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Access Brief: Self-Help Services

Overview and Benefits of Self-Help Services


Access Brief 1
The core idea of self-help services is simple: Give litigants
November 2012
information and tools to help them understand how to start a
This Brief was produced by the Center on case, move it forward, present the facts
Court Access to Justice for All The Core Concept:
(www.ncsc.org/atj), an initiative of the
to the decision maker, and obtain the
benefit of, or comply with, the court’s Informational
National Center for State Courts (NCSC).
The Center offers resources and technical order. Most states now provide such Services to Assist
assistance to help judges and courts services in at least some form and in at Litigants in
advance access to justice, especially for Navigating the Court
poor and low-income individuals. It works least some locations. The NCSC provides
closely with the Conference of Chief a state by state list of self-
Justices, the Conference of State Court help/information resources and centers, and the ABA and Self
Administrators and other national court
Represented Litigation Network (SRLN) also offer resources.1
organizations to implement access-to-
justice solutions. The Center is supported
As described in more detail below, self-help services can be
by the Public Welfare Foundation (PWF).
provided through one on one contact, informational materials,
About the Authors & forms, online turbo-tax-like question and answer systems,
Reviewers internet-based tools, and clinics. They can include provision of
information about procedural and substantive law, information
The Brief was prepared by Deborah
Saunders, NCSC Senior Knowledge and about the completion of forms, and general information about
Information Services Analyst, Richard what the court needs to hear to render the best decision. Self-
Zorza of Zorza Associates, and Pamela help services, available to all and offered in the form of
Casey, NCSC Principal Court Research
information rather than advocacy for one side, are consistent with
Consultant. The authors thank the careful
review and comments offered by Krista the neutral mission of the court and help ensure meaningful
Hess, Manager, Court Services Center, access to justice for all.2
Connecticut Superior Court Operations;
Stacey Marz, Director, Family Law Self- Experience and research in many states confirm the benefits of a
Help Center, Alaska Court System and well run delivery system for self-help services.3 First and foremost,
Pamela Cardullo Ortiz, Executive Director,
Maryland Access to Justice Commission. litigants have access to legal information and assistance that
Points of view or opinions expressed in makes the promise of “justice for all” more meaningful. Judges
the Brief are those of the authors and do and court staff can do their jobs more effectively and efficiently
not represent the official position of the
when they are not bogged down with improperly prepared filings
NCSC or PWF.
and unprepared litigants, resulting in enhanced caseflow as well.4
Court clerks can avoid some of the ethical quandaries that may

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Access Brief: Self-Help Services
arise in trying to adequately assist self- associations, and community organizations in
represented litigants. Private attorneys can the implementation and operation of assistance
more easily represent their own clients when programs for self-represented litigants.”8 Such
the opposing self represented litigant has leadership is fostered by including self-help
necessary information and assistance, and program leaders on both state and local court
private attorneys may find a new source of management teams, helping to ensure that the
business in providing limited scope needs of self-represented litigants are
representation to this type of client. considered in all areas of court management
decisions.9
Well-organized self-help services reinforce
rather than undercut the traditional lawyer- Delivery Models: A Wide Range of
client service model. Legal aid attorneys can Tools, Resources and Help
focus their highly limited resources on those
individuals who need more in-depth Self-help services can be delivered through a
representation, knowing that the self- variety of different models: a desk or office in
represented litigant will find necessary the courthouse, state or local online or
assistance from the court. 5 A well run delivery telephone services provided remotely,
system makes more effective use of attorneys, supervised volunteer college students, public
law students, college students, and other library access to legal information, court
volunteers who are interested in public service website access to information in English and
opportunities.6 And finally, broad public trust other languages, FAQs, videos, and online
and confidence in the justice system is forms. Providing assistance to self represented
enhanced by easily accessible self help litigants often involves a combination of
services.7 services depending on local needs, funding, and
support. Many of the delivery models involve
partnerships between the court and an external
The importance of state court
leadership and support for self-help group, such as legal aid, public or law libraries,
services cannot be underestimated. or the bar.

