems is a non-positive displacement pump. The relative spatial
position of the turbine is fixed.

• Automobiles, tractors, aero planes, missile, boats, etc.


• Construction machinery.
• Tippers, excavators and elevating platforms.
• Lifting and conveying devices.
• Agricultural machinery.
Hydraulic Theory
Hydraulics covers the physical behavior of liquids in motion. Pressurized oil used to gain
mechanical advantage and perform work
Important Properties of the Hydraulic fluids
• Shapelessness - Liquids have no neutral form, Conform to shape of container and easily
transferred through piping from one location to another
• Incompressibility - Liquids are essentially incompressible, once force is removed liquid
returns to original volume.
• Transmission of Force Important Properties - Force is transmitted equally & undiminished
in every direction.

APPLICATION OF HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS


Hydraulics used in many applications:
• Steering/control systems (rudder, planes)
• Deck machinery (anchor windlass, capstans, and winches)
• Masts & antennae on submarines
• Weapons systems (loading & launching)
• Other: elevators, presses

Applications of hydraulic systems


The hydraulic systems are mainly used for precise control of larger forces. The main applications of
hydraulic system can be classified in five categories:
 Industrial: Plastic processing machineries, steel making and primary metal extraction
applications, automated production lines, machine tool industries, paper industries, loaders,
crushes, textile machineries, R & D equipment and robotic systems etc.
 Mobile hydraulics: Tractors, irrigation system, earthmoving equipment, material handling
equipment, commercial vehicles, tunnel boring equipment, rail equipment, building and
construction machineries and drilling rigs etc.
 Automobiles: It is used in the systems like breaks, shock absorbers, steering system, wind
shield, lift and cleaning etc.
 Marine applications: It mostly covers ocean going vessels, fishing boats and navel
equipment.
 Aerospace equipment: There are equipment and systems used for rudder control, landing
gear, breaks, flight control and transmission etc. which are used in airplanes, rockets and
spaceships.
BASIC COMPONENTS OF A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Hydraulic systems are power-transmitting assemblies employing pressurized liquid as a fluid for
transmitting energy from an energy-generating source to an energy-using point to accomplish
useful work. Below Figure shows a simple circuit of a hydraulic system with basic components.

The hydraulic systems consists a number of parts for its proper functioning. These include storage
tank, filter, hydraulic pump, pressure regulator, control valve, hydraulic cylinder, piston and leak
proof fluid flow pipelines. The schematic of a simple hydraulic system is shown in above figure.
It consists of:
• a movable piston connected to the output shaft in an enclosed cylinder
• storage tank
• filter
• electric pump
• pressure regulator
• control valve
• leak proof closed loop piping.
FUNCTION OF BASIC HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS

1. The hydraulic actuator is a device used to convert the fluid power into mechanical power to do
useful work. The actuator may be of the linear type or rotary type to provide linear or rotary
motion, respectively.
2. The hydraulic pump is used to force the fluid from the reservoir to rest of the hydraulic circuit
by converting mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.
3. Valves are used to control the direction, pressure and flow rate of a fluid flowing through the
circuit.
4. External power supply (motor) is required to drive the pump.
5. Reservoir is used to hold the hydraulic liquid, usually hydraulic oil.
6. Piping system carries the hydraulic oil from one place to another.
7. Filters are used to remove any foreign particles so as keep the fluid system clean and efficient,
as well as avoid damage to the actuator and valves.
8. Pressure regulator regulates the required level of pressure in the hydraulic fluid.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Advantages
• The hydraulic system uses incompressible fluid which results in higher efficiency.
• It delivers consistent power output which is difficult in pneumatic or mechanical drive systems.
• Hydraulic systems employ high density incompressible fluid. Possibility of leakage is less in
hydraulic system as compared to that in pneumatic system. The maintenance cost is less.
• These systems perform well in hot environment conditions.

Disadvantages
• The material of storage tank, piping, cylinder and piston can be corroded with the hydraulic
fluid. Therefore one must be careful while selecting materials and hydraulic fluid.
• The structural weight and size of the system is more which makes it unsuitable for the smaller
instruments.
• The small impurities in the hydraulic fluid can permanently damage the complete system,
therefore one should be careful and suitable filter must be installed.
• The leakage of hydraulic fluid is also a critical issue and suitable prevention method and seals
must be adopted.
• The hydraulic fluids, if not disposed properly, can be harmful to the environment.
COMPARISON BETWEEN A HYDRAULIC AND A PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

No. Hydraulic System Pneumatic System


1. It employs a pressurized liquid It employs a compressed gas, usually
as a fluid air, as a fluid
2. An oil hydraulic system operates at A pneumatic system usually operates
pressures up to 700 bar at 5–10 bar
3. Generally designed as closed system Usually designed as open system
4. The system slows down when leakage Leakage does not affect the system
occurs much
5. Valve operations are difficult Valve operations are easy
6. Heavier in weight Lighter in weight
7. Pumps are used to provide Compressors are used to provide
pressurized liquids compressed gases
8. The system is unsafe to fire hazards The system is free from fire hazards
9. Automatic lubrication is provided Special arrangements for lubrication
are needed