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LECTURE 39- Introduction to Immunology and the Immune system

Define the immune system

An organized system of organs, cells and molecules that interact together to defend the body against disease

Describe the main features of the human lymphatic system

Primary Secondary
Thymus (near heart)- develops T cells not to react to self Lymph nodes- located along lymphatic vessels, lymph
fluid from blood and tissue is filtered, initiates immune
Bone marrow- Stem cells develop into cells of the Spleen- initiates immune responses against blood borne
‘innate’ and ‘adaptive’ immune responses pathogens

List the main features of each of the 2 arms of the immune system

Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity

Fast Slow
Fixed Variable, Improves during the response
No memory Has memory
Limited specifities Highly specific- detects molecular components specific to
individual pathogens


Describe the physical and chemical aspects of skin that enable it to prevent the entrance of pathogens.

Physical Barrier-

Epidermis: Dead cells, keratin, phagocytic immune cells

Dermis: Thick Layer of connective tissue, collage, blood vessels, phagocytic immune cells

Chemical defences

Antimicrobial peptides- creates spores in microbial membranes fungi, bacteria and viruses, which exerts osmotic
pressure and they burst

Lysozozyme: enzymes that break down bacterial cell wall

Sebum: Traps microbes, prevents colonization

Salt: Dehydrates pathogens

Identify the locations of the body’s mucous membranes and explain how they protect the body both physically and

Locations: Ocular, Respiratory, Oral, Urogenital

Structure- 1-2 layers, tightly packed, constantly renewed, mucus producing goblet cells

Mucus is sticky- swept away by cili to trap microbes

• Describe the main characteristics of inflammation.

Heat, Redness, Swelling, Pain, Attracts Histamine (vasodilation), Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes (vascular permability)

Migration of WBC, remove invader and debris, promote repair, regeneration