The cost of self-help programs can vary


The Conference of Chief Justices and the
considerably depending on the model, and a
Conference of State Court Administrators urge
wide range of resources and tools are available
state court leaders to “take a leadership role in
to assist courts in deciding which models are
their respective jurisdictions to encourage the
most appropriate and cost effective for their
expansion of successful pro se assistance
particular situations.10 Many programs can be
programs, to identify and develop programs to
achieved with limited resources, and can even
address unmet needs, and to coordinate the
result in cost savings for courts and litigants.11
delivery of program services effectively and
efficiently” and “to support the establishment Judging by the proliferation of self-help services
of court rules and policies that encourage the available in courts across the states, they enjoy
participation of judges, court staff, legal broad support across the court community.12
services agencies, state and local bar Relying on the experiences of those working in

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Access Brief: Self-Help Services
the area, opposition, if it occurs at all, usually list of all the forms they need to file or
dissipates with knowledge and practice, and respond to a particular civil or family case. 14
practitioners with experience are available to  Maryland’s Access to Justice Commission
discuss any concerns with those just getting provides guidance to courts and legal
started.13 services in creating accessible websites (and
facilities) and in proactively adopting
As noted, self-help services are wide-ranging. A
inclusive practices. 15 The Commission also
few are described briefly below with some
provides a technical assistance document
examples from localities that have implemented
on how to create accessible online
the approach. The examples are only for
documents.16
illustration purposes; they are not
 South Carolina’s self-help website begins
comprehensive. For some types of self-help
with an explanation of what court staff can
services, many states have similar efforts
and cannot do and then provides a variety
underway.
of delivery formats including FAQs, sample
Self-Help Websites divorce packets, self help videos on a
variety of topics, online forms, online legal
A well-designed website can go a long way in research, and a link to the Bar Foundation’s
making access to legal information and listing of legal clinics.17
assistance a reality. Making it clear what  Utah has an online self-help center that
services can and cannot be offered is an goes a step further with the Online Court
important first step to assist the self- Assistance Program (OCAP) that provides
represented litigant. Increasingly, courts are assistance with document preparation.18
providing multi-language information, online
forms, or document assembly programs on Courthouse Desk or Office
their websites, often in partnership with legal
This can be as simple as a staff or volunteer who
aid programs and the bar. It is important that
greets court users and directs them to
electronic resources be ADA compliant and
appropriate services and provides basic
available for self-represented parties who may
information. A more comprehensive self-help
have visual, auditory or other physical
program involving a staff attorney and trained
limitations and cannot benefit from traditional
volunteers or staff can provide more in-depth
electronic resources.
resources in person, in printed format, or
Examples: online. Review of completed forms and
referrals to various outside service agencies for
 Connecticut’s website provides self-help additional assistance, ideally based on a
web pages in two languages, a glossary of diagnostic protocol, can be a part of this model.
commonly used legal terms and FAQ’s. The More sophisticated programs may develop
forms section of the website includes neutral ways of providing information to each
grouped civil and family forms by case type litigant on what must next be done based on
and subject matter, providing self- the specifics of the case file. If it is not possible
represented parties with a comprehensive to establish dedicated staffing, current staff

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Access Brief: Self-Help Services
such as court clerks can be trained to provide available in some states for public access or
such services as part of their ongoing access by a specific group, such as elderly
responsibilities. Providing such assistance can litigants, or case type, such as family law cases.
also serve to sensitize all staff to the needs of Staffing such hotlines before or after most
self-represented litigants more broadly. court-based services are open and available to
the public is another way to create access to
Examples: justice for self-represented litigants who may
be largely unavailable during traditional
 Every county in California provides self-help
business hours. In some cases, it may be easier
services in at least some substantive areas.
to build political and financial support for
Initial funding to support the services came
statewide rather than local initiatives.
from federal Title IV, Part D formula grants
that are 66% reimbursable when used for Examples:
child support establishment, collection, and
enforcement.19  The Alaska Court System Family Law Self-
 The Connecticut Judicial Branch has 13 Help Center provides a statewide telephone
Court Service Centers and 11 Public helpline in addition to online information
Information Desks that are staffed by full- and forms.22
time Judicial Branch employees. In addition  The Maryland District Court Self-Help
to providing one-on-one court procedural Center is physically located in one court but
assistance, the Court Service Centers serves as a statewide resource by providing
provide access to computers, photo copiers, “virtual” assistance through phone, email
fax machines, and public use phones at no and live chat.23 The live chat button appears
cost. In 2011, the Centers and Desks on key court and provider websites.24
assisted 335,489 self-represented parties, Program attorneys can “co-browse” with
attorneys and members of the public.20 individuals to assist with finding relevant
 Minnesota Judicial Branch’s Fourth District web pages and completing forms and can
Court serving Hennepin County send a transcript of the conversation at the
(Minneapolis) offers two walk-in Self-Help conclusion of the chat.25
Centers.21  The Minnesota courts provide a statewide
attorney-staffed phone hotline backed up
Telephone or Internet Based Program with online legal information and forms.
Users and staff can “co-browse” to assist
This type of delivery model combines the
the litigant in finding and using the most
benefit of one-on-one assistance with the
appropriate content.26
power of remote delivery to a broad range of
locations – anywhere there is access to a phone In-Person and Online Workshops and
and/or the internet. This can be particularly Legal Clinics
useful in reaching rural or other underserved
areas without the expense of setting up a In addition to the one-on-one service model,
program in multiple locations. Statewide information can be provided to larger groups
hotlines for civil legal assistance intake are through workshops and clinics. Video

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Access Brief: Self-Help Services
conferencing can be incorporated to reach an As part of their caseflow management efforts,
even greater audience. Videos and power point some courts are exploring different ways to
slides can also be offered online to educate triage self-represented litigant cases based on
large populations as well as used in workshop their complexity and needed services. In some
trainings. instances, this has led to the creation of special
calendars for specific types of cases involving
Examples: self-represented litigants. Scheduling all cases
 The Alaska Family Law Self-Help Center involving self-represented cases on specific days
provides several video clips on how to makes it easier for pro bono attorneys, court
prepare for hearings and trials, including staff, and other volunteers to provide assistance
how to select, prepare and question before, during, and after the hearing. Having
witnesses and how to select, prepare and such assistance available helps alleviate
introduce exhibits, present opening and bottlenecks and delay in the courtroom and
closing statements and how to make simple helps ensure that cases do not disappear into
objections.27 limbo.
 The Minnesota online Self-help Center Examples:
provides a variety of “How To” videos such
as “How to File a Motion to Modify Child  In Alaska, several of the largest courts have
Support (Expedited Process).”28 an Early Resolution mass calendar for newly
 The New York City Civil Court Housing Part filed contested divorce and custody cases
posts seminars on various topics to their that involve two self-represented parties.
website. In addition the Access to Justice The parties are provided unbundled
Program uses social media such as Twitter volunteer attorneys (coordinated by Alaska
and Facebook to advertize and promote Legal Services) or court mediators who
seminars and other events.29 work with parties; if they are able to reach a
resolution, the court hears the agreements
Courtroom and Caseflow Services and finalizes paperwork in the courtroom. 33
 Several courts In California have
Effective caseflow management involves active
implemented special calendars for specific
court control of case processing. Cases involving
types of self-represented casetypes such as
self-represented litigants require courts to be
those involving family law and guardianship
even more vigilant regarding the monitoring of
issues.34
case progress. Courts cannot assume that self-
represented litigants understand the next step  In Travis County Texas, a bi-lingual
to take in moving their case to resolution.30 As a reference attorney staffs the court’s twice
result, the court and judge need to be active in daily uncontested docket. The reference
monitoring the case and alerting litigants when attorney reviews the self-represented
actions are necessary.31 Helping self- litigant’s case to confirm that procedural
represented litigants understand the process requirements have been met and ensure
also helps with compliance once an order has that the litigant’s proposed orders are
been issued.32

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Access Brief: Self-Help Services
complete and written in enforceable general public with legal questions and
language.35 offers assistance to public libraries
regarding legal information and assistance
Law Libraries and Public Libraries libraries can offer to the public.42
Libraries can also be an important part of a  The Travis County Law Library in Austin
self-help delivery system.36 With increasing Texas has a self-help center that provides
costs of providing legal reference resources and online information and forms and offers
often limited library budgets, libraries are appointments with a library reference
collaborating with each other and with courts to attorney who can look over paperwork and
provide services to self-represented litigants.37 explain the basic steps in an uncontested
Because libraries typically allow access to public family law case. The attorney is also
computers and because library staff members available in the courtroom to assist in
are already trained in assisting the public with complex situations.43
research issues, they are a natural partner for  The Utah Legislature passed a bill in May of
providing self-help services. A well designed 2012, establishing a law library self help
self-help website, online forms, and center for court patrons.44
informational videos become even more
Partnerships with Law Schools or
effective with the assistance of trained library
Universities
staff. A series of webinars, produced by Pro
Bono Net with funding from the Legal Services The downturn in the economy means that
Corporation and available online, provides building partnerships and leveraging resources
information on how libraries can access and use and expertise are more important than ever.
online justice resources to help the public.38 Law schools are being admonished for not
providing new attorneys with practical skills.45
Examples:
Growing numbers of litigants are unable to
 The Connecticut Judicial Branch law access civil legal assistance, and college and law
libraries’ self-help website includes an students are finding it increasingly difficult to
extensive self-help section with publications find jobs upon graduation. Using students to
and videos, links to legal assistance and an expand the delivery and scope of legal
“Ask a Librarian” feature which allows assistance programs provides valuable
parties to email or call a librarian to get experience to the volunteers, needed assistance
assistance with their questions.39 to the litigants, and improved efficiencies for
 The Maryland State Law Library provides the court.
online access to the Maryland code and
Example:
rules through its website. 40 The library also
maintains the People’s Law Library website  California’s Justice Corps program provides
that includes an interactive legal services legal assistance in a court-based setting by
directory, links to live chat services, and partnering with academic institutions. The
material in multiple languages. 41 added benefit of recruiting bilingual
 Montana’s State Law Library serves the students addresses one of the courts’ most

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Access Brief: Self-Help Services
pressing problems, the limited English is The Legal Services Corporation which has
proficient self-represented litigant.46 invested significant resources in funding self-
 In Baltimore, Maryland, low-income self- help technology and legal information, as well
represented family law litigants are referred as encouraging ongoing state and local
to a Pro Bono Mediation Project operated partnerships.49
in partnership with the University of
Additional Information and Assistance
Baltimore, School of Law. Mediation clinic
students serve as pro bono mediators. Self- The Center on Court Access to Justice for All
represented litigants also are assigned a pro produced this Access Brief to highlight several
bono attorney to represent them through strategies courts can undertake to improve
the mediation process. This permits access to justice by assisting self-represented
litigants access to mediation while enabling litigants. As noted earlier, the Brief provides
them to be informed and represented an introduction to several delivery methods
throughout the process.47 and just a few examples of state activities
underway. To learn more and/or to request
Building a Comprehensive Service assistance to help implement a strategy,
Delivery Program: Partnerships for please visit the Center’s Web site at
Access www.ncsc.org/atj. If you have information on
court-led efforts to improve access, please
In practice, some states have found that an contact the Center at dsaunders@ncsc.org.
effective strategy for developing and
implementing self-help services is to build a Future Access Briefs will cover additional
multi-stakeholder coalition in which, for access topics and discuss some of the
example, the courts provide the space and staff strategies in this Brief in more depth. The
training, legal aid and the bar provide some of Center’s next Brief, for example, will examine
the materials, and libraries provide additional the importance of standardized simplified
outside service access points. Support from the court forms and document assembly, a core
executive and legislative branches also may be component of any access to justice strategy.
necessary depending on the funding
Endnotes
environment. In some states, access to justice
1
commissions are taking the lead in building For a state by state list of self-
these coalitions. Leadership from the top of the help/information resources and centers see
court system, as noted earlier, is critical, and http://www.ncsc.org/Topics/Access-and-
sometimes changes in court rules can be Fairness/Self-Representation/State-Links.aspx.
Also see the ABA Standing Committee on the
beneficial.48 To the extent that there is a
Delivery of Legal Services, Self-Help Centers
possibility of anxiety among stakeholders about web page:
the implications of self-help services, early http://www.americanbar.org/groups/delivery_l
consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, egal_services/resources/pro_se_unbundling_re
combined with strong leadership is generally source_center/self_service_centers.html. The
effective in facilitating smooth adoption. A ABA is in the process of surveying and updating
resource for building service delivery programs their list of self-help centers; the new

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Access Brief: Self-Help Services

information should be available in early 2013. http://www.nycourts.gov/ip/nya2j/pdfs/NYA2J


SelfHelpSupport.org’s library of self-help _2011report.pdf).
7
programs is available (after registering with the See Judicial Council of California (2005) at
site) at http://www.selfhelpsupport.org/. endnote 3.
2 8
Conference of State Court Administrators. Conference of Chief Justices and Conference
(2000). Position paper on self-represented of State Court Administrators. (2002).
litigation. Williamsburg, VA: National Center for Resolution 31: In support of a leadership role for
State Courts (available CCJ and COSCA in the development,
http://cosca.ncsc.dni.us/WhitePapers/selfrepliti implementation and coordination of assistance
gation.pdf). programs for self-represented litigants.
3
Conference of Chief Justices and Conference of Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State
State Court Administrators Task Force on Pro Se Courts (available
Litigation. (2004, July). State and national http://ccj.ncsc.dni.us/resol31AsstPgmsSlfLitigan
initiatives to improve access for self-represented ts.html).
9
litigants: A progress report. Williamsburg, VA: See, for example, Connecticut’s statewide plan
National Center for State Courts (available to ensure access throughout the court system:
http://www.ncsc.org/Topics/Access-and- State of Connecticut Judicial Branch. (2009).
Fairness/Self-Representation/Resource- Public Service and Trust Commission strategic
Guide.aspx under “CCJ/COSCA”). plan phase one implementation report.
Also see, Judicial Council of California. (2005, Hartford, CT: Author (available
March). Model self-help pilot program: A report http://www.jud.ct.gov/Committees/pst/pst_Ex
to the legislature. San Francisco: Author ecutiveSummary_FullReport_063009.pdf).
10
(available Self-Represented Litigation Network. (2008).
http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/Self- Best Practices in Court-Based Programs for the
Help_full.pdf). Self-Represented: Concepts, Attributes and
4
The services can also be cost-effective. See Issues for Exploration. Williamsburg, VA:
Greacen, J. (2009). The benefits and costs of National Center for State Courts (available
programs to assist self-represented litigants. http://cdm16501.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/
San Francisco: California Administrative Office collection/accessfair/id/122). See also
of the Courts, Center for Families, Children & Maryland Judiciary, Best Practices for Programs
the Courts (available to Assist Self-Represented Litigants in Family
http://www.courts.ca.gov/partners/documents Law Matters (2005) available at:
/Greacen_benefit_cost_final_report.pdf). www.mdcourts.gov/family/bestpractices_selfre
5
Conference of Chief Justices and Conference of p.pdf.
11
State Court Administrators Task Force on Pro Se See, for example, Broccolina, F., & Zorza, R.
Litigation. (2002). CCJ/COSCA Task Force on Pro (2008). Ensuring access to justice in tough
Se Litigation report. Williamsburg, VA: National economic times. Judicature, 92, 124-128
Center for State Courts (available (available
http://ccj.ncsc.dni.us/TaskForceReportJuly2002. http://www.ncsconline.org/WC/Publications/KI
pdf). S_BudProAccess.pdf). Also see Greacen (2009)
6
See, for example, Lippman, J., Prudenti, A. G., at endnote 4.
12
Fisher, F. A., & Klempner, R. (2011). New York Zorza, R. (2006). Trends in self-represented
State courts access to justice program 2011 litigation innovation. In C. Flango, C. Campbell,
report. New York: New York State Unified Court and N. Kauder (Eds.), Future trends in state
System (available courts 2006 (pp. 85-88). Williamsburg, VA:

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National Center for State Courts (available Funding Assistance web page:
http://cdm16501.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/ https://www.cfda.gov/index?s=program&mode
collection/accessfair/id/133). =form&tab=core&id=bea918ff274ec64d4ce380
13
See the Center on Court Access to Justice for 8eb36f2e2f.
20
All at www.ncsc.org/atj for information on K. Hess, Manager, Court Services Center,
available assistance. Connecticut Superior Court Operations
14
K. Hess, Manager, Court Services Center, (personal communication, October 26, 2012).
21
Connecticut Superior Court Operations See Minnesota Judicial Branch, Fourth District
(personal communication, October 26, 2012). web page:
15
Maryland Access to Justice Commission. http://www.mncourts.gov/district/4/?page=12
(n.d.). Beyond compliance: Creating a culture of 28.
22
inclusivity and accessibility among Maryland See Alaska Court System, Self-Help Center:
state courts and legal service providers. Family Law web page:
Annapolis, MD: Author (available http://www.courts.alaska.gov/selfhelp.htm.
23
http://mdcourts.gov/mdatjc/pdfs/beyondcompl See District Court of Maryland, District Court
iance.pdf). Self Help Center web page:
16
Maryland Access to Justice Commission. http://mdcourts.gov/district/selfhelpcenter/ho
(n.d.). Accessibility & documents posted online. me.html.
24
Annapolis, MD: Author (available See, for example, The People’s Law Library
http://mdcourts.gov/mdatjc/pdfs/creatingacces website: www.peoples-law.org.
25
siblepdfdoc.pdf). Also see Maryland Access to P. Ortiz, Executive Director, Maryland Access
Justice Commission, Accessibility web page for to Justice Commission (personal
the Commission’s accessibility policy: communication, November 2, 2012).
26
http://mdcourts.gov/mdatjc/accessibility.html. See Minnesota Judicial Branch, Self-Help
17
See South Carolina Judicial Department Self Center web page:
Help Resources web page: http://www.mncourts.gov/selfhelp/.
27
http://www.judicial.state.sc.us/selfHelp/index.c See Alaska Court System Family Law Self-Help
fm. Center “Getting Ready for Hearing or Trial” web
18
See Utah Online Court Assistance Program page:
web page: http://www.utcourts.gov/ocap/. http://www.courts.alaska.gov/shctrial.htm.
19 28
Administrative Office of the Courts. (2007, See Minnesota Judicial Branch, Self-Help
June). California courts self-help centers: Report Center web page:
to the California Legislature. San Francisco, CA: http://www.mncourts.gov/servicedesk/?page=
Judicial Council of California/Administrative 4557.
29
Office of the Courts (available See New York State Unified Court System,
http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/rpt_leg_ New York City Civil Court Housing Part web
self_help.pdf). Also see Administrative Office of page:
the Courts. (2012, July). Fact sheet: Child http://nycourts.gov/courts/nyc/housing/videos.
support commissioner and family law facilitator shtml. See also Lippman, Prudenti, Fisher, &
program. San Francisco: Author (available Klempner (2011) at endnote 6.
30
http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/Child_Su See p. 122 in Steelman, D. C., Goerdt, J. A., &
pport.pdf). For information on Formula Grants McMillan, J. E. (2004). Caseflow management:
for Social Security, Title IV, Part D Formula The heart of court management in the new
Grants, see Child Support Enforcement, Number millennium. Williamsburg, VA: National Center
93.563 available on the Catalog for Domestic for State Courts.

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31 38
See pp. 32-33 in Greacen, J. M., & Ledray, S. See probono.net, Libraries and Access to
(2004, November). Report on the programs to Justice Webinar Series web page:
assist self represented litigants of the Harford http://www.probono.net/librarywebinars/.
39
County Circuit Court of the state of Maryland. K. Hess, Manager, Court Services Center,
Annapolis, MD: (available Connecticut Superior Court Operations
http://www.courts.state.md.us/family/evaluati (personal communication, October 26, 2012).
40
ons_worco.pdf). See Maryland State Law Library, Gateway to
32
See Broccolina & Zorza (2008) at endnote 11. Maryland Law web page:
33
S. Marz, Director, Family Law Self-Help http://mdcourts.gov/lawlib/researchtools/sour
Center, Alaska Court System (personal cesmdlaw.html.
41
communication, October 24, 2012). See The People’s Law Library website:
34
See Judicial Council of California (2005) at www.peoples-law.org.
42
endnote 3. Also see pp. 22-23 in Hough, B. See State Law Library of Montana, About Us
(2010). Self-represented litigants in family law: web page:
the response of California’s courts. California http://courts.mt.gov/library/aboutus.mcpx.
Law Review Circuit, 1, 15-24 (available Also see Zorza, R. (2010). Public libraries and
http://www.californialawreview.org/assets/pdf access to justice. In C. Flango, A. McDowell, C.
s/Circuit/01.15.Hough.pdf). Additional Campbell, and N. Kauder (Eds.), Future Trends in
descriptions of California programs are included State Courts 2010 (pp. 126-129). Williamsburg,
on pp. 56-57 in Self-Represented Litigation VA: National Center for State Courts (available
Network (2008) at endnote 10. For presentation http://cdm16501.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/
slides describing a model for default and collection/accessfair/id/227).
43
uncontested dissolution judgments used in San See Travis County Law Library, Self-Help
Francisco and Santa Clara Counties, see Center Services web page:
California Judicial Branch, Equal Access Project, http://www.traviscountylawlibrary.org/ProSe_C
Service Delivery Models web page for San linic1.html.
44
Francisco and Santa Clara Counties: Drop-in and Utah State Legislature, S.B. 100 Law Library
Workshop Model for Default and Uncontested Self-Help Center, available
Dissolution Judgments. http://le.utah.gov/~2012/htmdoc/sbillhtm/sb0
35
L. Holland, Reference Attorney, Travis County 100.htm.
45
Law Library, Texas (personal communication, Sloan, K. (2012, July 5). ABA: Law schools
October 26, 2012). getting the message on practical skills. The
36
Zorza, R. (2012). The sustainable 21st century National Law Journal (available
law library: Vision, deployment and assessment http://www.law.com/jsp/nlj/PubArticleNLJ.jsp?i
for access to justice. Washington, DC: Zorza d=1202561943191&ABA_Law_schools_getting_
Associates (available the_message_on_practical_skills_&slreturn=20
http://www.zorza.net/LawLibrary.pdf). 120709143056). Also see Magnan, K. (2011,
37
Fritschel, B. L. (2007). Trends in library March). Law schools revamp their curricula to
collaboration to provide access to legal teach practical skills. The Chronicle of Higher
information. In C. Flango, C. Campbell, and N. Education, 57(26):
Kauder (Eds.), Future Trends in State Courts http://law.wlu.edu/deptimages/news/thirdyear
2007 (pp. 84-87). Williamsburg, VA: National chronicle.pdf.
46
Center for State Courts (available See California Courts, The JusticeCorps
http://cdm16501.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/ Program web page:
collection/accessfair/id/129).

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Access Brief: Self-Help Services
48
Justihttp://www.courts.ca.gov/programs- See, for example, Minnesota Court Rules,
justicecorps.htm. General Rules of Practice, Rule 110. Self-Help
47
For more information about the program, see Programs:
Rubinson, R. (2011). The pro bono mediation https://www.revisor.mn.gov/court_rules/rule.p
project: Providing free representation to self- hp?name=gp-110.
49
represented litigants in child access cases. In B. Legal Services Corporation. (2012). Strategic
R. Hough & P. C. Ortiz (Eds.), Innovations for plan 2012-2016. Washington, DC: Author
Self-Represented Litigant (pp. 77-96). Madison, (available
WI: Association of Family and Conciliation http://www.lsc.gov/sites/default/files/LSC/lscg
Courts (see ov4/LSC_Strategic_Plan_2012-2016--
http://www.afccnet.org/ResourceCenter/Resou Adopted_Oct_2012.pdf).
rcesforProfessionals/InnovationsforSelfReprese
ntedLitigants.aspx). Also see University of
Baltimore, School of Law, Mediation Clinic for
Families web page:
http://law.ubalt.edu/clinics/clinics/familymedia
tion.cfm.

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